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SCIENCE ENERGY -Ability to do work -Movement of objects from one place to another Forms of Energy -Kinetic Energy -Energy

of motion -An object with less mass has less kinetic energy -Depends on the objects mass and speed -Potential Energy -Stored energy -Energy at rest -Due to an object’s position -Due to the internal arrangement of molecules Types of Potential Energy -Gravitational Potential Energy -Position or height from the earth -higher the position: greater the Gravity PE -Grav force is acting upon a stationary object -Elastic Potential Energy -Anything that can be stretched -More stretched the greater the Elastic PE -Magnetic Potential Energy -Charged particles - + and - attracts - - and - repels - + and + repels -Chemical Potential Energy -Chemical reaction in the body when eating -Arrangement of atoms and molecules -Batteries, gas, food, fuel Types of Energy -Electrical Energy -Due to the motion of charged particles, electron -Nuclear Energy -Energy that is released from the splitting or combining of atoms -Nuclear Fusion -Process that fuels the sun -Combining of atoms -Extremely high pressure is needed -Nuclear Fission -Splitting of atoms -heavy atom into lighter atoms -Produces tremendous amount of energy -Radiant Energy -Energy we get from the sun -Energy coming from the sun, microwave, gamma rays, infrared, x ray, ultraviolet rays, radio bands, visible light

Types of Energy -Chemical Energy -Energy from chemical reactions -Thermal Energy -Motion of molecules -temperature is proportional to the average KE -Matter does not contain heat -Heat is energy in transit -Sum of the kinetic energy Law of Conservation of Energy -Energy can neither be created nor destroyed ENERGY TRANSFORMATION -Turbine -Revolving wheel fitted with blades and is used convert linear into rotational motion -Generator -Rotational motion into electrical energy Renewable Energy Sources -Replaced by natural process at a rate comparable to use -Can be easily replaced Geothermal Energy -thermal or heat energy from deep within the earth -Philippines is the largest producer of geothermal energy in Asia -found from within the earth Hydroelectric Power -Energy from running water -Requires a high dam or waterfall -Water flow at the bottom has the greatest speed and kinetic energy -Running water is utilized to spin a turbine gen. -Mechanical motion -Gas or other machines are not needed Tidal Energy -Depends on the pull of the moon on the water that causes the ocean levels to rise and gall -Has less impact to the environment than hydroelectric power -Non-conventional -Rise and fall of the sea level can harness energy -EBB Generator -If water decreases there is pressure -Basin is filled – released it will go back to the sea Wind Energy -Electricity from the wind

shapes -Contain diff. amounts of water MATTER Gas -Can also flow (like Liquid) -Fluids -Molecules are farther apart -Always in motion -freely moving -Fills all the space available Plasma -Made up of charged particles (ions) -Electrified gas -Readily conducts electricity -Absorbs some types of radiation that would pass unaffected through gas -Responds to electric and magnetic forces -Found in a fluorescent lamp -Made up of Mercury and Argon ions -Aurora Borealis -Northern lights -Upper parts of the atmosphere -Most common matter in the universe Characteristics of Matter (Quantities) -Mass -Amount of matter contained in an object -Depends on the amount of matter it contains -Weight -Expressed in Newtons (N) -Depends on the Mass of an object and -Acceleration due to gravity .-Kinetic energy of moving air Solar Energy -Solar Cells -Conversion of sunlight directly into electricity -Electricity from the sun Biomass -From plant and animal remains Non-Renewable Petroleum -Mixture of hydrogen and carbon compounds -Comes from a Latin word meaning “rock oil” -Found trapped between layers of sedimentary with some natural gas -Remains of planktons Coal -Most abundant fossil fuel -Lasts longer than oil supplies -Formed under conditions of very high pressure Natural Gas -Cleanest of all the fossil fuels -Associated gas -Oil reservoir -Non associated gas -Gas formed by itself MATTER -Occupies space and has mass -Every single thing.w = mg -Volume -Exactly how much space an object occupies -Regular Shaped -lwh -Irregular Shaped -Displacement method Unique Characteristics of Matter -Density -Amount of matter into a given volume of a mat’l -Indication of how compact a given matter is . visible or not -Phases of matter -State of a piece of matter -Depending on how atoms are bound Solid -Definite shape and size -Vibrates -Amorphous -Atoms are arranged in random -Crystalline -Orderly -In three dimensional manner -Semiconductors -Made from fibres of a material held at a place by another material Liquid -Molecules doesn’t have fixed positions -No definite shape -Takes the shape of a container -Hard to compress (like Solids) -Flows -Exerts pressure -Deeper: More pressure -Pascal’s Vases -Vessels have diff.

Amode: + -Plum Pudding Model -Atoms are indivisible and contains a very tiny negative charged particles -Ernest Rutherford (1907) -Discovered the nucleus -Nuclear Model -Radioactive elements pass through a gold foil.-D = m v -Melting Point -Any solid will melt if a certain amount of heat is applied -Temperature at which a solid turns into liquid -Boiling Point -Temperature at which a liquid turns into gas -Malleability: thin sheet w/o breaking -Ductility: thin wires w/o breaking Atomic Models -Democritus and Leucippus (400 BC) -Atomos -indivisible or uncuttable -Smallest particles of matter -Greece -No proof of atoms -John Dalton (1808) -Atoms -Tiny. can interact w other atoms -Energy Sublevels -Atomic orbital -Correct responding cloud shape within which the electrons move -Does not illustrate the whole atom . hard.9% of an atom’s mass -Contains protons and neutrons Neutrons -No electrical charge -Identical Atomic Mass -Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom -Isotopes -Same element with different numbers of neutrons Atomic Mass and Mass Number -Atomic Number -Doesn’t tell how many neutrons it has -Number of Protons and Electrons -Mass Number -Sum of the number of protons and neutrons -Atomic Mass -Average mass of naturally occurring isotopes .mass x mass = average of to products Electrons and Energy Levels Electrons -Determine an element’s chemical behaviour -Arrangement of electrons in the outermost -Quantum Mechanical Model -Erwin Schrodinger -Electrons orbits the nucleus within the electron cloud -“cloud”: space where the electrons are found -Energy level -How electrons are arranged -Location within the electron cloud -Closest to the nucleus: lowest energy -Farther from the nucleus: higher energy -Lowest: 2 electrons -2nd level: 8 electrons -3rd level: 18 electrons -4th level: 32 electrons -Outermost: less attraction between these electrons & protons. indivisible -Joseph John Thomson (1897) -Discovered electrons -Cathode Ray Experiment . spherical.Cathode: . the alpha rays are scattered in few parts -Eugene Goldstein -Discovered protons -Neils Bohr (1913) -Accurate model of the atom -Planetary model of the atom -Electrons moves (orbital) -Increases as the orbit gets farther from the nucleus -James Chadwick (1932) -Discovered neutrons -Atomic mass = no. of e + p Atoms Atomic Mass -Neutron’s mass is slightly greater -Considered to be equal to the proton’s mass -Arbitrary Unit: atomic mass unit or amu Nucleus -Nucleus contains 99.

soldering lead. Aluminium. humid air. charcoal gas mask -Liquid Solution -Concentrated -how much there is of the solute in relation to the solvent -solvent < solute -Dilute -Less of the solute in relation to the solvent . Salt.solvent > solute Heterogeneous Mixture -Suspension -Solid in liquid mixture -Large enough to be seen without a microscope -Settles to the bottom Colloids -Component particles that are bigger than those in solutions -Transparent like the solution -Tyndall effect -Scatters the light -Dispersant -Analogous to the solute -Spread through the dispersing medium -Do not settle -Constant collision (Brownian movement) Separating Mixtures -Physical Manipulation -Separating manually -Filtration -Let some components through -Decantation -Separation of the components that form distinct layers -Simple Distillation -Components are separated to the different in boiling points . soot in air. vinegar. Sugar.Classifying Materials -based on the kind of atom Pure Substance -Percentage composition is always the same -Regardless of its amount or origin -A pinch of a pure substance will have the same percentage composition as a spoonful ` -Component particles are identical -Ex: Water. air. dental filling. soft drink. Copper -Homogenous Mixture -Uniform properties -A pure substance is always homogenous -Not all homogenous substances are pure -Elements -One kind of atom -Pure substance whose atoms all have the same atomic number -Smallest component of an element: atom -Unique characteristics -Most occur in nature -Natural Elements -Artificially produced in laboratory -Synthetic elements -Already in their simplest form -Compounds -Combination of elements -Molecules -Combination of different atoms -All molecules of a compound are identical -Homogenous -Chemically combined -Different from each of the compound element -Can be still broken down into simpler elements -Cannot be broken down by physical means -Electrolysis -Separate hydrogen and oxygen atoms -passing an electric current through water -Organic Compounds -Organisms or artificially produced -All organic compounds contain carbon -Inorganic Compounds -Everything that is not considered as Organic -Bases and Acids -Acids -Sour taste -Corrodes metal -Bases -Bitter taste -Slippery -Corrosive -Neutralization: reaction b/t an acid and base Mixtures -Combined physically -Retains their individual property -Components may vary -Can be separated by ordinary physical means -Homogenous Mixture -Has one distinct phase Solutions -Component particles are too small to be seen -Consists of two parts -Dissolved: Solute -Dissolving: Solvent -Examples -Instant coffee.

Separating Mixtures -Fractional Distillation -Different boiling points .