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The Geology and Genesis of High-Grade Hematite Iron Ore Deposits

N J Beukes1, J Gutzmer1 and J Mukhopadhyay1,2
Most world-class high-grade (60 - 67 wt per cent Fe) hematite iron ore deposits are the product of enrichment of Precambrian iron-formations but processes responsible for enrichment are still unclear. Different models, ranging from syngenetic and diagenetic (King, 1989), deep-seated hydrothermal (Powell et al, 1999; Barley et al, 1999; Taylor et al, 2001; Gutzmer et al, 2002) and ancient supergene (Morris, 1980; 1985; Van Schalkwyk and Beukes, 1986) to modern supergene (MacLeod, 1966) have been suggested. The high-grade hematite deposits stand in contrast to martite–goethite ores which are generally accepted to be the result of supergene enrichment of iron-formation because they are found along Cretaceous to Tertiary lateritic weathering profiles (Morris, 1980; Harmsworth et al, 1990). Uncertainties about the origin of the high-grade hematite ores appear largely due to the monomineralic composition of the ores. They are almost exclusively composed of hematite (as microcrystalline hematite and martite), a mineral with wide stability field and very simple chemical composition that reveals little about its origin. Second, many of the deposits have been overprinted by later deformation and chemical weathering obscuring primary ore characteristics and zonation (Taylor et al, 2001). Third, surprisingly few detailed geological studies have been undertaken on the deposits with the aim of unraveling ore genesis. Most studies focus on the present-day structure of orebodies and their general physical-chemical composition for mining and beneficiation purposes. A more thorough understanding of the origin of high-grade hematite iron ore deposits may be gained by combining available mining1. 2. Department of Geology, Rand Afrikaans University, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa. Department of Geology Presidency College, Calcutta, Calcutta 700073, India.

orientated data with systematic petrographic-geochemical analyses of different ore generations and hematite phases. This paper presents a first summary of results of an ongoing study, started some two years ago, of high-grade iron ore deposits in South Africa, India and Brazil, including a comparison with the rather well studied deposits of the Hamersley Province in Australia.

Following field investigations and literature surveys of high-grade hematite ore deposits in South Africa (SishenBeeshoek and Thabazimbi districts), Brazil (Quadrilátero Ferrífero and Carajas districts), India (Noamundi and Dalli-Rajhara districts) and Australia (Hamersley Province) (Figure 1), we recognise three general genetic types, namely ancient supergene, hydrothermal and supergene-modified hydrothermal deposits (Figure 2). Ancient supergene deposits, represented by Sishen-type deposits in South Africa, occur immediately below a major erosional unconformity and grade downwards into unmineralised banded iron-formation (Figure 2A). The ores are typically overlain by red beds, which may contain detrital ores derived from the underlying hard lateritic ores (Figure 2A). In contrast, hydrothermal ores, of which Thabazimbi in South Africa and hard hematite ores of Mount Tom Price, Mount Whaleback, Paraburdoo and Newman in Australia are type examples, are not associated with any unconformity and typically grade from the bottom upwards into unmineralised iron-formation (Figure 2B). Supergene-modified hydrothermal ores, represented by deposits of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero and Carajas districts in Brazil, and the Noamundi and Dalli-Rajhara districts in India, are characterised by the presence of large volumes of friable saprolitic ores that were derived from supergene enrichment of earlier hydrothermally altered iron-formation, next to hard high-grade hydrothermal hematite orebodies (Figure 2C).

FIG1 - Locality map illustrating the distribution of important high-grade hematite ore deposits.

Iron Ore Conference

Perth, WA, 9 - 11 September 2002


4 billion tons of ore (Taylor et al. 24 Perth. an important observation because at least some of the karst structures were reactivated in more recent times. The ores derived from leaching of chert from the iron-formation during weathering. Due to their karstic setting. large to superlarge deposits of high-grade iron ore are only developed in karstic laterite settings. However. South Africa (Figure 3). where Asbesheuwels iron-formation has slumped into carbonates of the underlying Campbellrand Subgroup along the Maremane dome (Figure 3). the unconformity transects a wide variety of rocks. 2001). only a thick oxidised paleo-weathering profile. Conglomeratic orebodies in the lower part of the Gamagara Formation tend to thicken into karstic depressions. Paleomagnetic data shows that ore formation and deposition of overlying Gamagara red beds took place in a near equatorial setting (Evans et al. without removal of chert. 1986). this upper lateritic iron ore capping has often been removed by erosion prior to deposition of the overlying Gamagara red beds. in press). depending on geological setting and erosional preservation) in each of the deposit types. Weathering took place around 2. The ores of the Sishen-Beeshoek area have been affected by very localised hydrothermal alteration as manifested by the presence of coarse specularite which fills secondary pores and veinlets in both laminated and conglomeratic ores. which is regionally developed over the entire Transvaal basin. comprised of the Kuruman and Griquatown Iron Formations that are overlying Campbellrand carbonates. is preserved in the underlying iron-formation (Holland and Beukes. High-grade hematite iron ores are only developed in areas where the unconformity transects iron-formations. known as the Wolhaarkop breccia. 1990). A siliceous chert breccia. namely hard microcrystalline hematite ores derived from supergene enrichment of Asbesheuwels iron-formation below the Gamagara unconformity. Because of the folded nature of the strata below. J GUTZMER and J MUKHOPADHYAY A B C FIG 2 .1. Three iron-formation successions are involved. following a period of folding and uplift of Transvaal strata (Beukes et al. However. namely a) the Asbesheuwels succession. Although there are large variations in size (from small to superlarge. In such cases. b) the Rooinekke Iron Formation of the Koegas Subgroup and c) the Hotazel Iron Formation overlying basaltic andesites of the Ongeluk Formation (Figure 3). is consistently marked by the presence of a ferruginous lateritic weathering profile in the rocks immediately below (Figure 3). the case where the unconformity transects the Hotazel Formation in the Kalahari manganese field (Figure 3).2 Ga.9 .18 . The microcrystalline orebodies have a more regular outline because they crosscut bedding in the iron-formation and their tops conform to the pre-Gamagara unconformity (Figure 4). 1998). The microcrystalline ores can be described as ancient saprolites. which also contain thick accumulations of Al-rich shales. it is interesting to note that the largest known reserves of up to 13 billion tons of in situ ore are developed in association with supergene-modified hydrothermal ores in the Carajas district.N J BEUKES. 2002). In areas outside of karst slump structures only thin (one to 2 m thick) high-grade hematite ore beds are locally preserved below the unconformity. Bedding in the iron-formation precursor is often highly contorted and/or brecciated due to slumping. Welgevonden and Rooinekke deposits that developed below the pre-Gamagara unconformity in the Griqualand West area of the Transvaal Supergroup.2. marks the dissolution surface between the dolomite and overlying ore-bearing iron-formation (Figure 3). A positive conglomerate test on hematite pebbles in the lower Gamagara Formation indicates that the ores formed prior to transport and deposition of the pebbles. because they preserve original textures and banding of the iron-formation precursor. Ancient supergene ore deposits can also be very extensive and contain in situ reserves of up to two billion tons as in the case of Sishen deposit in South Africa (Van Schalkwyk and Beukes.11 September 2002 Iron Ore Conference . In these karstic slump structures the iron ores are typically overlain by reworked conglomeratic iron ores and highly aluminous diaspore-rich shales and closely associated pisolitic laterite profiles (Gutzmer and Beukes. The spekularite must have developed late in the history of the succession because it also occurs in veinlets in the overlying Gamagara shales and quartzites. This indicates that the karstic depressions were present at time of deposition of the Gamagara Formation. Two major ore types are present in Sishen-type deposits.Classification of major types of high-grade hematite ore deposits. supporting a lateritic supergene enrichment origin for the Sishen-Beeshoek deposits. ANCIENT SUPERGENE DEPOSITS The Sishen. and conglomeratic (detrital) ores derived from erosion of underlying laminated ores and concentration in the lower part of the overlying Gamagara Formation. WA. The unconformity. Hydrothermal ore deposits tend to be somewhat smaller with largest known deposits containing 0. the Sishen-type deposits on the Maremane dome have very irregular floor and thickness distribution (Figure 4). Beeshoek. for example. are considered type examples of ancient supergene deposits. This is. the compositions of which determine lateral variations along the lateritised surface (Figure 3). 9 . Manganore.

The red beds contain hematite pebble conglomerates derived from the iron ore beds and pisolitic laterites.y. such as in the vicinity of Hotazel.) and overly black shales capping carbonates. Supergene iron ore beds are also sporadic preserved below the unconformity at the base of the overlying Mapedi and Gamagara red beds. In the Hekpoort profiles the saprolite zone preserves original textures of the parent basalt but the pallid and upper ferruginous zones have a massive reconstituted fabric.2480 m. loss of stratigraphy along the contact between the Penge Iron FIG 4 . 2001. Lateral variations along laterite profiles. 2002). The Wolhaarkop profile (note depths below red bed cover rocks) display liesegang and corestone weathering patterns in saprolite derived from massive lava and diamictite bedrock.(A). In both areas the main orebodies are located near the base of the iron-formation succession in contact with underlying black shale. in contrast to parent iron-formations.11 September 2002 25 . WA.Schematic diagram illustrating the setting of ancient supergene hematite ores in karstic solution collapse structures at the Sishen deposit. 9 . Karstic laterites on dolomite bedrock contain supergene manganese ores at Glosam and iron ore crusts derived from supergene leaching of iron-formation at Sishen. The parent iron-formations are of correlative age (in the order of 2460 . a feature characteristic of lateritic weathering profiles. Illustration of a truncation model of folded Transvaal strata by the lateritised erosion surface on subcontinental scale below the pre-Gamagara unconformity. 2002. South Africa. Some samples also display strong enrichment in HREE. REE distributions (normalised to PAAS) in Sishen-type ore display positive Ce anomalies. in addition to Al-rich claystones.THE GEOLOGY AND GENESIS OF HIGH-GRADE HEMATITE IRON ORE DEPOSITS FIG 3 . in areas outside of the karstic environment. Netshiozwi et al. Netshiozwi. Hematite in the ores display oxygen isotope compositions that vary between -3‰ and +3‰ (relative to SMOW) indicating precipitation from normal meteoric water at low temperature. All laterite profiles illustrated were intersected in drill core depths of >100 m and are free of modern weathering. (B). Iron Ore Conference Perth. The presence of positive Ce anomalies in Sishen-type ore suggests leaching of REE from the system during supergene alteration but with retention of Ce due to highly oxygenated ground water conditions. At Thabazimbi. Mineralisation also invariably appears to be associated with early normal faults (Taylor et al. HYDROTHERMAL DEPOSITS Type examples of hard high-grade hydrothermal hematite ores from the Brockman Iron Formation of the Hamersley Group in Western Australia and the Penge Iron Formation of the Transvaal Supergroup at Thabazimbi in South Africa (Figure 1) share many features.

11 September 2002 Iron Ore Conference .7 . the ores were tilted in southern direction by the post-Wyloo Capricorn orogeny at 1.0 Ga conglomerates of the unconformably overlying Waterberg Group that contain pebbles of iron ore. high-grade iron ores formed along steep normal faults (Taylor et al. 2001). 2002). South Africa. at both Mount Tom Price and Paraburdoo.Schematic cross-section of the Donkerpoort West high-grade hematite orebody at Thabazimbi Mine. intimately associated with metasomatic carbonate formation.058 Ga. J GUTZMER and J MUKHOPADHYAY Formation and underlying Malmani dolomite indicates that mineralisation took place along early low-angle normal lystric faults that were later rotated to steep dip by thrust deformation (Figure 5). very similar to the age of ore formation in the Hamersley Province recently proposed by Taylor et al (2001). where earlier carbonate and silicate facies iron-formations have been transformed into hematite-rich iron-formation in vicinity of the orebodies (Netshiozwi. as indicated by the replacement of chert-bands by hematite without significant volume loss. for the most part hematite enrichment can apparently be accounted for by leaching of silica. This is illustrated by the observations that high-grade iron ores are only rarely developed above the Whaleback shale in the Hamersley District. Shales.1. WA. Similarly. 9 . However. Ores are often only developed along one side of dolerite dykes that intruded prior to ore formation. At Thabazimbi. significant weathering to depths of 50 m to 100 m along the Late Cretaceous – Early Tertiary African Land Surface was associated with karstification of the underlying dolomites and solution collapse of ore into the karst cavities. Similarly.0 Ga. the patterns remain very similar to that in parent iron-formations. 2001). has been identified at Mount Tom Price (Taylor et al. Ore formation can be ascribed to leaching of silica (chert) from iron-formations and recrystallisation of other iron mineral phases to specularite and martite. mineralisation took place prior to deposition of circa 2. The age of ore formation in the Hamersley Province and at Thabazimbi also appears rather similar. At Paraburdoo. Overall. Similar carbonate-bearing ores are developed at Thabazimbi (Figure 5) (Netshiozwi. 2001). or above a prominent pre-mineralisation diabase sill in the Penge Iron Formation at Thabazimbi. 2001). 2001). Mineralisation thus appears to have taken place shortly before 2. The only significant difference between the two areas appears to be the depth of post-Gondwana late Mesozoic to Tertiary weathering. However. the ores at Thabazimbi have been duplicated by a series of north-verging post-Waterberg thrust faults. 26 Perth. strongly suggesting that no significant preferential concentration or introduction of REE took place during ore formation.N J BEUKES. With reference to the mineralogical composition of the ores it is important to note that an early phase of magnetite and hematite mineralisation. The present day weathering surface appears to have very little effect on the ores (Figure 5). impermeable shale beds and dolerite sills appear to have acted as hydrological seals that restricted ore formation. There may have been some mobility of iron in the system. It is also important to note that the orebodies are always surrounded by a halo of oxidised (hematite-rich) iron-formation. compaction and an increase in porosity (Taylor et al. At Thabazimbi. the depth of weathering in the Hamersley Province is commonly between 100 m and 200 m deep (Taylor et al. 2002). This is very well illustrated at Thabazimbi. FIG 5 .8 Ga (Taylor et al. REE patterns in hydrothermal ores from Thabazimbi and the Hamersley Province differ from those in ancient supergene Sishen-type deposits in that they display slight negative to no Ce anomalies. In contrast. Netshiozwi. 2002). Following ore formation. dykes and sills in the iron-formations at both Thabazimbi and in the Hamersley Province appear to exceed an important control in the localisation of the orebodies (Taylor et al. hematite ore replaces contact metamorphic grunerite in the iron-formation related to intrusion of the Bushveld Complex at ~2. 2001.

specularite and martite. 2002).Schematic cross-section illustrating the general setting of supergene modified hematite ores at the N4E deposit. Brazil.500 m) lateritic weathering profiles (Figures 6. the supergene-modified iron ores of Brazil and India display many features that are similar to those of less altered hydrothermal iron ore deposits in Western Australia and at Thabazimbi. ie water-rich fluids of shallow crustal origin that have not interacted with silicate rocks (Netshiozwi. FIG 7 . These hard ores often occur as large tabular bodies in the lower part of the SUPERGENE-MODIFIED HYDROTHERMAL ORES Supergene-modified hydrothermal hematite ores occur in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero in Brazil and are hosted in the Caué Iron Formation of the 2. WA. Brazil. 7 and 8).1 .Schematic cross-section illustrating the general setting of Aguas Claras deposit. namely a high-salinity fluid that resulted in deposition of early dolomite at temperatures around 150 . FIG 8 . Carajas.160°C. Quadrilátero Ferrífero. on the other hand. FIG 6 .Schematic cross-section illustrating the general setting of supergene modified hematite ore at the Noamundi deposit. a sedimentary unit which unconformably overlies greenstones of the 2. Iron Ore Conference Perth.2. Fluid inclusion studies on carbonates and quartz associated with hematite ores at Thabazimbi indicate the presence of two distinct hydrothermal fluids. 2001). The friable to powdery saprolitic hematite ores. Oxygen isotopic compositions of hematite in the Thabazimbi and Hamersley ores are marked by δO18SMOW values as low as -7‰.11 September 2002 27 .7 2. usually composed of microplaty hematite. Fluids of such light oxygen composition can only be meteoric water. South Africa. Apart from bring characterised by the abundance of friable (soft) hematite ores in very deep (>100 . indicate rock-buffered conditions for δC13 and δO18. Fluid inclusions in calcite have compositions ranging in composition between the two end members in both salinity and temperature.8 Ga Nova Lima Supergroup.THE GEOLOGY AND GENESIS OF HIGH-GRADE HEMATITE IRON ORE DEPOSITS Carbon and oxygen isotope signatures of hydrothermal dolomite associated with iron ores at Thabazimbi in comparison with diagenetic carbonates in the iron-formation protore. are invariably associated with bodies of hard hematite ore. It is thus suggested that the calcite was deposited during mixing of the two fluid end members. appears to have formed at significantly greater fluid-rock ratios with highly depleted δO18 values relative to that of diagenetic carbonates in parent iron-formations (Gutzmer et al. At 160°C the oxygen isotopic composition of the hydrothermal fluid from which hematite and calcite precipitated at Thabazimbi can be estimated at -2‰ (relative to SMOW).6 Ga Minas Supergroup. 2002). 9 . Supergene-modified iron ores of Carajas and India are developed in iron-formations of Archean greenstone belts. 2002). India. Sparitic calcite. These results are in excellent agreement with homogenisation temperatures and salinities of fluid inclusions from quartz veins associated with hematite mineralisation at the Mount Tom Price deposit (Taylor et al. and a low salinity fluid that led to precipitation of quartz at temperatures of between 120 and 140°C (Netshiozwi.

Hamersley Province. REFERENCES Alkmim. 34: 784-789. Similarly. Ore formation was essentially a process of silica dissolution and transformation of ferrous iron minerals. In the Dalli-Rajhara deposits of India excellent exposures of crosscutting relationships between orebodies and bedding in intensely folded iron-formation can be observed. lava and/or shale. ankerite and iron silicates into microplaty hematite and magnetite. Another argument in favor of leaching of carbonate rather than silica to form friable ores is the fact that large volumes of friable itabirite are preserved close to surface in many of the mines in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero and at Carajas. The friable itabirite (best described as iron-formation saprolite) is widely utilised as low-grade ore in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero because hematite can easily be concentrated from the closely associated quartz by dense media separation. At Aguas Claras lenticular bodies of itabirite are preserved in soft ore close to surface (Figure 7). They are rather reminiscent of magnetite-rich ores described by Taylor et al (2001) at depth at Mount Tom Price in Australia. These rocks obviously developed from the replacement of chert bands in iron-formation by carbonate. It is quite possible that lateritic supergene ores formed in areas of recharge but because of uplift they would have had a small preservation potential. These old land surfaces are preserved at high elevations because fluvial erosion takes place by pediplenation (back-cutting) rather than peneplenation (down-cutting). An early phase of magnetite + carbonate mineralisation is present in some deposits and could have formed at elevated temperatures and very low oxygen fugacity under the influence of an alkaline hydrothermal fluid that carried Ca++ and Mg++. where rather similar carbonate-replaced hematite-rich iron-formation has been intersected in drill core at depth. GENETIC MODEL FOR HYDROTHERMAL ORES AND THEIR SUPERGENE MODIFICATION Information available at present strongly suggests that all major high-grade hematite iron ore deposits of Western Australia. determined by climatic evolution on the various continents. How much of this applies to other deposits in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero is unknown at present. like in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Meteoric water flow was most probably topographically driven with recharge taking place in areas of uplift related to either rise of basement domes. an environment also most suitable for the leaching of silica. 1999. Near surface. 90:29-58. At present. Transamazonian Orogeny in the Southern Sao Francisco Craton Region. there are abundant examples of unreplaced hard and friable (saprolitic) siliceous iron-formation bodies preserved in soft hematite ore. and timing of exposure of deposits. or areas of extensional tectonics. after the breakup of Gondwana. it has become obvious that banded carbonate-hematite rocks are preserved at depth below friable hematite ores at Carajas and the Aguas Claras mine in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Figures 6 and 7). M E. S L. However. Western Australia. The hard orebodies are typically surrounded by highly porous friable ores and/or friable hematite-rich banded iron-formation (itabirite) (Figures 6. They have always been considered the result of leaching of silica from banded iron-formation under deep lateritic weathering conditions (Dardenne and Shobbenhaus. in mines around Noamundi. The massive ores are typically very dense and often magnetic. 1998. Contacts between the friable ores and iron-formation bodies are sharp and difficult to explain by supergene leaching of silica. Dykes that crosscut the ore have been dated at 1. The Indian deposits that we have investigated thus far (Mukhopadhyay et al. These sills could be related to volcanic activity that took place around 2. A L. 7 and 8). Rather. 28 Perth.N J BEUKES. At the Pico de Itabirito Mine in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero it was observed that ore formation postdated intrusion and folding of dolerite sills. Massive and laminated hard orebodies are present in both the Brazilian and Indian deposits. Differences between the ores are largely the result of varying intensities of supergene modification in late Cretaceous to Tertiary times. lenticular bodies higher up in the stratigraphy. Unfortunately the age of folding is not known at present. In certain cases. Precambrian Research.11 September 2002 Iron Ore Conference . a process that does not necessarily require higher oxygen fugacity than magnetite formation. faulting and/or intrusion of dolerite sills. S.100 m so and there is virtually no information available on the precursor rock for the friable ores. However. Rather than representing iron-formation corestones in the ore from which silica has not been leached. Following breakup of Gondwanaland the ore deposits were subjected to different degrees of supergene alteration. the deposits are mainly preserved at high elevations below old lateritised land surfaces. but it is certainly applicable to the Carajas district. J GUTZMER and J MUKHOPADHYAY iron-formation successions with smaller. Hagemann. A simple system of meteoric fluid circulation along extensional fault-controlled aquifers is envisaged for formation of the iron ore deposits.75 Ga (Alkmim and Marshak. it would appear that the iron-formation was replaced by hematite and perhaps carbonate prior to lateritic weathering. they may well represent pockets of iron-formation that were not affected by carbonate metasomatism. F F and Marshak. Some faults acted as aquifers for meteoric water recharge and others for discharge. S G and Folkert. Thabazimbi in South Africa. 9 . and eastern and central India are very similar in character and may thus share a very similar mode of origin. the orebodies are typically capped by a veneer of hydrated goethitic ore below a cover of laterite and canga that has been incised by streams in geologically recent times. In the deepest levels of this mine there are excellent exposures illustrating how leaching of dolomite from the banded dolomite-hematite rock gives rise to saprolitic friable hematite ore (Figure 7). 1998) and iron ore formation may thus have taken place during or shortly after a period of extensional tectonics described by Alkmim and Marshak (1998). WA. Barley. including siderite. Mineralium Deposita. Cooling of this hydrothermal fluid would have favored the formation of hematite. bodies of hard unaltered chert-rich iron-formation are commonly preserved in friable saprolitic hematite ore. 2000). tabular orebodies are also developed below impermeable roof rocks such as dolerite sills. 2002) have only been explored and mined to depths of 50 m . Deep seated iron ore deposits formed in the vicinity of normal faults that acted as channels for fluid escape. Minas Gerais. The massive martite-rich ores are less abundant than surrounding laminated hematite ores that tend to form the bulk of hard ore reserves. Brazil: evidence for Paleoproterozoic collision and collapse in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. where original chert bands in the lower part of the Caué Iron Formation have been completely replaced by ferroan dolomite. the latter of which was later transformed into martite. Pickard. Aguas Claras is the best example. The origin of the highly porous soft ores in the deposits is a matter of contention at present. in recent years through deep drilling and mining in Brazil. In all of these deposits hematite mineralisation appears to have developed late in the geologic history of the successions after earlier folding. All indications are that primary orebodies owe their origin to the interaction of iron-formation with a hydrothermal fluid of meteoric origin at temperatures of not more than 160°C to 200°C. 1998) during deposition of the Sabara Group. Hydrothermal origin for the 2 billion year old Mount Tom Price giant iron ore deposit. the Quadrilátero Ferrífero and Carajas in Brazil.12 Ga (Alkmim and Marshak. in the Dalli-Rajhara area.

Dalstra. W N. H J. R A. 30:491-494. p 316 (The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy: Melbourne). WA. Dardenne. pp 157-182 (Geological Society of South Africa: Johannesburg). S and Beukes. S T. and the history of atmospheric oxygen in the Paleoproterozoic. in 16th International Sedimentological Congress Abstract Volume 2002. Taylor. 2002. M E. Genesis of high-grade hematite orebodies of the Hamersley Province. J. in Geology of the Mineral Deposits of Australia and Papua New Guinea. pp 275-276 (South Africa). J. American Journal of Science. J L. H. 1990. N J. 1990. Nedachi. 26:263-266. N J and Gutzmer. in 16th International Sedimentological Congress Abstract Volume 2002. A textural and mineralogical study of the relationship of iron ore to banded iron-formation in the Hamersley iron province of Western Australia. 2000. C McA. J. 117:1-170. A E. Limpopo Province. Geology. Paleomagnetism of a lateritic paleoweathering horizon and overlying Paleoproterozoic redbeds from South Africa: Implications for the Kaapvaal apparent polar wander path and a confirmation of atmospheric oxygen enrichment. N J. M and Ohmoto. 290A: 1-34.2 and 1. Broadbent. Geology. 1998. Petrographic evidence for the hydrothermal origin of BIF-hosted high-grade iron ores from eastern and central India. Harmsworth. Powell. pp 755-850 (Rio de Janeiro). in Handbook of Strata-Bound and Stratiform Ore Deposits. Gutzmer.11 September 2002 29 . Synorgenic hydrothermal origin for giant Hamersley iron oxide ore bodies. 2002. pp 271-272 (South Africa). C. Geological Survey of Western Australia Bulletin. Origin of high-grade hematite ores at Thabazimbi Mine. Vol 13. Morris. G C and Barley. Netshiozwi. C J and Shrivastava. Iron Ore Conference Perth. Evans. N H S. South Africa. J. Netshiozwi. J and Beukes. 1966. Mukhopadhyay. in Mineral Deposits of Southern Africa. BIF-derived iron ores of the Hamersley province. Z X. Genesis of iron ore in banded iron-formation by supergene and supergene-metamorphic processes – A conceptual model. R C. Thabazimbi. South Africa. R C. H D and Beukes. Hydrothermal origin of high-grade iron ore bodies hosted by the Paleoproterozoic Penge Iron Formation. N J. Tropical laterites. 9 . Earliest laterites and possible evidence for terrestrial vegetation in the Early Proterozoic. P K. Li. N J and Gutzmer. R C. Netshiozwi. 2002. pp 617-642 (The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy: Melbourne). Martin. The metallogenesis of the South American platform. 2002. Economic Geology. Robinson. S. Western Australia. Geology. Holland. 1985. pp 73-235 (Elsevier: Amsterdam). Dorland. Beukes. Journal of Geophysical Research. Beukes. J. D A D.9 by BP. H F. 2001. 1980. 96:837-878. Western Australia. Van Schalkwyk. Auckland Park. Harding. 1989. Gutzmer. 75:184-209. MacLeod. 1999. in press. MSc thesis (unpublished). A paleoweathering profile from Griqualand West.THE GEOLOGY AND GENESIS OF HIGH-GRADE HEMATITE IRON ORE DEPOSITS Beukes. King. Oliver. 1986. D. Economic Geology. J F and Beukes. life on land. N J and Kirschvink. Rand Afrikaans University. D McB and Ronaszecki. Limpopo Province. N J. The geology and iron deposits of the Hamersley Range area. Beukes. Petrographic constraints on the transformation of the Penge Iron Formation into high-grade hematite ores at Thabazimbi Mine. J. N J. Morris. The Rocks Speak. in Tectonic Evolution of South America. 27:175-178. 2002. M A and Schobbenhaus. H. South Africa: evidence for a dramatic rise in atmospheric oxygen between 2. Kneeshaw. Gutzmer. The Sishen iron ore deposit. Morris. M. in 16th International Sedimentological Congress Abstract Volume 2002.

9 .11 September 2002 Iron Ore Conference .30 Perth. WA.