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Seven deadly sins
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#ieronymus $osch%s The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things

&'varice& ()*+),, -y .esus !olana /he Seven Deadly Sins, also known as the Capital Vices or Cardinal Sins, is a classification of o-0ectiona-le vices (part of 1hristian ethics, that have -een used since early 1hristian times to educate and instruct 1hristians concerning fallen

gula. and the more severe mortal sins /heologically. other vices &5)6 $eginning in the early +9th century. the popularity of the seven deadly sins as a theme among :uropean artists of the time eventually helped to ingrain them in many areas of 1atholic culture and 1atholic consciousness in general throughout the world . avaritia. ira. head. in which guilt is relatively minor. luxuria. sloth. of the other sins ' &deadly sin& can -e either venial or mortal. depending on the situation8 -ut &they are called %capital% -ecause they engender other sins. and gluttony /he 1atholic 1hurch divides sin into two categories: venial sins. they are the sins that are seen as the origin (&capital& comes from the Latin caput.humanity%s tendency to sin /he currently recogni2ed version of the sins are usually given as wrath. a mortal or deadly sin is -elieved to destroy the life of grace and charity within a person and thus creates the threat of eternal damnation &Mortal sin. pride. invidia. acedia 5=6 Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • + $i-lical lists ) >evelopment of the traditional !even !ins = #istorical and modern definitions of the seven deadly sins o = + Lust o = ) 4luttony o = = 4reed o = 9 !loth o = ? Wrath o = @ :nvy o = A Pride 9 #istorical sins o 9 + 'cedia o 9 ) Bainglory ? 1atholic !even Birtues @ 'ssociations with demons A Patterns C 1ultural references o C + Menninger on the >eadly !ins o C ) 1ul-ertson on the >eadly !ins D !ee also +* 7eferences ++ Further reading +) :Eternal links . charity 3 necessitates a new initiative of 4od%s mercy and a conversion of heart which is normally accomplished 5for 1atholics6 within the setting of the sacrament of reconciliation &5+6 /o 1atholics the seven deadly sins do not -elong to an additional category of sin 7ather. means of such ingraining was the creation of the mnemonic &!'L<4<'& -ased on the first letters in Latin of the seven deadly sins: superbia. greed. -y attacking the vital principle within us 3 that is. lust.

sorcery.. heresies. includes more of the traditional seven sins. variance. mortal sins rather than 1apital Bices Development of the traditional Seven Sins 'n allegorical image depicting the human heart su-0ect to the seven deadly sins. with only pride clearly -eing in -oth lists 'nother list. wrath. drunkenness. revellings. given this time -y the :pistle to the 4alatians (4alatians ?:+D3)+. &and such like& 5?6 !ince !aint Paul goes on to say that the persons who commit these sins &shall not inherit the Fingdom of 4od&.. Fing !olomon stated that the Lord specifically regards &siE things the Lord hateth. and the seventh #is soul detesteth & namely:596 + ) = 9 ? @ A ' proud look ' lying tongue #ands that shed innocent -lood ' heart that devises wicked plots Feet that are swift to run into mischief ' deceitful witness that uttereth lies #im that soweth discord among -rethren While there are seven of them. emulations. lasciviousness.Biblical lists <n the $ook of Prover-s (Mishlai. . although the list is su-stantially longer: adultery. hatred. fornication. seditions. they are usually listed as (possi-le. envyings. strife. idolatry. murders. uncleanness. this list is considera-ly different from the traditional one. each represented -y an animal (clockwise: toad G avarice8 snake G envy8 lion G wrath8 snail G sloth8 pig G gluttony8 goat G lust8 peacock G pride.

. Fornicatio (fornication. 'varitia (avarice/greed. Banagloria (vainglory. avaritia (avarice/greed. avarice ὙXTLYZISPI (hyper[phania. Fornication.. hu-ris 3 in the Philokalia. Pope 4regory < revised this list to form the more common Seven Deadly Sins. and adding envy 5D6 <n the order used -y -oth Pope 4regory and -y >ante 'lighieri in his epic poem The Divine !o"edy. intellect (Bainglory./he modern concept of the !even >eadly !ins is linked to the works of the 9th century monk :vagrius Ponticus. acedia (acedia/discouragement/sloth. wrath _TSR`RaPI (kenodoEia.5+*65++65+)6 gula (gluttony. lust. /hey were translated into the Latin of Western 1hristianity (largely due to the writings of . as follows:5C6 • • • • • • • • 4ula (gluttony. !uper-ia (hu-ris. -oasting ἈbY`PI (ak[dia. irasci-ility (Wrath. <ra (Wrath. sadness 3 in the Philokalia. fornication UMVILOWLPI (philargyria. prostitution. 'cedia (acedia/shay/sloth. vainglory into pride. invidia (envy. sadness at another%s good fortune ὈLO^ (org[. acedia 3 in the Philokalia. -y folding (sorrow/despair/despondency into acedia. sorrow. thus -ecoming part of the Western tradition%s spiritual pietas (or 1atholic devotions. this term is rendered as dejection. and >iscouragement. who listed eight evil thoughts in 4reek as follows:5@6 • • • • • • • • HIJKLMNILOPI (gastrimargia. and 'varice. pride. gluttony QRLSTPI (porneia. Pride.ohn 1assian5A6. as a result of semantic change: . this term is rendered as self3esteem \]XY (lyp[. /he identification and definition of the seven deadly sins over their history has -een a fluid process and the idea of what each of the seven actually encompasses has evolved over time 'dditionally. ira (wrath. a little over two centuries after :vagrius wrote his list. this term is rendered as envy. superbia (pride. /ristitia (sorrow/despair/despondency. <n '> ?D*. the seven deadly sins are as follows: + ) = 9 ? @ A luxuria (lechery/lust. /hese &evil thoughts& can -e collected into three groups:5C6 • • • lustful appetite (4luttony.

. Main article: Lust Lust or lechery (carnal &luxuria&. lust. is an intense desire <t is usually thought of as eEcessive seEual wants. <n parallel order to the sins they oppose. avarice. chastity. as sources from which definitions might -e drawn 5citation needed6 Part << of >ante%s Divine !o"edy. #urgatorio. has almost certainly -een the -est known source since the 7enaissance 5citation needed6 /he modern 7oman 1atholic 1atechism lists the sins in Latin as &superbia. gula. pigritia seu acedia&. the seven holy virtues are humility. unforgiven souls of the sin of lust are -lown a-out in restless hurricane3like winds sym-olic of their own lack of self control to their lustful passions in earthly life . in either a cohesive or codified manner. patience. -y the $i-le itself8 other literary and ecclesiastical works were instead consulted. charity. kindness. gluttony. and diligence Historical and modern definitions of the seven deadly sins Lust Lust !ankt $artholomcus church (7eichenthal. temperance. avaritia. wrath. with an :nglish translation of &pride. the penitent walks within flames to purge himself of lustful/seEual thoughts and feelings <n >ante%s $n%erno. ira. fame. pulpit (+CD9. envy. invidia.• socordia sloth was su-stituted for acedia <t is this revised list that >ante uses /he process of semantic change has -een aided -y the fact that the personality traits are not collectively referred to. and sloth/acedia& 5+=6 :ach of the seven deadly sins now also has an opposite among corresponding seven holy virtues (sometimes also referred to as the contrary virtues. or power as well <n >ante%s #urgatorio. however the word was originally a general term for desire /herefore lust could involve the intense desire of money. luxuria.

gula. it is considered a sin -ecause of the eEcessive desire for food.5+96 arguing that it could also include an o-sessive anticipation of meals. Greed Main article: 4reed . and the constant eating of delicacies and eEcessively costly foods 5+?6 'duinas went so far as to prepare a list of siE ways to commit gluttony. gluttony (Latin. /homas 'duinas.Gluttony Main article: 4luttony Excess ('l-ert 'nker. Studiose 3 eating too daintily (keenly. gluttony can -e interpreted as selfishness8 essentially placing concern with one%s own interests a-ove the well3-eing or interests of others Medieval church leaders (e g . and its withholding from the needy 5+96 $ecause of these scripts. +CD@. took a more eEpansive view of gluttony. Forente 3 eating wildly (-oringly. is the over3indulgence and over3 consumption of anything to the point of waste <n 1hristian religions. including: • • • • • • #raepropere 3 eating too soon Laute 3 eating too eEpensively &i"is 3 eating too much 'rdenter 3 eating too eagerly (-urningly. >erived from the Latin gluttire. meaning to gulp down or swallow.

also known as avarice or covetousness.5citation needed6 especially for personal gain. deli-erate -etrayal. like lust and gluttony.+D*D painting The (orship o% )a""on -y :velyn >e Morgan Greed (Latin. or manipulation of authority are all actions that may -e inspired -y greed !uch misdeeds can include simony. trickery. in as much as man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporal things & <n >ante%s Purgatory. avaritia. positions of authority in the 1hurch hierarchy 's defined outside of 1hristian writings. Walters 'rt Museum Sloth (Latin. or treason. especially with respect to material wealth 5+@6 Sloth Main article: !loth (deadly sin. theft and ro--ery. especially -y means of violence. sloth re0ects grace and 4od . a sin of eEcess #owever. can entail different vices While sloth is sometimes defined as physical la2iness. greed (as seen -y the church. where one attempts to purchase or sell sacraments.. is applied to a very eEcessive or rapacious desire and pursuit of material possessions !t /homas 'duinas wrote that greed was &a sin against 4od. Socordia. for eEample through -ri-ery !cavenging5citation needed6 and hoarding of materials or o-0ects. including #oly . greed is an inordinate desire to acduire or possess more than one needs. the penitents were -ound and laid face down on the ground for having concentrated too much on earthly thoughts &'varice& is more of a -lanket term that can descri-e many other eEamples of greedy -ehavior /hese include disloyalty.rders and. 0ust as all mortal sins. therefore. spiritual la2iness is emphasi2ed Failing to develop spiritually is key to -ecoming guilty of sloth <n 1hristian faith. is. Sloth #arable o% the (heat and the Tares -y '-raham $loemaert.

. ira. evil eEists when good men fail to act . and hate that may provoke feuds that can go on for centuries Wrath may persist long after the person who did another a grievous wrong is dead Feelings of anger can manifest in different ways. and vigilantism . the &acedia& in Pope 4regory%s order has come to -e closer in meaning to sloth /he focus came to -e on the conseduences of acedia rather than the!loth has also -een defined as a failure to do things that one should do $y this definition. revenge. including impatience.Matham rath (Latin. and so. in its purest form. may -e descri-ed as inordinate and uncontrolled feelings of hatred and anger Wrath. also known as &rage&. -y . -y the +Ath century. presents with self3destructiveness. violence.ver time. the eEact deadly sin referred to was -elieved to -e the failure to utili2e one%s talents and gifts 5citation needed6 :ven in >ante%s time there were signs of this change8 in his #urgatorio he had portrayed the penance for acedia as running continuously at top speed rath Main article: Wrath rath.

a-ilities. >enmark. which sym-oli2es envy (>al-yneder 1hurch. specifically &eeither shall you desire anything that -elongs to your neigh-our& >ante defined this as &a desire to deprive other men of theirs & <n >ante%s Purgatory. Envy (Latin. is characteri2ed -y an insatia-le desire :nvy is similar to 0ealousy in that they -oth feel discontent towards someones traits. >ante descri-ed vengeance as &love of 0ustice perverted to revenge and spite& <n its original form. invidia. eEpression of hatred directed inwardly. al-eit tragic. Like greed and lust. the punishment for the envious is to have their eyes sewn shut with wire -ecause they have gained sinful pleasure from seeing others -rought low 'duinas descri-ed envy as &sorrow for another%s good& 5+A6 !ride Main article: Pride . such as 0ealousy. status. the sin of anger also encompassed anger pointed internally rather than eEternally /hus suicide was deemed as the ultimate. although one can of course -e wrathful for selfish reasons.Wrath is the only sin not necessarily associated with selfishness or self3interest. (closely related to the sin of envy. a final re0ection of 4od%s gifts 5citation needed6 Envy Main article: :nvy Envy 'rch in the naive with a gothic fresco from +?++ of a man with a dog3head. or rewards /he difference is the envious also desire that entity and covet it :nvy can -e directly related to the /en 1ommandments.

and the source of the others <t is identified as a desire to -e more important or attractive than others. pride (Latin. acedia. !enodoxus. is the neglect to take care of something that one should do <t is translated to apathetic listlessness8 depression without 0oy <t is related to melancholy: acedia descri-es the -ehaviour and "elancholy suggests the emotion producing it <n early 1hristian thought. descri-ing acedia as the . was what caused his fall from #eaven. and his resultant transformation into !atan <n >ante%s Divine !o"edy. an eEample of pride Painting -y Pieter $rueghel the :lder <n almost every list. the lack of 0oy was regarded as a willful refusal to en0oy the goodness of 4od and the world 4od created8 -y contrast. $asilica of eotre3>ame de Fourvifre "cedia (Latin. >ante%s definition was &love of self perverted to hatred and contempt for one%s neigh-our & <n .$idermann%s medieval miracle play. for >ante.$uilding the /ower of $a-el was.. the story of Lucifer. he descri-ed it as an uneasiness o% the "ind. and eEcessive love of self (especially holding self out of proper position toward 4od. is considered the original and most serious of the seven deadly sins. pride (his desire to compete with 4od. superbia. pride is the deadliest of all the sins and leads directly to the damnation of the titulary famed Parisian doctor <n perhaps the -est3known eEample. the penitents were forced to walk with stone sla-s -earing down on their -acks to induce feelings of humility Historical sins "cedia Main article: 'cedia "cedia mosaic. failing to acknowledge the good work of others. -eing a progenitor for lesser sins such as restlessness and insta-ility >ante refined this definition apathy was considered a refusal to help others in time of need When /homas 'duinas descri-ed acedia in his interpretation of the list. or hubris (4reek. (from 4reek IbY`PI.

the only one characterised -y an a-sence or insufficiency of love !ome scholars5who. -ut -y the +9th century had come to have the strong narcissistic undertones. Peter $insfeld paired each of the deadly sins with a demon. of irrelevant accuracy. Mammon: 4reed (avaritia. that it retains today 5+C6 's a result of these semantic changes. and is now commonly interpreted as referring to vanity (in its modern narcissistic sense. vainglory has -ecome a rarely used word in itself. who tempted people -y means of the associated sin 'ccording to $insfeld%s classification of demons. vain roughly meant %utile. . 'smodeus: Lust (luEuria. so he folded vainglory into pride for his listing of sins 5citation needed6 /he Latin term gloria roughly means boasting. vanagloria. Leviathan: :nvy (invidia. although its :nglish cognate 3 glory 3 has come to have an eEclusively positive meaning8 historically. is un0ustified -oasting Pope 4regory viewed it as a form of pride. $eel2e-u-: 4luttony (gula or gullia. all one+s "ind and all one+s soul8 to him it was the "iddle sin. which correspond inversely to each of the seven deadly sins Vice Lust 4luttony 4reed !loth Wrath :nvy Pride Latin Luxuria *ula 'varitia 'cedia $ra $nvidia Superbia Virtue 1hastity /emperance 1harity >iligence Patience Findness #umility Latin !astitas Te"perantia !aritas $ndustria #atientia -u"anitas -u"ilitas "ssociations #ith demons <n +?CD.%ailure to love *od with all one+s heart. the pairings are as follows: • • • • • • • Lucifer: Pride (super-ia. !atan: Wrath (ira.6 have said that the ultimate form of acedia was despair which leads to suicide Vainglory Main article: Banity Vainglory (Latin. Catholic Seven Virtues /he 7oman 1atholic 1hurch also recogni2es seven virtues. $elphegor: !loth (acedia.

/his contrasts slightly with an earlier series of pairings found in the fifteenth century :nglish Lollard tract Lanterne o% Light. 'ndrew 1ul-ertson argues that two further vices should -e added to the deadly sins: fear and superstition Fear. a +DD? film that uses the sins as a thematic plot device /he !even !ins of Memory /heological virtues .pus 'vantra !even. -ow one is not to be. !atan with Wrath. from morality tales of the Middle 'ges to modern manga series and video games $enninger on the Deadly Sins <n his +DA= -ook. the most common deadly sin confessed -y men is lust. to the point of giving money to frauds and spiritual confidence men & See also • • • • • • • • • 'rishadvargas in #indu religion 1ardinal virtues :nneagram of Personality Five poisons in $uddhism Fnightly Birtues .. Farl Menninger argued that the traditional list of the seven deadly sins was incomplete8 that most modern ethicists would include cruelty and dishonesty and pro-a-ly would rate these as more serious than some of the more traditional sins such as gluttony or sloth Culbertson on the Deadly Sins <n his +D*C -ook. pride 5)*6 <t was unclear whether these differences were due to different rates of commission. 'smodeus with Lust and Mammon with 'varice 5+D6 !atterns 'ccording to a )**D study -y a . or different views on what &counts& or should -e confessed 5)+6 Cultural references /he seven deadly sins have long -een a source of inspiration for writers and artists. amounts to the modern psychiatric condition called >elusional disorder.eca"e o% Sin. while superstition is. &$elief in things that one does not understand. and for women. (hatever . in 1ul-ertson%s description. '-adon with !loth.with :nvy. which differs in pairing $eel2e-u.esuit scholar. $elphegor with 4luttony and matching Lucifer with Pride.