You are on page 1of 25

Rates and Processes of Potassic Magma

Evolution beneath Sangeang Api Volcano,
East Sunda Arc, Indonesia
SIMON TURNER
1
*
, JOHN FODEN
2
, RHIANNON GEORGE
1
,
PETER EVANS
3
, RICK VARNE
4
,, MARLINA ELBURG
2
AND
GEORGE JENNER
5
1
DEPARTMENT OF EARTH SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF BRISTOL, WILLS MEMORIAL BUILDING,
BRISTOL BS8 1RJ, UK
2
DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS, THE UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE, ADELAIDE,
SA 5005, AUSTRALIA
3
LABORATORIES OF THE GOVERNMENT GEOCHEMIST, QUEENS ROAD, TEDDINGTON PW11 0LY, UK
4
SCHOOL OF EARTH SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF TASMANIA, HOBART, TAS 7001, AUSTRALIA
5
DEPARTMENT OF EARTH SCIENCES, MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND,
ST. JOHNS, NEWFOUNDLAND A1B 3X5, CANADA
RECEIVED DECEMBER 7, 2001; ACCEPTED SEPTEMBER 17, 2002
U-series isotopes can provide unique insights into the physical
processes of magma evolution by constraining the time scales over
which they operate. This, however, requires rock suites that
provide a clear and complete record of the liquid line of descent.
Sangeang Api volcano, in the east Sunda arc, provides such an
opportunity because it erupts potassic lavas (SiO
2
~47±55%),
which contain a spectrum of xenoliths interpreted to represent the
cumulates complementary to the lavas. Combined, the cumulates
and lavas span a large compositional range, which major and
trace element modelling suggests reflects ~70% polybaric crys-
tallization that began at sub-Moho depths and continued into
the upper crust. The parental magmas can be successfully
modelled by ~3% dynamic partial melting, in the presence of
0±4% residual garnet, of a mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)
source enriched by ~3% subducted Sunda sediment in addition
to a contribution of fluid-mobile elements from the subducting
slab. The effects of fluid addition and partial melting on U±Th
disequilibria appear to be competing processes. A moderate
range in Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes is interpreted to reflect a
combination of source heterogeneity and 515% assimilation
of Indian MORB crust. Neither interaction with metasoma-
tized arc lithosphere nor the presence of enriched, plume-type
mantle in the mantle wedge is required by our data. The
cumulates and lavas have largely indistinguishable
(
230
Th/
232
Th) over a wide range of U/Th ratios and thus
any age differences are minimal relative to the half-life of
230
Th. All whole rocks and minerals are characterized by
226
Ra excesses and modelling of the
226
Ra±
230
Th±Ba data
suggests that magmatic evolution beneath this arc volcano occurs
on time scales of ~2000 years. Combining this with simple
numerical calculations we estimate that the Sangeang Api
magma chamber is ~6±10 km
3
in size, cooling rates are
~005
·
C/yr and minimum crystal growth rates are (2±7) ×
10
÷13
cm/s. It is possible that a significant proportion of the
crystal growth and differentiation occurred during isobaric
decompression of magmas ascending through conduits. An
implication is that the net magmatic flux across the Moho is
of magmas that are already significantly evolved from primary
magmas and this may be significant for why average continental
crust has an andesitic bulk composition even though the flux out
of the mantle wedge is basaltic.
KEYWORDS: time scales; lava; xenolith; Sunda arc; potassic magma
JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 44 NUMBER 3 PAGES 491±515 2003
*Corresponding author. Telephone: (44) 0117 9545440. Fax:
(44) 0117 9253385. E-mail: simon.turner@bristol.ac.uk
,Deceased.
Journal of Petrology 44(3) # Oxford University Press 2003; all rights
reserved.
INTRODUCTION
Primary magmas are rarely erupted from island arc
volcanoes and much effort has been expended in
unravelling the mechanisms by which they evolve to
produce the more differentiated magmas typically
erupted. Of particular interest are the time scales
of this magmatic differentiation and how those
might vary with magma composition and differentia-
tion path. Numerical models can be used to
constrain both the rate of cooling and crystallization
in crustal magma chambers (e.g. Marsh, 1998).
If magmatic differentiation occurs by crystal settling,
the time scale will also be controlled by the size of
the crystals, their density contrast with the host
magma and the magma viscosity (Martin & Nokes,
1988). The behaviour of natural systems is clearly
complex; phenocrysts may not necessarily settle in a
tholeiitic magma because the liquid line of descent
yields dense, iron-rich differentiates, whereas the
higher silica content and thus greater viscosity of calc-
alkaline magmas at a similar degree of differentiation
may also inhibit phenocryst±liquid separation, albeit
in a different way. Thus, there is a need for indepen-
dent observational constraints on differentiation time
scales.
In principle, time scale information can be obtained
from studies of U-series disequilibria in magmatic
rocks but their application to this problem
remains largely in its infancy and most studies have
concentrated on within-plate lavas [see Hawkesworth
et al. (2000) for a recent review]. The available arc data
indicate differentiation times of 10
2
±10
3
years for basal-
tic to dacitic, tholeiitic and calc-alkaline lavas (Turner
et al., 2000, 2001), although Heath et al. (1998) pre-
sented evidence for longer time scales of ~60 kyr at
SoufrieÁ re, St. Vincent, in the Lesser Antilles. In the
case of potassic arc lavas no detailed studies have
yet been undertaken. This is despite the fact that
these are often the most explosive and hazardous vol-
canoes (e.g. Tambora, Self et al., 1984; Foden, 1986)
for which time scale information might aid in hazard
prediction. In within-plate settings, potassic lava dif-
ferentiation time estimates range widely from 200 years
for mugearite at Mt. Etna (Condomines et al., 1995) to
3000 years for phonolite at Mt. Erebus (Reagan et al.,
1992) and 90±100 kyr for trachytes and phonolites
from SaÄ o Miguel and Laacher See, respectively
(Widom et al., 1992; Bourdon et al., 1994). Finally,
the origin of rear-arc potassic lavas themselves has
been the source of considerable debate, with some
studies concluding that an increase in the relative con-
tribution from subducted sediment is sufficient to
explain the observed data (e.g. Rogers et al., 1985)
whereas other have argued that interaction with
incompatible-element-enriched sub-arc lithospheric
mantle saturated with potassic phases is required (e.g.
Edwards et al., 1991).
Here we present the results of a detailed isotope study
of Sangeang Api from the eastern Sunda arc in
Indonesia. This volcano provides an opportunity to
shed new light on the rates of processes of potassic
magma evolution because its recent eruptive products
include a series of potassic lavas and cumulate xeno-
liths whose mineral paragenesis is consistent with the
progressive differentiation history shown by the lavas.
U±Th±Ra isotope disequilibria are utilized to con-
strain the processes and time scale for this differentia-
tion. Finally, neighbouring Tambora makes for an
interesting comparison with Sangeang Api because its
magmas appear to evolve along the same liquid line of
descent.
SANGEANG API VOLCANO AND
ITS ERUPTIVE PRODUCTS
Sangeang Api volcano is an active alkaline volcano
lying within an older caldera and has a known histor-
ical history of eruptions spanning 1512±1988. There
have been at least 13 moderate-sized (10
5
±10
7
m
3
),
explosive eruptions in the last century and activity
was almost continuous from 1953 to 1958, then was
renewed by eruptions in 1964±1966 and most recently
by more major (10
7
±10
8
m
3
) eruptions in 1985±1998
(Simkin & Siebert, 1994). The volcano is located at the
rear of the east Sunda arc (Fig. 1a), ~190 km above the
Benioff zone and adjacent to the active volcano Tam-
bora (Fig. 1b). The crust in this portion of the arc is
composed of magmatically and tectonically thickened
oceanic crust with the Moho lying at ~14±17 km depth
(Curray et al., 1977). The erupted products at
Sangeang Api comprise potassic, volatile-enriched,
silica-undersaturated lavas that exhume an abundant
population of entrained clinopyroxene-rich, mafic
and ultramafic xenoliths. The lavas range from potas-
sic trachybasalt to trachyandesite in composition
(47±55 wt % SiO
2
) with 5±15% normative-ne
and are characterized by three distinct phenocryst
assemblages: clinopyroxene±olivine; plagioclase±
clinopyroxene±magnetite (Fig. 2a); and plagioclase±
amphibole±clinopyroxene±magnetite. The latter two
assemblages are typical of lavas with relatively evolved
geochemical characteristics. Their compositions are
similar to those of the potassic Pleistocene volcanoes
Soromundi and Sangenges just to the west (Foden &
Varne, 1980) and Batu Tara to the NE (Stolz et al.,
1988; van Bergen et al., 1992), which also contain
pyroxene-rich xenoliths (see Fig. 1 for volcano loca-
tions). The eruptive products of Sangeang Api contrast
JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 44 NUMBER 3 MARCH 2003
492
with those of the arc-front volcanoes, such as Rindjani
(Fig. 1b), which are predominantly calc-alkaline in
nature and generally lack xenoliths (e.g. Foden, 1983).
The xenoliths, which are interpreted as fragments of
cumulate magmatic bodies within the arc crust, pro-
vide an insight into magmatic differentiation processes
in the system feeding Sangeang Api. The cumulate
xenoliths represent the products of progressive crystal±
liquid differentiation of the parental magmas and can
be divided into two main petrological groups. Group 1
are clinopyroxenites that consist of Ca-, and sometimes
Cr-rich clinopyroxene with lesser olivine with variable
magnetite contents (from 51% to ~15%). They con-
tain small amounts of pargasitic amphibole and/or
phlogopite interstitial to the clinopyroxene. In some
samples, amphibole occurs as a primary cumulate
phase. Group 2 are gabbroic xenoliths with variable
amphibole contents. These are plagioclase±magnetite±
clinopyroxene rocks with amphibole contents that
range from ~4 to 50%. Included in this group are
some amphibole-rich samples in which the amphibole
has clearly undergone incongruent partial melting as a
consequence of decompression (Foden & Green, 1992).
This group includes the most recently exhumed
xenoliths carried from the actively erupting cone by
lahars in 1985±1988. These are distinctive from the
other xenoliths in that they contain intergranular
brown glass with hopper-quench-textured crystallites
of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and amphibole (Fig. 2b).
Thus, the cumulate xenoliths have broadly equivalent
mineral assemblages to the phenocrysts of the lavas.
A plagioclase crystal size distribution plot for one of the
Fig. 1. (a) General map of the Sunda arc showing the location of
volcanoes discussed in the text, with enlarged area in (b) showing the
location of Sangeang Api and Tambora volcanoes at the rear of the
arc relative to the arc-front volcanoes such as Rindjani. Depth to
Benioff zone (dashed lines) from Hutchison (1982).
Fig. 2. Photomicrographs of (a) Sangeang Api lava 48073 from the
1985 eruption and (b) a gabbroic cumulate (SA26) showing the
presence of interstitial glass between cumulate crystals. The euhedral,
unzoned and inclusion-free nature of the cumulate crystals should be
noted. (c) Plagioclase crystal size distribution plot for lava 48073
based on 1614 crystals. The aspect ratio of the crystals (1:3:5) and
stereological conversion from two-dimensional to three-dimensional
measurements were determined following the methods of Higgins
(2000).
TURNER et al. U-SERIES ISOTOPE EVOLUTION, SANGEANG API
493
lavas is shown in Fig. 2c and is markedly concave
upwards, indicating crystal accumulation (Marsh,
1998), consistent with some of the larger phenocrysts
reflecting entrainment of crystals from disaggregated
cumulate xenoliths.
Comparison between experimentally determined
phase relations and those of the cumulate xenoliths
suggests crystallization at temperatures around 1100±
1000
·
C and at up to moderately elevated crustal pres-
sures of 05±1 GPa from parental melts with 43%
H
2
O (Foden & Green, 1992). Elevated H
2
O contents
are also implied by the early precipitation of
plagioclase-free assemblages, and somewhat elevated
pressures are supported by the broad field of
clinopyroxene crystallization in the xenoliths by com-
parison with the expanded field of olivine and plagio-
clase in the lavas.
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
The samples analysed here were selected from a larger
sample suite of 33 lavas and 37 xenoliths (J. Foden,
unpublished data, 2002). They consist of eight lavas
and seven undeformed cumulate xenoliths (one pyrox-
enite and six gabbros) all of which come from eruptions
in 1953±1958 and 1985±1988 (the ages of the lavas are
indicated in Table 1). For bulk-rock analyses, both
lavas and cumulate xenoliths were crushed in a steel
jaw-crusher and then milled in a tungsten-carbide mill
at the University of Adelaide. Analysis of milled quartz
indicates a Ta blank of ~024 ppm for this mill and so
the Ta data for the lavas can only be taken as maxima
(italics in Table 1) and no data for the xenoliths are
reported. The pyroxenite (SA24) and one of the gab-
broic cumulate xenoliths (SA21) were separated into
their constituent minerals. To obtain these mineral
separates, the xenoliths were disaggregated by gently
tapping with a hammer; between 200 and 2000 mg (or
individual grains for
87
Sr/
86
Sr analyses) of plagioclase,
clinopyroxene, amphibole, magnetite and groundmass
were then carefully hand-picked under a binocular
microscope. Magnetite was separated and purified by
repeatedly passing a small magnet over the crushed
whole rock, followed by hand picking. The crystals
in the cumulate xenoliths are remarkably free from
inclusions (e.g. Fig. 2b) and the most likely form of
impurity in the separates is small patches of adhering
interstitial glass. The separates were visually estimated
to be ~99% pure and this was subsequently verified by
comparison of in situ and bulk concentration data for
Th and Ba (see Appendix). The mineral major element
compositions were determined using a JEOL 733 elec-
tron microprobe at the University of Adelaide and
ferric iron was calculated from stoichiometry for the
clinopyroxenes and by using the program RECAMP
for the amphiboles (Spear & Kimball, 1984).
Whole-rock major and selected trace elements
(including Cl) were analysed by X-ray fluorescence
with a Philips PW1480 100 kV spectrometer at the
University of Adelaide. Reproducibility and accuracy
are better than 10% for Ba, Ni, Cu and Cr, and better
than 5% for all other elements. Cs, Zn, Co, Ta, Hf and
rare earth element (REE) abundances were obtained
either by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrome-
try (ICP-MS) or by instrumental neutron activation
analysis (INAA). The lavas were analysed by ICP-MS
at Boston or Cardiff universities following techniques
similar to those described by Elliott et al. (1997) and
Turner et al. (1999). The xenoliths were analysed by
INAA at the Open University following the techniques
of Potts et al. (1985). Sr and Nd isotope ratios were
measured dynamically on a single-collector Finnigan
MAT 261 system at the University of Adelaide. Sr was
fractionation corrected to
86
Sr/
88
Sr = 01194 and Nd
to
146
Nd/
144
Nd = 07219. Measured values for multi-
ple determinations of the NBS 987 and La Jolla stan-
dards over the period of the study were 0710271 ± 20
and 0511821 ± 14 (2s), respectively. Pb was analysed
statically in temperature-controlled runs (1250
·
C) in
multi-collector mode on a Finnigan MAT 262 system
at the Open University and the ratios were corrected
for ~1½/a.m.u. mass-fractionation using the recom-
mended values for NBS 981 (Todt et al., 1996). Blanks
for Sr, Nd and Pb were typically 51 ng, 500 pg and
300 pg, respectively.
Th, U and
226
Ra concentrations and
230
Th/
232
Th
isotope ratios were determined at the Open University
by thermal ionization mass spectrometry on a high
abundance sensitivity Finnigan MAT 262 system
equipped with an RPQ-II energy filter. Samples were
spiked with
229
Th±
236
U and
228
Ra tracers and dis-
solved using HF±HCl±HNO
3
in Savillex beakers (the
mineral separates were cleaned in an ultrasonic bath of
purified water before dissolution). Treatment with
HCl and H
3
BO
3
was used to obtain completely clear
solutions and to ensure sample-spike equilibration.
Details of the U±Th separation and analysis techniques
have been given by Turner et al. (1997) and procedures
for
226
Ra purification and analysis were identical to
those described by Turner et al. (2000). U±Th mass
spectrometric procedures were similar to those
described by van Calsteren & Schwieters (1995). U,
Th and
226
Ra concentrations were determined to a
precision of better than 05% (1s) and the U and Th
isotope ratios have an external reproducibility of
~05% (1s), which was monitored using the standard
solution Th'U'std. Reproducibility of (
226
Ra/
230
Th)
is estimated as ~13% (Turner et al., 2000). Total
procedural blanks for U and Th were typically 100
JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 44 NUMBER 3 MARCH 2003
494
Table 1: Representative analyses of Sangeang Api lavas
Sample: 48067 SA2 48073 SA10 48076 SA88/303 SA9 SA5
Age: 1953±1958 1985±1988 1985±1988 1985±1988 1985±1988 1985±1988 1985±1988 1985±1988
wt %
SiO
2
47
.
20 48
.
35 47
.
98 49
.
21 49
.
73 51
.
65 51
.
38 54
.
10
TiO
2
0
.
83 0
.
99 0
.
92 0
.
85 0
.
87 0
.
79 0
.
79 0
.
66
Al
2
O
3
13
.
16 16
.
89 18
.
94 19
.
00 19
.
00 18
.
81 19
.
01 19
.
08
Fe
2
O
3
(t) 10
.
33 11
.
09 10
.
51 9
.
80 9
.
60 8
.
57 8
.
85 7
.
23
MnO 0
.
19 0
.
24 0
.
25 0
.
22 0
.
24 0
.
23 0
.
25 0
.
24
MgO 9
.
45 5
.
53 4
.
53 4
.
01 3
.
89 3
.
45 3
.
43 2
.
58
CaO 13
.
91 10
.
86 10
.
59 9
.
88 9
.
54 8
.
38 8
.
74 6
.
97
Na
2
O 2
.
64 2
.
90 3
.
46 3
.
45 3
.
48 4
.
08 3
.
94 4
.
62
K
2
O 1
.
79 2
.
35 2
.
64 3
.
02 2
.
72 3
.
00 3
.
05 3
.
89
P
2
O
5
0
.
39 0
.
31 0
.
42 0
.
40 0
.
37 0
.
39 0
.
39 0
.
38
LOI 0
.
13 ÷0
.
23 0
.
10 ÷0
.
22 ÷0
.
04 0
.
27 0
.
19 0
.
85
Total 100
.
02 99
.
28 100
.
34 99
.
62 99
.
40 99
.
62 100
.
02 100
.
60
ppm
Cl 2970 905 2450 2295 1320 Ð 2355 4845
Sc 49 29 19 16 17 14 12 9
V 294 298 297 279 247 211 173 130
Cr 232 24 5 5 5 5 5 5
Co 59 51 43 48 45 66 49 36
Ni 49 20 7 10 4 5 8 5
Cu 90 139 156 153 135 123 125 112
Zn 33 94 147 46 135 Ð 95 87
Rb 75 79 90 95 84 104 100 123
Sr 972 895 1155 1146 957 970 1006 987
Y 23 27 26 26 29 28 29 31
Zr 100 91 103 113 106 127 110 149
Nb 7
.
0 6
.
4 4
.
2 5
.
5 4
.
7 7
.
0 5
.
0 6
.
7
Cs 3
.
55 3
.
39 4
.
74 5
.
60 2
.
98 5
.
64 6
.
35 6
.
78
Ba 1136 1057 1406 1298 1472 1578 1746 1764
La 38
.
0 27
.
0 41
.
5 39
.
3 28
.
2 35
.
9 33
.
6 42
.
7
Ce 71
.
2 52
.
8 73
.
4 74
.
3 54
.
6 64
.
6 64
.
2 75
.
5
Pr 8
.
4 6
.
4 8
.
2 8
.
7 6
.
2 7
.
3 7
.
4 8
.
5
Nd 34
.
7 25
.
6 31
.
9 36
.
6 24
.
7 30
.
0 29
.
4 32
.
1
Sm 6
.
78 5
.
44 6
.
41 7
.
20 5
.
24 6
.
03 6
.
15 6
.
52
Eu 1
.
88 1
.
62 1
.
99 2
.
01 1
.
71 1
.
77 1
.
75 1
.
78
Gd 0
.
87 0
.
83 5
.
98 0
.
91 5
.
21 0
.
86 0
.
90 0
.
92
Tb 0
.
80 0
.
83 0
.
82 0
.
88 0
.
76 0
.
87 0
.
89 0
.
90
Dy 4
.
35 4
.
45 4
.
24 4
.
73 4
.
30 4
.
70 4
.
96 4
.
98
Ho 0
.
78 0
.
88 0
.
81 0
.
87 0
.
87 0
.
92 0
.
99 0
.
99
Er 2
.
06 2
.
44 2
.
16 2
.
39 2
.
40 2
.
62 2
.
76 2
.
80
Yb 1
.
68 2
.
19 1
.
98 2
.
15 2
.
35 2
.
50 2
.
69 2
.
73
Lu 0
.
27 0
.
34 0
.
30 0
.
34 0
.
37 0
.
40 0
.
41 0
.
42
Hf 2
.
36 2
.
53 2
.
53 2
.
72 2
.
73 3
.
45 2
.
97 3
.
58
Ta* 0
.
43 0
.
29 0
.
35 0
.
33 0
.
41 0
.
42 0
.
35 0
.
37
Th 9
.
502 6
.
802 10
.
201 10
.
318 7
.
927 10
.
180 8
.
824 12
.
434
U 2
.
169 1
.
690 2
.
401 2
.
247 2
.
144 2
.
798 2
.
614 3
.
422
87
Sr/
86
Sr 0
.
705020 0
.
704714 0
.
704938 0
.
704965 0
.
704730 0
.
704740 0
.
704789 0
.
704638
TURNER et al. U-SERIES ISOTOPE EVOLUTION, SANGEANG API
495
and 50 pg, respectively, and for
226
Ra were 501 fg/g,
and these are insignificant relative to the 30±300 ng of
U and Th and 20±200 fg of Ra that was separated
and loaded. Determinations of the AThO and TML
Th standards yielded (
230
Th/
232
Th) = 1017 ± 0005
(n = 5) and (
230
Th/
232
Th) = 1079 ± 0005 (n = 2)
during this period. One of the lavas and two of the
xenoliths have
234
U excesses that are outside of analy-
tical error of unity by 1±2% and these may reflect
minor contamination, although these samples do not
have systematically higher
226
Ra or
87
Sr/
86
Sr. Repeat
determinations of the Mt Lassen Ra standard yielded
an average of
226
Ra = 1065 ± 9 fg/g, which is within
error of the values quoted by Volpe et al. (1991). Ba
concentrations in the bulk mineral separates were
determined by isotope dilution using a
135
Ba tracer.
Decay constants used in the calculation of activity
ratios and age corrections were: l
238
U = 1551 ×
10
÷10
a
÷1
; l
234
U = 2835 × 10
÷6
a
÷1
; l
232
Th =
4948 × 10
÷11
a
÷1
; l
230
Th = 9195 × 10
÷6
a
÷1
;
l
226
Ra = 4332 × 10
÷4
a
÷1
. All whole-rock
(
226
Ra/
230
Th) ratios are age corrected to 1985, except-
ing sample 48067, which was corrected to 1953.
RESULTS
Lavas
Major and trace element and isotopic compositions
of the lavas are listed in Table 1. They range in
composition from very primitive samples such as
48067 with 95% MgO and Mg-number = 070
[where Mg-number = Mg/(Mg ÷ 085Fe

tot
)] to
fairly evolved intermediate lavas with 26% MgO
and 54% SiO
2
. All samples are much more potassic
than the Sunda arc-front lavas, with between 18 and
39% K
2
O, and lie in the shoshonitic field in Fig. 3a.
Olivine- and clinopyroxene-compatible trace element
concentrations are low (Ni 49±5 ppm, Cr 232±5 ppm)
and FeO*/MgO increases rapidly from one to two at
low SiO
2
contents and then increases more gradually
as SiO
2
begins to rise (Fig. 3b). Sc shows a continuous
curvilinear decrease from 49 to 9 ppm with increasing
SiO
2
(Fig. 3c), whereas Sr levels remain almost
constant, suggesting a bulk distribution coefficient
around one (see inset to Fig. 4). Mantle-normalized
incompatible trace element patterns show extreme
enrichments of Ra, Ba, K and Sr, and negative Ta±
Nb and Ti anomalies, all of which are characteristic
of island arc lavas (Fig. 4). The concentrations of
incompatible trace elements increase with SiO
2
(see
insets to Fig. 4) and range from high (e.g. Nb 5±7
ppm) to extremely high with increasing incompatibil-
ity (e.g. Ba 1057±1764 ppm). High halogen contents
are indicated by chlorine contents ranging from 900
to 4850 ppm.
87
Sr/
86
Sr and
143
Nd/
144
Nd are nega-
tively correlated and range from 07046 to 07050
and 051274 to 051261, respectively (Fig. 5a).
208
Pb/
204
Pb,
207
Pb/
204
Pb and
206
Pb/
204
Pb are in the
range of 3887±3917, 1558±1567 and 1885±1900,
respectively, and
208
Pb/
204
Pb and
206
Pb/
204
Pb show a
strong positive correlation at elevated
208
Pb/
204
Pb rela-
tive to the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line
(NHRL) but at lower
208
Pb/
204
Pb and higher
206
Pb/
204
Pb than the arc-front lavas (Fig. 5b).
Cumulate xenoliths
Major and trace element and isotopic compositions of
the whole-rock cumulate xenoliths are given in Table 2.
The major element composition of the xenoliths is
Sample: 48067 SA2 48073 SA10 48076 SA88/303 SA9 SA5
Age: 1953±1958 1985±1988 1985±1988 1985±1988 1985±1988 1985±1988 1985±1988 1985±1988
143
Nd/
144
Nd 0
.
512650 0
.
512651 0
.
512621 0
.
512609 0
.
512743 0
.
512670 0
.
512713 0
.
512744
206
Pb/
204
Pb 18
.
996 18
.
927 18
.
925 18
.
939 18
.
904 18
.
850 18
.
870 18
.
893
207
Pb/
204
Pb 15
.
640 15
.
633 15
.
635 15
.
669 15
.
636 15
.
600 15
.
578 15
.
599
208
Pb/
204
Pb 39
.
173 39
.
033 39
.
070 39
.
160 39
.
055 38
.
912 38
.
870 38
.
940
(
234
U/
238
U) 1
.
020 1
.
004 1
.
007 1
.
007 1
.
035 Ð 0
.
994 0
.
988
(
238
U/
232
Th) 0
.
692 0
.
754 0
.
714 0
.
661 0
.
821 0
.
834 0
.
899 0
.
835
(
230
Th/
232
Th) 0
.
747 0
.
734 0
.
751 0
.
759 0
.
769 0
.
750 0
.
756 0
.
728
(
230
Th/
238
U) 1
.
079 0
.
982 1
.
051 1
.
149 0
.
937 0
.
900 0
.
849 0
.
880
226
Ra (fg/g) 1913 1687 1391 1508 2053 2119 2169 2458
(
226
Ra/
230
Th) 2
.
445 3
.
015 1
.
641 1
.
731 3
.
061 2
.
467 2
.
901 2
.
421
*See comment in Analytical Techniques section on tantalum values.
Table 1: Continued
JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 44 NUMBER 3 MARCH 2003
496
largely dictated by their mineralogy and they invari-
ably lie at the SiO
2
-poor end of the arrays defined by
the lavas in Fig. 3. Most of the xenoliths have SiO
2
550% whereas MgO varies from 141 to 52% and
K
2
O from 01 to 08% (Fig. 3). Four xenoliths from the
larger database (J. Foden, unpublished data, 2002)
have K
2
O of 13±25%. Concentrations of the compa-
tible trace elements Ni, Cr and Sc are remarkably low
except inthepyroxenite SA24(Ni 62 ppm, Cr 226ppm),
suggesting that most of them were precipitated from
already differentiated magmas. Incompatible trace ele-
ments show a wide concentration range (e.g. Ba 208±
830 ppm and Nb 08±87 ppm) but are generally lower
than those in the host lavas (Fig. 4). The incompatible
trace element patterns of the xenoliths are largely con-
trolled by interstitial glass (see below) and so broadly
mirror those observed in the host lavas (Fig. 4). An
exception is for Sr in the gabbroic cumulate SA21,
which is strongly enriched consistent with its high
modal proportion of plagioclase. Isotopically, the
xenoliths generally overlap with the lavas with
87
Sr/
86
Sr,
143
Nd/
144
Nd,
208
Pb/
204
Pb,
207
Pb/
204
Pb and
206
Pb/
204
Pb in the range of 07047±07052, 051274±
051262, 3881±3900, 1557±1559 and 1881±1893,
respectively (Fig. 5).
Mineral analyses and apparent partition
coefficients
Compositional and isotopic data for the mineral sepa-
rates from cumulate xenoliths SA24 and SA21 are
presented in Table 3 along with concentrations of Ba,
Th, U and
226
Ra, which were determined by isotope
dilution. As noted above, the mineral separates
will inevitably have contained some adhering glass
that would have had an influence on the measured
concentrations of highly incompatible elements. How-
ever, although these concentrations must therefore
represent an upper limit for those in the pure minerals,
calculations suggest that the amount of adhering glass
was no more than ~1% (see Appendix) and thus the
bias caused by adhering glass is small. In contrast,
comparison of the composition of the bulk cumulates
and their separated mineral phases (Table 3) shows
that the concentrations of Ba, Th, U and
226
Ra in the
bulk cumulates are clearly dictated by the interstitial
glass component.
Fig. 3. (a) K
2
O vs SiO
2
showing the shoshonitic character of the
Sangeang Api [additional data from J. Foden (unpublished data,
2002)] and Tambora lavas [data from Foden (1986)] compared with
the arc-front lavas [data from Turner & Foden (2001)] and the
potassic (K) and ultrapotassic (HK) lavas from Muriah [data from
Edwards et al. (1991)] and Batu Tara [data from Hoogewerff et al.
(1997)]. It should be noted that the Sangeang Api and Tambora
lavas form steep linear arrays, indicating that potassium is highly
incompatible, to which the xenoliths are complementary. The most
primitive sample (48067) is identified as a filled hexagon. Average
composition of subducting, east Sunda sediment is from Plank &
Langmuir (1998). (b) FeO*/MgO vs SiO
2
with schematic arrows
showing that the differentiation path followed by the Sangeang Api
lavas involved initial iron enrichment followed by silica enrichment.
(c) Sc vs SiO
2
, showing the complementary nature of the lavas and
xenoliths (inset shows the rapid depletion of Sc with differentiation in
the lavas). Compositions labelled 1 and 2 correspond to the bulk
composition of the solids calculated in Table 4.
TURNER et al. U-SERIES ISOTOPE EVOLUTION, SANGEANG API
497
Sufficient glass and clinopyroxene were separated
from the gabbroic cumulate xenolith SA21 to
allow INAA measurements (in addition to the
isotope dilution measurements of Ba, U, Th and
226
Ra) and calculation of clinopyroxene±melt partition
coefficients. The interstitial glass composition is more
evolved, in terms of major elements, than that of any
of the lavas, although its incompatible trace
element concentrations are similar. This may reflect
the presence of magmas evolved from a range of par-
ental compositions (see below), but is consistent
with the incompatible trace element concentrations
in the cumulates being dictated by the interstitial
glass. Apparent mineral±melt partition coefficient
values calculated for the SA21 clinopyroxene (see
Table 3) are rather high (e.g. 08 for Ti, 91 for Sc,
0013 for Ba, 012 for La, 061 for Yb, 043 for Ta, 065
for Hf ) but are similar to those experimentally deter-
mined for aluminous clinopyroxenes from alkali basalts
(Blundy et al., 1998; Hill et al., 2000; Wood & Trigila,
2001).
For cumulate xenolith SA21, four clinopyroxene,
plagioclase and amphibole phenocrysts and four glass
fragments were also analysed for
87
Sr/
86
Sr composition
to check for the presence of entrained, non-cognate,
material and for isotopic equilibrium between the
constituent phases. Table 3 shows that the results of
the 16 measurements are essentially indistinguishable
from each other and the whole-rock analysis within
analytical error ( ±20).
MAGMATIC EVOLUTION BENEATH
SANGEANG API
Differentiation
The Sangeang Api lavas are volatile rich and incom-
patible element rich with very high Cl and Ba contents.
In detail, the lavas show evidence for a segmented
differentiation trend. As shown in Fig. 6a, the first
stage of differentiation, involving lavas that contain
olivine and clinopyroxene phenocrysts, produces
rapid enrichment of Al
2
O
3
with slight SiO
2
enrichment
whereas Sc (Figs 3c and 6b) and MgO (not shown)
undergo continuous depletion. This trend then gives
way, in the more plagioclase-phyric lavas, to a second
stage in which Al
2
O
3
remains constant with increasing
SiO
2
. These two stages also correspond to an inflection
in the FeO*/MgO vs SiO
2
trend in Fig. 3b. Most
importantly, the xenoliths show both geochemical
and mineralogical affinities with the lavas, with low-
Al
2
O
3
olivine pyroxenites being linked to the first stage
of differentiation and the Al
2
O
3
-rich gabbros to the
second stage of differentiation. Thus, the liquid
line of descent is one of protracted olivine and clino-
pyroxene fractionation through which low-alumina,
undersaturated, potassic trachybasalt evolves to an
iron-rich, high-alumina trachybasalt and subsequently
to a trachyandesite once plagioclase comes onto the
liquidus. The absence of plagioclase suggests that the
first stage is likely to have occurred at pressures
approaching 1 GPa, which would place it below the
Fig. 4. Primitive mantle-normalized incompatible element diagram, showing the strongly incompatible-element-enriched nature of both
lavas and xenoliths. The most primitive and most evolved lava are plotted to illustrate the range of incompatible element concentrations along
with the two xenoliths that underwent mineral separation. The latter are superimposed on a shaded field that delineates the range of
compositions spanned by the xenoliths in Table 2. A lava from the 1815 eruption of Tambora is shown for comparison [data from Turner &
Foden (2001)]. Insets show the incompatible behaviour of Rb, Zr and Y compared with the relatively compatible behaviour of Sr.
JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 44 NUMBER 3 MARCH 2003
498
Moho in this part of the arc (Curray et al., 1977),
although elevated H
2
O contents may have helped to
delay the crystallization of plagioclase. The assem-
blages in the gabbroic cumulate xenoliths indicate
that the second stage is likely to have occurred at
shallower depths and perhaps lower H
2
O contents
(Foden & Green, 1992).
The inferred petrogenetic sequence was investigated
more quantitatively via least-squares mixing calcula-
tions that used the mineral analyses from Table 3. The
primitive sample 48067 was used as the ultimate parent
and the first stage attempted to derive the composition
of sample SA10 from this, after which the second stage
attempted to derive the composition of the most
evolved lava, SA5, from SA10. The best-fit proportions
of phases are summarized in Table 4 and in Fig. 6a,
and broadly demonstrate that ~40% fractionation of
olivine and clinopyroxene (equivalent to the pyroxeni-
tic cumulate xenoliths) can generate the first stage lava
trend, after which extraction of a gabbroic assemblage
(equivalent to the gabbroic cumulate xenoliths) will
yield the second stage of liquid evolution via a further
~30% fractionation. The sums of residuals squared are
51 for both stages (Table 4). This can be significantly
reduced to 501 for the second stage if amphibole is
included in the calculation; however, these results are
not presented because amphibole appears to occur as a
primary phase only in some of the cumulate xenoliths
and in the more differentiated lavas.
Trace element modelling was performed using the
phase proportions determined from the least-squares
modelling. This is inherently non-unique because of
the range in published partition coefficients. However,
models that do provide a reasonable approximation of
the data highlight the need for elevated partition coef-
ficients for Sc and Zr in clinopyroxene (Table 4,
Fig. 6b), approaching the apparent partition coeffi-
cients that were calculated from the data in Table 3.
The high compatibility of Sc and Zr reflects the
Al-, Na- and Fe

-rich nature of these clinopyroxenes
(see Table 3) and recent experimental data show that
this is a characteristic of clinopyroxenes crystallized
from potassic magmas (Hill et al., 2000; Wood &
Trigila, 2001). The major and trace element composi-
tions of the bulk solids for stages 1 and 2 (calculated
from Table 4) are plotted in Figs 3 and 6, where they
can be compared with the compositional range of the
cumulate xenoliths and the liquid line of descent
implied by the array defined by the lavas.
It should be noted that the dataset plotted in Fig. 6
involves lavas and cumulate xenoliths of a range of ages
(compared with the materials analysed for isotopes,
which were restricted to those from the 1953 and
1985±1988 eruptions). Therefore, they cannot be co-
magmatic in the strictest sense, although the persis-
tence of the trends does indicate that the magmas
repeatedly evolved along similar liquid lines of descent.
Additionally, incompatible trace element abundances
vary somewhat irregularly and some of the most
primitive samples, such as 48067, have higher abun-
dances of incompatible trace elements than the main
trend of the lavas (see Fig. 6b). This, and the isotopic
variability discussed below, points to some geochemical
diversity in the parental magmas and may indicate
that there was that more than one magma batch
present in the system at any given time. Finally, we
note that many of the xenoliths contain intergranular
glass and it seems likely that much of the scatter
amongst the xenoliths relative to the calculated liquid
Fig. 5. Sr±Nd±Pb isotope systematics of the Sangeang Api lavas and
xenoliths compared with those of the arc-front lavas and the rear-arc
volcanoes. Symbols and other data sources as in Fig. 3. In (a), BE is
bulk Earth; in (b), the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line
(NHRL) is from Hart (1984). Source mixing calculation is between
a MORB-source mantle (with 003 ppm Pb,
206
Pb/
204
Pb = 1803,
208
Pb/
204
Pb = 3792) and Sunda sediment (Plank & Langmuir,
1998). The assimilation mixing line is between primitive sample
48067 and a typical northern Indian MORB containing 06 ppm
Pb and having
206
Pb/
204
Pb = 1855,
208
Pb/
204
Pb = 381 (Mahoney
et al., 1992).
TURNER et al. U-SERIES ISOTOPE EVOLUTION, SANGEANG API
499
Table 2: Representative analyses of xenoliths from Sangeang Api volcano
Sample: SA24 SA19 SA20 SA21 SA27 SA26 SA16
Mineralogy: pyroxenite gabbro gabbro gabbro gabbro gabbro gabbro
wt %
SiO
2
48
.
84 39
.
59 39
.
49 42
.
90 41
.
30 43
.
16 44
.
36
TiO
2
0
.
71 1
.
41 1
.
34 1
.
10 0
.
94 0
.
94 0
.
85
Al
2
O
3
6
.
11 18
.
77 19
.
17 17
.
72 20
.
47 20
.
72 20
.
51
Fe
2
O
3
(t) 7
.
84 14
.
49 14
.
89 14
.
01 12
.
57 11
.
49 10
.
69
MnO 0
.
14 0
.
21 0
.
28 0
.
19 0
.
17 0
.
14 0
.
15
MgO 14
.
08 7
.
40 6
.
45 6
.
31 5
.
60 5
.
51 5
.
24
CaO 21
.
11 15
.
68 16
.
49 15
.
54 17
.
86 16
.
03 15
.
79
Na
2
O 0
.
58 1
.
09 1
.
10 1
.
38 0
.
75 1
.
23 1
.
47
K
2
O 0
.
40 0
.
82 0
.
45 0
.
80 0
.
13 0
.
65 0
.
80
P
2
O
5
0
.
05 0
.
70 0
.
89 0
.
10 0
.
34 0
.
80 0
.
11
LOI 0
.
02 0
.
47 ÷0
.
11 ÷0
.
27 ÷0
.
21 ÷0
.
06 ÷0
.
13
Total 99
.
88 100
.
63 100
.
44 99
.
78 99
.
92 100
.
61 99
.
84
ppm
Cl 405 1595 700 715 525 570 815
Sc 132 41 27 40 29 40 34
V 226 533 513 445 407 384 314
Cr 226 5 5 5 5 5 5
Co 62 112 69 73 66 69 62
Ni 62 12 11 21 11 21 16
Zn 92 91 101 87 70 71 71
Rb 12 21 5 26 23 20 27
Sr 165 1267 2111 882 1454 1019 1079
Y 11 21 34 14 13 11 12
Zr 36 39 80 43 25 36 43
Nb 0
.
8 3
.
2 8
.
7 2
.
3 0
.
9 2
.
0 2
.
5
Cs 0
.
83 0
.
52 Ð 1
.
26 Ð 1
.
13 1
.
40
Ba 269 830 653 543 208 424 562
La 5
.
7 19
.
6 49
.
6 10
.
0 9
.
8 8
.
6 10
.
3
Ce 13
.
3 43
.
0 107
.
0 19
.
5 22
.
4 15
.
9 19
.
9
Nd 10
.
80 27
.
50 58
.
20 11
.
30 15
.
40 10
.
40 11
.
00
Sm 3
.
01 6
.
30 11
.
30 2
.
97 3
.
90 2
.
57 2
.
75
Eu 0
.
88 1
.
94 3
.
19 0
.
96 1
.
31 0
.
90 0
.
95
Tb 0
.
55 0
.
89 1
.
35 0
.
52 0
.
51 0
.
44 0
.
49
Yb 0
.
92 1
.
52 2
.
31 1
.
19 1
.
02 1
.
00 1
.
11
Lu 0
.
10 0
.
24 0
.
34 0
.
19 0
.
14 0
.
14 0
.
19
Hf 1
.
58 1
.
79 2
.
54 1
.
66 1
.
36 1
.
39 1
.
53
Th 0
.
909 0
.
888 2
.
780 2
.
440 0
.
411 1
.
767 2
.
415
U 0
.
256 0
.
156 0
.
366 0
.
667 0
.
088 0
.
499 0
.
663
87
Sr/
86
Sr 0
.
704685 0
.
704802 0
.
705200 0
.
704686 0
.
704814 0
.
704562 0
.
704940
143
Nd/
144
Nd 0
.
512710 0
.
512680 0
.
512629 0
.
512724 0
.
512673 0
.
512744 0
.
512701
206
Pb/
204
Pb 18
.
909 18
.
859 18
.
926 18
.
805 18
.
845 18
.
825 18
.
815
207
Pb/
204
Pb 15
.
593 15
.
588 15
.
606 15
.
577 15
.
587 15
.
569 15
.
567
208
Pb/
204
Pb 38
.
848 38
.
884 39
.
009 38
.
811 38
.
863 38
.
808 38
.
794
(
234
U/
238
U) 1
.
011 Ð 1
.
022 0
.
997 1
.
016 1
.
026 0
.
996
(
238
U/
232
Th) 0
.
854 0
.
533 0
.
399 0
.
829 0
.
651 0
.
857 0
.
832
(
230
Th/
232
Th) 0
.
753 0
.
758 0
.
749 0
.
736 0
.
754 0
.
753 0
.
728
(
230
Th/
238
U) 0
.
889 1
.
434 1
.
891 0
.
896 1
.
169 0
.
886 0
.
882
226
Ra (fg/g) 235
.
1 404
.
2 230
.
2 486
.
3 59
.
5 375
.
9 492
.
1
(
226
Ra/
230
Th) 3
.
067 5
.
360 0
.
983 2
.
416 1
.
710 2
.
521 2
.
498
JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 44 NUMBER 3 MARCH 2003
500
and cumulate trends results from magma±cumulate
mixing (see Fig. 6a).
Crustal interaction vs source heterogeneity
Although the major and trace element data can be
explained by closed-system, polybaric differentiation,
the lavas and cumulate xenoliths also span a range of
radiogenic isotope compositions (Fig. 5). In principle,
this could reflect either source-level heterogeneity or
crustal-level assimilation. The inflections in the major
and trace element differentiation trends rule out sim-
ple, two end-member mixing, and the variation in
incompatible element abundances in the more mafic
lavas and the presence of both
238
U and
230
Th excesses
(see below) argue that at least two magma batches
have been in the Sangeang Api plumbing system
recently. Whether the full extent of the observed Sr,
Nd and Pb isotope variation existed in the magma
source region is harder to constrain, and the presence
of correlations between radiogenic isotope ratios and
indices of differentiation (Fig. 7a) has led us to also
explore a model in which differentiation was accompa-
nied by assimilation (e.g. DePaolo, 1981).
First, it is clear that the putative contaminant cannot
have been radiogenic, silicic crust (e.g. Davidson,
1987) because
87
Sr/
86
Sr decreases with increasing dif-
ferentiation (Fig. 7a). The low
87
Sr/
86
Sr lavas are also
those with the highest Rb/Sr (inset to Fig. 7a), suggest-
ing that the most likely candidate for a contaminant is
a partial melt of young and unradiogenic basalts that
were formed in equilibrium with residual plagioclase at
pressures 51 GPa within the crust. In principle, these
could be old arc basalts similar to those currently
erupting along the arc-front into which the low
87
Sr/
86
Sr, high
143
Nd/
144
Nd end of the Sangeang Api
array projects in Fig. 5a. However, in Fig. 5b, the
Sangeang Api lavas form a steep array that back-pro-
jects to a composition similar to many Indian mid-
ocean ridge basalts (MORB) with
208
Pb/
204
Pb ~381
and
206
Pb/
204
Pb ~1855 (Mahoney et al., 1992).
Clearly, different contaminants could be invoked; how-
ever, because the intra-oceanic Sunda arc was built on
Indian oceanic crust (Foden & Varne, 1980), these
appear the most plausible candidates. An end-member
model in which all of the variation was attributed to
crustal-level assimilation of Indian MORB would, on
the basis of Pb isotope mixing calculations (Fig. 5b),
require ~15% assimilation, which would equate to a
rate of assimilation to fractionation (r) (DePaolo, 1981)
of ~05. We stress that this represents an upper limit
and that we believe that source heterogeneity is respon-
sible for much of the radiogenic isotope variation (see
below).
Source composition and extent of
partial melting
Recent studies have suggested that the Sunda arc-
front lavas are derived from MORB-source mantle
wedge peridotite that has been enriched through
additions of both sediment and fluid components
from the subducting plate (Hoogewerff et al., 1997;
Turner & Foden, 2001). It has also been suggested
that the rear-arc lavas show evidence for an increas-
ing relative contribution from subducted sediment, a
correspondingly weaker fluid signal and a decrease
in the degree of partial melting. Here we explore to
what extent the nature of the primitive Sangeang
Api magmas can be modelled in an analogous man-
ner. Aplot of
143
Nd/
144
Ndvs Th/Ce was used by Turner
& Foden (2001) to investigate the sediment contribu-
tion to the source of the lavas because the rare earth
elements (REE) and thorium are largely fluid-
immobile. This diagram is reproduced in Fig. 7b and,
as can be seen, none of the Sunda arc lavas can be
explained by the bulk sediment±mantle mixing curve.
On this basis, Turner & Foden (2001) suggested that
the sediment component must have been added to the
mantle wedge as a partial melt. In this case, the bulk
sediment±mantle mixing curve provides an upper
estimate of the amount of sediment contribution and
the
143
Nd/
144
Nd ratios of the more primitive Sangeang
Api lavas (~051265) indicate that this could reach
~25%. More problematic is that the Sangeang Api
array does not intersect either that defined by the
arc-front lavas or the sediment±MORB-source mixing
line in Fig. 5b. At present, the only potential expla-
nation is that the sediment subducting beneath
Sangeang Api is more radiogenic in Pb than estimated
for the average Sunda sediment by Plank & Langmuir
(1998).
The degree of partial melting and residual mineral-
ogy are rarely well constrained in arc lavas, but using
the most recent partition data for clinopyroxene on the
mantle solidus (Blundy et al., 1998) we have used a plot
of Tb/Yb vs La/Yb to estimate 2±4% partial melting
assuming an I-MORB source containing 25% sedi-
ment as the source composition (Fig. 7c). Unlike
La/Yb, which is sensitive to both the degree of partial
melting and percentage of residual garnet, Tb/Yb is
largely sensitive to only the percentage of residual
garnet and so the higher Tb/Yb ratios in some of the
Sangeang Api lavas imply the presence of a few percent
residual garnet. A working model is presented in
Fig. 8a, which compares the incompatible trace
element composition of a model 3% batch melt of an
I-MORB source containing 25% Sunda sediment
and 3% residual garnet with the most primitive
Sangeang Api lava. Although the patterns of the lava
TURNER et al. U-SERIES ISOTOPE EVOLUTION, SANGEANG API
501
and the modelled composition are broadly similar
in shape, there are obvious mismatches. However,
the deficits in U and Sr in the modelled composi-
tion are inferred to reflect the need for additions
of these elements in a fluid phase, whereas the
excesses of Ta, Nb and Ti are taken as further
evidence that the sediment component was added as
a partial melt (assumed to be in equilibrium with
residual rutile, which retained these high field strength
elements).
Table 3: Mineral and glass analyses from Sangeang Api cumulate xenoliths SA24 and SA21
Cumulate: SA24 SA24 SA21 SA21 SA21 SA21 SA21 Apparent
Phase:* clinopyroxene amphibole glass clinopyroxene plagioclase amphibole magnetite SA21 kd
cpx
wt %
SiO
2
49
.
59 40
.
17 58
.
05 49
.
53 43
.
74 38
.
57 Ð Ð
TiO
2
0
.
56 1
.
67 0
.
71 0
.
58 Ð 2
.
46 5
.
74 0
.
82
Al
2
O
3
5
.
05 14
.
00 17
.
50 4
.
61 33
.
34 13
.
06 6
.
39 Ð
FeO 5
.
13 9
.
62 6
.
18 5
.
12 0
.
64 11
.
18 31
.
17 Ð
Fe
2
O
3
1
.
38 0
.
46 Ð 2
.
75 Ð Ð 52
.
99 Ð
MnO Ð Ð 0
.
17 0
.
19 Ð 0
.
14 0
.
56 Ð
MgO 13
.
86 14
.
10 1
.
67 13
.
10 0
.
22 13
.
27 4
.
06 Ð
CaO 22
.
27 11
.
58 2
.
46 23
.
56 18
.
46 12
.
57 Ð Ð
Na
2
O 0
.
29 2
.
16 5
.
78 0
.
26 1
.
07 1
.
95 Ð Ð
K
2
O Ð 1
.
61 5
.
98 Ð 0
.
12 1
.
44 Ð Ð
ppm
Sc Ð Ð 11
.
7 105
.
9 Ð Ð Ð 9
.
05
Co Ð Ð 22
.
1 34
.
2 Ð Ð Ð 1
.
55
Cr Ð Ð 6 7 Ð Ð Ð 1
.
17
Rb Ð Ð 115 Ð Ð Ð Ð Ð
Ba 37
.
5 79
.
3 1327
.
0 17
.
1 138
.
2 247
.
0 18
.
8 0
.
01
Cs Ð Ð 6
.
13 Ð Ð Ð Ð Ð
La Ð Ð 35
.
6 4
.
1 Ð Ð Ð 0
.
12
Ce Ð Ð 65
.
3 12
.
5 Ð Ð Ð 0
.
19
Nd Ð Ð 28
.
1 13
.
1 Ð Ð Ð 0
.
47
Sm Ð Ð 5
.
8 4
.
32 Ð Ð Ð 0
.
75
Eu Ð Ð 1
.
78 1
.
35 Ð Ð Ð 0
.
76
Tb Ð Ð 0
.
85 0
.
84 Ð Ð Ð 0
.
99
Yb Ð Ð 2
.
55 1
.
55 Ð Ð Ð 0
.
61
Lu Ð Ð 0
.
4 0
.
3 Ð Ð Ð 0
.
75
Hf Ð Ð 3
.
14 2
.
03 Ð Ð Ð 0
.
65
Ta Ð Ð 0
.
3 0
.
13 Ð Ð Ð 0
.
43
Th 0
.
449 0
.
474 10
.
817 0
.
178 0
.
043 0
.
243 0
.
178 0
.
02
U 0
.
123 0
.
120 2
.
903 0
.
035 0
.
011 0
.
052 0
.
054 0
.
01
87
Sr/
86
Sr Ð Ð 0
.
704645 0
.
704654 0
.
704671 0
.
704642 Ð Ð
87
Sr/
86
Sr Ð Ð 0
.
704623 0
.
704637 0
.
704636 0
.
704640 Ð Ð
87
Sr/
86
Sr Ð Ð 0
.
704640 0
.
704636 0
.
704663 0
.
704650 Ð Ð
87
Sr/
86
Sr Ð Ð 0
.
704619 0
.
704702 0
.
704653 0
.
704654 Ð Ð
(
238
U/
232
Th) 0
.
828 0
.
769 0
.
814 0
.
604 0
.
776 0
.
648 0
.
916 Ð
(
230
Th/
232
Th) 0
.
767 0
.
763 0
.
742 0
.
787 0
.
760 0
.
766 0
.
769 Ð
(
230
Th/
238
U) 0
.
927 0
.
991 0
.
911 1
.
302 0
.
979 1
.
182 0
.
839 Ð
226
Ra (fg/g) 44
.
6 30
.
2 2020
.
4 20
.
3 31
.
7 136
.
2 34
.
1 0
.
01
(
226
Ra/
230
Th) 1
.
172 0
.
755 2
.
277 1
.
311 8
.
629 6
.
617 2
.
260 Ð
*Major element concentrations represent an average of several electron microprobe analyses.
JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 44 NUMBER 3 MARCH 2003
502
Comparison with other rear-arc, potassic
volcanoes
The Sunda arc is characterized by a number of rear-
arc, potassic volcanoes, and early geochemical studies
emphasized a positive correlation between K
2
O
content and depth to Benioff zone (e.g. Hutchison,
1976). However, the general applicability of this has
been questioned (Foden & Varne, 1980) and here we
review models for the origin of the potassium enrich-
ment through a comparison of the Sangeang Api data
Fig. 6. (a) Al
2
O
3
vs SiO
2
with schematic vectors illustrating how the lavas and cumulate xenoliths from Sangeang Api form a two-stage
sequence of progressive polybaric crystallization. The first stage is plagioclase-free and probably occurred at sub-crustal depths and/or elevated
water pressures. This gives way to a gabbroic-dominated crystallization sequence within a crustal-level magma chamber. The degrees of
crystallization and the mode of the fractionating assemblage, as determined by least-squares mixing calculations in Table 4, are shown and the
compositions labelled 1 and 2 correspond to the bulk composition of the calculated solids. It should be noted that there is also evidence for
cumulate±liquid mixing (dashed arrow). (b) Results of trace element modelling on a plot of Sc vs Zr (note the expanded scale compared with
Fig. 3c), with compositions labelled 1 and 2 corresponding to the bulk composition of the solids calculated from Table 4.
TURNER et al. U-SERIES ISOTOPE EVOLUTION, SANGEANG API
503
with recent studies of Tambora (Foden, 1986), Batu
Tara (van Bergen et al., 1992; Hoogewerff et al., 1997)
and Muriah (Edwards et al., 1991). Tambora lies at a
similar distance above the Benioff zone (~180 km) to
Sangeang Api (~190 km) whereas Batu Tara and
Muriah are located further back at ~280 km and
~370 km above the Benioff zone, respectively (Fig. 1a,
Hutchison, 1982). Consistent with this, Tambora
shows striking parallelism in its differentiation path to
Sangeang Api in Figs 3 and 6 and has a near-identical
incompatible trace element pattern in Fig. 4. In
contrast, Fig. 3a shows that, with the exception of an
older potassic series from Muriah, the Batu Tara and
Muriah lavas are far more potassic than those from
Sangeang Api or Tambora. Isotopically, the Muriah
lavas have lower
143
Nd/
144
Nd at a given
87
Sr/
86
Sr and
lower
206
Pb/
204
Pb (Fig. 5) whereas the Batu Tara lavas
are more radiogenic in Sr and Pb isotopes and have less
radiogenic Nd (none of these lava suites show the
negative correlation between
87
Sr/
86
Sr and SiO
2
observed for Sangeang Api in Fig. 7a). Preliminary
radiogenic isotope data on a sample from the 1815
Tambora eruption (Turner & Foden, 2001)
indicate much less radiogenic Sr and more radiogenic
Nd compared with any of the other rear-arc potassic
volcanoes (Fig. 5a), although this Tambora sample
does lie at the extension of the Sangeang Api Pb iso-
tope,
87
Sr/
86
Sr±SiO
2
and
87
Sr/
86
Sr±Rb±Sr arrays in
Figs 5b and 7a.
Potential role of enriched mantle and
potassic phases
The Muriah and Batu Tara lava suites show
143
Nd/
144
Nd±Th/Ce trends in Fig. 7b that are
shallower than, and diverge from, the arc-front lava
array. Mixing lines are straight in such diagrams and
the implication is involvement of a component with
low Th/Ce and
143
Nd/
144
Nd ~05126. The so-called
EMI mantle component (Zindler & Hart, 1986) is
inferred to have low Th/Ce and low
143
Nd/
144
Nd,
and van Bergen et al. (1992) invoked the presence of
plume material in the mantle wedge to explain the
enrichment of incompatible trace elements in lavas
erupted at Batu Tara volcano to the NE of Sangeang
Api. However, ocean island lavas erupted above man-
tle plumes are characterized by Nb/U ratios of 45±50
(Hofmann et al., 1986), whereas the Sangeang Api
lavas have Nb/U ratios of 2±4. These low Nb/U ratios
reflect the negative Nb anomalies in Fig. 4 and,
although these are poorly modelled by bulk sediment
addition in Fig. 8a, and may require addition of sedi-
ment melts (see above), this fit becomes far worse if
plume-type mantle is used in the model. Thus, despite
the overt simplicity of our modelling, we see no neces-
sity to invoke the presence of plume material in the
mantle wedge.
Edwards et al. (1991) suggested that the highly potas-
sic Muriah lavas reflected interaction with phlogopite-
bearing metasomatized, sub-arc, lithospheric mantle,
and Foden & Green (1992) have argued for a role for
the incongruent breakdown of amphibole in the genesis
of some potassic arc magmas. In Fig. 3a, it is clear that
K remains incompatible throughout the Sangeang Api
and Tambora differentiation series rather than being
buffered by a residual potassic phase. Furthermore,
phlogopite has high Rb/Sr whereas amphibole is char-
acterized by high Ba/Sr, and this allows a distinction to
be made in diagrams such as Fig. 8b (Xu et al., 2001).
The data from Muriah are too scattered for any
Table 4: Selected results of least-squares mixing calculations and partition coefficients used in modelling
Parent
magma
Daughter
magma
% total
crystallization
Mineral fractions in cumulate R
2
olivine clinopyroxene plagioclase amphibole magnetite apatite
Stage 1: pyroxenite crystallization
48067 SA10 41
.
3 0
.
14 0
.
82 Ð Ð 0
.
05 Ð 0
.
87
Stage 2: gabbro crystallization
SA10 SA5 29
.
7 Ð 0
.
35 0
.
48 Ð 0
.
16 0
.
01 0
.
70
Partition coefficients used
Sc 0
.
220 4
.
000 0
.
070 3
.
100 3
.
900 Ð
Zr 0
.
010 0
.
350 0
.
050 0
.
310 0
.
200 0
.
100
Ra* 1 × 10
÷9
1
.
7 × 10
÷6
0
.
033 Ð 1 × 10
÷9
0
.
200
Th* 1 × 10
÷9
0
.
013 1 × 10
÷9
0
.
020 1 × 10
÷9
1
.
760
Ra/Ba* Ð 0
.
021 0
.
192 0
.
017 1
.
000 Ð
*Calculated using the method of Blundy & Wood (1994).
JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 44 NUMBER 3 MARCH 2003
504
discrimination to be made, whereas those from Batu
Tara form steep trends in Fig. 8b, which may point to a
role for phlogopite either as a residual source phase or
else in the fractionating assemblage of these lavas. In
contrast, the Sangeang Api and Tambora lava suites
form inclined arrays in Fig. 8b, indicating that phlo-
gopite and amphibole are unlikely to have been resi-
dual source phases or important fractionating phases.
Of course, we cannot rule out the possibility that
amphibole, present in the sub-arc, lithospheric mantle,
melted out completely and thus contributed to the
potassic nature of the Sangeang Api magmas. How-
ever, K is one of the better modelled elements in Fig. 8a
and so, until compelling evidence to the contrary is
presented, we conclude that a simple model involving
Fig. 8. (a) Primitive mantle-normalized incompatible element dia-
gram comparing the most primitive Sangeang Api lava with a model
3% batch melt, in equilibrium with 3% residual garnet, of a MORB-
source composition extrapolated from Stolper & Newman (1994),
which has been enriched by addition of 25% Sunda sediment (Plank
& Langmuir, 1998). Partition coefficients from Halliday et al. (1995).
(b) Rb/Sr vs Ba/Sr diagram, showing vectors for fractionation in the
absence of phlogopite or amphibole, and for phlogopite and amphi-
bole control, either as a fractionating phase or as a residual phase
during partial melting (Xu et al., 2001). Data sources and symbols as
in Fig. 3.
Fig. 7. (a) Plot showing the negative correlation between
87
Sr/
86
Sr
and SiO
2
and Rb/Sr (inset), (b)
143
Nd/
144
Nd vs Th/Ce with a
mixing line between Sunda sediment (Plank & Langmuir, 1998)
and an I-MORB source with
143
Nd/
144
Nd = 051321, 067 ppm
Nd, 0011 ppm Th and 07 ppm Ce. (c) Tb/Yb vs La/Yb
partial melting grid. Source is I-MORB source containing 026
ppm La, 01 ppm Tb and 044 ppm Yb mixed with 25% Sunda
sediment from Plank & Langmuir (1998); source mode is 56% oli-
vine, 25% orthopyroxene, 16% clinopyroxene and 5% garnet ÷
spinel; melting mode is 20% olivine, 20% orthopyroxene, 40%
clinopyroxene and 20% garnet; partition coefficients for olivine,
orthopyroxene, garnet and spinel from Halliday et al. (1995) and
for aluminous clinopyroxene from Blundy et al. (1998). Other data
sources and symbols as in Fig. 3.
TURNER et al. U-SERIES ISOTOPE EVOLUTION, SANGEANG API
505
small-degree partial melting of a sediment-enriched
mantle source region is adequate to explain the
observed data.
U±Th±Ra ISOTOPE DISEQUILIBRIA
Given the well-constrained petrological and chemical
relationships between the Sangeang Api lavas and
cumulates, this suite provides an excellent opportunity
for investigating the processes and time scales of
magma generation and differentiation. To this end
we selected lavas and cumulate xenoliths from the
1953 and 1985±1988 eruptions that span the
compositional array in Fig. 6 for U±Th±Ra isotopic
measurements.
Whole-rock U±Th±Ra results
The whole-rock results for the lavas and cumulate
xenoliths are presented in Tables 1 and 2 and in
Figs 9 and 10. The Th contents of the lavas range
from 68 to 124 ppm and their (
230
Th/
232
Th) ratios
exhibit a very restricted range (073±077) over a much
greater (
238
U/
232
Th) range of 065±090. Thus, the
lavas preserve both Th and U excesses, with
(
230
Th/
238
U) ranging from 115 to 085 (Fig. 9a). The
Tambora sample analysed by Turner & Foden (2001)
has a significantly higher (
230
Th/
232
Th) ratio of 08
and lies closer to the U±Th equiline in Fig. 9a.
226
Ra
concentrations in the lavas range from 1687 to 2458
fg/g and (
226
Ra/
230
Th) varies from 164 to 306. These
226
Ra excesses are unlikely to reflect contamination by
seawater because the
87
Sr/
86
Sr ratios of the lavas are
too low (see Turner et al., 2000) and the largest
226
Ra
excesses occur in the lavas with the lowest Cl contents
(Table 1). Two of the cumulate xenoliths (SA19 and
SA20) have lower (
238
U/
232
Th) than any of the lavas
(Fig. 9a) and their elevated P
2
O
5
and LREE contents
suggest that this reflects the presence of apatite in these
two xenoliths. Together, the cumulate xenoliths span a
wide range of Th contents and (
238
U/
232
Th) ratios
(041±278 ppm and 040±086, respectively), although
their (
230
Th/
232
Th) ratios are also relatively invariant
(073±075) and indistinguishable from the lavas (see
Table 3). The
226
Ra concentrations of the cumulate
xenoliths are lower than those observed in the lavas
(60±492 fg/g) but (
226
Ra/
230
Th) ratios extend from
098 to 536.
Mineral U±Th±Ra results
The mineral separate data from the two cumulate
xenoliths are presented in Table 3 and in Figs 9 and
10. Their (
238
U/
232
Th) ratios range from 060 to 092
whereas (
230
Th/
232
Th) remains the same as the whole
rocks at 074±079, leading to a range in (
230
Th/
238
U)
from 130 to 084 (Table 3).
226
Ra±
232
Th disequilibria
range from (
226
Ra/
230
Th) = 076 to 863. The Th, U
and Ra contents of the constituent minerals are much
lower than the whole-rock cumulate xenolith analyses.
The implication is that the U±Th±Ra composition of
the cumulate xenoliths is dictated by the interstitial
glass (see Table 3) and this is consistent with the com-
position of the interstitial glass from cumulate xenolith
SA21, which has
238
U and
226
Ra excesses similar to
an evolved Sangeang Api lava. The corollary is that
Fig. 9. U±Th equiline diagrams for (a) Sangeang Api whole-rock
data, (b) pyroxenitic cumulate SA24 and (c) gabbroic cumulate
SA21. Numbers and continuous and dashed horizontal lines indicate
the mean and standard deviation of the (
230
Th/
232
Th) analyses on
each plot, the majority of which are within error of each other (error
bars are 2s). A lava from the 1815 eruption of Tambora is shown for
comparison in (a) but not used in the statistical analysis [data from
Turner & Foden (2001)].
JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 44 NUMBER 3 MARCH 2003
506
fractionation of the cumulate minerals would have
little leverage on the melt composition and cannot,
therefore, be responsible for the U±Th±Ra disequili-
bria observed in the lavas. In detail, the (
230
Th/
232
Th)
ratios of the minerals from SA24 are indistinguishable
from each other and the whole-rock analysis (Fig. 9b).
The results from SA21 are more complex (Fig. 9c),
with the glass and whole rock having slightly lower
(
230
Th/
232
Th) than the minerals whereas the
clinopyroxene appears to have slightly higher
(
230
Th/
232
Th) than the other minerals. Nevertheless,
the key point is that the minerals do not form a posi-
tively sloped array (see below).
Interpretation
Source processes
The U±Th isotope data are plotted on conventional
(
230
Th/
232
Th) vs (
238
U/
232
Th) equiline diagrams in
Fig. 9; the lavas straddle the equiline, exhibiting both
230
Th excesses and
238
U excesses (Fig. 9). Because these
signals are likely to be developed only in the mantle
(see below), the presence of both senses of U±Th dis-
equilibria supports our preferred interpretation that
much of the variation in Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes reflects
source heterogeneity. Additionally, as U and Th
are both highly incompatible in the minerals in the
inferred fractionating assemblage, the fact that the
lavas span a wide range in (
238
U/
232
Th) provides
further evidence that they are not all derived from
the same primary magma and therefore, even though
different batches followed similar liquid lines of descent
(see Fig. 6), more than one magma batch must have
been present in the Sangeang Api system in the
recent past.
238
U excesses are characteristic of arc lavas and
inferred to result from U addition by fluids from the
subducting plate [see Hawkesworth et al. (1997) for a
recent review]. Thus, the
238
U excesses observed in five
of eight of the analysed Sangeang Api lavas are inter-
preted to reflect fluid addition to their mantle source
regions. Basalts erupted at mid-ocean ridges and ocean
islands are characterized by
230
Th excesses and these
are usually interpreted to reflect a source where D
U
4
D
Th
as a result of the effects of residual garnet (Beattie,
1993) or aluminous clinopyroxene (Wood et al., 1999).
However,
230
Th excesses are far less common in
arc-front lavas and this has generally been interpreted
to reflect an absence of residual garnet and the
dominance of U addition by fluids (Hawkesworth
et al., 1997). In the case of Sangeang Api, the depth
to the Benioff zone is ~190 km and there is evidence in
elevated Tb/Yb ratios for the role of residual garnet
(Fig. 7c), which could potentially overprint the effects
of U addition by fluids in some magma batches. In
Fig. 10a we plot Tb/Yb vs (
238
U/
230
Th), showing that
the Sangeang Api lavas form a negative array and, by
reference to Fig. 7c, it would appear that when the
amount of residual garnet exceeds a few percent the
effects of partial melting exceed those of fluid addition,
resulting in magma batches with elevated Tb/Yb
that have
230
Th excesses. Thus, the effects of fluid
addition and partial melting on U±Th disequilibria
appear to be competing processes in the rear-arc envir-
onment. Importantly, the similarity in mantle bulk
partition coefficients for U and Th (Wood et al.,
1999) means that for melt fractions in excess of
~05%
230
Th excesses cannot be produced by simple
batch or fractional melting but require in-growth in an
upwelling matrix that is passing through the melting
zone [see Elliott (1997) for a recent review]. Thus,
given the 2±4% degrees of partial melting inferred
from Fig. 7c, some form of dynamic partial melting
and upwelling in the mantle beneath Sangeang Api
seems to be required to explain the observed
230
Th
excesses.
A recent global survey has shown that
226
Ra excesses
in arc lavas show a positive correlation with fluid-
sensitive indices such as Ba/Th (Turner et al., 2001)
that are inferred to be added by fluids released during
dehydration of the subducting plate. The inset to
Fig. 10a shows that the Sangeang Api lavas are no
exception to this and seawater contamination has
already been ruled out as an origin for the
226
Ra
excesses. Furthermore, the largest
226
Ra excesses are
usually found in the more primitive lavas, implying a
mantle derivation for this signal (Turner et al., 2001).
We have considered the possibility that the
226
Ra
excesses derive from dissolution of potassic phases
within the lithospheric mantle beneath the arc. How-
ever, as noted above, large U-series disequilibria in
general require in-growth in an upwelling matrix
(Elliott, 1997), which seems hard to envisage in a
static, lithospheric mantle (Asmerom et al., 2000). In
fact, because Ra (like Ba) will be partitioned into
amphibole relative to Th (see Table 3), the excesses
of
226
Ra over
230
Th in the Sangeang Api lavas provide
additional evidence that amphibole was neither a resi-
dual source phase nor a major fractionating phase. In
conclusion, we interpret the Sangeang Api
226
Ra
excesses to have resulted from fluid addition to their
mantle source region, consistent with studies of
226
Ra
excesses in the Sunda lavas in general (Hoogewerff
et al., 1997; Turner & Foden, 2001). Importantly, to
preserve this signal to the surface requires that the
combined time for melt extraction, transport through
the mantle and time spent during differentiation
within the lithosphere is significantly less than 8000
years (Turner et al., 2001).
TURNER et al. U-SERIES ISOTOPE EVOLUTION, SANGEANG API
507
Differentiation time scales
The U±Th equiline diagrams in Fig. 9 also emphasize
that the lavas, cumulate xenoliths and their constituent
minerals all lie on or close to a horizontal array and
certainly there is no evidence of any positive correla-
tion between (
230
Th/
232
Th) and (
238
U/
232
Th) that
could be interpreted as an isochron. As we have
shown, the crystallization of these minerals and the
formation of the cumulates was the predominant driv-
ing mechanism for the evolution of the compositional
array of the lavas and the simplest explanation for why
all of the materials analysed lie on or close to a hor-
izontal array in Fig. 9 is that this evolution occurred on
a time scale that was very short relative to the half-life
of
230
Th (75 kyr). Such observations are not restricted
to the rear-arc volcanoes. Rubin et al. (1989) presented
U±Th isotope data from minerals from Batur volcano
that formed an array whose slope was within error of
the eruption age of the lava, implying similar short
residence times for that magmatic system, and Turner
& Foden (2001) have argued that recent differentia-
tion beneath Galunggung volcano occurred in less than
a few thousand years.
226
Ra has a half-life of only 1600 years and can
therefore be used to place tighter constraints on the
time scale of differentiation. On a plot of (
226
Ra/
230
Th)
vs Th (Fig. 10b), the lavas form a negative array. It
should be noted that those lavas with
230
Th excesses
and
238
U excesses have been identified with different
symbols on this diagram as they are likely to have
evolved from slightly different melt batches even
though they demonstrably subsequently evolved
along very similar differentiation trends (see Figs 3
and 6). Th is an incompatible element and so can be
used as an index of differentiation but because Ra is
even more incompatible (Tables 3 and 4), modelled
Ra/Th ratios increase slightly during differentiation
and cannot reproduce the negative array of the San-
geang Api lavas in Fig. 10b. An alternative explana-
tion is that the negative array simply reflects the effects
of the inferred assimilation of partial melts of Indian
MORB crust that had very low or equilibrium
(
226
Ra/
230
Th). However, the high concentrations of
incompatible elements in such model melts result in
mixing curves that are strongly convex-downwards
and also do not match the data (Fig. 10b). In contrast
to incompatible element concentrations, the Th isotope
system is insensitive to assimilation because the
208
Pb/
206
Pb isotope ratio inferred for the Indian
MORB contaminant modelled in Fig. 5b suggests an
equilibrium (
230
Th/
232
Th) ratio of 08, similar to the
Sangeang Api lavas themselves. Even 20% assimila-
tion will not shift the Th isotope ratio of the lavas by
more than 2%. Thus, although it is likely that some
assimilation occurred, it does not appear to have been
the principal control on the U±Th±Ra isotope
systematics.
Our preferred interpretation stems from the fact that
the differentiation model plotted in Fig. 10b does not
have any time dependence and therefore effectively
simulates instantaneous differentiation. In a time-
dependent model, the slope of the negative array
Fig. 10. (a) Plot of Tb/Yb vs (
238
Th/
230
U) with schematic vectors to
illustrate the effects of fluid addition and partial melting in the
presence of residual garnet. Inset shows the positive correlation
between (
226
Ra/
230
Th) and Ba/Th in the Sangeang Api lavas. (b)
Plot of (
226
Ra/
230
Th) vs Th for the Sangeang Api whole-rock data.
Grey symbols distinguish samples that have
230
Th excess in (a). The
modelled instantaneous differentiation path was calculated using the
parameters in Table 4. The mixing model assumed the crustal con-
taminant was a partial melt of Indian MORB basalt that was in
Ra±Th equilibrium and contained 11 ppm Th (note that the isotope
data we have for the 1815 lava make it unlikely that it had undergone
more assimilation than the most evolved Sangeang Api lavas as its
position might be seen to imply). The preferred model of protracted
differentiation is indicated by the schematic dashed arrow and the
time scale is calibrated on the right-hand side assuming parental
disequilibria similar to the maximum observed in the arc-front
lavas [Iya data from Turner & Foden (2001)]. Model bulk cumulate
compositions for each fractionation stage, labelled 1 and 2, were
calculated by mass balance. Dashed lines represent secular equili-
brium; data sources and symbols as in Fig. 3.
JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 44 NUMBER 3 MARCH 2003
508
reflects decay of
226
Ra during differentiation and the
time elapsed during differentiation can be constrained
by the half-life of
226
Ra to be of the order of 2000 years
(see calibration in Fig. 10b). It should be noted that, to
constrain the maximum likely amount of time elapsed
during differentiation, our model assumes a similar
magnitude of
226
Ra±
230
Th disequilibria in all parental
magma, which is similar to the largest observed in the
Sunda lavas such as Iya (see Fig. 1a for location) using
data from Turner & Foden (2001). If this value repre-
sents an overestimate, then the time scales inferred from
Fig. 10b will also be overestimated. Similarly, any
enhancing of the rate of decrease of (
226
Ra/
230
Th)
through the effects of assimilation would mean that
the inferred time scales represent maximum estimates.
In principle, the Ra±Th isotope data from the cumu-
late xenoliths can be used to verify the differentiation
time scales inferred from Fig. 10b because they have
been shown to be complementary to the liquid line of
descent followed by the lavas (Fig. 6). The whole-rock
cumulate xenolith data do not provide a particularly
robust test because their Ra±Th disequilibria have
been demonstrated to be largely dictated by the
composition of the interstitial glass. However, using
the method of Cooper et al. (2001) described in the
Appendix, it is possible to calculate (
226
Ra)/Ba vs time
evolution curves to constrain when the cumulate min-
erals crystallized. The intersectionof the curves for melts
in equilibrium with clinopyroxene and amphibole
from the pyroxenitic cumulate xenolith SA24 suggests
that crystallization occurred ~1500±2300 years ago
(Fig. 11a). The results from the gabbroic cumulate
xenolith SA21 indicate crystallization between 1900
and 2000 years ago from the intersection of the curves
for melts in equilibrium with clinopyroxene, plagio-
clase, magnetite and the glass (Fig. 11b). The overlap
between the ages from the two cumulates suggests that
the first stage of differentiation was rapid and arguably
commenced no longer than 300 years before the second
stage. It should be noted that the concordant intersec-
tion of the SA21 glass with the curves for melts in
equilibrium with the clinopyroxene and plagioclase in
this cumulate would not be expected if the glass repre-
sented an unrelated liquid that infiltrated the cumulate
some time after its crystallization. This suggests that
the interstitial glass is very close in
226
Ra±
230
Th±Ba
composition to the liquid from which the cumulate
minerals crystallized. The SA21 amphibole is more
complex to interpret because the calculated melt in
equilibrium with the amphibole has (
226
Ra)/Ba ratios
>1000. It intersects the curve for melt in equilibrium
with the clinopyroxene over an age range of 100±400
years but does not intersect the curves for the other
phases in Fig. 11b. There are three possible, and
not mutually exclusive, explanations. First, the
226
Ra±
230
Th±Ba systematics of the amphibole are
likely to have been disturbed by the incongruent
partial melting observed in thin section. Second, the
amphibole might reflect reaction between the clino-
pyroxene and a hydrous fluid sometime between 100
and 400 years ago. Third, it is possible that the
amphibole crystallized from a liquid with a different
Fig. 11. Diagrams showing the evolution through time in (
226
Ra)/Ba
of melts in equilibrium with (a) the crystals from the pyroxenitic
cumulate SA24, and (b) the crystals and groundmass from the gab-
broic cumulate SA21. The equilibrium melt compositions
(continuous curves) were calculated using the d
Ra
/d
Ba
ratios listed in
Table 4 and the mineral compositions reported in Table 3, which
were first corrected by mass balance for the presence of small amounts
of adhering glass using the data in Table A1 (see Appendix for
details). The shaded fields and dotted or dashed curves that bracket
each continuous curve allow for 15% uncertainty in the d
Ra
/d
Ba
ratios
for the minerals, which are sensitive to the temperature chosen, or the
propagation of the analytical errors in the case of the glass from SA21.
The diagonally ruled boxes represent the age range of intersection of
curves within the calculated uncertainties and suggest that the crys-
tals in both the cumulates formed ~1500±2300 years ago. In (b) the
melt in equilibrium with amphibole from SA21 is not plotted because
it has (
226
Ra)/Ba ratios 41000 but the diagonally ruled box with no
border indicates the age range of the intersection of the melts in
equilibrium with amphibole and clinopyroxene (see text
for discussion).
TURNER et al. U-SERIES ISOTOPE EVOLUTION, SANGEANG API
509
226
Ra±
230
Th±Ba composition to the rest of the minerals.
At present we do not have enough information to
choose between these alternatives and accordingly we
caution against attributing significance to the age range
implied by the intersection of the curves for melts in
equilibrium with the amphibole and clinopyroxene.
Physical implications
The ages of crystals can often only constrain the max-
imum age of magma residence beneath volcanoes
because of the potential for magmas to entrain old
cumulate materials (Hawkesworth et al., 2000). An
important result from Sangeang Api is that, notwith-
standing some of the complexities discussed above, the
constraints from the cumulates appear to be in excel-
lent agreement with the differentiation time scale
inferred from the whole-rock lavas in Fig. 10b. This
provides encouragement that the ages represent true
magma residence times and that ~70% differentiation,
possibly coupled with some assimilation, occurred
within a maximum of 2300 years beneath the volcano.
It can be estimated that for a basaltic magma to
undergo 70% crystallization requires a temperature
drop (DT) of ~100
·
C below the solidus (Grove &
Bryan, 1983; Ghiorso & Carmichael, 1985; Grove
et al., 1990). If this temperature drop was linear
through time, then a cooling rate of ~005
·
C/yr is
implied by the Sangeang Api data, and this is similar
to minimum recent estimates from a study of Kilauea
(Cooper et al., 2001).
The volumes of magma chambers are difficult to
constrain but a recent approach based on the thermal
output at volcanoes (Hawkesworth et al., 2000) equates
the volume of a magma chamber to
V = Pt
cool
=rcDT ÷ fL
where P is the power output of the volcano, t
cool
is the
time taken for cooling, r is the density, c the specific
heat capacity, L the latent heat of crystallization, DT
the temperature drop and f the mass fraction of crys-
tals grown. Assuming f = 07 from the major element
modelling, DT = 100
·
C from above, t
cool
= 2000
years from the Ra±Th data, and using values of 2600
kg/m
3
, 1500 J/kg per K and 4 × 10
5
J/kg for r, c and L,
respectively, that are appropriate for basalt magmas
(Spera, 2000), we calculate a volume of 6 km
3
for a
power output of 100 MW. It is important to note that
the actual power output from Sangeang Api volcano is
currently unknown; however, we suggest that this cal-
culation may represent a conservative estimate because
100 MW lies at the low end of the power output range
estimated for volcanoes generally (100±1000 MW,
Hochstein, 1995). Moreover, a similar volume is esti-
mated assuming that the magma chamber is in steady
state (e.g. Pyle, 1992; Condomines, 1994):
V = Q
o
t
cool
=(1 ÷ ft)
where Q
o
is the typical eruption volume and ft is the
fraction of crystallization per year. Using values of
~0005 km
3
(Simkin & Siebert, 1994) and 35 ×
10
÷4
for Q
o
and ft, respectively, yields a volume of 10
km
3
.
Given a magma chamber volume of 6 km
3
and set-
ting the chamber height to H = V
1/3
, the characteristic
time scale for crystal settling in a convecting magma
can be calculated using the model of Martin & Nokes
(1988):
t
settle
= 9Hm=2gDrr
2
where m is the liquid viscosity, g the acceleration due to
gravity, Dr the density contrast between the crystals
and liquid, and r is the radius of the crystals. For m =
10
4
Pa s, Dr = 500 kg/m
3
and r = 10
÷3
m, t
settle
=
660 years, which is about a third of the total magma
residence time and may imply some crystal retention,
which would be consistent with the convex-upward
nature of the crystal size distribution plot in Fig. 2c.
The crystal growth rates can be calculated from the
relationship (Marsh, 1998)
G = ÷1=tm
where G is the crystal growth rate, t is the average
crystal residence time and m is the slope of the
crystal size distribution plot. Because this crystal size
distribution is curved, we have considered it in two
halves, corresponding to fine and coarse crystal popu-
lations, which have slopes of ÷229 and ÷866 mm
÷1
,
respectively (see Fig. 2c). Using an average t = 2000
years from the combined Ra±Th data leads to plagio-
clase growth rates of ~7 × 10
÷13
and 2 × 10
÷13
cm/s
for the coarse and fine crystal populations, which are
likely to correspond to those crystallized at deeper and
shallower crustal levels, respectively. It should be
noted that this calculation assumes continuous growth
over the full 2000 years. Moreover, we have presented
evidence that the Sangeang Api magmas did not
evolve isobarically in a single magma chamber but
underwent polybaric crystallization. Isothermal
decompression can lead to crystallization time scales
that are much more rapid than those predicted by
crystallization as a result of cooling alone and can
approach those of eruptive periodicity (Blundy &
Cashman, 2001). For these reasons, the calculated
growth rates probably represent minimum estimates
and we hypothesize that much of the differentiation
of the Sangeang Api lavas may have occurred during
ascent in conduits through the arc lithosphere.
Crystallization would occur on the walls of the conduits
and the depolymerizing effects of elevated halogen
JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 44 NUMBER 3 MARCH 2003
510
and alkali contents would enhance the segregation of
the liquids from the phenocrysts. If magma moves
in pulses, as suggested by seismic periodicity (e.g.
Neuberg, 2000), pieces of this cumulate material lining
the conduits would periodically become entrained in
the magmas to be erupted as the cumulate xenoliths.
Magma residence times beneath Tambora volcano
The cataclysmic eruption of Tambora in April 1815
(e.g. Self et al., 1984) produced some 100 km
3
of potas-
sic magmas, which Foden (1986) suggested contained
~3% H
2
O and underwent crystallization at
850±700
·
C at ~05 GPa. As discussed above, Tambora
shows a striking parallelism in its overall composition
and liquid line of descent to Sangeang Api. Thus, the
inferred degrees of partial melting, volatile contents
and differentiation appear similar, whereas the erup-
tive temperatures and volumes for Tambora were
lower and higher, respectively. However, the lower
temperatures and higher volumes may be explained if
the 1815 magma accumulated, resided and cooled for
longer times in the crust. In fact, this is exactly what is
suggested by the displacement to lower (
226
Ra/
230
Th)
in Fig. 10b. Moreover, if the analogy with Sangeang
Api holds, then the (
226
Ra/
230
Th) ratio of the 1815
Tambora lava implies a crustal residence time of
~5000±6000 years, and we are intrigued that this is
almost identical to the time elapsed since the preceding
major eruption of Tambora 5000 years ago (Foden,
1986). A detailed U-series study of the Tambora lavas
and cumulate xenoliths would be timely in testing this
greater residence time hypothesis.
CONCLUDING REMARKS
A working model for the evolution of magmas beneath
Sangeang Api is summarized in Fig. 12. The composi-
tion of the most primitive lavas is consistent with 3%
partial melting, in the presence of 1±4% residual gar-
net, of a MORB source enriched by 25% subducted
Sunda sediment and a contribution of fluid-mobile
elements from the subducting slab. Schmidt & Poli
(1998) have shown that it is reasonable to expect
some water to be subducted this deep and the increase
in relative sediment contribution, compared with the
arc-front lavas (Turner & Foden, 2001), may reflect
the increase in slab-surface temperatures at depth. The
effects of fluid addition and partial melting on U±Th
disequilibria appear to be competing processes in the
rear-arc environment. Major and trace element data
indicate that the lavas and cumulate xenoliths erupted
from Sangeang Api volcano represent complementary
parts of a polybaric liquid line of descent that involved
some 70% equilibrium crystallization and potentially
also some assimilation of Indian MORB arc crust. The
time scales of this magmatic differentiation are inferred
from U±Th±Ra isotope data to be of the order of 2000
years, similar to recent estimates based on along-arc
data from the Tonga±Kermadec (Turner et al., 2000)
and other oceanic arcs (Turner et al., 2001). The
evidence that the first 30±40% of (pyroxenitic) differ-
entiation appears to have occurred in less than 300
years at pressures 41 GPa may imply that this
occurred during magma ascent in conduits. Moroever,
our data suggest that the net magmatic flux across the
Moho is of relatively evolved magmas that had left
significant cumulate material behind in the upper
parts of the lithospheric mantle (Fig. 12, Foden &
Green, 1992). This is consistent with recent seismic
studies that have identified mafic to ultramafic cumu-
lates at the Moho in the Aleutian arc (Fliedner &
Klemperer, 1999) and could help explain why average
continental crust has an andesitic bulk composition
even though the flux out of the asthenosphere is basal-
tic (Arculus, 1981; Ellam & Hawkesworth, 1988). Sub-
sequent ponding and gabbroic fractionation within the
crust occurred over a time scale of 52000 years, limit-
ing the time available for crustal assimilation.
Acknowledgments
David Bruce, Bruce Paterson, Louise Thomas, Nick
Rogers and Peter van Calsteren are all thanked for
their assistance with the analytical work. Bernie
Wood and Jon Blundy kindly calculated the Ra/Ba
partition coefficient ratios, and we are grateful to
Fig. 12. Schematic summary of the inferred mechanisms, locations
and time scales of evolution of the Sangeang Api magmas [crustal
thickness from Curray et al. (1977)]. The inferred time scales assume
that the pyroxenitic stage of differentiation did not commence more
than 300 years before the gabbroic stage, based on the constraints
from Fig. 11.
TURNER et al. U-SERIES ISOTOPE EVOLUTION, SANGEANG API
511
Derek Vance, who performed the single-crystal Sr-
isotope analyses for sample SA21 at ETH. Terry
Plank and Julian Pearce kindly provided the ICP-MS
trace element analyses, and Richard Hinton performed
the ion microprobe analyses at the University of
Edinburgh. The crystal size distribution was made
by Neil Carpenter at Bristol. Careful reviews by Kari
Cooper, Ian Parkinson, Mark Reagan and an anony-
mous reviewer helped to significantly improve the
paper. We also thank Marjorie Wilson for her extensive
editorial comments. This work was supported by
NERC grant GR3/11701 to S.T., who is funded by a
Royal Society University Research Fellowship.
REFERENCES
Arculus, R. J. (1981). Island arc magmatism in relation to the
evolution of the crust and mantle. Tectonophysics 75, 113±133.
Asmerom, Y., Cheng, H., Thomas, R., Hirschmann, M. &
Edwards, R. L. (2000). Melting of the Earth's lithospheric
mantle inferred from protactinium±thorium±uranium isotopic
data. Nature 406, 293±296.
Beattie, P. (1993). Uranium±thorium disequilibria and partitioning
on melting of garnet peridotite. Nature 363, 63±65.
Blundy, J. & Cashman, K. (2001). Ascent-driven crystallisation of
dacite magmas at Mount St Helens. 1980±1986. Contributions to
Mineralogy and Petrology 140, 631±650.
Blundy, J. D. & Wood, B. J. (1994). Prediction of crystal±melt
partition coefficients from elastic moduli. Nature 372, 452±454.
Blundy, J. D., Robinson, J. A. C. & Wood, B. J. (1998). Heavy REE
are compatible in clinopyroxene on the spinel lherzolite solidus.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters 160, 493±504.
Bourdon, B., Zindler, A. & Worner, G. (1994). Evolution of the
Laacher See magma chamber: evidence from SIMS and TIMS
measurements of U±Th disequilibria in minerals and glasses.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters 126, 75±90.
Condomines, M. (1994). Comment on: `The volume and residence
time of magma beneath active volcanoes determined by decay-
series disequilibria methods'. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 122,
251±255.
Condomines, M., Tanguy, J.-C. & Michaud, V. (1995). Magma
dynamics at Mt Etna: constraints from U±Th±Ra±Pb radioactive
disequilibria and Sr isotopes in historical lavas. Earth and Planetary
Science Letters 132, 25±41.
Cooper, K. M., Reid, M. R., Murrell, M. T. & Clague, C. A.
(2001). Crystal and magma residence at Kilauea volcano,
Hawaii:
230
Th±
226
Ra dating of the 1955 east rift eruption. Earth
and Planetary Science Letters 184, 703±718.
Curray, J. R., Shor, G. G., Raitt, R.W. & Henry, M. (1977).
Seismic refraction and reflection studies of crustal structure of the
Banda and eastern Sunda arc. Journal of Geophysical Research 82,
2479±2489.
Davidson, J. P. (1987). Crustal contamination versus subduction
zone enrichment: examples from the Lesser Antilles and implica-
tions for mantle source compositions of island arc volcanic rocks.
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 51, 2185±2198.
DePaolo, D. J. (1981). Trace element and isotopic effects of
combined wallrock assimilation and fractional crystallisation.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters 53, 189±202.
Edwards, C., Menzies, M. & Thirlwall, M. (1991). Evidence from
Muriah, Indonesia, for the interplay of supra-subduction zone
and intraplate processes in the genesis of potassic alkaline
magmas. Journal of Petrology 32, 555±592.
Ellam, R. M. & Hawkesworth, C.J. (1988). Is average continental
crust generated at subduction zones? Geology 16, 314±317.
Elliott, T. (1997). Fractionation of U and Th during mantle
melting: a reprise. Chemical Geology 139, 165±183.
Elliott, T., Plank, T., Zindler, A., White, W. & Bourdon, B. (1997).
Element transport from slab to volcanic front at the Mariana arc.
Journal of Geophysical Research 102, 14991±15019.
Fliedner, M. M. & Klemperer, S. L. (1999). Structure of an
island-arc: wide-angle seismic studies in the eastern
Aleutian islands, Alaska. Journal of Geophysical Research 104,
10667±10694.
Foden, J. D. (1983). The petrology of the calc-alkaline lavas of
Rindjani volcano, east Sunda arc: a model for island arc
petrogenesis. Journal of Petrology 24, 98±130.
Foden, J. D. (1986). The petrology of Tambora volcano, Indonesia:
a model for the 1815 eruption. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal
Research 27, 1±41.
Foden, J. D. & Green, D. H. (1992). Possible role of amphibole in
the origin of andesite: some experimental and natural evidence.
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 109, 479±493.
Foden, J. D. & Varne, R. (1980). The petrology and tectonic setting
of Quaternary±Recent volcanic centres of Lombok and Sumbawa,
Sunda arc. Chemical Geology 30, 201±226.
Ghiorso, M. S. & Carmichael, I. S. E. (1985). Chemical mass
transfer in magmatic processes II. Applications in equilibrium
crystallization, fractionation and assimilation. Contributions to
Mineralogy and Petrology 90, 121±141.
Grove, T. L. & Bryan, W. B. (1983). Fractionation of pyroxene-
phyric MORB at low pressure: an experimental study.
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 84, 293±309.
Grove, T. L., Kinzler, R. J. & Bryan, W. B. (1990). Natural and
experimental phase relations of lavas from Serocki volcano.
In: Detrick, R., Honnorez, J., Bryan, W. B., et al. (eds) Proceedings
of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 106/109. College
Station, TX: Ocean Drilling Program, pp. 9±17.
Halliday, A. N., Lee, C.-C., Tommasini, S., Davies, G. R.,
Paslick, C. R., Fitton, J. F. & James, D. E. (1995). Incompatible
trace elements in OIB and MORB and source enrichment in
the sub-oceanic mantle. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 133,
379±395.
Hart, S. R. (1984). A large-scale isotope anomaly in the Southern
Hemisphere mantle. Nature 309, 753±757.
Hawkesworth, C. J., Turner, S. P., McDermott, F., Peate, D. W. &
van Calsteren, P. (1997). U±Th isotopes in arc magmas:
implications for element transfer from the subducted crust. Science
276, 551±555.
Hawkesworth, C., Blake, S., Evans, P., Hughes, R., Macdonald, R.,
Thomas, L., Turner, S. & Zellmer, G. (2000). The time scales of
crystal fractionation in magma chambersÐintegrating physical,
isotopic and geochemical perspectives. Journal of Petrology 41, 991±
1006.
Heath, E., Turner, S. P., Macdonald, R., Hawkesworth, C. J. &
van Calsteren, P. (1998). Long magma residence times at an island
arc volcano (Soufriere, St. Vincent) in the Lesser Antilles: evidence
from
238

230
Th isochron dating. Earth and Planetary Science Letters
160, 49±63.
Higgins, M. D. (2000). Measurement of crystal size distributions.
American Mineralogist 85, 1105±1116.
Hill, E., Wood, B. J. & Blundy, J. D. (2000). The effect of Ca-
Tschermaks component on trace element partitioning
between clinopyroxene and silicate melt. Lithos 53, 203±215.
JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 44 NUMBER 3 MARCH 2003
512
Hochstein, M. (1995). Crustal heat transfer in the Taupo Volcanic
Zone (New Zealand): comparison with other volcanic arcs and
explanatory heat source models. Journal of Volcanology and
Geothermal Research 76, 297±317.
Hofmann, A. W., Jochum, K. P., Seufert, M. & White, W. M.
(1986). Nb and Pb in oceanic basalts: new constraints on mantle
evolution. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 79, 33±45.
Hoogewerff, J. A., van Bergen, M. J., Vroon, P. Z., Hertogen, J.,
Wordel, R., Sneyers, A., Nasution, A., Varekamp, J. C.,
Moens, H. L. E. & Mouchel, D. (1997). U-series, Sr±Nd±Pb
isotope and trace-element systematics across an active island
arc±continent collision zone: implications for element transfer
at the slab±wedge interface. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61,
1057±1072.
Hutchison, C. S. (1976). Indonesian active volcanic arc: K, Sr and
Rb variation with depth to the Benioff zone. Geology 4, 407±408.
Hutchison, C. S. (1982). Indonesia. In: Thorpe, R. S. (ed.) Andesites.
New York: Wiley, pp. 207±224.
Mahoney, J., LeRoex, A. P., Peng, Z., Fisher, R. L. & Natland, J. H.
(1992). Southwestern limits of Indian ocean ridge mantle and the
origin of low
206
Pb/
204
Pb mid-ocean ridge basalt: isotope
systematics of the central southwest Indian ridge (17±50
·
E).
Journal of Geophysical Research 97, 19771±19790.
Marsh, B. D. (1999). Magma chambers. Annual Review of Earth and
Planetary Sciences 17, 439±474.
Marsh, B. D. (1998). On the interpretation of crystal size distributions
in magmatic systems. Journal of Petrology 39, 553±599.
Martin, D. & Nokes, R. (1988). Crystal settling in a vigorously
convecting magma chamber. Nature 332, 534±536.
Neuberg, J. (2000). Characteristics and causes of shallow seismicity
in andesite volcanoes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of
London 358, 1533±1546.
Norman, M. D., Pearson, N. J., Sharma, A. & Griffin, W. L. (1996).
Quantitative analysis of trace elements in geological materials
by laser ablation ICPMS: instrumental operating conditions
and calibration values of NIST glasses. Geostandards Newsletter 20,
427±261.
Plank, T. & Langmuir, C. H. (1998). The chemical composition of
subducting sediment and its consequences for the crust and
mantle. Chemical Geology 145, 325±394.
Potts, P. J., Thorpe, O. W., Isaacs, M. C. & Wright, D. W. (1985).
High precision instrumental neutron-activation analysis of
geological samples employing simultaneous counting with both
planar and coaxial detectors. Chemical Geology 48, 145±155.
Pyle, D. M. (1992). The volume and residence time of magma
beneath active volcanoes determined by decay-series disequilibria
methods. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 112, 61±73.
Reagan, M. K., Volpe, A. M. & Cashman, K. V. (1992).
238
U and
232
Th-series chronology of phonolite fractionation at Mount
Erebus, Antarctica. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 56, 1401±1407.
Rogers, N. W., Hawkesworth, C. J., Parker, R. J. & Marsh, J. S.
(1985). The geochemistry of potassic lavas from Vulsini, Central
Italy and implication for mantle enrichment processes beneath
the Roman Region. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 90,
328±353.
Rubin, K. H., Wheller, G. E., Tanzer, M. O., MacDougall, J. D.,
Varne, R. & Finkel, R. (1989).
238
U decay series systematics of
young lavas from Batur volcano, Sunda arc. Journal of Volcanology
and Geothermal Research 38, 215±226.
Schmidt, M. W. & Poli, S. (1988). Experimentally based water
budgets for dehydrating slabs and consequences for arc magma
generation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 163, 361±379.
Self, S., Rampino, M. R., Newton, M. S. & Wolff, J. A. (1984).
Volcanological study of the great Tambora eruption of 1815.
Geology 12, 659±663.
Simkin, T. & Siebert, L. (1994). Volcanoes of the World. Washington,
DC: Smithsonian Institution, 349 pp.
Spear, F. S. & Kimball, C. (1984). RECAMPÐa Fortran IV
program for estimating the Fe

contents in amphiboles. Computers
and Geosciences 10, 317±325.
Spera, F. J. (2000). Physical properties of magma. In: Sigurdsson, H.
et al. (eds) Encyclopedia of Volcanoes. New York: Academic Press,
pp. 171±190.
Stolper, E. & Newman, S. (1994). The role of water in the
petrogenesis of Mariana trough magmas. Earth and Planetary Science
Letters 121, 293±325.
Stolz, A. J., Varne, R., Davies, G. R., Wheller, G. E., Foden, J. D.
& Abott, M. J. (1988). The geochemistry and petrogenesis of
K-rich alkaline volcanics from the Batu Tara volcano, eastern
Sunda arc. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 98, 374±389.
Todt, W., Cliff, R. A., Hanser, A. & Hofmann, A. W. (1996).
Evaluation of a
202
Pb±
205
Pb double spike for high-precision lead
isotopic analyses. In: Basu, A. & Hart, S. (eds) Earth Processes,
Reading the Isotopic Code. Geophysical Monograph, American Geophysical
Union 95, 429±437.
Turner, S. & Foden, J. (2001). U±Th±Ra disequilibria, Sr±Nd±Pb
isotope and trace element variations in Sunda arc lavas:
predominance of a subducted sediment component. Contributions
to Mineralogy and Petrology 142, 43±57.
Turner, S., Hawkesworth, C., Rogers, N., Bartlett, J.,
Worthington, T., Hergt, J., Pearce, J. & Smith, I. (1997).
238

230
Th disequilibria, magma petrogenesis and flux rates
beneath the depleted Tonga±Kermadec island arc. Geochimica
et Cosmochimica Acta 61, 4855±4884.
Turner, S. P., Platt, J. P., George, R. M. M., Kelley, S. P.,
Pearson, D. G. & Nowell, G. M. (1999). Magmatism associated
with orogenic collapse of the Betic±Alboran Domain, SE Spain.
Journal of Petrology 40, 1011±1036.
Turner, S., Bourdon, B., Hawkesworth, C. & Evans, P. (2000).
226
Ra±
230
Th evidence for multiple dehydration events, rapid melt
ascent and the time scales of differentiation beneath the Tonga±
Kermadec islandarc. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 179, 581±593.
Turner, S., Evans, P. & Hawkesworth, C. (2001). Ultra-fast source-
to-surface movement of melt at island arcs from
226
Ra±
230
Th
systematics. Science 292, 1363±1366.
van Bergen, M. J., Vroon, P. Z., Varekamp, J. C. & Poorter, R. P. E.
(1992). The origin of the potassic rock suite from Batu Tara
volcano (East Sunda arc, Indonesia). Lithos 28, 261±282.
van Calsteren, P. & Schwieters, J. B. (1995). Performance
indications for TIMS with a deceleration lens system and post-
deceleration detector selection. International Journal of Mass
Spectrometry and Ionisation Processes 146/147, 119±129.
Volpe, A. M. & Hammond, P. E. (1991).
238

230
Th±
226
Ra
disequilibrium in young Mt. St. Helens rocks: time constraint for
magma formation and crystallisation. Earth and Planetary Science
Letters 107, 475±486.
Volpe, A. M., Olivares, J. A. & Murrell, M. T. (1991).
Determination of radium isotope ratios and abundances in
geologic samples by thermal ionization mass spectrometry.
Analytical Chemistry 63, 913±916.
Widom, E., Schmincke, H.-U. & Gill, J. B. (1992). Processes and
timescales in the evolution of a chemically zoned trachyte: Fogoa
A, Sao Miguel, Azores. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 111,
311±328.
TURNER et al. U-SERIES ISOTOPE EVOLUTION, SANGEANG API
513
Wood, B. J. & Trigila, R. (2001). Experimental determination of
aluminous clinopyroxene±melt partition coefficients for potassic
liquids, with application to the evolution of the Roman province
potassic magmas. Chemical Geology 172, 213±223.
Wood, B. J., Blundy, J. D. & Robinson, J. A. C. (1999). The role
of clinopyroxene in generating U-series disequilibrium during
mantle melting. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 63, 1613±1620.
Xu, Y.-G., Menzies, M., Thirlwall, M. F. & Xie, G.-H. (2001).
Exotic lithosphere mantle beneath the western Yangtze craton:
petrogenetic links to Tibet using highly magnesian ultrapotassic
rocks. Geology 29, 863±866.
Zindler, A. & Hart, S. R. (1986). Chemical geodynamics. Annual
Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 14, 493±571.
APPENDIX: (
226
Ra)/Ba VS TIME
EVOLUTION DIAGRAMS
Previously, `isochron' ages have been determined from
Ra±Th isotope data by normalizing to the chemically
similar element Ba (e.g. Volpe & Hammond, 1991),
but it is now clear that the underlying assumption that
D
Ba
= D
Ra
is erroneous (Wood et al., 1999). Following
the elegant approach of Cooper et al. (2001), we deter-
mined the time-dependent (
226
Ra)/Ba composition of
melts in equilibrium with the analysed mineral phases
using the following equation:
(
226
Ra)
Ba
melt,t
=

(
226
Ra)
m
Ba
m
e
t

÷

(
230
Th)
m
Ba
m
(e
t
÷1)

D
Ra
D
Ba
where the subscript m refers to the measured value for
the mineral separate (after correction for impurities as
described below), l is the decay constant for
226
Ra
(4332 × 10
±4
a
÷1
) and D
Ra/Ba
values (Table 4) were
calculated for a temperature of 1100
·
C using the
method of Blundy & Wood (1994). Crystallization
ages are then estimated from the point at which the
(
226
Ra)/Ba ratios of the melts in equilibrium with the
minerals are concordant with each other and/or the
groundmass (Fig. 11).
An additional complexity is that application of these
theoretical partition coefficients assumes that the bulk
mineral separates are 100% pure, which is rarely the
case because of small amounts of glass adhering to the
mineral edges and/or the presence of mineral and/or
melt inclusions. The former can be removed by treat-
ment with HF, but this can also leach U-series nuclides
and cannot be used to remove inclusions. The
Sangeang Api cumulate crystals appear very homoge-
neous and free of inclusions (Fig. 2b), and we believe
that adhering glass is the most likely possibility in this
instance. Therefore, we adopted an approach whereby
the concentrations of Ba and Th in the bulk separates
and pure minerals were compared to identify the pre-
sence of adhering glass. The Ba and Th concentrations
in the groundmass and bulk mineral separates were
determined by isotope dilution, whereas the Ba and
Th contents of the pure minerals were determined by
ICP-MS and ion microprobe, respectively, taking care
to avoid inclusions. The laser ICP-MS analyses were
performed at the University of Bristol using methods
similar to those of Norman et al. (1996) and using
NIST SRM 612 as a standard. The ion microprobe
data were obtained at the University of Edinburgh
using 450 s count times and NIST SRM 610, 612,
614, 616 and Corning Glass W as standards. The
results and the calculated percentage of adhering
glass for each phase are listed in Table A1. The per-
centage of adhering glass was always close to 1%,
consistent with optical estimates, and, where both mea-
surements were made, the amounts calculated on the
basis of Ba and Th contents are generally in good
agreement with each other. The one exception is for
the clinopyroxene from SA24, where the estimated
percentage of adhering glass based on Th concentra-
tions is 49% compared with 1% based on Ba
(Table A1). The former estimate is untenable on the
basis of optical observations and so the latter value was
adopted in this case. These estimates were then used to
back-extract the effects of glass and melt inclusions
from the bulk mineral separate compositions by simple
mass balance. This requires that the composition of
the interstitial glass is known; for SA21 we used the
composition of the analysed glass but this was not
possible for SA24 because insufficient glass was
present to facilitate analysis. Therefore, for SA24,
we used the composition of the bulk xenolith as the
only available estimate of the composition of the
interstitial glass and because it appears likely that
the composition of interstitial glass dominates the
incompatible element concentrations of the xenoliths
(Table 3). Although this partly compromises the
results from SA24 the age constraints obtained were
consistent with those from SA21, which also have
a smaller estimated error (Fig. 11). No corrections
were possible for SA24 amphibole or SA21
magnetite because concentration data for the pure
minerals could not be obtained (Table A1).
JOURNAL OF PETROLOGY VOLUME 44 NUMBER 3 MARCH 2003
514
Table A1: Concentrations of Ba, Th and calculated percent glass in cumulate minerals
Xenolith and mineral Ba (ppm)* % glass (Ba) Th (ppm), % glass (Th)
SA24 clinopyroxene 35
.
3 0
.
94 0
.
0007 49
SA24 amphibole b.d. Ð n.a. n.a.
SA21 clinopyroxene 7
.
3 0
.
75 0
.
096 0
.
77
SA21 amphibole 515 0
.
64 0
.
113 1
.
2
SA21 plagioclase 124
.
6 1
.
12 0
.
0006 1
.
2
SA21 magnetite b.d. Ð n.a. Ð
*Average of two spot analyses by laser ICP-MS ( ±1
.
3 ppm).
,Average of two spot analyses by ion microprobe ( ±0
.
0003 ppm).
b.d., below detection; n.a., not analysed.
TURNER et al. U-SERIES ISOTOPE EVOLUTION, SANGEANG API
515