Cregory of Nuzlunzus

Flve Theologlcul Crullons



Trunsluled vllh un lnlroducllon und
noles by

Slephen Reynolds
















©Lslule of Slephen Reynolds 20II

ll

The Rev'd Dr. Slephen Reynolds I95I-20II



lll



Thls lrunslullon vus produced for sludenls ln lhe vell-knovn course ¨Three
Personed-Cod`. vhlch Slephen Reynolds luughl ln lhe Fucully of Dlvlnlly ul
Trlnlly College slx llmes belveen 200I und 2009.

Duvld Neelunds. Deun of Dlvlnlly. Trlnlly College

lv
Tuble of Conlenls





Inlroducllon v


The Flrsl Theologlcul Crullon. Prellmlnury Dlscourse I


The Second Theologlcul Crullon. Cn Theology I3


The Thlrd Theologlcul Crullon. Cn lhe Son. I 45


The Fourlh Theologlcul Crullon. Cn lhe Son. 2 7I


The Flflh Theologlcul Crullon. Cn lhe Holy Splrll 97



v
Inlroducllon

RLCCRY of Nuzlunzus (330 ÷ 389) hus been lreuled us one of lhe brlghlesl slurs ln lhe
flrmumenl of lhe Chrlsllun lrudlllon. The Crlhodox nume hlm ¨The Theologlun`
"
÷ u lllle
lhey uccord only one olher. Sl 1ohn lhe Aposlle und Lvungellsl ÷ und honour hlm vllh lvo feusl-
duys. 1unuury 25lh und 1unuury 30lh. The veslern Culhollc lrudlllon hus runked hlm umong ¨lhe
Four Doclors of lhe Luslern Church`
#
und honoured hlm on Muy 9lh. (Vhen lhe Romun
Culhollc church revlsed lls Culendur ln I969. Cregory vus |olned vllh 8usll lhe Creul ln u slngle
memorlul on 1unuury 2nd.
$
The slundurd Lngllsh lrunslullon of Cregory`s Flve Theologlcul Crullons hus been lhe one
produced by Churles Cordon 8rovne und 1umes Ldvurd Svullov for lhe Llbrury of Nlcene und
Posl-Nlcene Fulhers. volume 7 (I893). I huve used lhls lrunslullon ln lhe pusl. bul vllh mounllng
mlsglvlngs. So. for lhls course
) In splle of lhese uccoludes. Cregory hus nol recelved unylhlng llke
lhe ullenllon lhul veslern scholurs huve devoled lo olher unclenl vrllers. Thls ls especlully lrue
ln lhe Lngllsh-speuklng vorld. Unlll recenlly. lhe only mu|or modern sludy of Cregory ln Lngllsh
ls Rosemury Rudford Ruelher`s Cregory of Nuzlunzus: Rhelor und Phllosopher (Cxford: Cxford
Unlverslly Press. I969). Ms Ruelher hus slnce moved on lo olher lssues. Thls vork ls sllll vell
vorlh consulllng. bul ll hus nov been supplunled by u full-scule. even muglslerlul sludy: 1ohn
McCuckln`s Sulnl Cregory of Nuzlunzus. An Inlellecluul 8logruphy (Creslvood. N.Y.: Sl
Vludlmlr`s Semlnury Press. 200I).
%

"
The lllle ls meunl ln lhe slrlclesl posslble sense: Cregory defended lhe dlvlnlly (lheo-) of lhe
Vord (logos) vho becume flesh (cf. 1ohn I.I-I4).
. I venl buck lo lhe Creek lexl und begun lo revlse 8rovne und
Svullov`s verslon. Il lurned oul lo be u mu|or underluklng. 8rovne und Svullov produced u
lruly uvful lrunslullon ÷ ll ls so lllerul us lo be lncomprehenslble us Lngllsh. und ul muny olhers
polnls ll ls nol only lnuccurule bul dovnrlghl vrong. In my revlslon. I huve used The Flve
Theologlcul Crullons of Cregory of Nuzlunzus. ed. Arlhur 1umes Muson (Cumbrldge: Cumbrldge
Unlverslly Press. I899); und besldes lhe Creek lexl lhere eslubllshed. ll vlll be cleur lhul I huve
been heuvlly lndebled lo Muson`s noles on lhe lexl. I huve ulso consulled lhe French lrunslullon

#
The olher lhree ure 8usll lhe Creul. 1ohn Chrysoslom. und Cyrll of Alexundrlu. ¨The Four
Doclors of lhe Veslern Church` ure Ambrose of Mllun. Augusllne of Hlppo. 1erome. und
Cregory lhe Creul. Doclor. of course. ls lhe Lulln vord for ¨leucher` ÷ us ln lhe 8AS
deslgnullon. ¨Teucher of lhe Fullh`.

$
In lhe Culendur of lhe Angllcun Church of Cunudu`s 8ook of Common Pruyer (I962).
Cregory ls lo be commemoruled on lhe lrudlllonul veslern dule. Muy 9lh. The Culendur of
lhe church`s 8ook of Allernullve Servlces (I985) udopled lhe nev Romun usuge und
uppolnls Cregory`s memorlul. vllh 8usll lhe Creul. on 1unuury 2nd.
8usll dled on 1unuury Isl ln 379; lhe Crlhodox conllnue lo honour hlm. ulone. on lhul
dule. In lhe Romun Culendur of I969. hovever. 1unuury Isl ls nov lhe Solemnlly of Mury
lhe Molher of Cod; lhe 8AS Culendur mude lhe sume dule lhe fesllvul of lhe 8upllsm of lhe
Lord. Slnce feusls of our Lord (und. ln lhe menlullle of Romun Culhollclsm. uny feusl of our
Ludy ls lunlumounl lo u feusl of our Lord) luke precedence over ull olher fesllvuls. lhe
memorlul of 8usll und Cregory hud lo be poslponed by one duy.

C

vl
produced by Puul Culluy ln lhe Sources chrellennes serles. No. 250 (Purls: Édlllons du Cerf.
I978). Aguln. Culluy`s unnolullons. lhough less delulled lhun Muson`s. huve been very helpful.





























"


#$% &'()* #$%+,+-'./, 0(/*'+1
20(/*'+1 345

6(%,'7'1/(8 9').+:()%
/-/'1)* *$% 9').';,%) +< =:1+7':)


> /(-:7%1* ') /??(%))%? *+ *$+)% @$+ */A% ;('?% '1 *$%'( +@1 %,+B:%1.%
C )+D *+ E%-'1 @'*$ / *%F* +< G.(';*:(%H I /7 /-/'1)* 8+:D 0 /((+-/1*
+1%D
!
1+* +1,8 '1 8+:( )8)*%7 +< *%/.$'1-D E:* /,)+ '1 *$% @/8 8+: $%/( *$'1-)D
/1? '1 8+:( ./)* +< 7'1?J &+( *$% %/() /1? *+1-:%) +< .%(*/'1 ;%()+1) C /1?
1+* +1,8 *$%'( %/() /1? *+1-:%) E:* /,)+ 2I 1+@ )%%5 %K%1 *$%'( $/1?) C /(%
%/-%( *+ ).(/*.$ /* +:( @+(?)J
"
#$%8 /(% ;%+;,% @$+ ?%,'-$* '1 ;(+</1%
.$/**%(D /1? '1 ;/(/?+F%) +< ;)%:?+LA1+@,%?-%D /1? '1 @(/1-,'1-) +K%(
@+(?)D @$'.$ *%1? *+ 1+ ;(+<'*J
#
&+( *$:) ?+%) 6/:,D *$% ;(%/.$%( /1?
%)*/E,')$%( +< *$% M+(? .:* )$+(*D
$
*$% ?').';,% /1? *%/.$%( +< *$% <')$%(7%1D
%

!
N%(%7'/$ OPJQ"J


"
R<J 3 #'7+*$8 SJQLSH T&+( *$% *'7% ') .+7'1- @$%1 ;%+;,% @',, 1+* ;:*
:; @'*$ )+:1? ?+.*('1%D E:* $/K'1- '*.$'1- %/()D *$%8 @',, /..:7:,/*% <+(
*$%7)%,K%) *%/.$%() *+ ):'* *$%'( +@1 ?%)'(%)D /1? @',, *:(1 /@/8 <(+7
,')*%1'1- *+ *$% *(:*$ /1? @/1?%( /@/8 *+ 78*$)JU

#
R<J 3 #'7+*$8 3J"SED "VH TM/(1 *$%7 E%<+(% W+? *$/* *$%8 /(% *+ /K+'?
@(/1-,'1- +K%( @+(?)D @$'.$ ?+%) 1+ -++? E:* +1,8 (:'1) *$+)% @$+ /(%
,')*%1'1-XJ YK+'? ;(+</1% .$/**%(D <+( '* @',, ,%/? ;%+;,% '1*+ 7+(% /1?
7+(% '7;'%*8JU

$
R<J Z+7/1) [J3\H T&+( *$% ]+(? @',, <'1')$ $') @+(A /1? .:* '* )$+(* '1
('-$*%+:)1%))D E%./:)% *$% ]+(? @',, 7/A% *$% )%1*%1.% )$+(*%1%? +1 *$%
%/(*$JU

%
I1 W(%-+(8^) K'%@D 6/:, @/) *$% T?').';,%U +< G'7+1 6%*%( /1? N+$1 2T*$%
<')$%(7%1U5 '1 *$% )%1)% *$/* $% <+,,+@%? +( ./7% /<*%( *$%7J 6/:, @/)
/,)+ T*$% *%/.$%(U 2+( T7/)*%(U5 +< T*$% <')$%(7%1U 1+* +1,8 '1 *$% )%1)%
*$/* $% *(/'1%? #'7+*$8 /1? #'*:)D @$+ /) $') .+7;/1'+1) /1? <%,,+@L
@+(A%() <:,<',,%? *$% /;+)*+,'. 7'))'+1 +< T<')$'1- <+( ;%+;,%U 2.<J _/(A
"J"45D E:* '1 *$% )%1)% *$/* $% (%E:A%? 6%*%( <+( 1+* E%'1-
T)*(/'-$*<+(@/(? /E+:* *$% *(:*$ +< *$% -+);%,U 2W/,/*'/1) 3J""L"S5J
_
W(%-+(8 +< `/a'/1a:)

3
./,, /,, *$/* ') %F.%))'K% +( ):;%(<,:+:) '1 ?').+:()%J b:* /) *+ *$+)% *+ @$+7
@% (%<%(D @+:,? *$/* *$%8D @$+)% *+1-:% ') )+ K+,:E,% /1? .,%K%( '1 /;;,8'1-
'*)%,< *+ 1+E,% /1? /;;(+K%? ,/1-:/-%D @+:,? ,'A%@')% ;/8 )+7% /**%1*'+1 *+
/.*'+1)J &+( *$%1 ;%($/;) '1 / ,'**,% @$',% *$%8 @+:,? E%.+7% ,%)) )+;$')*'./,D
/1? ,%)) )*(/1-% /1? /)*+1')$'1- /) @+(?L*:7E,%()D '< I 7/8 :)% / ('?'.:,+:)
%F;(%))'+1 /E+:* ('?'.:,+:) E%$/K'+:(J
&
c 3J b:* )'1.% *$%8 1%-,%.* %K%(8 ;/*$ +< ('-$*%+:)1%))D /1? ,++A +1,8 *+
*$') +1% ;+'1*D 1/7%,8D @$'.$ +< *$% ;(+;+)'*'+1) ):E7'**%? *+ *$%7 *$%8 )$/,,
E'1? +( ,++)%D 2,'A% *$+)% ;%()+1) @$+ '1 *$% *$%/*(%) ;%(<+(7 @(%)*,'1-
7/*.$%) '1 ;:E,'.D E:* 1+* *$/* A'1? +< @(%)*,'1- '1 @$'.$ *$% K'.*+(8 ') @+1
/..+(?'1- *+ *$% (:,%) +< *$% );+(*D E:* / A'1? *+ ?%.%'K% *$% %8%) +< *$+)%
@$+ /(% '-1+(/1* '1 ):.$ 7/**%()D /1? *+ ./*.$ /;;,/:)%5D /1? %K%(8
7/(A%*;,/.% 7:)* E:aa @'*$ *$%'( */,A'1-d /1? %K%(8 ?'11%( ;/(*8 E% 7/?%
*%?'+:) @'*$ )',,8 */,A /1? 7'1?L1:7E'1- .+1K%()/*'+1d /1? %K%(8 <%)*'K/, E%
7/?% :1<%)*'K% /1? <:,, +< ?%e%.*'+1D /1? %K%(8 +../)'+1 +< 7+:(1'1- E%
.+1)+,%? E8 / -(%/*%( ./,/7'*8 C *$%'( B:%)*'+1) C /1? /,, *$% @+7%1^)
/;/(*7%1*) /..:)*+7%? *+ )'7;,'.'*8 E% *$(+@1 '1*+ .+1<:)'+1 /1? E% (+EE%?
+< '*) <,+@%( +< 7+?%)*8 E8 *$% *+((%1* +< *$%'( @+(?)J #$') E%'1- *$% ./)%D *$%
%K', ') '1*+,%(/E,% /1? 1+* *+ E% E+(1%D /1? +:( W(%/* _8)*%(8 ') '1 ?/1-%( +<
E%'1- 7/?% / *$'1- +< ,'**,% 7+7%1*J M%,, *$%1D ,%* *$%)% );'%) E%/( @'*$ :)D
7+K%? /) @% /(% @'*$ ;/(%1*/, .+7;/))'+1D /1? /) $+,8 N%(%7'/$ )/8)D *+(1 '1
+:( $%/(*)d

'
,%* *$%7 E%/( @'*$ :) )+ </( /) 1+* *+ -'K% / )/K/-% (%.%;*'+1 *+
+:( ?').+:()% :;+1 *$') ):Ee%.*d /1? ,%* *$%7D '< '1?%%? *$%8 ./1D (%)*(/'1 *$%'(
*+1-:%) <+( / )$+(* @$',% /1? ,%1? :) *$%'( %/()J f+@%K%( *$/* 7/8 E%D 8+:
)$/,, /* /18 (/*% ):<<%( 1+ ,+))J &+( %'*$%( @% )$/,, $/K% );+A%1 '1 *$% %/() +<
*$+)% *$/* @',, $%/(D
(
/1? +:( @+(?) @',, E%/( )+7% <(:'*D 1/7%,8 /1
/?K/1*/-% *+ 8+: 2)'1.% *$% G+@%( )+@) *$% M+(? :;+1 %K%(8 A'1? +< 7'1?d
)
Y1? 8+: 7:)* 1+* E% /)*+1')$%? '< I );%/A / ,/1-:/-% @$'.$ ') )*(/1-% *+
8+: /1? .+1*(/(8 *+ 8+:( .:)*+7D @$+ ;(+<%)) *+ A1+@ %K%(8*$'1- /1? *+

/1? *$% -++? /1? <%(*',% E%/() <(:'*5D +( %,)% 8+: @',, ?%;/(* ?%);')'1- *$')
?').+:()% +< +:() /) 8+: $/K% ?%);')%? +*$%()D /1? $/K'1- ?(/@1 <(+7 '*
<:(*$%( 7/*%('/, <+( -/'1)/8'1- /1? (/','1- /* :)D :;+1 @$'.$ *+ <%/)*
8+:()%,K%) 8%* 7+(%J

&
W(%-+(8 ') .+7;/('1- *$% =:1+7'/1) @'*$ *$% A'1? +< .'(L.:)L;%(<+(7%()
@$+ T*:7E,%DU 'J%J ?+ -871/)*'. *('.A) C E:* @'*$ @+(?) /1? .+1.%;*)J

'
R<J N%(%7'/$ SJ"[J

(
R<J _/(A SJ[D 3QH T]%* /18+1% @'*$ %/() *+ $%/( ,')*%1gU

)
_/(A SJ"SJ
#$%+,+-'./, 0(/*'+1) "

Q
*%/.$ %K%(8*$'1- '1 *++ /:?/.'+:) /1? $'-$L<,8'1- / 7/11%( C 1+* *+ '(A 8+:
E8 )/8'1- '-1+(/1* /1? (/)$J
c QJ `+* *+ %K%(8 +1%D 78 <('%1?)D ?+%) '* E%,+1- *+ ;$',+)+;$')% /E+:*
W+?
!*
6$',+)+;$')'1- /E+:* W+? ?+%) 1+* E%,+1- *+ /,, ;%()+1)D E%./:)% '* ')
;%(7'**%? +1,8 *+ *$+)% @$+ $/K% E%%1 %F/7'1%? /1? $/K% / )+,'? <++*'1- '1
.+1*%7;,/*'+1 h*$%+('/iD /1? @$+ $/K% E%%1 ;(%K'+:),8 ;:('<'%? '1 )+:, /1?
E+?8D +( /* *$% K%(8 ,%/)* /(% E%'1- ;:('<'%?J &+( *$% '7;:(% *+ *+:.$ *$% ;:(%
')D @% 7/8 )/<%,8 )/8D 1+* )/<%D e:)* /) '* ') :1)/<% *+ <'F @%/A %8%) :;+1 *$%
):1^) (/8)J Y1? @$/* ') *$% ;%(7'**%? +../)'+1j I* ') @$%1 @% /(% <(%% <(+7 /,,
%F*%(1/, ?%<',%7%1* +( ?')*:(E/1.%D /1? @$%1 *$/* @$'.$ (:,%) @'*$'1 :)
C 1+* *+ %K%(8 +1%J #$% ):Ee%.* ') 1+* )+ .$%/;,8 /.B:'(%?D 1+( ') '* <+(
%/(*$LE+:1? 7'1?)J Y1? I @',, /??D 1+* E%<+(% %K%(8 /:?'%1.%D 1+( /* /,,
*'7%)D 1+( +1 /,, ;+'1*)d E:* +1 .%(*/'1 +../)'+1)D /1? E%<+(% .%(*/'1 ;%()+1)D
/1? @'*$'1 .%(*/'1 ,'7'*)J
!!

!*
*+ ;$',+)+;$')% /E+:* W+? 2;%(' *$%+: ;$',+)+;$%'15H #$') ;$(/)% 7'-$*
E% *(/1),/*%? /) T*+ ?+ *$%+,+-8DU <+( *$/* ') @$/* W(%-+(8 E/)'./,,8
7%/1* $%(%J k)'1- *$% *%(7 *$%+,+-8 *+ ?%)'-1/*% T*$% )*:?8 +< W+?U /)
/ ?')*'1.* ?').';,'1% @/) 1+* .:((%1* '1 W(%-+(8^) ?/8D 1+( ?'? '* E%.+7%
)+ :1*', *$% ,/*% _'??,% Y-%)J b:* *(/1),/*'1- T;$',+)+;$')'1- /E+:* W+?U
/) T?+'1- *$%+,+-8U +( T*$%+,+-')'1-U @+:,? 1+* +1,8 E% /1
/1/.$(+1')7d '* @+:,? /,)+ ,+)% )+7% +< *$% 1:/1.% *$/* W(%-+(8
'1*%1?%?J T6$',+)+;$8U (%<%((%? *+ /1? %7E(/.%? </( 7+(% *$/1 *$%
7+?%(1 1+*'+1 +< ;$',+)+;$8 /) /1 /./?%7'. ?').';,'1%J I* @/) 1+* /
7/**%( +< /E)*(/.* );%.:,/*'+1 '1 / K/.::7 2+( /1 'K+(8 *+@%(5D /18 7+(%
*$/1 '* @/) / 7/**%( +< @$/* 1+@/?/8) +<*%1 ;/))%) <+( ;$',+)+;$8D
@')%.(/.A) +:*<'**%? '1 WY6 ?:?)J T6$',+)+;$8U @/) <+( W(%-+(8 /
('-+(+:) ?').';,'1% +< *$% @$+,% )%,< <+( *$% )/A% +< 7%?'*/*'1- +1D /1?
A1+@'1-D @$/* ') *(:,8 (%/, C '1 *$') ./)%D *$% 78)*%(8 +< W+?J #$:)D *+ E%
/ T;$',+)+;$%( /E+:* W+?U @/) 1+* +1,8 *+ E% / )*:?%1* +( *%/.$%( +<
;(+;+)'*'+1) .+1.%(1'1- ?'K'1'*8d '* @/) *+ E% / ,+K%( +< *$% $'-$%)* /1?
*(:%)* M')?+7D @$'.$ ') *$% A1+@,%?-% +< W+?J
')
1+* .+1<:)%? @'*$ K%F/*'+:) /1? (+K'1- '7;(%))'+1)D ,'A% ;%()+1) 7'F'1- :;
-++? @('*'1- @'*$ E/?D +( <',*$ @'*$ *$% )@%%* +?+:() +< :1-:%1*)J &+( '* ')
1%.%))/(8 *+ E% *(:,8 /* ,%'):(% *+ A1+@ W+?d /1? @$%1 @% ./1 -%* /
.+1K%1'%1* )%/)+1D *+ ?').%(1 *$% )*(/'-$* (+/? +< *$% *$'1-) ?'K'1%J Y1? @$+
/(% *$% ;%(7'**%? ;%()+1)j #$+)% *+ @$+7 *$% ):Ee%.* ') +< (%/, .+1.%(1D /1?
1+* *$+)% @$+ 7/A% '* / 7/**%( +< ;,%/)/1* -+))';D ,'A% /18 +*$%( *$'1-D /<*%(
*$% (/.%)D +( *$% *$%/*(%D +( / .+1.%(*D +( / ?'11%(D +( )*',, ,+@%( /.*'K'*'%)J #+
):.$ ;%+;,%D '?,% e%)*) /1? ;(%**8 .+1*(/?'.*'+1) /E+:* *$%)% ):Ee%.*) /(% / ;/(*
+< *$%'( /7:)%7%1*J

!!
*$/* @$'.$ (:,%) @'*$'1 :)H 'J%J *$% (%/)+1 +( *$% (/*'+1/, )+:,J
W(%-+(8 +< `/a'/1a:)

S
`%F*D +1 @$/* ):Ee%.*) /1? *+ @$/* %F*%1* 7/8 @% ;$',+)+;$')%j 01
7/**%() @'*$'1 +:( (%/.$D /1? *+ ):.$ /1 %F*%1* /) *$% 7%1*/, ;+@%( /1?
-(/); +< +:( /:?'%1.% 7/8 %F*%1?J `+ <:(*$%(D <+( e:)* /) %F.%))'K%,8 ,+:?
)+:1?) '1e:(% *$% $%/('1-D +( *++ 7:.$ <++? *$% E+?8D +( e:)* /) %F.%))'K%
E:(?%1) E%8+1? *$% )*(%1-*$ +< *$% E%/(%() '1e:(% *$%7D +( %F.%))'K% (/'1) *$%
%/(*$ C )+ *++ *$%)% $%/(%() 7/8 E% ;(%))%? ?+@1 /1? +K%(E+(1% E8 *$%
?'<<'.:,*8 +< *$% /(-:7%1*) /1? 7/8 %K%1 ,+)% )+7% +< *$% :1?%()*/1?'1- *$/*
*$%8 +('-'1/,,8 ;+))%))%?J
c SJ `+@D I /7 1+* )/8'1- *$/* '* ') 1+* 1%%?<:, *+ (%7%7E%( W+? /* /,,
*'7%)J I 7:)* 1+* E% 7'):1?%()*++?D +( I )$/,, E% $/K'1- *$%)% 1'7E,% /1?
B:'.A ;%+;,% ?+@1 :;+1 7% /-/'1J &+( @% +:-$* *+ *$'1A +< W+? %K%1 7+(%
+<*%1 *$/1 @% ?(/@ +:( E(%/*$d /1? '< *$% %F;(%))'+1 ') ;%(7'))'E,%D @% +:-$*
*+ ?+ 1+*$'1- %,)%J I1?%%?D I /7 +1% +< *$+)% @$+ %1*'(%,8 /;;(+K% *$/* @+(?
@$'.$ E'?) :) 7%?'*/*% ?/8 /1? 1'-$*D
!"
/1? .(8 +:* '1 *$% %K%1'1-D '1 *$%
7+(1'1-D /1? /* 1++1 ?/8D
!#
/1? E,%)) *$% ]+(? /* /,, *'7%)d
!$
+(D *+ :)%
_+)%)^) @+(?)D @$%1 +1% ,'%) ?+@1D +( @$%1 +1% -%*) :;D +( @$%1 +1% @/,A)
+1 *$% (+/?D +( @$/*%K%( %,)% +1% ') ?+'1-
!%
C /1? E8 *$') (%.+,,%.*'+1 @% /(%
*+ E% 7+:,?%? *+ ;:('*8J G+ *$/* '* ') 1+* *$% .+1*'1:/, (%7%7E(/1.% +< W+?
*$/* I @+:,? $'1?%(D E:* +1,8 *$% */,A'1- /E+:* W+?J `+( ?+ I .+1)'?%( %K%1
*$/* *+ E% @(+1- '1 '*)%,<D E:* +1,8 @$%1 '1/;;(+;('/*%d 1+( ?+ I +Ee%.* *+
*%/.$'1- /E+:* W+?D E:* +1,8 *+ ,/.A +< e:?-%7%1* '1 ?+'1- )+J Y) %/*'1- *++
7:.$ $+1%8D %K%1 *$+:-$ '* ') $+1%8D 7/A%) +1% K+7'*d
!&
/1?D /) G+,+7+1
/1? I *$'1AD *$%(% ') / *'7% <+( %K%(8 *$'1-D
!'

!"
R<J 6)/,7 "J3H T#$%'( ?%,'-$* ') '1 *$% ,/@ +< *$% ]+(?D /1? +1 $') ,/@ *$%8
7%?'*/*% ?/8 /1? 1'-$*JU
/1? *$/* @$'.$ ') -++? .%/)%) *+
E% -++? '< '* E% 1+* ?+1% '1 / -++? @/8d e:)* /) / <,+@%( ') B:'*% +:* +< )%/)+1
'1 @'1*%(D /1? e:)* /) / 7/1^) .,+*$'1- ?+%) 1+* E%.+7% / @+7/1D 1+( /

!#
6)/,7 OOJ"4J

!$
6)/,7 QSJ"J

!%
R<J 9%:*%(+1+78 VJ4H TZ%.'*% h*$%)% @+(?)i *+ 8+:( .$',?(%1 /1? */,A
/E+:* *$%7 @$%1 8+: /(% /* $+7% /1? @$%1 8+: /(% /@/8D @$%1 8+:
,'% ?+@1 /1? @$%1 8+: (')%JU

!&
R<J 6(+K%(E) 3OJ"VH TI< 8+: $/K% <+:1? $+1%8D %/* +1,8 %1+:-$ <+( 8+:D
+( %,)%D $/K'1- *++ 7:.$D 8+: @',, K+7'* '*JU %K%1 *$+:-$ '* ') $+1%8H
#$% '?%/ ') *$/* $+1%8 ') +1% +< *$% K%(8 E%)* +< *$'1-) '1 '*)%,<J

!'
=..,%)'/)*%) QJ"J
#$%+,+-'./, 0(/*'+1) "

O
@+7/1^) / 7/1d /1? /) -%+7%*(8 ') +:* +< ;,/.% '1 7+:(1'1-D
!(
c OJ G:(%,8 1+*D 78 <('%1?) /1? E(%*$(%1 C <+( I @',, )*',, ./,, 8+: TE(%*$(%1DU
%K%1 *$+:-$ 8+: ?+ 1+* E%$/K% ,'A% E(+*$%()J ]%* :) 1+* *$'1A )+D 1+( 8%*D ,'A%
%F.'*%? /1? :1-+K%(1/E,% $+()%)D *$(+@'1- +<< +:( ?('K%( Z%/)+1D /1? );'**'1-
+:* *$% E'* +< (%)*(/'1'1- Z%K%(%1.%D ,%* :) (:1 @'?% +< *$% *:(1'1- ;+)*J
+( *%/() /* /
;/(*8 C )$/,, @% '1 *$') '1)*/1.% /,+1% ?')(%-/(? *$% ;(+;%( *'7%D '1 / 7/**%( '1
@$'.$ ?').(%*'+1 )$+:,? E% (%);%.*%? 7+)* +< /,,j
!)

I1)*%/?D ,%* :) ;$',+)+;$')% @'*$'1 +:( ;(+;%( E+:1?)D /1? 1+* E% ./(('%?
/@/8 '1*+ =-8;*D 1+( E% )@%;* ?+@1 '1*+ Y))8('/D
"*
1+( )'1- *$% ]+(?^) )+1- '1
/ )*(/1-% ,/1?D
"!
E8 @$'.$ I 7%/1 E%<+(% /18 A'1? +< /:?'%1.%D )*(/1-%() +(
A'1?(%?D $+)*',% +( <('%1?,8D )87;/*$%*'. +( :1)87;/*$%*'.D @$+ @/*.$ @$/*
@% ?+ @'*$ / .('*'./, %8%D /1? @+:,? ,'A% *$% );/(A +< @$/* ') @(+1- '1 :) *+
E%.+7% / <,/7%D /1? )%.(%*,8 A'1?,% /1? </1 '* /1? (/')% '* *+ $%/K%1 @'*$ *$%'(
E(%/*$ /1? 7/A% '* $'-$%( *$/1 *$% b/E8,+1'/1 <,/7% @$'.$ E:(1* :; %K%(8
*$'1- /(+:1? '*J
""

!(
/) -%+7%*(8 ') +:* +< ;,/.% '1 7+:(1'1-J G+7% /1.'%1* @('*%() .,/))'<'%?
-%+7%*(8 /) ;/(* +< 7:)'./, )*:?'%)D /1? *$:) /) )+7%*$'1- <:1 *+ ?+J
#$%(% ') 1+ /..+:1*'1- <+( */)*%)J
&+( )'1.% *$%'( )*(%1-*$ ,'%) 1+* '1 *$%'( +@1 *%/.$'1-)D *$%8
$:1* <+( '* '1 +:( @%/A ;+'1*)J Y1? *$%(%<+(% *$%8 /;;,8 *$%7)%,K%) *+ +:( C
)$/,, I )/8 T7')<+(*:1%)U +( T</','1-)Uj C ,'A% <,'%) *+ @+:1?)J b:* ,%* :) /* ,%/)*
E% 1+ ,+1-%( '-1+(/1* +< +:()%,K%)D +( ;/8 *++ ,'**,% /**%1*'+1 *+ *$% ?:% +(?%(
'1 *$%)% 7/**%()J Y1? '< '* E% '7;+))'E,% *+ ;:* /1 %1? *+ *$% %F')*'1- $+)*','*8D
,%* :) /* ,%/)* /-(%% :;+1 *$')D *$/* @% @',, :**%( 78)*%('%) :1?%( +:( E(%/*$D
/1? $+,8 *$'1-) '1 / $+,8 7/11%(D /1? @% @',, 1+* ./)* *+ ;(+</1% %/() *$/*
@$'.$ 7/8 1+* E% :**%(%?D 1+( -'K% %K'?%1.% *$/* @% ;+))%)) ,%)) -(/K'*8 *$/1

!)
1+( 8%*D ,'A% %F.'*%? /1? :1-+K%(1/E,% $+()%) X (:1 @'?% +< *$% *:(1'1-
;+)*J W(%-+(8^) 7%*/;$+( $/) *+ ?+ @'*$ .$/('+* (/.%) '1 *$% $';;+?(+7%
+< R+1)*/1*'1+;,%H $% .+7;/(%) (%/)+1 2T*$/* @$'.$ (:,%) @'*$'1 :)U5
@'*$ *$% ?('K%( +< / .$/('+*J #$% *:(1'1- ;+)* @/) *$% ;+'1* (+:1? @$'.$
*$% .$/('+*%%( $/? *+ )*%%( $') K%$'.,% *+ E%-'1 *$% )%.+1? ,/; +< *$% (/.%d
*$% *'-$*%( *$% *:(1D *$% E%**%( <+( *$% .$/('+*%%(^) .$/1.%) +< @'11'1-D
;,/.'1-D +( )$+@'1-J

"*
1+* E% ./(('%? /@/8 '1*+ =-8;*D 1+( E% )@%;* ?+@1 '1*+ Y))8('/J R<J
f+)%/ [JQH T#$%8 )$/,, 1+* (%7/'1 '1 *$% ,/1? +< *$% ]0Z9d E:* =;$(/'7
)$/,, (%*:(1 *+ =-8;*D /1? '1 Y))8('/ *$%8 )$/,, %/* :1.,%/1 <++?JU

"!
6)/,7 "Q4JS 2]ll "QVJS5J

""
*$% b/E8,+1'/1 <,/7% @$'.$ E:(1* :; %K%(8 *$'1- /(+:1? '*J 9/1'%, QJ"[L
3Q 2G$/?(/.$D _%)$/.$D /1? YE%-1%-+ *$(+@1 '1*+ *$% <:(1/.%5J
W(%-+(8 +< `/a'/1a:)

V
*$+)% @$+ @+()$'; ?%7+1) /1? )%(K% )$/7%<:, </E,%) /1? ?%%?)d <+( *$%8
@+:,? )++1%( -'K% *$%'( E,++? *+ *$% :1'1'*'/*%? *$/1 .%(*/'1 @+(?)J b:* ,%* :)
(%.+-1')% *$/* /) '1 ?(%)) /1? ?'%* /1? ,/:-$*%( /1? E%$/K'+:( *$%(% ') /
.%(*/'1 ?%.+(:7D )+ *$%(% ') /,)+ '1 );%%.$ /1? )',%1.%d )'1.% /7+1- *$% 7/18
*'*,%) /1? ;+@%() +< W+?D @% ;/8 *$% $'-$%)* $+1+:( *+ TM+(?UJ ]%* %K%1 +:(
?');:*%) *$%1 E% A%;* @'*$'1 E+:1?)J
c VJ M$8 )$+:,? )+7%+1% @$+ ') / $+)*',% ,')*%1%( *+ ):.$ @+(?) E%
/,,+@%? *+ $%/( /E+:* *$% E%-%**'1- +< W+? +( W+?^) .(%/*'+1D
"#
+( $+@ W+?
@/) 7/?% +:* +< *$'1-) @$'.$ $/? 1+ %F')*%1.%D +( +< )%.*'+1 /1? /1/,8)') /1?
?'K')'+1j
"$
M$8 ?+ @% 7/A% +:( /..:)%() +:( e:?-%)j M$8 ?+ @% ;:* )@+(?)
'1*+ *$% $/1?) +< +/( %1%7'%)j
"%
#$'1A <+( / 7'1:*%H $+@D +( @'*$ @$/*
*%7;%(D @',, /(-:7%1*) /E+:* ):.$ ):Ee%.*) E% (%.%'K%? E8 *$+)% @$+ /;;(+K%
+< /?:,*%('%) /1? *$% .+((:;*'+1 +< .$',?(%1D /1? @$+ @+()$'; *$% ;/))'+1)
/1? ./11+* .+1.%'K% +< /18*$'1- $'-$%( *$/1 *$% E+?8D @$+ :1*', B:'*%
(%.%1*,8 )%* :; -+?) <+( *$%7)%,K%) C /1? -+?)D /* *$/*D @$+ @%(% 1+*%? <+(
*$% K',%)* ?%%?)j M',, '* 1+* <'()* E% <(+7 / 7/*%('/, )*/1?;+'1*D )$/7%<:,,8 /1?
'-1+(/1*,8D /1? '1 *$% )%1)% *+ @$'.$ *$%8 $/K% E%%1 /..:)*+7%?j M',, *$%8
1+* 7/A% 8+:( *$%+,+-8 / ?%<%1.% <+( *$%'( +@1 -+?) /1? ;/))'+1)j &+( '< @%
+:()%,K%) @/1*+1,8 7'):)% *$%)% @+(?)D
"&
'* @',, E% / ,+1- *'7% E%<+(% @% )$/,,
;%():/?% *$%7 *+ /..%;* +:( ;$',+)+;$8J Y1? '< *$%8 /(% '1 *$%'( +@1 ;%()+1)
'1K%1*+() +< %K',D
"'

"#
*$% E%-%**'1- +< W+? +( W+?^) .(%/*'+1J W(%-+(8 $%(% /,,:?%) *+ *$%
?'<<%(%1* ;+)'*'+1) +< *$% `'.%1% /1? Y('/1 7+K%7%1*) (%-/(?'1- *$%
)*/*:) +< *$% G+1 +< W+?J #$% `'.%1% 7+K%7%1* '1)')*%? *$/* *$% G+1 @/)
TE%-+**%1 2-%11%*$%1*/5D 1+* 7/?% 2;+'%*$%1*/5dU *$% Y('/1)D *$/* *$%
G+1 @/) .(%/*%? 2-%1%*$%1*/5D *$/* ')D 7/?%J
$+@ )$+:,? *$%8 (%<(/'1 <(+7 -(/);'1- /* ):.$ *$'1-) @$%1

"$
+( $+@ W+? @/) 7/?% +:* +< *$'1-) @$'.$ $/? 1+ %F')*%1.%D +( +<
)%.*'+1 /1? /1/,8)') /1? ?'K')'+1J #$%)% /(% =:1+7'/1 (%<'1%7%1*) +< *$%
E/)'. Y('/1 ;+)'*'+1J

"%
M$8 ?+ @% 7/A% +:( /..:)%() +:( e:?-%)j M$8 ?+ @% ;:* )@+(?) '1*+
*$% $/1?) +< +/( %1%7'%)j #$% =:1+7'/1)D '* )%%7)D $/? / $/E'* +<
?').:))'1- *$%+,+-'./, ')):%) /1? ;(+7+*'1- *$%'( +@1 K'%@) /* *$% ?(+;
+< / $/*D (%-/(?,%)) +< @$+ @/) ;(%)%1*J W(%-+(8 ') )/8'1- *$/* *$') /,,+@)
;/-/1) *+ ?%);')% *$% R$(')*'/1 </'*$ @$'.$ `'.%1%) /1? =:1+7'/1) E+*$
;(+<%))J

"&
*$%)% @+(?)J Tb%-%**'1- h+< W+?iU /1? ThW+?^)i .(%/*'+1DU 7%1*'+1%? '1
*$% <'()* )%1*%1.% +< *$') )%.*'+1J

"'
Z+7/1) "JQPJ
#$%+,+-'./, 0(/*'+1) "

4
+<<%(%? *+ *$%7j G:.$ (%):,*) .+7% *+ :) <(+7 +:( ('K/,(8J G:.$ (%):,*) ?+-
*$+)% @$+ <'-$* <+( *$% M+(? E%8+1? @$/* *$% M+(? /;;(+K%) C *$%8 /(%
E%$/K'1- ,'A% '1)/1% ;%()+1) @$+ )%* *$%'( +@1 $+:)% +1 <'(%D +( /E:)% *$%'(
+@1 .$',?(%1D +( ?')/K+@ *$%'( +@1 ;/(%1*) /1? *(%/* *$%7 /) )*(/1-%()J
c 4J b:* @$%1 @% $/K% %F.,:?%? <(+7 *$% .+1K%()/*'+1 @$/*%K%( ') /,'%1
*+ '*D
"(
/1? )%1* *$% -(%/* ,%-'+1 +1 '*) @/8 *+ *$% /E8)) '1 *$% $%(? +< )@'1%D
")

*$% 1%F* *$'1- ') *+ ,++A *+ +:()%,K%)D /1? ;+,')$ +:( *$%+,+-'./, )%,< *+ E%/:*8
,'A% / )*/*:%J #$% <'()* ;+'1* *+ E% .+1)'?%(%? ')H C M$/* ') *$') -(%/* ('K/,(8 +<
);%%.$ /1? %1?,%)) */,A'1-j M$/* ') *$') 1%@ ?')%/)% +< '1)/*'/E','*8j M$8 $/K%
@% *'%? +:( $/1?) /1? /(7%? +:( *+1-:%)j M% ?+ 1+* ;(/')% %'*$%(
$+);'*/,'*8D +( E(+*$%(,8 ,+K%D +( .+1e:-/, /<<%.*'+1D +( K'(-'1'*8d 1+( ?+ @%
/?7'(% ,'E%(/,'*8 *+ *$% ;++(D +( *$% .$/1*'1- +< 6)/,7)D +( 1'-$*,+1- K'-',)D +(
*%/()J M% ?+ 1+* ):E?:% *$% E+?8 E8 </)*'1-D +( -+ <+(*$ *+ W+? E8 ;(/8%(d
1+( ?+ @% ):Ee%.* *$% @+()% *+ *$% E%**%( C I 7%/1 *$% ?:)* *+ *$% );'('*
#*
C /)
*$%8 @+:,? ?+ @$+ <+(7 / e:)* e:?-%L7%1* +< +:( .+7;+)'*% 1/*:(%J M% ?+
1+* 7/A% +:( ,'<% / ;(%;/(/*'+1 <+( ?%/*$D 1+( ?+ @% 7/A% +:()%,K%) 7/)*%()
+< +:( ;/))'+1)D 7'1?<:, +< +:( $%/K%1,8 1+E','*8d 1+( */7% +:( /1-%( @$%1 '*
)@%,,) /1? (/-%)D 1+( +:( ;('?% *$/* E('1-) /E+:* / </,,D
#!
1+( :1(%/)+1/E,%
-('%<D 1+( '-1+(/1* ;,%/):(%D
#"


1+( '1)'1.%(% ,/:-$*%(D 1+( :1?').';,'1%? %8%)D
1+( '1)/*'/E,% %/()D 1+( %F.%))'K% */,AD 1+( /E):(? *$+:-$*)D 1+( /18 +< *$%
"(
@$%1 @% $/K% %F.,:?%? <(+7 *$% .+1K%()/*'+1 @$/*%K%( ') /,'%1 *+ '*J
W(%-+(8 ?+%) 1+* 7%/1 ;/-/1 ;%()+1) E:* ;/-/1 1+*'+1) /1? /**'*:?%)
@$'.$ $/? %1*%(%? '1*+ R$(')*'/1 ?').+:()%J

")
)%1* *$% -(%/* ,%-'+1 +1 '*) @/8 *+ *$% /E8)) '1 *$% $%(? +< )@'1%J _/(A
OJ"L"QJ

#*
I 7%/1 *$% ?:)* *+ *$% );'('*J R<J " R+('1*$'/1) "OJSVLS[H Tb:* '* ') 1+* *$%
);'('*:/, *$/* ') <'()*D E:* *$% ;$8)'./,D /1? *$%1 *$% );'('*:/,J #$% <'()* 7/1
@/) <(+7 *$% %/(*$D / 7/1 +< ?:)*d *$% )%.+1? 7/1 ') <(+7 $%/K%1J Y)
@/) *$% 7/1 +< ?:)*D )+ /(% *$+)% @$+ /(% +< *$% ?:)*d /1? /) ') *$% 7/1
+< $%/K%1D )+ /(% *$+)% @$+ /(% +< $%/K%1J N:)* /) @% $/K% E+(1% *$%
'7/-% +< *$% 7/1 +< ?:)*D @% @',, /,)+ E%/( *$% '7/-% +< *$% 7/1 +<
$%/K%1JU

#!
+:( ;('?% *$/* E('1-) /E+:* / </,,J R<J 6(+K%(E) "VJ"\H T6('?% -+%) E%<+(%
?%)*(:.*'+1D /1? / $/:-$*8 );'('* E%<+(% / </,,JU

#"
'-1+(/1* ;,%/):(%J W(%-+(8 ') 1+* .+1?%71'1- /,, ;,%/):(%d $% ')
?%;,+('1- )%1)%,%)) ;,%/):(%D ;,%/):(% @$'.$ ?+%) A1+@ @$8 '* ') ;,%/)%?D
+( @$/* ') *(:,8 ;,%/)'1-D /1? )+ ') '1?').('7'1/*% /1? %;$%7%(/,J
W(%-+(8 +< `/a'/1a:)

\
+../)'+1) @$'.$ *$% =K', 01% -%*) /-/'1)* :) <(+7 )+:(.%) @'*$'1 +:()%,K%)d
E('1-'1- :;+1 :) *$% ?%/*$ *$/* .+7%) *$(+:-$ *$% @'1?+@)D /) f+,8
G.(';*:(% )/8)d
##
c \J Y1? 8%*D 0 .$/**8 ?'/,%.*'.'/1D I @',, B:%)*'+1 8+: / ,'**,%D /1? 8+: )$/,,
?%.,/(% *+ 7%D /) *$% 01% @$+ /1)@%() *$(+:-$ @$'(,@'1? /1? .,+:? )/8) *+
N+EJ
*$/* ')D *$(+:-$ *$% )%1)%)J I1?%%?D @% ?+ *$% K%(8 +;;+)'*%D
/1? $/K% -'K%1 ,'E%(*8 *+ *$% ;/))'+1) +< +*$%()D /) A'1-) -'K% (%,%/)%) <(+7
)%(K'.% '1 $+1+:( +< / K'.*+(8D +1,8 +1 .+1?'*'+1 *$/* *$%8 '1.,'1% *+ +:( )'?%D
/1? 7/A% *$%'( /))/:,* :;+1 W+? 7+(% E+,?,8D +( 7+(% '7;'+:),8J Y1? @%
-'K% *$%7 /1 %K', (%@/(? <+( / *$'1- @$'.$ ') 1+* -++?D ,'.%1)% +< *+1-:% <+(
*$%'( '7;'%*8J
#$
Y(% *$%(% 7/18 ?@%,,'1-L;,/.%) '1 W+?^) $+:)%D
#%
/) 8+: $/K% $%/(?D +(
+1,8 +1%j 0< .+:()% 8+: @',, /?7'* *$/* *$%(% /(% 7/18D /1? 1+* +1,8 +1%J
`+@D /(% *$%8 /,, *+ E% <',,%?D +( +1,8 )+7% /1? +*$%() 1+*D )+ *$/* )+7% @',,
E% ,%<* %7;*8 /1? @',, $/K% E%%1 ;(%;/(%? *+ 1+ ;:(;+)%j 0< .+:()% /,, @',,
E% <',,%?D <+( 1+*$'1- ./1 E% '1 K/'1 @$'.$ $/) E%%1 ?+1% E8 W+?J Y1? ./1
8+: *%,, 7% @$/* 8+: @',, .+1)'?%( *$') ?@%,,'1-L;,/.% *+ E%j I) '* *$% (%)* /1?
-,+(8 @$'.$ ') '1 )*+(% *$%(% <+( *$% E,%))%?D +( )+7%*$'1- %,)%j C T`+D 1+*
/18*$'1- %,)%JU C G'1.% *$%1 @% /(% /-(%%? :;+1 *$') ;+'1*D ,%* :) <:(*$%(
%F/7'1% /1+*$%( /,)+J I) *$%(% /18*$'1- *$/* ;(+.:(%) *$%)% ?'<<%(%1* ?@%,,'1-L
;,/.%)D /) I *$'1A *$%(% ')d +( ') *$%(% 1+*$'1-j C TR%(*/'1,8 *$%(% ')JU C M$/* ')
'*j I) '* 1+* *$/* *$%(% /(% K/('+:) 7+?%) +< .+1?:.*D /1? K/('+:) /'7)D +1%
,%/?'1- +1% @/8D /1+*$%( ,%/?'1- /1+*$%( @/8D /..+(?'1- *+ *$% ;(+;+(*'+1
+< </'*$D /1? *$%)% @% ./,, @/8)j _:)* @%D *$%1D *(/K%, /,,D +( e:)* )+7%D +<
*$%)% @/8) C *$% )/7% '1?'K'?:/, *(/K%,,'1- /,+1- *$%7 /,,D '< *$/* ') ;+))'E,%D
+(D '< 1+*D /,+1- /) 7/18 /) 7/8 E%d +( %,)% /,+1- )+7% +< *$%7j Y1? %K%1 '<
*$') 7/8 1+* E%D '* @+:,? )*',, E% / -(%/* *$'1-D /* ,%/)* /) '* /;;%/() *+ 7%D *+
*(/K%, %F.%,,%1*,8 /,+1- %K%1 +1%J C T>+: /(% ('-$* '1 8+:( .+1.%;*'+1JU C
M$%1 8+: $%/( *$%(% ') E:* +1% @/8D /1? *$/* 1/((+@D
#&

##
*$% ?%/*$ *$/* .+7%) *$(+:-$ *$% @'1?+@)J R<J N%(%7'/$ [J3"H T9%/*$
$/) .+7% :; '1*+ +:( @'1?+@)D '* $/) %1*%(%? +:( ;/,/.%)D *+ .:* +<< *$%
.$',?(%1 <(+7 *$% )*(%%*) /1? *$% 8+:1- 7%1 <(+7 *$% )B:/(%)JU
@$/* *$%1 ?+%) *$%
@+(? )%%7 *+ 8+: *+ 7%/1j #$/* *$%(% ') E:* +1% @/8D +1 /..+:1* +< '*)
%F.%,,%1.%J &+( '* ') E:* +1%D %K%1 *$+:-$ '* 7/8 E% );,'* '1*+ 7/18 ;/(*)J Y1?
'* ') 1/((+@ E%./:)% +< '*) ?'<<'.:,*'%)D /1? E%./:)% '* ') *(+??%1 E8 <%@ '1

#$
N+E Q\J"D Q

#%
N+$1 "SJ3J

#&
*$%(% ') E:* +1% @/8D /1? *$/* 1/((+@J R<J _/**$%@ 4J"QL"SH T=1*%(
*$(+:-$ *$% 1/((+@ -/*%XJ &+( *$% -/*% ') 1/((+@ /1? *$% (+/? ') $/(?
*$/* ,%/?) *+ ,'<%D /1? *$%(% /(% <%@ @$+ <'1? '*JU
#$%+,+-'./, 0(/*'+1) "

[
.+7;/(')+1 @'*$ *$% 7:,*'*:?% +< *$% /?K%()/('%) /1? +< *$+)% @$+ *(/K%,
/,+1- *$% (+/? +< @'.A%?1%))J C TG+ I *$'1A *++JU C M%,,D *$%1D 78 -++?
<('%1?D )'1.% *$') ') )+D @$8 ?+ 8+:D /) *$+:-$ .+1?%71'1- +:( ?+.*('1% <+( /
.%(*/'1 ;+K%(*8D (:)$ $%/?,+1- ?+@1 *$/* @/8 @$'.$ ,%/?) *$(+:-$ @$/* 8+:
./,, /(-:7%1*) /1? );%.:,/*'+1)D E:* I <('K+,'*'%) /1? B:/.A%('%)j ]%* 6/:,
(%;(+K% 8+: @'*$ *$+)% E'**%( (%;(+/.$%) '1 @$'.$D /<*%( $') ,')* +< *$% -'<*) +<
-(/.%D $% )/8)D Y(% /,, /;+)*,%)j Y(% /,, ;(+;$%*)j %*.J
#'
c [J b:* '* 7/8 E% /) 8+: )/8J >+: /(% $'-$D %K%1 $'-$%( *$/1 *$% $%'-$*)D
%K%1 /E+K% *$% .,+:?) C '< 8+: @')$D / );%.*/*+( +< *$'1-) '1K')'E,%D / $%/(%( +<
*$'1-) :1);%/A/E,%D

#(
+1% @$+ $/) /).%1?%? /<*%( =,'e/$D
#)
/1? @$+ /<*%(
_+)%) $/) E%%1 ?%%7%? @+(*$8 +< *$% K')'+1 +< W+?D
$*
/1? /<*%( 6/:, $/)
E%%1 ./:-$* :; '1*+ $%/K%1J M$8 *$%1 ?+ 8+: )%* :; 8+:( .+7;/1'+1) /)
)/'1*) /1? +(?/'1 *$%7 /) *$%+,+-'/1) /,, '1 / )'1-,% ?/8D /1? /) '* @%(%
E(%/*$% '1*+ *$%7 '1)*(:.*'+1 /1? 7/A% *$%7 7/18 .+:1.',) +< '-1+(/1*
+(/.,%)j M$8 ?+ 8+: %1*/1-,% *$+)% @$+ /(% @%/A%( '1 8+:( );'?%(^) @%ED /)
'< '* @%(% )+7%*$'1- -(%/* /1? @')%j M$8 ?+ 8+: )*'( :; @/);)^ 1%)*) /-/'1)*
*$% </'*$j M$8 ?+ 8+: ):??%1,8 );('1- / <,++? +< ?'/,%.*'.) :;+1 :)D /) *$%
78*$) +< +,? )/8 *$/* *$% %/(*$ );(+:*%? *$% -'/1*)j
$!
c "PJ 9+ 8+: ?%18 *$%)% *$'1-)j 9+ 8+: ./(% <+( 1+*$'1- E:* .+1*(+K%()8j
_:)* 8+:( *+1-:% (:,% 8+: /* /18 .+)*D /1? ./1 8+: 1+* (%)*(/'1 *$% *$(+%) +<
8+:( */,Aj >+: 7/8 <'1? 7/18 +*$%( ?%)%(K'1- ):Ee%.*) <+( ?').:))'+1J #:(1
*$') ?')%/)% +< 8+:() *+ *$%)% @'*$ )+7% /?K/1*/-%J Y**/.A *$% )',%1.% +<
68*$/-+(/)D /1? *$% 0(;$'. E%/1)D /1? *$/* ;(%;+)*%(+:) E(/-D Tf'7)%,< $/)
M$8 $/K% 8+: .+,,%.*%?D
,'A% +<<).+:('1-)D %K%(8 @+(*$,%)) *$'1- *$/* $/) $:7/1 <+(7 '1*+ +1% *+((%1*D
/1? $/K'1- 7/?% *$%7 )',,'%( E8 <,/**%(8D </)$'+1%? / 1%@ @+(A)$+;D .,%K%(,8
7/A'1- / $/(K%)* <+( 8+:()%,< +:* +< *$%'( @/1* +< :1?%()*/1?'1-j

#'
" R+('1*$'/1) "3J3[J

#(
/ );%.*/*+( +< *$'1-) '1K')'E,%D / $%/(%( +< *$'1-) :1);%/A/E,%J R<J 3
R+('1*$'/1) "3J3D SH TI A1+@ / ;%()+1 '1 R$(')* @$+ <+:(*%%1 8%/() /-+
@/) ./:-$* :; *+ *$% *$'(? $%/K%1XD '1*+ 6/(/?')% /1? $%/(? *$'1-) *$/*
/(% 1+* *+ E% *+,?D *$/* 1+ 7+(*/, ') ;%(7'**%? *+ (%;%/*JU

#)
3 m'1-) 3J""J

$*
=F+?:) QSJVJ

$!
I1 /1.'%1* W(%%A 78*$+,+-8D *$% -'/1*) 1+* +1,8 );(/1- +:* +< %/(*$ E:*
/,)+ @/((%? /-/'1)* *$% -+?)J #$%(%'1 ,'%) *$% %?-% +< W(%-+(8^) /,,:)'+1 C
*$/* *$% =:1+7'/1)D ,'A% *$% 78*$'. -'/1*)D @%(% @/-'1- @/( +1 W+?J
W(%-+(8 +< `/a'/1a:)

"P
);+A%1JU
$"
Y**/.A *$% TI?%/)U +< 6,/*+D
$#
/1? *$% *(/1)E+?'7%1*) /1?
.'(.:,/*'+1) +< +:( )+:,)D
$$
/1? *$% (%7'1').%1.%)D
$%
/1? *$% :1,+K%,8 ,+K%) <+(
,+K%,8 E+?'%)D *$+:-$ ?'(%.*%? *+ *$% E%,+K%?^) )+:,J Y**/.A *$% /*$%')7 +<
=;'.:(:)D /1? $') /*+7)D /1? $') ?+.*('1% +< ;,%/):(%D :1@+(*$8 +< /
;$',+)+;$%(d
$&

$"
Y**/.A *$% )',%1.% +< 68*$/-+(/)D /1? *$% 0(;$'. E%/1)D /1? *$% 1+K%,
E(/- /E+:* Tf'7)%,< $/) );+A%1JU 68*$/-+(/) @/) / W(%%A ;$',+)+;$%(
/1? 7/*$%7/*'.'/1 @$+ <,+:(')$%? '1 *$% )'F*$ .%1*:(8 bJRJ=J f%
?%K%,+;%? / ;$',+)+;$8 @$'.$ @/) /,)+ / (%,'-'+:) .:,*J `+K'.%)
:1?%(@%1* )%K%(/, 8%/()^ ;(+E/*'+1D ?:('1- @$'.$ *$%8 $/? *+ 7/'1*/'1
*+*/, )',%1.%d /1? *$% (:,% +< *$% 68*$/-+(%/1 7/)*%( @/) /E)+,:*%D ):.$
*$/* /,, ?').:))'+1 ./7% *+ /1 %1? /) )++1 /) $% /11+:1.%? Autoç c|o
2Y:*+) %;$/ C Tf'7)%,< $/) );+A%1U5J 01% )*(/'1 +< 68*$/-+(%/1')7
/))'7',/*%? %,%7%1*) +< *$% 0(;$'. .:,*D /1 /1.'%1* W(%%A 78)*%(8 (%,'-'+1
?%K+*%? *+ 0(;$%:) 2+< T/1? =:(8?'.%U </7%5d /) ;/(* +< '*) )*('.* ?'%*/(8
,/@)D 7%7E%() @%(% <+(E'??%1 *+ %/* E%/1)D +1 *$% -(+:1?) *$/* *$%8
$%,? $:7/1 )+:,) /* /1 %/(,8 )*/-% +< *$%'( 7'-(/*'+1 *+@/(? $:7/1'*8J
+( Y(')*+*,%^) ;%**8 6(+K'?%1.%D /1? $') /(*'<'.'/, )8)*%7D /1? $')
?').+:()%) /E+:* *$% 7+(*/,'*8 +< *$% )+:,D /1? *$% %F.,:)'K%,8 $:7/1 <+.:) +<

$#
*$% TI?%/)U +< 6,/*+J I1 6,/*+^) *$+:-$*D I?%/) @%(% *$% %*%(1/, /(.$%*8;%)
+( ;/**%(1) +< /,, %F')*'1- *$'1-)D /..+(?'1- *+ @$'.$ ?'K'1% Z%/)+1
<+(7%? *$+)% *$'1-)J

$$
*$% *(/1)E+?'7%1*) /1? .'(.:,/*'+1) +< +:( )+:,)J Y1+*$%( +< 6,/*+^)
?+.*('1%) @/) *$/* )+:,) T7'-(/*%?U /<*%( ?%/*$ 2/1? / *$+:)/1?L8%/(
@/'*'1- ;%('+?5 <(+7 +1% E+?8 *+ /1+*$%( E+?8d *$% *8;% +< E+?8 *+
@$'.$ *$% )+:, 7'-(/*%? ?%;%1?%? +1 *$% )+:,^) 7%('* '1 '*) ;(%K'+:)
K%1:% C '< -++?D '* 7'-$* ;/)) <(+7 /1 %,%;$/1*^) E+?8 *+ / $:7/1^)d '<
E/?D <(+7 / $:7/1 E+?8 *+ *$/* +< / )1/A%J

$%
*$% (%7'1').%1.%)J Y (%<%(%1.% *+ *$% ;(%K'+:) ?+.*('1%J 6,/*+ $%,? *$/*
*$% )+:, T(%7%7E%()U *$% A1+@,%?-% '* /.B:'(%? '1 / ;(%K'+:)
%7E+?'7%1*J

$&
*$% /*$%')7 +< =;'.:(:)D /1? $') /*+7)D /1? $') ?+.*('1% +< ;,%/):(%D
:1@+(*$8 +< / ;$',+)+;$%(J =;'.:(:) 2./J QSPL34P bJRJ=J5 @/) /
*$+(+:-$-+'1- 7/*%('/,')* @$+ $%,? *$/* ;,%/):(% @/) *$% +1,8
:17'*'-/*%? -++? /1? ;/'1 *$% +1,8 :17'*'-/*%? %K',J I1 $') K'%@D
T/*+7)U @%(% *$% ;('7/(8 7/*%('/,) @$'.$ 7/?% :; %K%(8*$'1-D /1? *$%8
@%(% %*%(1/,J f% ?'? 1+* ?%18 *$% %F')*%1.% +< *$% -+?)D e:)* *$/* *$%8
$/? /18 '7;/.* +( '1<,:%1.% +1 *$% ,'<% +< *$% @+(,?J
#$%+,+-'./, 0(/*'+1) "

""
$') *%/.$'1-)J
$'
Y**/.A *$% $/:-$*'1%)) +< *$% G*+/D
$(
+( *$% -(%%? /1? K:,-/('*8
+< *$% R81'.J
$)

Y**/.A <+( 7% *$% %7;*'1%)) *$/* ') <:,, +< /E):(?'*'%) C /,, *$/*
)*:<< /E+:* *$% -+?) /1? *$% )/.('<'.%) /1? *$% '?+,) /1? ?%7+1)D @$%*$%(
E%1%<'.%1* +( 7/,'-1/1*D /1? /,, *$% *('.A) *$/* ;%+;,% ;,/8 @'*$ ?'K'1/*'+1D
*$% ./,,'1- :; +< -+?) +( +< )+:,)D /1? *$% ;+@%( +< *$% )*/()J Y1? '< *$%)%
*$'1-) )%%7 *+ 8+: :1@+(*$8 +< ?').:))'+1 /) ;%**8 /1? /,(%/?8 +<*%1
.+1<:*%?D /1? 8+: @')$ *+ A%%; *+ 8+:( ,'1%D /1? )%%A *+ )/*')<8 8+:( /7E'*'+1
'1 '*d *$%1 $%(% *++ I @',, ;(+K'?% 8+: @'*$ E(+/? ;/*$)J 6$',+)+;$')% /E+:*
*$% @+(,? +( @+(,?)d /E+:* 7/**%(d /E+:* )+:,d /E+:* 1/*:(%) %1?+@%? @'*$
(%/)+1D -++? +( E/?d /E+:* (%):((%.*'+1D /E+:* e:?-%7%1*D /E+:* (%@/(?D +(
*$% ):<<%('1-) +< R$(')*J &+( '1 *$%)% ):Ee%.*) *+ $'* *$% 7/(A ') 1+* :)%,%))D /1?
*+ 7')) '* ') 1+* ?/1-%(+:)J b:* @'*$ W+? @% )$/,, $/K% .+1K%()%D '1 *$') ,'<%
+1,8 '1 / )7/,, ?%-(%%d E:* / ,'**,% ,/*%(D '* 7/8 E%D 7+(% ;%(<%.*,8D '1 *$% G/7%D
+:( ]+(? N%):) R$(')*D *+ M$+7 E% -,+(8 <+( %K%(J Y7%1J



$'
Y(')*+*,%^) ?')7'))'K% *(%/*7%1* +< 6(+K'?%1.%D X /1? *$% %F.,:)'K%,8
$:7/1 <+.:) +< $') *%/.$'1-)J Y(')*+*,% 2Q\SLQ33 bJRJ=J5 @/) *$% <'()*
*(:,8 )8)*%7/*'. ;$',+)+;$%( '1 *$/* $% )+:-$* *+ .+1)*(:.* /1 /..+:1* +<
(%/,'*8 /..+(?'1- *+ /1 '1*%,,'-'E,% )8)*%7D @+(A'1- <(+7 ;$8)'./, %1*'*'%)
E/.A *+ <'()* ;('1.';,%)J f% .+1.%'K%? +< / ?'K'1% &'()* k17+K%? _+K%(
@$+ 2+( @$'.$5 )*/(*%? *$% .(%/*'K% ;(+.%)) E:* ?'? 1+* '1*%(<%(%
*$%(%/<*%( C $%1.% W(%-+(8^) (%7/(A /E+:* Y(')*+*,%^) ?')7'))'K%
*(%/*7%1* +< 6(+K'?%1.%J #$% (%)* +< Y(')*+*,%^) T*$%+,+-8U ') K%(8 *$'1D
)+ *$/* $') ;$',+)+;$8 ./1 )%%7 *+ E% 2/) W(%-+(8 .+7;,/'1)5 ?%K+'? +<
/18 )%('+:) +( ):)*/'1%? (%<%(%1.% *+ *$% ?'K'1%J

$(
*$% $/:-$*'1%)) +< *$% G*+/J #$% G*+/ @/) / .+,+11/?% '1 Y*$%1) @$%(%
*$% ;$',+)+;$%( n%1+ +< R'*':7 2./ QQOL./J 3VQ bJRJ=J5 -/*$%(%? $')
?').';,%)d $%1.% *$% 1/7% TG*+'.UJ n%1+ /1? *$% G*+'.) +;;+)%? =;'.:(:)
2)%% <1J SV5 /1? ;(%/.$%? /;/*$%'/D *$% %(/?'./*'+1 +< /,, <%%,'1- )+ *$/*
+1% 7'-$* E% /E)+,:*%,8 :17+K%? E8 /18 %F*%(1/, <+(.% /1? *$:)
.+7;,%*%,8 <(%%J #$') 7/?% *$%'( *%/.$'1- )%%7 T$/:-$*8UJ

$)
*$% R81'.J R81'.) )+:-$* *+*/, <(%%?+7 E8 ?%);')'1- /1? '1?%%?
.+1).'+:),8 +:*(/-'1- )+.'/, .+1K%1*'+1) C *$%8 .:,*'K/*%? T<(%%,+/?'1-DU
;%(<+(7%? E+?',8 <:1.*'+1)D %K%1 .+;:,/*%?D '1 ;:E,'.D /1? (%<:)%? *+
E/*$%J
W(%-+(8 +< `/a'/1a:)

"3



I3
The Second Theologlcul Crullon
Crullon 28

Cn Theology


N lhe prevlous Dlscourse ve luld dovn cleurly vhul sorl of churucler
lheologluns oughl lo huve. und on vhul klnd of sub|ecl lhey muy
phllosophlse. und vhen. und lo vhul exlenl. Ve suv lhul lheologluns oughl
lo be pure (us fur us posslble). ln order lhul llghl muy be upprehended by
llghl; und lhul lhey oughl lo consorl vllh lhoughlful people. ln order lhul
lhelr vord muy nol be frullless lhrough fulllng on un unfrullful soll;
I
und lhul
lhe sulluble seuson ls vhen ve huve gulned un lnner culm from lhe vhlrl of
oulvurd lhlngs; so lhul ve ure nol llke lhose punllng vllh ruge und lose our
breulh; und lhul lhe exlenl lo vhlch ve muy go ls lhul lo vhlch ve huve
ourselves udvunced. or lo vhlch ve ure udvunclng. Slnce lhen lhese lhlngs ure
so. und ve huve broken up for ourselves lhe fullov ground of dlvlnlly so us
nol lo sov upon lhorns.
2
und huve levelled lhe surfuce of lhe ground.
3
§ 2. Nov vhen I eugerly go up on lo lhe Mounl
belng
formed und formlng olhers by Holy Scrlplure ÷ lel us nov enler upon
lheologlcul quesllons. selllng ul lhe chlef lhe Fulher. lhe Son. und lhe Holy
Splrll. of vhom ve ure lo lreul; lhul lhe Fulher muy be vell pleused. und lhe
Son muy help us. und lhe Holy Chosl muy lnsplre us; or rulher lhul one
lllumlnullon muy come upon us from lhe one Cod. one ln dlverslly. dlverse ln
unlly ÷ vhlch ls lhe murvel llself.
4

I
Cf. Murk 4.I8-I9: ¨And olhers ure lhose sovn umong lhe lhorns: lhese
ure lhe ones vho heur lhe vord. bul lhe cures of lhe vorld. und lhe lure
of veullh. und lhe deslre for olher lhlngs come ln und choke lhe vord.
und ll proves unfrullful.`
÷ or. lo use u lruer
expresslon. vhen I bolh eugerly long und ul lhe sume llme um unxlously

2
Cf. 1eremluh 4.3: ¨For lhus suys lhe LCRD lo lhe people of 1uduh und lo
lhe lnhubllunls of 1erusulem: 8reuk up your fullov ground. und do nol
sov umong lhorns.`

3
Cf. Isuluh 28.25: ¨Vhen lhey huve levelled lls surfuce. do lhey nol sculler
dlll. sov cummln. und plunl vheul ln rovs und burley ln lls proper
pluce. und spell us lhe border!`

4
Cregory here beglns u medllullve ¨rlff` on Lxodus I9. lhe slory of lhe
Isruellles cumped before Mounl Slnul.
I
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

I4
feurful (lhe one lhrough my hope und lhe olher lhrough my veukness) lo
enler vllhln lhe cloud und hold converse vllh Cod. for so Cod communds ÷
lhen. lf uny be un Auron. lel hlm go up vllh me. und lel hlm slund neur. belng
reudy. lf ll musl be so. lo remuln oulslde lhe Cloud. 8ul lf uny be u Nudud or
un Ablhu. or of lhe Crder of lhe Llders. lel hlm go up lndeed. bul lel hlm
slund ufur off. uccordlng lo lhe vulue of hls purlflcullon.
5
8ul lf uny belong lo
lhe mullllude vho ure unvorlhy of lhls helghl of conlemplullon. lf lhey ure
ullogelher lmpure lel lhem nol upprouch ul ull. for ll vould be dungerous for
lhem. 8ul lf lhey ure ul leusl lemporurlly purlfled. lel lhem remuln belov und
llslen lo lhe Volce ulone und lo lhe lrumpel. lhe bure vords of plely. und lel
lhem see lhe mounluln smoklng und llghlnlng. ul once u lerror und u murvel
lo lhose vho cunnol go up. 8ul lf uny ure evll und suvuge beusls. und
ullogelher lncupuble of luklng ln lhe loplcs of conlemplullon und lheology. lel
lhem nol hurlfully und mullgnunlly lurk ln lhelr dens umong lhe voods. lo
culch hold of some leuchlng or suylng by u sudden sprlng. und lo leur lhe
sound vords
6
lo pleces by lhelr mlsrepresenlullons. Insleud. lel lhem slund
ufur off und vllhdruv from lhe Mounl. or lhey shull be sloned und crushed
und perlsh mlserubly ln lhelr vlckedness. For lo lhose vho ure llke vlld beusls
lrue und sound dlscourses ure slones. If lhey ure u leopurd lel lhem dle vllh
lhelr spols.
7
If lhey ure u ruvenlng und rourlng llon. seeklng vhul lhey muy
devour of our souls or of our vords;
8
or u vlld bour. lrumpllng under fool
lhe preclous und lrunslucenl peurls of lhe Trulh;
9
or un Arublun volf und u
slrunger.
I0

5
Cf. Lxodus 24.I-2: ¨Then [lhe LCRD] suld lo Moses. 'Come up lo lhe
LCRD. you und Auron. Nudub. und Ablhu. und sevenly of lhe elders of
Isruel. und vorshlp ul u dlslunce. Moses ulone shull come neur lhe LCRD;
bul lhe olhers shull nol come neur. und lhe people shull nol come up
vllh
hlm.` `
or one keener even lhun lhese ln lrlcks of urgumenl; or u |uckul

6
I Tlmolhy 6.3; 2 Tlmolhy I.I3.

7
If lhey ure u leopurd lel lhem dle vllh lhelr spols. Cf. 1eremluh I3.23:
¨Cun Llhlopluns chunge lhelr skln or leo-purds lhelr spols!`

8
Cf. I Peler 5.8b: ¨Llke u rourlng llon your udversury lhe devll provls
uround. looklng for someone lo devour.`

9
Cf. Mullhev 7.6: ¨Do nol lhrov your peurls before svlne. or lhey vlll
lrumple lhem under fool und lurn und muul you.`

Theologlcul Crullons 2

I5
(lhul ls. u lreucherous und fullhless soul) vhlch chunges lls shupe uccordlng lo
clrcumslunces or necessllles. und feeds on deud or pulrld bodles or on llllle
vlneyurds vhen lhe lurge ones huve escuped lhem; or uny olher curnlvorous
beusl. re|ecled by lhe Luv of Moses us uncleun for food or en|oymenl ÷ our
dlscourse musl vllhdruv from such und be engruved on solld lubles of slone.
und lhul on bolh sldes becuuse lhe Luv ls purlly vlslble. und purlly hldden; lhe
one purl belonglng lo lhe mob vho remuln belov. lhe olher lo lhe fev vho
press on up lhe Mounl.
§ 3. Vhul ls lhls lhul hus huppened lo me. C frlends. lnlllules ln lhe
myslerles.
II
und fellov-lovers of lhe lrulh! I vus runnlng lo luy hold on Cod;
so I venl up lhe Mounl und drev uslde lhe curluln of lhe Cloud. und enlered
uvuy from muller und mulerlul lhlngs. und us fur us I could I vllhdrev vllhln
myself. And lhen vhen I looked up. I burely suv lhe buck of Cod; ullhough I
vus shellered by lhe Rock. lhe Vord lhul vus mude flesh for us.
I2
And vhen I
looked u llllle closer. I suv. nol lhe flrsl und unmlngled Nulure. knovn lo
llself ÷ lo lhe Trlnlly. I meun; nol lhul vhlch dvells behlnd lhe flrsl vell und ls
hldden by lhe Cherublm.
I3

I0
un Arublun volf comes from Hubukkuk I.8. uccordlng lo lhe Sepluuglnl.
NRSV lrunslules lhe Hebrev lexl us ¨more menuclng lhun volves ul
dusk`. Cregory perhups meuns und u slrunger lo lnlerprel lhe lmuge.
bul only lhul Nulure vhlch ul lusl even reuches lo

II
lnlllules ln lhe myslerles. I.e.. lhey huve been bupllsed.

I2
I burely suv lhe buck of Cod; ullhough I vus shellered by lhe Rock. lhe
Vord lhul vus mude flesh for us. Cf. Lxodus 33.I8-23: Moses suld.
'Shov me your glory. I pruy.` And he suld. 'I vlll muke ull my goodness
puss before you. und vlll proclulm before you lhe nume. ¨The LCRD` ..
8ul.` he suld. 'you cunnol see my fuce; for no one shull see me und llve.`
And lhe LCRD conllnued. 'See. lhere ls u pluce by me vhere you shull
slund on lhe rock; und vhlle my glory pusses by I vlll pul you ln u clefl
of lhe rock. und I vlll cover you vllh my hund unlll I huve pussed by;
lhen I vlll luke uvuy my hund. und you shull see my buck; bul my fuce
shull nol be seen.` `

I3
lhul vhlch dvells behlnd lhe flrsl vell und ls hldden by lhe Cherublm.
Cregory ls referrlng lo lhe Ark of lhe Covenunl. Lxodus 25.I7-2I: ¨Then
you shull muke u mercy seul of pure gold; lvo cublls und u hulf shull be
lls lenglh. und u cubll und u hulf lls vldlh. You shull muke lvo cherublm
of gold; you shull muke lhem of hummered vork. ul lhe lvo ends of lhe
mercy seul. Muke one cherub ul lhe one end. und one cherub ul lhe
olher; of one plece vllh lhe mercy seul you shull muke lhe cherublm ul
lls lvo ends. The cherublm shull spreud oul lhelr vlngs ubove.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

I6
us. And lhul ls. us fur us I cun leurn. lhe Mu|esly ÷ or. us holy Duvld culls ll. lhe
Clory
I4
÷ vhlch ls munlfesled umong lhe creulures. vhlch ll hus produced und
governs. For lhese ure lhe ¨buck` of Cod. vhlch lhe dlvlne Trlnlly leuves
behlnd us lokens of llself ÷ llke lhe shudovs und reflecllon of lhe sun ln lhe
vuler vhlch shov lhe sun lo our veuk eyes. becuuse ve cunnol look ul lhe
sun llself. slnce by lls unmlxed llghl ll ls loo slrong for our pover of
percepllon. In lhls vuy lhen shull you dlscourse uboul Cod. even lf you vere
u Moses und u god lo Phuruoh.
I5
even lf you vere cuughl up llke Puul lo lhe
Thlrd Heuven und hud heurd unspeukuble vords.
I6
even lf you vere rulsed
ubove lhem bolh und exulled lo lhe slulus of un ungel or urchungel. For
lhough u lhlng be ull heuvenly. or ubove heuven. und fur hlgher ln nulure und
neurer lo Cod lhun ve ure. yel ll ls furlher dlslunl from Cod und from lhe
complele comprehenslon of Cod`s nulure. lhun ll ls llfled ubove our complex
und lovly und velghed-dovn composlllon.
I7



overshudovlng lhe mercy seul vllh lhelr vlngs. They shull fuce one lo
unolher; lhe fuces of lhe cherublm shull be lurned lovurd lhe mercy seul.
You shull pul lhe mercy seul on lhe lop of lhe urk; und ln lhe urk you
shull pul lhe covenunl lhul I shull glve you.` And Lxodus 26.30-3I.
descrlblng lhe lubernucle (or ¨lenl of meellng`) vhlch vus hold lhe Ark:
¨Then you shull erecl lhe lubernucle uccordlng lo lhe plun for ll lhul you
vere shovn on lhe mounluln. You shull muke u curluln [or vell] of blue.
purple. und crlmson yurns. und of flne lvlsled llnen; ll shull be mude
vllh cherublm skllfully vorked lnlo ll.`

I4
Psulm 8.I: ¨You huve sel your glory ubove lhe heuvens` (NRSV). A. 1.
Muson commenls: ¨Cregory prefers lhe vord [µc¸oìotµctcio. ¨glory`]
becuuse ll expresses nol lhe ubslrucl quullly. llke µc¸oìciotqç [¨mu|esly`].
bul lhe lmpresslon produced by lls munlfeslullon.`

I5
Cf. Lxodus 7.I: ¨The LCRD suld lo Moses. 'See. I huve mude you llke Cod
lo Phuruoh. und your brolher Auron shull be your prophel.` `

I6
2 Corlnlhluns I2.2. 4: ¨I knov u person ln Chrlsl vho fourleen yeurs ugo
vus cuughl up lo lhe lhlrd heuven.. lnlo Purudlse und heurd lhlngs lhul
ure nol lo be lold. lhul no morlul ls permllled lo repeul.`

I7
Cf. Vlsdom 9.I5: ¨For u perlshuble body velghs dovn lhe soul. und lhls
eurlhy lenl burdens lhe lhoughlful mlnd.` 8y our composlllon (krumu).
Cregory meuns humunlly`s composlle nulure. our belng mude up of
body und soul.
Theologlcul Crullons 2

I7
§ 4. Therefore ve musl begln uguln ln lhls vuy. Il ls dlfflcull lo huve u cleur
ldeu of Cod. bul lo deflne Cod ln vords ls un lmposslblllly. us one of lhe
Creek lheologluns luughl
I8
÷ nol unskllfully. ll seems lo me ÷ vllh lhe
lnlenllon lhul he mlghl be lhoughl lo huve upprehended Cod; ln lhul he suys
ll ls u hurd lhlng lo do; und yel muy escupe belng convlcled of lgnorunce
becuuse of lhe lmposslblllly of glvlng expresslon lo lhe upprehenslon. 8ul ln
my oplnlon ll ls lmposslble lo express Cod. und yel more lmposslble lo form u
cleur ldeu of Hlm. For lhul vhlch muy be concelved muy perhups be mude
cleur by lunguuge. lf nol udequulely. ul leusl dlmly. lo uny one vho ls nol
hurd of heurlng or dull of underslundlng. 8ul lo exhuusl lhe vhole of so greul
u sub|ecl ls qulle lmposslble und lmprucllcuble. nol merely lo lhe ullerly
cureless und lgnorunl bul even lo lhose vho ure splrlluully exulled und vho
love Cod. und llkevlse lo every olher creuled nulure. For lhe durkness of lhls
vorld und lhe lhlck coverlng of lhe flesh ure un obslucle lo lhe full
underslundlng of lhe lrulh. I do nol knov vhelher ll ls lhe sume vllh lhe
hlgher nulures und purer Inlelllgences
I9
§ 5. 8ul lel lhls quesllon be dropped for nov.
vhlch becuuse of lhelr neurness lo
Cod. und becuuse lhey ure lllumlned vllh ull Hls Llghl. muy posslbly see. lf nol
lhe vhole. ul uny rule more perfeclly und dlsllnclly lhun ve do ÷ some
perhups more. some less lhun olhers. ln proporllon lo lhelr runk.
20
Vhul concerns us ls nol
only lhe peuce of Cod vhlch surpusses ull underslundlng und knovledge.
2I
nor
only lhe lhlngs vhlch Cod hus slored up ln promlse for lhe rlghleous. vhlch
no eye hus seen. nor eur heurd. nor lhe humun heurl concelved excepl ln u
very smull degree.
22
nor lhe uccurule knovledge of lhe creullon. For even of
lhls I vould huve you knov lhul you huve only u shudov vhen you heur lhe
vords. I vlll conslder your heuvens. lhe vork of your flngers. lhe moon und
lhe slurs und lhe sellled order vhlch prevulls umong lhem.
23

I8
Plulo. Tlmueus 28 L.
nol us lf lhe
Psulmlsl vere conslderlng lhem nov. bul us desllned lo do so hereufler. 8ul
fur before lhem ls lhul nulure vhlch ls ubove lhem. und oul of vhlch lhey
sprlng. lhe Incomprehenslble und Illlmlluble ÷ nol. I meun. us lo lhe fucl of lls
belng. bul us lo lls nulure. For our preuchlng ls nol fullle. nor ls our fullh ln

I9
lhe hlgher nulures und purer Inlelllgences. I.e. ungels und urchungels.

20
lhls quesllon. I.e. regurdlng lhe ungels` knovledge of Cod.

2I
Phlllppluns 4.7.

22
I Corlnlhluns 2.9; cf. Isuluh 64.4.

23
Psulm 8.4.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

I8
vuln.
24
§ 6. Nov our ovn eyes und lhe Luv of Nulure leuch us lhul Cod exlsls.
und lhul He ls bolh lhe creullve Cuuse of ull lhlngs und lhe Cuuse-lhul-
mulnlulns-ull-lhlngs-ln-hurmony. Cur eyes leuch us lhls. becuuse lhey full on
vlslble ob|ecls und see lhem ln beuullful slublllly und progress ÷ lmmovubly
movlng und revolvlng. so lo speuk. Nulurul Luv leuches us lhe sume lrulh
becuuse. lhrough lhese vlslble lhlngs und lhelr order. ll reusons buck lo lhelr
Aulhor. For hov could lhls Unlverse huve come lnlo belng or been pul
logelher. unless Cod hud culled ll lnlo exlslence. und held ll logelher! For
every one vho sees u beuullfully mude lule. und conslders lhe sklll vllh vhlch
ll hus been fllled logelher und urrunged. or vho heurs lls melody. vould lhlnk
of none bul lhe lule-muker or lhe lule-pluyer und vould lel lhelr lhoughls run
buck lo hlm. ullhough lhey mlghl nol knov hlm by slghl. And lhus lo us ulso
ls munlfesled lhul vhlch mude und moves und preserves ull creuled lhlngs.
even lhough He muy nol be comprehended by lhe mlnd. And very vunllng ln
sense ure lhose vho vlll nol vllllngly go lhus fur ln follovlng nulurul proofs.
8ul nol even lhls vhlch ve huve lmuglned or fushloned for ourselves. or
vhlch reuson hus skelched for us. ls lhe sume us Cod. If someone hus ever
ullulned. lo one degree or unolher. some under-slundlng of Cod. vhul proof
ls lhere of lhe fucl! Vho ever reuched lhls exlremlly of vlsdom! Vho vus
ever deemed vorlhy of so greul u glfl! Vho hus opened lhe moulh of lhelr
mlnd und druvn ln lhe Splrll.
nor ls lhls lhe doclrlne ve proclulm; for ve vould nol huve you luke
our cundld slulemenl us u slurllng polnl for u qulbbllng denlul of Cod. or for
exulllng yourself ugulnsl me on uccounl of my confesslon of lgnorunce. For ll
ls one lhlng lo be persuuded of lhe exlslence of u lhlng. und qulle unolher lo
knov vhul ll ls.
25
so lhul by lhe Cne vho seurches ull lhlngs.
even lhe deplhs of Cod.
26


such u person lukes ln Cod und no longer needs lo
udvunce furlher. slnce such u person ulreudy possesses lhe ulllmule ob|ecl of
deslre und lhul lo vhlch u hlgh-mlnded person`s vhole llfe und ull lhelr
lnlelllgence press forvurd!
24
our preuchlng ls nol fullle. nor ls our fullh ln vuln. Cf. I Corlnlhluns I5.I4.
I7: ¨If Chrlsl hus nol been rulsed. lhen our proclumullon hus been ln vuln
und your fullh hus been ln vuln.. If Chrlsl hus nol been rulsed. your fullh
ls fullle und you ure sllll ln your slns.`

25
Vho hus opened lhe moulh of lhelr mlnd und druvn ln lhe Splrll. Cf.
Psulm II9.I3I: ¨I opened my moulh und drev ln my breulh.` The Creek
for ¨breulh` ls pneumu. vhlch muy ulso meun ¨Splrll`.

26
I Corlnlhluns 2.I0.
Theologlcul Crullons 2

I9
§ 7. For vhul vlll you concelve lhe Delly lo be. lf you rely upon ull lhe
upproxlmullons of reuson! Cr lo vhul vlll reuson curry you. C mosl
phllosophlc of humuns und besl of lheologluns. vho bousl of your fumlllurlly
vllh lhe Unllmlled! Is Cod u body! Hov lhen ls Cod lhe Inflnlle und
Llmllless. und formless. und lnlunglble. und lnvlslble! Are bodles descrlbed ln
lhls vuy! Thul vould be u reul slrelch! ÷ for such ls nol lhe nulure of u body!
Cr vlll you suy lhul Cod hus u body. bul nol lhese ullrlbules! Vhul gross
slupldlly. lhul u Delly should possess nolhlng more lhun ve do. For hov ls
Cod un ob|ecl of vorshlp lf He ls clrcumscrlbed! Cr hov shull Cod escupe
belng composed of elemenls. und lherefore sub|ecl lo be resolved lnlo lhem
uguln. or even ullogelher dlssolved! For every compound ls u slurllng polnl of
slrlfe. und slrlfe of sepurullon. und sepurullon of dlssolullon. 8ul dlssolullon ls
ullogelher forelgn lo Cod und lo lhe Flrsl Nulure. Therefore lhere cun be no
sepurullon ln order lhul lhere muy be no dlssolullon. und no slrlfe ln order
lhul lhere muy be no sepurullon. und no composlllon ln order lhul lhere muy
be no slrlfe. Thus ulso lhere musl be no body ln order lhul lhere muy be no
composlllon. und so lhe urgumenl ls eslubllshed by golng buck from lusl lo
flrsl.
§ 8. And hov shull ve preserve lhe lrulh lhul Cod pervudes ull lhlngs und
fllls ull ÷ us ll ls vrlllen. Do I nol flll heuven und eurlh! suys lhe Lord;
27
und
The Splrll of lhe Lord fllls lhe vorld
28
÷ lf Cod purlly conlulns und purlly ls
conlulned! For ellher Cod vlll occupy un emply Unlverse. und so ull lhlngs
vlll huve vunlshed for us. The resull of lhls ls. lhul ve vlll huve lnsulled Cod
by muklng Hlm u body und by robblng Hlm of ull lhlngs vhlch He hus mude.
Thul. or else Cod vlll be u body conlulned ln olher bodles ÷ vhlch ls
lmposslble ÷ or He vlll be enfolded ln lhem. or conlrusled vllh lhem. us
llqulds ure mlxed und one dlvldes und ls dlvlded by unolher. Such u vlev ls
more ubsurd und muddle-heuded lhun even lhe uloms of Lplcurus; und so lhls
urgumenl concernlng lhe body vlll collupse. huvlng no ¨body` und no solld
busls ul ull. 8ul ve mlghl usserl lhul Cod ls lmmulerlul (us for exumple lhul
¨flflh elemenl` vhlch some huve lmuglned
29

27
1eremluh 23.24.
). und lhul He ls currled round ln
clrculur movemenl. Lel us ussume lhul Cod ls lmmulerlul. und lhul He ls ¨lhe
flflh elemenl`; und. lf lhey pleuse. lel Cod be bodlless us vell. ln uccordunce
vllh lhe lndependenl drlfl und urrungemenl of lhelr urgumenl. For I vlll nol
ul presenl dlffer vllh lhem on lhls polnl. In vhul respecl. lhen. vlll Cod be

28
Vlsdom I.7.

29
Arlslolle poslululed lhe exlslence of u flflh elemenl (qulnl-essence) mude
up of formless muller (ln lhe slrlcl Arlslolellun sense of Muller vllhoul
uny Form). ln uddlllon lo lhe buslc elemenls of eurlh. ulr. vuler. und flre.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

20
one of lhose lhlngs vhlch ure ln movemenl und ugllullon. lo suy nolhlng of
lhe lnsull lnvolved ln muklng lhe Creulor sub|ecl lo lhe sume movemenl us
creulures. und unlle lhe Cne vho currles ull (lf lhey vlll ullov even lhls) vllh
lhose vhom He currles. Aguln. vhul ls lhe force lhul moves your ¨flflh
elemenl.` und vhul ls ll lhul moves ull lhlngs. und vhul moves lhul. und vhul
ls lhe force lhul moves lhul! And so on und so on vllhoul end. And hov cun
Cod help belng ullogelher conlulned ln spuce lf He ls sub|ecl lo mollon! 8ul lf
lhey usserl lhul Cod ls somelhlng olher lhun lhls ¨flflh elemenl;` perhups
huvlng un ungellc nulure. hov do lhey knov lhul ungels huve bodles und
vhul klnd of bodles lhey huve! And ln lhul cuse. hov fur could Cod. lo
vhom lhe ungels mlnlsler. be superlor lo lhe ungels! And lf Cod ls ubove
lhem. ve vlll uguln huve lo lnlroduce un lrrullonul svurm of bodles und end
up vllh u bollomless pll of nonsense vhlch cun slop novhere.
§ 9. And so ve see lhul Cod ls nol u body. For no lnsplred leucher hus yel
usserled or udmllled such u nollon. nor does lhe ldeu huve uny pluce ln our
courlyurd. Nolhlng lhen remulns bul lo grunl lhul Cod ls lncorporeul. 8ul lhls
lerm lncorporeul. lhough grunled. sllll does nol sel Cod`s essence before us or
conluln lhul essence vllhln llself ÷ uny more lhun do lhe lerms unbegollen.
und unorlglnule. und unchunglng. und lncorrupllble. und uny olher predlcule
vhlch ls used of Cod or ln relullon lo Cod. For vhul llghl does ll shed on
Cod`s exlslence. vllh respecl lo Hls nulure und underlylng essence. lo suy lhul
Cod hus no beglnnlng. und ls lncupuble of chunge or llmllullon! Indeed. lhe
vhole quesllon of Cod`s exlslence ls sllll lefl for furlher conslderu-llon und
exposlllon by lhose vho lruly huve lhe mlnd of Cod und ure udvunced ln
conlemplullon. For |usl us lo suy. ¨Il ls u body.` or ¨Il vus begollen.` ls nol
sufflclenl lo presenl cleurly lo lhe mlnd lhe vurlous ob|ecls of vhlch lhese
predlcules ure used. bul you musl ulso express lhe sub|ecl of vhlch you use
lhem. lf you vould presenl lhe ob|ecl of your lhoughl cleurly und udequulely.
For every one of lhese predlcules. corporeul. begollen. morlul. muy be used
of u humun. or u cov. or u horse: -- |usl so. lhose vho eugerly pursue lhe
nulure of lhe Cne vho ls 8elng llself
30
8ul lhose vho slule vhul Cod ls nol vllhoul golng on lo suy vhul Cod ls.
ucl ln much lhe sume vuy us lhose vho. vhen usked hov muny lvo-llmes-
flve muke. vould glve us lhelr unsver. ¨Nol lvo. nol lhree. nol four. nor
flve. nor lvenly. nor lhlrly. nor ln shorl uny number belov len. nor uny
vlll nol slop ul suylng vhul Cod ls nol.
bul musl go on beyond lhul und suy vhul Cod ls. For cleurly ll ls eusler lo
luke ln some slngle polnl lhun lo go on dlsovnlng polnl ufler polnl ln endless
delull. ln order. bolh by lhe ellmlnullon of negullves und lhe usserllon of
poslllves. lo urrlve ul u comprehenslon of lhls sub|ecl.

30
lhe nulure of lhe Cne vho ls 8elng llself (len lou onlos . phusln). An
ulluslon lo Lxodus 3.I4: ¨Cod suld lo Moses. 'I AM VHC I AM.` He suld
furlher. 'Thus you shull suy lo lhe Isruellles. ' I AM hus senl me lo you.` `
Theologlcul Crullons 2

2I
mulllple of len` ÷ bul vould nol unsver ¨len.` nor sellle lhe mlnd of lhelr
queslloner upon lhe flrm ground of lhe unsver. For ll ls much eusler. und
more conclse lo declure vhul u lhlng ls nol from vhul ll ls. lhun lo
demonslrule vhul ll ls by slrlpplng ll of vhul ll ls nol. Surely lhls ls obvlous lo
every one.
§ I0. Nov slnce ve huve uscerlulned lhul Cod ls lncorporeul. lel us
proceed u llllle furlher vllh our exumlnullon. Is lhe dlvlne nulure novhere. or
ls ll somevhere! For lf lhe dlvlne nulure ls novhere. lhen some person of u
very lnqulrlng lurn of mlnd mlghl usk. ¨Hov lhen cun ll exlsl ul ull!` For lf lhe
non-exlslenl ls novhere. lhen lhul vhlch ls novhere ls ulso perhups non-
exlslenl. 8ul lf lhe dlvlne nulure ls somevhere. Cod musl be ellher ln lhe
unlverse or ubove lhe unlverse. And lf lhe dlvlne nulure ls ln lhe unlverse.
lhen Cod musl be ellher ln some secllon of ll or exlendlng everyvhere
lhroughoul lhe vhole of ll. If ln some secllon. lhen Cod vlll be clrcumscrlbed
by lhul purl vhlch ls less lhun lhe dlvlne nulure.
3I
8ul lf lhe dlvlne nulure
exlends everyvhere. lhen Cod vlll be clrcumscrlbed by somelhlng vhlch ls
merely lurger lhun uny olher lurge lhlng ÷ I meun lhe unlversul. vhlch conlulns
lhe purllculur. If lhe All-ln-ull lhul ls Cod ls conlulned by lhe everylhlng lhul ls
lhe unlverse. ll cunnol be exempl from llmllullon ln uny glven pluce. Thls
follovs lf lhe dlvlne nulure ls conlulned ln lhe unlverse.
32
Cn lhe olher hund. lf lhe dlvlne nulure ls ubove lhe unlverse. vhul
dlsllngulshes ll from lhe unlverse! And |usl vhere ls lhls ubove loculed! And
hov could lhls belng elevuled ubove be dlsllngulshed ln lhoughl from vhul ll
ls elevuled ubove. lf lhere ls no boundury lo dlvlde und deflne lhem! Is ll nol
necessury lhul lhere be some spuce ln belveen lo murk off lhe unlverse from
lhul vhlch ls ubove lhe unlverse! And vhul could lhls be bul u pluce. vhlch
ve huve ulreudy re|ecled! For I huve nol yel broughl forvurd lhe polnl lhul
Cod vould be ullogelher clrcumscrlbed. lf lhe dlvlne nulure vere even
comprehenslble ln lhoughl. For comprehenslon ls one form of clrcumscrlpllon.
And besldes. vhere
vus Cod before lhe unlverse vus creuled! Thls ls u polnl of no llllle dlfflcully.

3I
lhen Cod vlll be clrcumscrlbed by lhul purl vhlch ls less lhun lhe dlvlne
nulure. Vhlch. loglcully speuklng. ls ubsurd.

32
8ul lf lhe dlvlne nulure exlends everyvhere.. Thls follovs lf lhe dlvlne
nulure ls conlulned ln lhe unlverse. Here Cregory`s grummur so pecullur
lhul edllors of lhe Creek lexl vlsh lhul lhey could lrunslule lhls pussuge
lnlo lnlelllglble Creek. Hls polnl seems lo be lhls: The unl-verse muy be
lhe lurgesl of ull ¨pluces` becuuse ll conlulns ull olher ¨pluces.` bul ll ls
sllll clrcumscrlbed. nol lnflnlle. So. lf lhe dlvlne nulure vere exlended
lhroughoul lhe unlverse. ll vould be clrcumscrlbed. und sub|ecl lo lhe
llmllullons of euch purllculur ¨pluce` vllhln lhe unlverse.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

22
§ II. Nov. vhy huve I gone lnlo ull lhls. perhups loo pulnsluklngly for
mosl people lo llslen lo und for lhe prevulllng munner of dlscourse. vhlch
desplses noble slmpllclly und prefers conundrums! Thls ls vhy: so lhul lhe lree
muy be knovn by lls frulls
33
÷ I meun. lhul lhe durkness vhlch ls ul vork ln
such leuchlng muy be knovn by lhe obscurlly of lhe urgumenls. For my
purpose ln dolng so vus nol lo gel credll for myself for uslonlshlng ullerunces
or excesslve vlsdom lhrough lylng knols und solvlng dlfflcul-lles (lhls vus lhe
greul mlruculous glfl of Dunlel
34
). bul lo muke cleur lhe polnl ul vhlch my
urgumenl hus ulmed from lhe flrsl. And vhul vus lhls! Thul lhe dlvlne nulure
cunnol be upprehended by humun reuson. und lhul ve cunnol even represenl
lo ourselves ull lls greulness. And lhls nol oul of |eulousy. for |eulousy ls fur
from lhe dlvlne nulure. vhlch ls free of pusslons. lhe only good und Lord of
ull ÷ especlully |eulousy of lhe mosl preclous umong ull Hls creulures.
35
For
vhul does lhe Vord prefer lo lhose vho ure glfled vllh rullonul dlscourse!
36
§ I2. 8ul vhelher lhere ure olher reusons for lhe lncomprehenslblllly of lhe
dlvlne nulure. lel lhose ullend vho ure neurer Cod und ure eyevllnesses und
beholders of Cod`s unseurchuble |udgemenls

Vhy. even lhelr very exlslence ls u proof of Cod`s supreme goodness. Nor yel
ls lhls lncomprehenslblllly meunl lo lncreuse lhe glory und honour of lhe Cod
vho ulreudy hus enough. us lf Cod`s possesslon of glory und mu|esly
depended upon lhe lmposslblllly of upprouchlng Hlm. For ll ls ullerly
sophlsllcul und forelgn lo lhe churucler. I vlll nol suy of Cod. bul of uny
moderulely good humun belng vho hus unylhlng of u proper consclence. lo
seek lhelr ovn supremucy by lhrovlng u hlndrunce ln lhe vuy of unolher.
37
÷ lf lhere ure uny vho ure so
emlnenl ln vlrlue und vulk ln lhe pulhs of lhe ubyss. us lhe suylng goes.
38


8ul
33
Cf. Mullhev 7.I7. 20: ¨In lhe sume vuy. every good lree beurs good
frull. bul lhe bud lree beurs bud frull.. Thus you vlll knov lhem by
lhelr frulls.`

34
Cf. Dunlel 5.I2: ¨An excellenl splrll. knovledge. und underslundlng lo
lnlerprel dreums. expluln rlddles. und solve problems vere found ln lhls
Dunlel.`

35
I.e. humunklnd.

36
Cregory here mukes u pun vhlch cunnol be rendered ln Lngllsh. The
Vord (Logos) prefers lhe creulure vho ls LCCIK. ¨cupuble of rullonul
dlscourse`.

37
Romuns II.33: ¨Hov unseurchuble ure [Cod`s] |udgemenls und hov
lnscruluble hls vuys!`

Theologlcul Crullons 2

23
us for ourselves. so fur us ve huve ullulned underslundlng. meusurlng by
meuns of our puny meusure lhlngs vhlch ure conlempluled vllh dlfflcully. ve
suy lhul perhups one reuson [for lhe lncomprehenslblllly of lhe dlvlne nulure]
ls lo prevenl us from loo cusuully lhrovlng uvuy lhe knovledge of ll becuuse
ll vus so euslly come by. For people cllng llghlly lo lhul vhlch lhey ucqulre
vllh lubour; bul lhul vhlch lhey ucqulre euslly lhey qulckly lhrov uvuy.
becuuse ll cun be euslly recovered. And so ll ls lurned lnlo u blesslng ÷ ul leusl
lo ull vho ure senslble ÷ lhul lhls blesslng ls nol loo eusy. Cr perhups ll ls ln
order lhul ve muy nol shure lhe fule of fullen Luclfer. lesl. us u resull of
recelvlng lhe full llghl. our necks become sllff ugulnsl lhe Lord Almlghly und
ve full from lhe helghl lhul ve hud ullulned ÷ u dovnfull mosl pllluble of ull.
Cr perhups ll muy be lo glve u greuler revurd hereufler lo lhose vho by lhelr
lubour und glorlous llfe huve here been purlfled und huve persevered ln
seeklng vhul lhey deslred.
Therefore lhls durkness
39
of lhe body hus been pluced belveen us und Cod.
llke lhe cloud of old belveen lhe Lgyplluns und lhe Hebrevs;
40
und lhls ls
perhups vhul ls meunl by The Lord mude durkness Hls secrel pluce
4I
÷ lhul ls
lo suy. our lhlckness. lhrough vhlch fev cun see even u llllle. 8ul lel lhose
dlscuss lhls polnl vhose buslness ll ls; und lel lhem uscend us fur us lhey cun ln
lhe lnqulry. To us vho ure (us 1eremluh suys) prlsoners of lhe eurlh.
42

38
1ob 38.I6
und
covered vllh lhe lhlckness of curnul nulure. lhls uny evenl ls knovn: As ll ls
lmposslble for humuns lo slep over lhelr ovn shudovs. hovever fusl lhey
muy move (for lhe shudov vlll ulvuys move on us fusl us ll ls belng
overluken). or us ll ls lmpos-slble for lhe eye lo druv neur lo vlslble ob|ecls
upurl from lhe lnlervenlng ulr und llghl. or for u flsh lo gllde uboul oulslde of
lhe vulers ÷ so lhere ls no vuy for lhose vho ure ln lhe body lo be
conversunl vllh ob|ecls of pure lhoughl upurl from bodlly ob|ecls. For
somelhlng ln our ovn envlronmenl ls ulvuys creeplng ln. even vhen lhe mlnd
39
Cf. Lxodus I0.22: ¨Moses slrelched oul hls hund lovurd heuven. und
lhere vus dense durkness ln ull lhe lund of Lgypl for lhree duys.`

40
Lxodus I4.I9-20: ¨The ungel of Cod vho vus golng be-fore lhe Isruellle
urmy moved und venl behlnd lhem; und lhe plllur of cloud moved from
ln fronl of lhem und look lls pluce behlnd lhem. Il cume belveen lhe
urmy of Lgypl und lhe urmy of Isruel. And so lhe cloud vus lhere vllh
lhe durkness. und ll lll up lhe nlghl; one dld nol come neur lhe olher ull
nlghl.`

4I
Psulm I8.I2 [LXX I7.I2].

42
Lumenlullons 3.34.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

24
hus mosl fully deluched llself from lhe vlslble. und collecled llself. und ls
ullempllng lo upply llself lo lhose lnvlslble lhlngs vhlch ure ukln lo llself.
§ I3. Are nol ¨vlnd.` ¨flre.` und ¨llghl.`
43
¨love.` ¨vlsdom.` und
¨rlghleousness.`
44
¨mlnd` und ¨vord.`
45
und olher slmllur lerms ÷ ure nol
lhese lhe numes of lhe Flrsl Nulure! Vhul lhen! Cun yon concelve of vlnd
upurl from mollon und dlffuslon; or of flre vllhoul lls fuel und lls upvurd
mollon und lls proper colour und form! Cr of llghl nol mlngled vllh ulr und
sepuruled from lhul vhlch ls (so lo speuk) lls purenl und source! And hov do
you concelve of u mlnd! Is ll nol u fucully ln someone rulher lhun exlsllng on
lls ovn. und ure nol lhoughls. vhelher sllenl or ullered. lls movemenls! And
vord ÷ vhul else cun you lhlnk ll lhun lhul vhlch ls ellher sllenl vllhln
ourselves or else oulpoured (for I shrlnk from suylng dlspersed)!
46
Cr ure ve rulher lo ubundon ull lhese lerms und look ul lhe dlvlne nulure
ubsolulely. us besl ve cun. gulherlng u frugmenlury sorl of lmuge ln
uccordunce vllh our con|eclures! Vhul lhen ls lhls munufuclured lmuge.
vhlch ls mude vllh lhese lerms vllhoul belng lhese lerms! Cr rulher. hov cun
And lf you
concelve of vlsdom. vhul ls ll bul lhe hubll of mlnd vhlch you knov us such.
und vhlch exerclses llself ln conlemplullon of lhlngs ellher dlvlne or humun!
And rlghleousness und love. ure lhey nol prulsevorlhy dlsposlllons. lhe one
opposed lo ln|usllce. lhe olher lo hule! Cn some occuslons lhey lnlenslfy. on
olhers lhey relux lhemselves; nov lhey luke possesslon of us. lhen lhey leuve
us ulone ÷ ln shorl. lhey muke us vhul ve ure und chunge us us colours do
bodles.


43
Vlnd. 1ohn 3.8: ¨The vlnd [lo pneumu] blovs vhere ll chooses. und
you heur lhe sound of ll. bul you do nol knov vhere ll comes from or
vhere ll goes. So ll ls vllh everyone vho ls born of lhe Splrll [ek lou
pneumulos].` 1ohn 4.24: ¨Cod ls splrll [pneumu].` Flre. Deuleronomy
4.24: ¨For lhe LCRD your Cod ls u devourlng flre. u |eulous Cod.` Llghl.
1ohn 9.5: ¨1esus unsvered.. 'As long us I um ln lhe vorld. I um lhe llghl
of lhe vorld.` `

44
Love. I 1ohn 4.I6: ¨Cod ls love. und lhose vho ublde ln love ublde ln
Cod. und Cod ubldes ln lhem.` Vlsdom. I Corlnlhluns I.24: ¨Chrlsl lhe
pover of Cod und lhe vlsdom of Cod.` Rlghleousness. 1eremluh 23.6:
¨The LCRD ls our rlghleousness.`

45
Vord. 1ohn I.I: ¨The Vord vus Cod.` See fn. 36 ubove.

46
oulpoured (for I shrlnk from suylng dlspersed). Vhen u vord ls ullered.
lls sound fulls uvuy; ln lhul sense. lhe vord perlshes or ls losl. 8ul ln
unolher sense ÷ perhups ln lhe sense of conveylng meunlng ÷ ll cun und
musl be suld lo endure beyond. und even upurl from. lls ucluul
ullerunce.
Theologlcul Crullons 2

25
lhul vhlch ls Cne by lls Nulure. vllhoul composlle purls und vllhoul
compurlson. sllll be ull of quulllles slgnlfled by lhese lerms ÷ und be euch one
of lhem ln perfecllon! Thus our mlnd veurles llself ln lls efforls lo lrunscend
corporeul lhlngs und consorl vllh lhe lncorporeul. slrlpped of ull clolhlng of
corporeul ldeus. so long us ll lnvesllgules vllh lls lnherenl veukness vhul ls
ubove lls slrenglh. For every rullonul nulure longs for Cod und for lhe Flrsl
Cuuse. bul ls unuble lo grusp Cod for lhe reusons I huve menlloned. Fulnl.
lherefore. vllh lhe deslre und (us ll vere) resllve und lmpullenl of lhe
dlsublllly. lhe mlnd lrles u second course. Lllher ll looks ul lhlngs lhul ure seen
und oul of some of lhem mukes u god ÷ und u blg mlsluke; for ln vhul respecl
und lo vhul exlenl cun lhul vhlch ls seen be hlgher und more godllke lhun
lhul vhlch sees. lhul ll should vorshlp vhul ll sees! Cr else. by meuns of lhe
beuuly und order of lhe lhlngs lhul ure seen. lhe mlnd comes lo knov lhul
vhlch ls ubove slghl. vllhoul sufferlng lhe loss of Cod lhrough lhe
mugnlflcence of vlslble lhlngs.
§ I4. Thul ls vhy some huve mude u god of lhe sun. olhers of lhe moon.
olhers of lhe hosl of slurs. olhers of heuven llself vllh ull lls hosls. lo vhlch
lhey huve ullrlbuled lhe guldlng of lhe unlverse. uccordlng lo lhe quullly or
quunllly of lhelr movemenl. Clhers uguln huve mude gods of lhe elemenls ÷
eurlh. ulr. vuler. flre ÷ becuuse of lhelr useful nulure. slnce vllhoul lhem
humun llfe cunnol posslbly exlsl. Clhers uguln huve vorshlpped uny chunce
vlslble ob|ecls. selllng up lhe mosl beuullful of vhul lhey suv us lhelr gods.
And lhere ure lhose vho vorshlp plclures und lmuges. ul flrsl of lhelr ovn
unceslors ÷ ul leusl. such ls lhe cuse vllh lhe more uffecllonule und sensuul ÷
und honour lhe depurled vllh memorluls. und uflervurds even lhe plclures
und lmuges of slrungers ure vorshlpped by people of u luler generullon
sepuruled from lhem by u long perlod of llme. They do lhls lhrough lgnorunce
of lhe Flrsl Nulure. und follov lhe lrudlllonul honours us luvful und necessury
÷ for usuge. vhen conflrmed by llme. vus held lo be Luv. And I lhlnk lhul
cerluln udmlrers of urbllrury pover. vho exlolled bodlly slrenglh und
udmlred beuuly. ufler u vhlle mude u god oul of lhe one vhom lhey
honoured. perhups gelllng hold of some fuble lo help on lhelr lmposlure.
§ I5. And some of lhose vho vere mosl sub|ecl lo pusslon delfled lhelr
pusslons or honoured lhem umong lhelr gods ÷ unger und blood-lhlrsllness.
lusl und drunkenness. und every slmllur vlckedness ÷ und mude oul of lhls un
lgnoble und un|usl excuse for lhelr ovn slns. And some lhey lefl on eurlh. und
some lhey hld beneulh lhe eurlh (lhls belng lhe only slgn of vlsdom uboul
lhem). und some lhey rulsed lo heuven. Vhul u rldlculous purllllonlng! Then
lhey guve lo euch of lhese concepls lhe nume of some god or demon by lhe
uulhorlly und urbllrury llcense of lhelr error. und sel up slulues vhose
coslllness ls u snure. And lhey lhoughl lo honour lhem vllh sucrlflces of blood
und ful. und somellmes even by mosl shumeful ucllons. frenzles und
munsluughler. For such honours vere lhe fllllng due of such gods. And before
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

26
nov people huve lnsulled lhemselves by vorshlpplng monslers. und four-
fooled beusls. und creeplng lhlngs ÷ und lhose of lhe very vllesl und mosl
ubsurd ÷ und huve mude un offerlng lo lhem of lhe glory of Cod. so lhul ll ls
nol eusy lo declde vhelher ve oughl mosl lo desplse lhe vorshlppers or lhe
ob|ecls of lhelr vorshlp. Probubly lhe vorshlppers ure by fur lhe mosl
conlempllble. for lhough lhey ure of u rullonul nulure und huve recelved gruce
from Cod. lhey huve sel up lhe vorse us lhe beller. And lhls vus lhe lrlck of
lhe Lvll Cne. vho ubused good lo un evll purpose. us ln mosl of hls evll
deeds. For he luld hold of lhelr deslre us ll vundered ln seurch of Cod. ln
order lo selze lhe pover for hlmself und sleul lhe deslre. leudlng ll by lhe
hund llke u bllnd mun usklng u roud; und he hurled dovn und scullered some
ln one dlrecllon und some ln unolher. lnlo lhe one pll of deulh und
deslrucllon.
§ I6. Thls vus lhelr course. In our cuse. hovever. reuson hus velcomed our
deslre for Cod und recognlsed our lnublllly lo go forvurd vllhoul u leuder
und gulde. Then. upplylng llself lo lhlngs lhul cun be seen und observlng lhe
lhlngs vhlch huve been slnce lhe beglnnlng. reuson doe nol slop even lhere.
For ll vus nol reuson`s vlsh lo grunl lhe soverelgnly lo lhlngs vhlch ure
sub|ecl lo lhe senses us much us ve ure. 8y lhese lhlngs. lhen. ll leuds us lo
vhul ls ubove lhem. und by vhlch lhese lhlngs ure glven belng. For vhul
ordulned lhlngs ln heuven und lhlngs on eurlh. und lhose lhlngs vhlch puss
lhrough ulr. und lhose vhlch llve ln vuler ÷ or rulher lhe lhlngs vhlch vere
before lhese. heuven und eurlh. ulr und vuler! Vho mlngled lhese. und vho
sepuruled lhem! Vhul ls lhls communlly lhul lhey huve vllh euch olher. lhls
muluul dependence. lhls hurmony! For I commend lhe person. lhough u
heulhen. vho suld. ¨Vhul guve movemenl lo lhese und drlves lhelr ceuseless
und unhlndered mollon!`
47
§ I7. Vhul Cod ls ln nulure und essence. no humun ever yel hus dlscovered
or cun dlscover. Vhelher ll vlll ever be dlscovered ls u quesllon lhul vhoever
vlshes muy exumlne und declde. In my oplnlon. ll vlll be dlscovered vhen
Is ll nol lhelr urllsun. lhe one vho lmplunled
reuson ln lhem ull. ln uccordunce vllh vhlch lhe unlverse ls moved und
conlrolled! 8ul vho ls lhls urllsun! Is ll nol lhe Cne vho mude lhem und
broughl lhem lnlo belng! For ve cleurly cunnol ullrlbule such u pover lo u
chunce uccldenl. For. suppose lhul lls exlslence ls uccldenlul. lo vhul vlll you
lel us uscrlbe lls order! And lf you llke ve vlll grunl you lhls polnl; bul lhen.
lo vhul lhen vlll you uscrlbe lls preservullon und prolecllon ln uccordunce
vllh lhe lerms of lls flrsl creullon. Do lhese belong lo chunce. or lo somelhlng
else! Surely nol lo chunce. And vhul cun lhls ¨somelhlng else` be bul Cod!
Thus. reuson lhul proceeds from Cod ÷ lhe reuson lhul ls lmplunled ln ull from
lhe beglnnlng und ls lhe flrsl luv ln us. und ls bound up ln ull. leuds us up lo
Cod lhrough vlslble lhlngs. Lel us begln uguln. und reuson lhls oul.

47
Cf. Plulo. Luvs 896u ÷ 897c.
Theologlcul Crullons 2

27
lhul vllhln us vhlch ls godllke und dlvlne ÷ I meun our mlnd und reuson ÷ hus
mlngled vllh lls Llke. und lhe lmuge hus uscended lo lhe Archelype. of vhlch
ll nov hus lhe deslre. And lhls. I lhlnk. ls lhe vhole of phllosophy. lhul ve
shull knov even us ve ure knovn.
48
8ul for lhe llme belng. ull lhul comes lo
us ls u llllle emunullon und. us ll vere. u smull reflecllon of u greul Llghl.
49
§ I8. Thus Lnosh hoped lo cull upon lhe Nume of lhe Lord.
So
lhul lf unyone hus knovn Cod. or hus hud lhe lesllmony of Scrlplure lo lhelr
knovledge of Cod. ve ure lo underslund such u person lo huve possessed u
degree of knovledge vhlch guve lhem lhe uppeurunce of belng more fully
enllghlened lhun unolher vho dld nol en|oy lhe sume degree of lllumlnullon.
Thls relullve superlorlly ls spoken of us lf ll vere ubsolule knovledge. nol
becuuse ll ls reully such. bul by compurlson vllh lhe pover of lhul olher
person.
50
He ended up
only hoplng ÷ und even so. ll vus nol u hope of knovlng bul only of culllng
upon Cod.. And Lnoch vus luken up.
5I
bul ll ls nol cleur vhelher ll vus
becuuse he ulreudy comprehended lhe dlvlne nulure or ln order lhul he mlghl
comprehend ll. And Nouh`s glory vus lhul he vus pleuslng lo Cod;
52
he vus
enlrusled vllh suvlng lhe vhole vorld. or rulher lhe seeds of lhe vorld. ln u
smull urk vhlch escuped lhe deluge.
53
And Abruhum. greul Pulrlurch lhough he
vus. vus |usllfled by fullh
54
und offered u slrunge vlcllm. lhe preflgurullon of
lhe Creul Sucrlflce.
55

48
I Corlnlhluns I3.I2.
He suv Cod. bul nol us Cod ÷ he fed Cod us lf Cod hud

49
Cf. Vlsdom 7.26: ¨For she [sc. vlsdom] ls u reflecllon of elernul llghl. u
spolless mlrror of lhe vorklng of Cod. und un lmuge of hls goodness.`
Hebrevs I.3: ¨He [sc. lhe Son of Cod] ls lhe reflecllon of Cod`s glory
und lhe exucl lmprlnl of Cod's very belng.`

50
Cenesls 4.24 uccordlng lo lhe Sepluuglnl. Lnosh vus lhe son of Selh. lhe
lhlrd chlld of Adum und Lve.

5I
Cenesls 5.24.

52
Cenesls 6.8.

53
Cenesls 6.I3 ÷ 7.I9.

54
Cenesls I5.6; Romuns 4.3.

55
Cenesls 22.I-I4. Thls ls lhe slory of Abruhum`s reudlness lo sucrlflce hls
son Isuuc ln obedlence lo Cod. und hov Cod provlded u rum lo luke
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

28
been u humun.
56
Neverlheless. he vus upproved becuuse he vorshlpped Cod
us fur us he underslood. And 1ucob suv u vlslon of u hlgh-reuchlng ludder vllh
ungels uscendlng ll. und ln u myslery he unolnled u plllur ÷ perhups lo slgnlfy
lhe Rock lhul vus unolnled for our suke ÷ und guve lhul pluce lhe nume of lhe
House of Cod ln honour of lhe Lord vhom he suv.
57
1ucob ulso vreslled
vllh Cod us vllh u humun belng.
58
Vhulever lhls vreslllng of Cod vllh u
morlul muy meun ÷ posslbly u compurlson of humun vlrlue vllh Cod`s ÷
1ucob bore on hls body lhe murks of lhe slruggle.
59
vhlch shovs lhe defeul of
lhe creuled nulure; und us u revurd of hls reverence he recelved u chunge of
hls nume; from 1ucob lo Isruel ÷ lhul greul. lhul honouruble nume.
60

Isuuc`s pluce. Cregory probubly suv lhe subslllule-rum. rulher lhun Isuuc.
us lhe ¨lype.` or preflgurlng. of Chrlsl`s sucrlflce on lhe cross.
Yel

56
Cenesls I8.I-8: ¨The LCRD uppeured lo Abruhum by lhe ouks of Mumre.
us he sul ul lhe enlrunce of hls lenl ln lhe heul of lhe duy. He looked up
und suv lhree men slundlng neur hlm. Vhen he suv lhem. he run from
lhe lenl enlrunce lo meel lhem. und boved dovn lo lhe ground. He
suld. 'My lord. lf I flnd fuvour vllh you. do nol puss by your servunl. Lel
u llllle vuler be broughl. und vush your feel. und resl yourselves under
lhe lree. Lel me brlng u llllle breud. lhul you muy refresh yourselves. und
ufler lhul you muy puss on ÷ slnce you huve come lo your servunl.` So
lhey suld. 'Do us you huve suld.` And Abruhum huslened lnlo lhe lenl lo
Suruh. und suld. 'Muke reudy qulckly lhree meusures of cholce flour.
kneud ll. und muke cukes.` Abruhum run lo lhe herd. und look u culf.
lender und good. und guve ll lo lhe servunl. vho huslened lo prepure ll.
Then he look curds und mllk und lhe culf lhul he hud prepured. und sel ll
before lhem; und he slood by lhem under lhe lree vhlle lhey ule.`

57
Cenesls 28.I2-I8. he unolnled u plllur ÷ perhups lo slgnlfy lhe Rock lhul
vus unolnled for our suke. I.e. Chrlsl. consldered us ¨lhe chlef
cornerslone` (Psulm II8.22; Mullhev 2I.42. Murk I2.I0; Luke 20.I7).

58
Cenesls 32.24-30.

59
Cenesls 32.25: ¨Vhen lhe mun suv lhul he dld nol prevull ugulnsl 1ucob.
he slruck hlm on lhe hlp sockel; und 1ucob's hlp vus pul oul of |olnl us
he vreslled vllh hlm.`

60
Cenesls 32.27-28: ¨So he suld lo hlm. 'Vhul ls your nume!` And he suld.
'1ucob.` Then lhe mun suld. 'You shull no longer be culled 1ucob. bul
Isruel [l.e. The one vho slrlves vllh Cod or Cod slrlves]. for you huve
slrlven vllh Cod und vllh humuns. und huve prevulled.` `
Theologlcul Crullons 2

29
nellher he nor. ufler hlm. uny member of ull lhe lvelve lrlbes vho vhere hls
chlldren could bousl of huvlng luken ln lhe nulure or seen lhe lolullly of Cod.
§ I9. To Lll|uh. us you leurn from lhe slory.
6I
nellher lhe slrong vlnd. nor
lhe flre. nor lhe eurlhquuke. bul u llghl breulh of vlnd lndlculed lhe presence
of Cod ÷ und even lhls dld nol reveul lhe dlvlne nulure. And vho vus lhls
Lll|uh! The mun vhom u churlol of flre look up lo heuven.
62
And ure you nol umuzed ul lhe |udge Munouh
slgnlfylng lhe
superhumun excellency of hls rlghleousness.
63
und. luler. ul lhe dlsclple
Peler! The one could nol endure lhe vlslon even of un ungel vho munlfesled
Cod. und suld. ¨Ve ure undone. C vlfe. for ve huve seen Cod!`
64
÷ speuklng
us lhough even u vlslon of Cod. lel ulone lhe nulure of Cod. could nol be
grusped by humun belngs. And lhe olher. lhe dlsclple Peler. could nol endure
lhe presence of Chrlsl ln hls boul und lherefore begged hlm lo depurl
65
÷ und
lhls lhough Peler vus more zeulous lhun lhe olhers for lhe knovledge of
Chrlsl. und for lhls reuson he vus culled ¨blessed`
66
und vus enlrusled vllh
lhe greulesl glfls. Vhul vould you suy of Isuluh or Lzeklel. vho vllnessed
very greul myslerles. und of lhe olher prophels! For lhe flrsl of lhese suv lhe
Lord of hosls sllllng on lhe lhrone of glory. und enclrcled und prulsed und
hldden by lhe slx-vlnged seruphs. und vus hlmself purged by lhe llve coul und
equlpped for hls prophellc offlce.
67
And lhe second descrlbes lhe cherublm
vho ure lhe churlol of Cod. und lhe lhrone vhlch ls on lop of lhem. und lhe
heuvens ubove lhe lhrone. und lhe Cne vho uppeured ln lhe heuvens. und
volces. und forces. und ucllons.
68

6I
I Klngs I9.II-I2.
And vhelher lhls vus un uppeurunce by duy.

62
2 Klngs 2.II-I2.

63
Munouh vus lhe fulher of Sumson; see 1udges I3.2-23.

64
Cf. 1udges I3.22: ¨And Munouh suld lo hls vlfe. 'Ve shull surely dle. for
ve huve seen Cod.` `

65
Luke 5.I-I0. 8eholdlng lhe uvesome culch of flsh lhul 1esus hud ufforded.
¨Slmon Peler. fell dovn ul 1esus` knees. suylng. 'Co uvuy from me.
Lord. for I um u slnful mun!` `

66
Mullhev I6.I7: ¨And 1esus unsvered hlm. '8lessed ure you. Slmon son of
1onuh! For flesh und blood hus nol reveuled lhls lo you. bul my Fulher ln
heuven.` `

67
Isuluh 6.I-8.

Cregory of Nuzlunzus

30
vlslble only lo sulnls. or un unerrlng vlslon of lhe nlghl. or un lmpresslon on
lhe mlnd holdlng converse vllh lhe fulure us lf ll vere lhe presenl; or some
olher lneffuble form of prophecy. I cunnol suy ÷ lhe Cod of lhe prophels
knovs. und so do lhey vho ure lhe ob|ecl of such lnsplrullons. 8ul nellher
lhese of vhom I um speuklng. nor uny of lhose vho ure llke lhem. ever (us ll
ls vrlllen)¨slood ln lhe councll` ÷ lhul ls. lhe subslunce ÷ ¨of lhe Lord.` or
suv or proclulmed lhe nulure of Cod.
69
§ 20. If Puul hud been permllled lo uller vhul lhe lhlrd heuven conlulned
70

und vhul hls ovn udvunce. or uscenslon. or ussumpllon lhere lnvolved.
perhups ve should knov somelhlng more uboul Cod. lf lhls vus lhe myslery
of lhe ruplure. 8ul slnce ll vus nol lo be lold.
7I
ve loo vlll honour ll by
sllence. Ve vlll heur Puul suy lhls much uboul ll. lhul ve knov only ln purl
und ve prophesy only ln purl.
72
Thls und slmllur slulemenls ure lhe confesslons
of one vho ls nol unlrulned ln knovledge.
73
vho lhreulens lo glve proof of
Chrlsl speuklng ln hlm. lhe greul defender und leucher of lhe lrulh. Thul ls
vhy he |udges ull knovledge on eurlh lo be nolhlng bul seen ln u mlrror.
dlmly.
74
for ll resls upon veuk lmuges of lhe lrulh. Nov. unless I uppeur lo
unyone loo cureful und over-unxlous uboul lhe exumlnullon of lhls muller.
perhups ll vus of lhls und nolhlng else lhul lhe Vord hlmself lnllmuled lhul
lhere vere lhlngs vhlch could nol nov be endured. bul vhlch should be
endured und cleured up hereufler.
75

68
Lzeklel I.4-28.
und vhlch 1ohn. lhe forerunner of lhe
69
Cf. 1eremluh 23.I8: ¨For vho hus slood ln lhe councll of lhe LCRD so us
lo see und lo heur hls vord! Vho hus glven heed lo hls vord so us lo
proclulm ll!` In lhe Creek lexl of lhe Sepluuglnl. lhe vord for ¨councll`
ls huposlemus. vhose rool ls lhe verb huphlsleml. ¨lo underglrd. lo
shore up`. Thul seems lo be Cregory`s |usllflcullon for lnlerprellng
¨councll` ln lhe sense of ¨subslunce` (huposlusls).

70
2 Corlnlhluns I2.2-4.

7I
Cf. 2 Corlnlhluns I2.4: He ¨heurd lhlngs lhul ure nol lo be lold. lhul no
morlul ls permllled lo repeul.`

72
I Corlnlhluns I3.9.

73
2 Corlnlhluns II.6: ¨I muy be unlrulned ln speech. bul nol ln
knovledge.`

74
I Corlnlhluns I3.I2.

Theologlcul Crullons 2

3I
Vord und greul volce of lhe Trulh declured even lhe vhole vorld could nol
conluln.
76
§ 2I. The lrulh ln lls lolullly. lhen. und every efforl lo glve un uccounl of ll
ure hurd lo vork oul und dlfflcull lo conlemplule. Ve seek lo perform u greul
vork vllh u puny lnslrumenl vhen ve pursue knovledge of reullly vllh
merely humun vlsdom. und vhen ve upprouch vllh lhe senses ÷ or nol
vllhoul lhe senses. vhlch curry us uvuy und mlsleud us ÷ lhose reulllles vhlch
ure only lo be grusped by lhe mlnd. Unuble lo encounler nuked reullly vllh
lhe nuked mlnd. ve cun druv no neurer lo lhe lrulh und huve our mlnds
formed by vhul lhey percelve.

Vhen ll comes lo dlscourse uboul Cod. lhe more perfecl ll vould be. lhe
hurder ll ls lo gel u grlp on lhe sub|ecl. Il ls open lo more crlllclsms. und
unsverlng lhem lukes more vork. For every crlllclsm. hovever smull. slops
lhe dlscusslon ln lls lrucks und culs off lls furlher udvunce. Il ls |usl llke lhose
vho suddenly pull lhe relns of horses ln full cureer und lurn lhem rlghl uround
by lhe unexpecled shock. Thus Solomon. vho vus lhe vlsesl of ull morluls.
vhelher before hlm or ln hls ovn llme.
77
lo vhom Cod guve breudlh of heurl
und u pover of conlemplullon more ubundunl lhun lhe sunds on lhe
seushore
78
÷ even he. lhe more he enlered lnlo lhe deplh.
79
lhe more dlzzy he
becume; he declured lhe furlhesl polnl of Vlsdom lo be lhe dlscovery of hov
very fur off she vus from hlm.
80
Puul ulso lrles lo urrlve ul. I vlll nol suy lhe nulure of Cod ÷ for lhls he
knev vus ullerly lmposslble ÷ bul only lhe |udgemenls of Cod. And slnce he


75
Cf. 1ohn I6.I2: ¨I sllll huve muny lhlngs lo suy lo you. bul you cunnol
beur lhem nov.`
76
1ohn 2I.25: ¨There ure ulso muny olher lhlngs lhul 1esus dld; lf every
one of lhem vere vrlllen dovn. I suppose lhul lhe vorld llself could
nol conluln lhe books lhul vould be vrlllen.` Cregory oddly confuses Sl
1ohn lhe evungellsl vllh Sl 1ohn lhe 8upllsl.

77
Cf. I Klngs 3.II-I2: ¨Cod suld lo [Solomon].. 'I glve you u vlse und
dlscernlng mlnd; no one llke you hus been before you und no one llke
you shull urlse ufler you.` `

78
I Klngs 4.29: ¨Cod guve Solomon very greul vlsdom. dlscernmenl. und
breudlh of underslundlng us vusl us lhe sund on lhe seushore.`

79
Romuns II.33: ¨C lhe deplh of lhe rlches und vlsdom und knovledge of
Cod!`

80
Cf. Lccleslusles 7.23: ¨All lhls I huve lesled by vlsdom; I suld. 'I vlll be
vlse.` bul ll vus fur from me.`
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

32
flnds no vuy oul und no hulllng pluce ln lhe uscenl. und slnce lhe eurnesl
seurchlng of hls mlnd ufler knovledge does nol end ln uny deflnlle concluslon.
becuuse some fresh unullulned polnl ls belng conllnuully dlsclosed lo hlm ÷ C
murvel. lhul I huve u llke experlence! ÷ he closes hls dlscourse vllh
uslonlshmenl. und culls lhls lhe rlches und lhe deplh of Cod. und confesses lhe
lncomprehenslblllly of lhe |udgemenls of Cod.
8I
ln ulmosl lhe sume vords us
Duvld. vho ul one polnl culls Cod`s |udgemenls lhe greul deep vhose
foundullons cunnol be reuched by meusure or sense.
82
und ul unolher suys lhul
such knovledge ls loo vonderful for hlm und for hls nulure und loo slrong for
hls ovn pover or grusp.
83
§ 22. Indeed. Duvld suys. lf I leuve everylhlng else ulone lo conslder myself
und lhe vhole of humun nulure und lls conslllullon. vhul ls lhls mlxlure lhul
mukes us vhul ve ure!

84
Vhul ls lhls movemenl vhlch unlmules us! Hov hus
lhe morlul been mlngled vllh lhe lmmorlul. und hov ll ls lhul I flov
dovnvurds und yel um borne upvurds! Hov does lhe soul clrculule lhrough
lhe body! Hov does ll glve llfe lo lhe body und shure ln lls feellngs! Hov
does ll come uboul lhul lhe splrll ls ul once sub|ecl lo llmllullons und
unllmlled. dvelllng ln us und yel lruverslng ull lhlngs ln svlfl mollon und
flov! Hov ls ll bolh recelved und lmpurled by meuns of speech. und hov
does ll puss lhrough lhe ulr und enlers vllh lhe lhlngs uround us! Hov does ll
shure ln lhe senses. und enshroud llself uvuy from lhe senses! And even before
lhese quesllons ÷ hov vere ve fushloned und consllluled ul flrsl ln lhe
vorkshop of nulure.
85

8I
Romuns II.33: ¨C lhe deplh of lhe rlches und vlsdom und knovledge of
Cod! Hov unseurchuble ure hls |udgemenls und hov lnscruluble hls
vuys!`
und vhul form und fulfllmenl vlll ve recelve ul lhe
end! Hov do ve huve lhe lnsllncl for nourlshmenl. und hov ll ls

82
Psulm 36.7.

83
Psulm I39.6: ¨Such knovledge ls loo vonderful for me; ll ls so hlgh lhul
I cunnol ulluln lo ll.`

84
Cf. Psulm I39.I2-I5: ¨You yourself creuled my lnvurd purls; you knll me
logelher ln my molher`s vomb. I vlll lhunk you becuuse I um
murvellously mude; your vorks ure vonderful. und I knov ll vell. My
body vus nol hldden from you. vhlle I vus belng mude ln secrel und
voven ln lhe deplhs of lhe eurlh. Your eyes beheld my llmbs. yel
unflnlshed ln lhe vomb; ull of lhem vere vrlllen ln your book; lhey
vere fushloned duy by duy. vhen us yel lhere vus none of lhem.`

85
lhe vorkshop of nulure. I.e. lhe molher`s vomb.
Theologlcul Crullons 2

33
provlsloned! Vho broughl us sponluneously lo lhose flrsl sprlngs und sources
of llfe!
86
§ 23. Do you vlsh me lo enumerule lhe dlfferences of lhe olher unlmuls.
bolh from us und from euch olher ÷ dlfferences of nulure. und of producllon.
und of nourlshmenl. und of reglon. und of lemper. und us ll vere of soclul
llfe! Hov ls ll lhul some ure gregurlous und olhers solllury. some ure
herblvores und olhers curnlvores. some flerce und olhers lume. some fond of
humuns und domesllculed. olhers unlumeuble und free! And some. ve mlghl
suy. border on reuson und pover of leurnlng. vhlle olhers ure ullogelher
deslllule of reuson und lncupuble of belng luughl. Some ure provlded vllh
numerous senses. olhers huve fever; some ure ulluched lo u pluce. und some
ure upl lo mlgrule. Some ure very svlfl. und some very slov; some ure
remurkuble for lhelr slze und beuuly. or for one or unolher of lhese lrulls;
olhers ure very smull or very ugly. or bolh. Some ure slrong. olhers veuk;
some ure skllful ln defendlng lhemselves. olhers llmld und crufly. und sllll
olhers ure unguurded. Some ure luborlous und lhrlfly. olhers ullogelher ldle
und lmprovldenl. And before ve come lo such polnls us lhese. hov ls ll lhul
Hov ls lhe body nourlshed by food. und lhe soul by reuson! Vhul ls
lhe propenslly of nulure. lhe muluul relullon belveen purenls und chlldren.
lhul ll should be held logelher by u spell of love! Hov ls ll lhul specles ure
conslunl. und ure dlfferenl ln lhelr churuclerlsllcs. ullhough lhere ure so muny
lhul lhelr lndlvlduul murks cunnol be descrlbed! Hov ls ll lhul lhe sume
unlmul ls bolh morlul und lmmorlul ÷ morlul becuuse ll dles. lmmorlul becuuse
ll reproduces! For one depurls. und unolher lukes lls pluce. |usl llke lhe flov
of u rlver. vhlch ls never sllll. yel ever conslunl. And you mlghl ponder muny
more polnls concernlng our members und purls. hov lhey ure co-ordlnuled
und dlfferenlluled vllh u vlev bolh lo usefulness und lo beuuly ÷ hov some
ure connecled und olhers dls|olned. some ure more excellenl und olhers less
comely. some ure unlled und olhers dlvlded. some conluln und olhers ure
conlulned. uccordlng lo lhe luv und reuson of nulure. Much loo mlghl be suld
uboul volces und eurs. Hov ls ll lhul lhe volce ls currled by lhe vocul orguns
und recelved by lhe eurs. und bolh ure |olned by lhe vlbrullon und resonunce
of lhe lnlermedlule ulr! Much loo could be suld uboul lhe eyes. vhlch huve un
lndescrlbuble communlon vllh vlslble ob|ecls. und vhlch ure moved by lhe
vlll ulone und ulong vllh ll. und en|oy lhe sume prlvllege us lhe mlnd. For
vllh equul speed lhe mlnd ls |olned lo lhe ob|ecls of lhoughl. lhe eye lo lhose
of slghl. Much loo mlghl be suld concernlng lhe olher senses. vhlch ure llke
receplucles of exlernul ob|ecls. bul ure nol sub|ecl lo lhe reuson. And much
concernlng our resl ln sleep. und lhe flgmenls of dreums. und of memory und
remembrunce; of culculullon. und unger. und deslre ÷ ln u vord. ull by vhlch
lhls llllle vorld culled humunlly ls svuyed.

86
lhose flrsl sprlngs und sources of llfe. I.e. lhe molher`s breusls. und lhe
mllk vhlch lhey provldes lhe lnfunl.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

34
some ure cruvllng lhlngs. und olhers uprlghl; lhul some ure ulluched lo lhelr
hubllul. vhlle olhers ure umphlblous; lhul some ure fond of udornlng
lhemselves. und olhers luke no such cure; lhul some ure murrled und olhers
slngle; lhul some ure lemperule und olhers lnlemperule; lhul some huve
numerous offsprlng und olhers do nol; lhul some ure long-llved und olhers
llve only u shorl vhlle! Il vould be u veury dlscourse lo go lhrough ull lhe
delulls.
§ 24. Look ulso ul lhe svlmmlng lrlbe glldlng lhrough lhe vulers. und us ll
vere flylng lhrough lhe llquld elemenl. und breulhlng lls ovn ulr. bul ln
dunger vhen ln conlucl vllh ours. us ve ure ln lhe vulers. Murk lhelr hublls
und dlsposlllons. lhelr lnlercourse und lhelr blrlhs. lhelr slze und lhelr beuuly.
und lhelr uffecllon for pluces und lhelr vunderlngs. und lhelr gulherlngs und
scullerlngs. und lhelr feulures vhlch so neurly resemble lhose of lhe unlmuls
lhul dvell on lund ÷ ln some cuses held ln common. ln olher cuses pecullur lo
lhemselves. bolh ln nume und shupe.
And conslder lhe lrlbes of blrds. und lhelr vurlelles of form und colour.
bolh of lhose vhlch ure volceless und of songblrds. Vhul ls lhe reuson of lhelr
melody. und from vhom dld ll come! Vho guve lo lhe grusshopper lhe lule
ln hls breusl. und lhe songs und chlrruplng on lhe brunches. vhen lhey ure
moved by lhe sun lo muke lhelr mldduy muslc. und slng umong lhe groves.
und escorl lhe vuyfurer vllh lhelr volces! Vho vove lhe song for lhe svun
vhen ll spreuds lls vlngs lo lhe breezes und lurns lls hlsslng lnlo u melody!
For I vlll nol speuk of lhe forced volces.
87
und ull lhe resl lhul url conlrlves
ugulnsl lhe lrulh. From vhere does lhe peucock. lhul bouslful blrd of Medlu.
gel hls love of beuuly und of prulse (for ll ls fully consclous of hls ovn
beuuly). so lhul vhen ll sees uny one upprouchlng. or vhen he shovs off (us
lhey suy) before hls peuhens. he rulses hls neck und spreuds hls lull ln clrcle
uround hlm. gllllerlng llke gold und sludded vllh slurs. und mukes u speclucle
of hls beuuly lo hls lovers vllh pompous slrldes! Nov holy Scrlplure udmlres
lhe cleverness of vomen ln veuvlng. suylng. Vho guve lo vomun sklll ln
veuvlng und cleverness ln lhe url of embroldery!
88
§ 25. I vould ulso huve you murvel ul lhe nulurul lnlelllgence even of
lrrullonul creulures und expluln. lf you cun. lls cuuse. Hov ls ll lhul blrds huve
for nesls rocks und lrees und roofs. und udupl lhem bolh for sufely und beuuly
und for lhe comforl of lhelr llllle ones! From vhere do bees und splders gel
lhelr love of vork und url! 8ees plun lhelr honeycombs und |oln lhem
Thls belongs lo u llvlng
creulure vho hus reuson und ubounds ln vlsdom und vho reuches even us fur
us lhe lhlngs of heuven.

87
forced volces. Cregory meuns lhe sounds mude by purrols und olher
blrds vhlch cun be lrulned lo speuk or vhlslle.

88
1ob 38.36. uccordlng lo lhe Sepluuglnl.
Theologlcul Crullons 2

35
logelher by hexugonul cells sel one beslde lhe olher. und secure lhe fubrlc by
meuns of lhe dlvldlng vull und lhe ullernullon of ungles vllh slrulghl llnes ÷
und lhls ls done ln such durk hlves. lhul lhe slruclure llself ls lnvlslble. And
splders veuve lhelr lnlrlcule vebs by such llghl und ulmosl ulry lhreuds
slrelched ln vurlous vuys from ulmosl lnvlslble beglnnlngs. lo muke u preclous
dvelllng und ul lhe sume llme u lrup for veuker creulures vllh u vlev lo
en|oymenl of food. Vhul Luclld ever lmlluled lhese creulures. vhlle pursulng
phllosophlcul enqulrles vllh llnes lhul huve no reul exlslence. und veurylng
hlmself vllh proofs! Vhul Pulumedes
89
ever drev up lucllcs lo rlvul lhe
movemenls und grouplngs of crunes vhlch. ve ure lold. go lhrough lhe sume
drlll-llke movemenls vllhoul breuklng runk. ln such compllculed pullerns of
fllghl! Vho vere lhelr Phldlus. Zeuxls. und Polygnolos. vho vere lhe
Purrhuslos und Agluophon vho knev hov lo druv und fushlon excesslvely
beuullful lhlngs!
90
Vhul hurmonlous dunce of Knossos. lhe vork of Dædulos.
vroughl for u glrl und ullulnlng lhe hlghesl pllch of beuuly! Vhul Crelun
lubyrlnlh. hurd lo gel lhrough. hurd lo unruvel (lo express myself ln lhe
munner of lhe poels). und conllnuully lnlersecllng llself lhrough lhe lrlcks of lls
conslrucllon!
9I
§ 26. If lhe explunullon of ull lhese lhlngs ls vllhln your reuch. und lf you
huve underslood vhul lhey shov. look us vell ul lhe dlverslly of plunls. und
especlully ul lhe urllsllc sklll dlspluyed ln lhe leuves. vhlch ls udupled lo glve
so much pleusure lo lhe eye us vell us so much prolecllon lo lhe frull. Look.
loo. ul lhe vurlely und luvlsh ubundunce of frulls. und mosl of ull ul lhe
I vlll nol speuk of lhe unls` slorehouses und slorekeepers. und
of lhelr collecllons of vood ln quunlllles correspondlng lo lhe llme for vhlch
ll ls vunled. und ull lhe olher delulls vhlch ve knov ure lold of lhelr murches
und leuders und of lhe good order vhlch prevulls ln lhelr vorks.

89
Pulumedes vus u klng vho look purl ln lhe Tro|un Vur. Legend credlled
hlm vllh lnvenllng lhe lucllcul munouvre of urmles on lhe bulllefleld.

90
Phldlus vus lhe mosl fumous sculplor of Alhens durlng lls ¨Colden Age`
(5lh cenlury 8.C.L.). Zeuxls. Polygnolos. Purrhuslos. und Agluophon
vere Creek pulnlers of lhe 5lh ÷ 4lh cenlurles 8.C.L.

9I
Dædulos (Duedulus) vus u flgure of Creek mylhology. He vus supposed
lo huve mude slulues of young men und muldens. und lhen mude lhem
move us lf lo muslc; lhls vus done for Arludne. lhe duughler of Klng
Mlnos of Crele. (Homer refers lo lhls slory ln Illud I8. 592.) He ulso
conslrucled lhe Lubyrlnlh ln lhe royul puluce of Mlnos ul Knossos; lhls
house lhe Mlnoluur. u monsler hulf-humun und hulf-bull. Dædulos ls
perhups besl knovn for huvlng bulll vlngs for hls son Ikuros (Icurus) so
lhul he could fly uvuy from Crele; bul Ikuros flev loo close lo lhe sun.
vhlch melled lhe vlngs. und he plummeled lnlo lhe seu.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

36
umuzlng beuuly of such us ure mosl necessury. And conslder lhe pover of lhe
rools.
92
Nexl. lruvel lhe lenglh und breudlh of lhe eurlh. lhe common molher of
ull. und lhe buys of lhe seu connecled logelher vllh one unolher und vllh lhe
lund.
lhe |ulces. lhe flovers. und lhe scenls ÷ nol only so very sveel. bul
ulso good us medlclnes ÷ und lhe gruce und quulllles of colours; und uguln lhe
coslly vulue und lhe brllllunce of preclous slones. For nulure hus sel ull lhlngs
ln fronl of you. us ln u bunquel offered lo ull. bolh vhul ls necessury for llvlng
und vhul glves us pleusure. ln order lhul. lf nolhlng else. you muy knov Cod
by Hls beneflls. und by your ovn sense of vunl be mude vlser lhun you
vere.
93
Hov ls ll lhul lhe eurlh slunds solld und unsvervlng! Cn vhul ls ll
supporled! Vhul ls ll lhul props ll up. und on vhul does lhul resl! For lndeed
even reuson knovs nolhlng for lhe eurlh lo resl upon. bul only lhe vlll of
Cod. And hov ls ll lhul purl of ll ls druvn up lnlo mounluln summlls und purl
luld dovn ln plulns ÷ und lhls. ln vurlous und dlfferenl vuys. vllh lhe
lundscupe modlfylng llself by degrees! And Hov ls ll lhul lhe eurlh ls bolh
more ferllle our needs und more beuullful by lls vurlely; purl belng dlslrlbuled
und lhe beuu-llful foresls. und lhe rlvers und sprlngs ubundunl und
perennlul ÷ nol only of vulers fresh und fll for drlnklng. vhlch run on lhe
surfuce of lhe eurlh; bul ulso such us run beneulh lhe eurlh und flov under
cuverns. lhen ure forced up und oul by u vlolenl blusl und. fllled vllh heul by
lhe lnlenslly of slruggle und reslslunce. bursl oul by llllle und llllle vherever
lhey gel u chunce. und hence supply our need of hol bulhs ln muny purls of
lhe eurlh. und ln con|uncllon vllh lhe cold glve us u heullng vhlch ls vllhoul
cosl und sponluneous. Tell me hov lhese lhlngs huppen und vhere lhey come
from! Vhul ls lhls lmmense nelvork vroughl vllhoul u vorker! These lhlngs
ure no less vorlhy of udmlrullon. ln respecl of lhelr muluul relullons lhun
vhen consldered sepurulely.

92
Cf. Vlsdom 7.I7. 20: ¨For ll ls [Cod] vho guve me unerrlng knovledge
of vhul exlsls. lo knov lhe slruclure of lhe vorld und lhe ucllvlly of lhe
elemenls.. lhe nulures of unlmuls und lhe lempers of vlld unlmuls. lhe
povers of splrlls und lhe lhoughls of humun belngs. THL VARILTILS CF
PLANTS AND THL VIRTULS CF RCCTS.`

93
lhe buys of lhe seu connecled logelher vllh one unolher und vllh lhe
lund. Il ls eusy lo underslund hov lhe buys of lhe seu ure con-necled.
vllh lhe lund. bul nol hov lhey ure connecled logelher vllh one
unolher. A. 1. Muson noles lhul Cregory ¨ls no doubl lhlnklng of lhe
deeply lndenled cousl of lhe Aegeun. [Ils buys] ure connecled vllh euch
olher. uppurenlly. becuuse lhe cousllng vessels puss ulong from buy lo
buy. roundlng lhe heudlunds. und plylng belveen lhe lovns lhul lle ln
lhe gulfs.`
Theologlcul Crullons 2

37
lnlo hubllullons und purl lefl unlnhublled ÷ lhul ls. ull lhe greul helghls of
mounlulns und lhe vurlous clefls of lls cousl llne cul off from ll. Is nol lhls lhe
cleuresl slgn of lhe mu|esllc vorklng of Cod!
§ 27. And vllh respecl lo lhe seu. even lf I dld nol murvel ul lls greulness. I
should huve murvelled ul lls genlleness und vuy ln vhlch. ullhough unbound.
ll remulns vllhln lls boundurles;
94
und lf I dld nol murvel ul lls genlleness.
surely I should murvel ul lls greulness. 8ul slnce I murvel ul bolh. I vlll prulse
lhe pover lhul ls ln bolh. Vhul gulhered ll! Vhul bounded ll! Hov ls ll
rulsed und lulled lo resl. us lhough respecllng lls nelghbour eurlh! Hov.
moreover. does ll recelve ull lhe rlvers und yel remuln lhe sume!
95
If ll ls nol
lhrough lhe very ubundunce of lls muss. I do nol knov vhul else cun be suld.
Hov ls lhe boundury of ll. lhough un elemenl of such mugnllude. only sund!
96

Huve your nulurul phllosophers vllh lhelr knovledge of useless delulls
unylhlng lo lell us! ÷ I meun lhose vho ure reully lrylng lo ¨meusure lhe seu
vllh u vlnegluss`
97
und such mlghly vorks by lhelr ovn concepllons. Cr shull
I expluln ll from Scrlplure. ln u vuy lhul ls conclse und yel more convlnclng
und more lrue lhun lhe longesl dlscusslons! Cod hus lruced u commund on lhe
fuce of lhe vuler
98

94
Cf. 1ob 38.8-II: ¨[Then lhe LCRD unsvered 1ob oul of lhe vhlrlvlnd..:]
'Vho shul ln lhe seu vllh doors vhen ll bursl oul from lhe vomb! ÷
vhen I mude lhe clouds lls gurmenl. und lhlck durkness lls svuddllng
bund. und prescrlbed bounds for ll. und sel burs und doors. und suld.
¨Thus fur shull you come. und no furlher. und here shull your proud
vuves be slopped`!` `
÷ lhls ls lhe bond vhlch enchulns lhe llquld elemenl. And
hov does lhls elemenl convey lhe lund murlner ln u smull vessel und vllh u
llllle breeze (do you nol vonder ul lhe slghl of lhls! ls your mlnd nol
uslonlshed!). lhul eurlh und seu muy be bound logelher by needs und
commerce. und lhul lhlngs so vldely sepuruled by nulure should be lhus
broughl logelher lnlo one for humun belngs!

95
Cf. Lccleslusles I.7: ¨All slreums run lo lhe seu. bul lhe seu ls nol full; lo
lhe pluce vhere lhe slreums flov. lhere lhey conllnue lo flov.`

96
Cf. 1eremluh 5.22: ¨Do you nol feur me! suys lhe LCRD; do you nol
lremble before me! I pluced lhe sund us u boundury for lhe seu. u
perpeluul burrler lhul ll cunnol puss; lhough lhe vuves loss. lhey cunnol
prevull. lhough lhey rour. lhey cunnol puss over ll.`

97
Appurenlly u proverblul expresslon. lhough lhls one pussuge ls lhe sole
evldence of ll. The expresslon uppeurs novhere else ln lhe survlvlng
unclenl Creek lllerulure. vhelher clusslcul or Chrlsllun.

98
1ob 26.I0. uccordlng lo lhe Sepluuglnl.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

38
Vhul ure lhe flrsl founlulns of sprlngs! Morlul. see lf you cun lruce oul or
flnd uny of lhese lhlngs. And vho vus ll vho clefl lhe plulns und lhe
mounlulns for lhe rlvers. und guve lhem un unhlndered course! And vhul
uboul lhe murvel on lhe olher slde. lhul lhe seu never overflovs und lhe
rlvers never ceuse lo flov! And hov ure lhe vulers fed. und vhy ln dlfferenl
vuys. some belng fed from ubove. vhlle olhers drlnk vllh lhelr rools! ÷ lf I
muy luxurlule u llllle ln my lunguuge vhen speuklng of lhe luxurlunl glfls of
Cod.
99
§ 28. And nov. leuvlng lhe eurlh und lhe lhlngs of eurlh. sour lnlo lhe ulr
on lhe vlngs of lhoughl. lhul our dlscusslon muy proceed melhodlcully; und
from lhere I vlll luke you up lo heuvenly lhlngs. und lo heuven llself. und lo
lhlngs vhlch ure ubove heuven. My dlscourse hesllules lo uscend lo lhul vhlch
lles beyond. bul sllll ll shull uscend us fur us posslble.

Vho poured forlh lhe ulr. lhul greul und ubundunl veullh vhlch ls nol
meusured oul lo humuns uccordlng lo lhelr runk or clrcumslunces. ls nol
reslrulned by boundurles. ls nol dlvlded oul uccordlng lo people`s uges!
Insleud. llke lhe dlslrlbullon of lhe munnu. euch person recelves enough. und ll
ls vulued for lls equul dlslrlbullon.
I00

99
And hov ure lhe vulers fed .. lf I muy luxurlule u llllle ln my lunguuge
vhen speuklng of lhe luxurlunl glfls of Cod. 8olh lhe Lngllsh lrunslullon
of 8rovne und Svullov und lhe French lrunslullon of Culluy luke lhls
pussuge lo be u reference lo lhe pover of vuler lo nurlure plunl-llfe. 8ul
such u mundune reference mukes nonsense of Cregory`s closlng upology
for luxurlullng ln hls lunguuge. As A. 1. Muson polnls oul. Cregory ls nol
lulklng uboul hov vuler nourlshes plunls. bul uboul hov lhe vulers
lhemselves gel lhelr ¨nourlshmenl`. Some vulers. he suys. ure fed from
ubove. l.e. by ruln-full; olher vulers drlnk vllh lhelr rools. l.e. ure fed by
underground sprlngs.
Il ls lhe churlol of lhe vlnged creullon.
lhe seul of lhe vlnds. lhe moderulor of lhe seusons. lhe unlmulor of llvlng
lhlngs ÷ or rulher ll mulnlulns lhe soul ln unlon vllh lhe body. In ll bodles
huve lhelr belng. und by ll ve speuk; ln ll ls lhe llghl und ull lhul ll lllumlnes.
us vell us lhe exlernul uspecl of lhlngs vhlch llghl lrunsmlls lhrough lhe ulr!
And murk. lf you vlll. vhul follovs. I cunnol glve lo lhe ulr lhe vhole emplre
of ull lhul ls lhoughl lo belong lo lhe ulr. Vhul ure lhe slorehouses of lhe

I00
Cf. Lxodus I6.I7-I8: ¨The Isruellles [gulhered lhe munnu]. some
gulherlng more. some less. 8ul vhen lhey meusured ll vllh un omer.
lhose vho gulhered much hud nolhlng over. und lhose vho gulhered
llllle hud no shorluge; lhey gulhered us much us euch of lhem needed.`
Theologlcul Crullons 2

39
vlnds!
I0I
Vhul ure lhe lreusurles of lhe snov!
I02
us Scrlplure suys: Vho hus
begollen lhe drops of dev.
I03
und from vhose vomb dld lhe lce come forlh!
I04
Vho ls ll lhul blnds up lhe vulers ln lhe clouds.
I05
vho somellmes holds
buck purl of lhe molslure ln lhe clouds by meuns of lhe Vord
I06
÷ vhul u
vonder! ÷ und ul olher llmes pours ll oul on lhe fuce of ull lhe eurlh;
I07
vho
sheds ll ul lhe rlghl llme und ln equul meusure. vllhoul permllllng lhe
molslure`s vhole subslunce lo go oul free und unconlrolled ÷ for |usl enough
ruln fell lo cleunse lhe vorld ln lhe duys of Nouh. und lhe Cne vho cunnol lle
ls nol forgelful of Hls ovn covenunl
I08
÷ bul vllhoul holdlng ll buck enllrely
so lhul ve should never uguln need un Lll|uh lo brlng lhe droughl lo un
end!
I09
If Cod shuls up lhe heuvens. ll suys.
II0

I0I
Cf. Psulm I35.7: ¨[The LCRD] brlng up ruln clouds from lhe ends of lhe
eurlh; he sends oul llghlnlng vllh lhe ruln. und brlng lhe vlnds oul of hls
slorehouse.`
vho vlll open lhem! If Cod

I02
Cf. 1ob 38.22: ¨[Then lhe LCRD unsvered 1ob oul of lhe vhlrlvlnd:]
'Huve you enlered lhe slorehouses of lhe snov. or huve you seen lhe
slorehouses of lhe hull!` `

I03
1ob 38.28.

I04
1ob 38.29.

I05
1ob 26.8.

I06
Cf. Slruch 48.3: ¨8y lhe vord of lhe Lord [Lll|uh] shul up lhe heuvens.`

I07
Cf. 1ob 5.I0: ¨[The LCRD] glves ruln on lhe eurlh und sends vulers on
lhe flelds.`

I08
Cf. Cenesls 9.I2-I5: ¨Cod suld. 'Thls ls lhe slgn of lhe covenunl lhul I
muke belveen me und you und every llvlng creulure lhul ls vllh you. for
ull fulure generullons: I huve sel my bov ln lhe clouds. und ll shull be u
slgn of lhe covenunl belveen me und lhe eurlh. Vhen I brlng clouds
over lhe eurlh und lhe bov ls seen ln lhe clouds. I vlll remember my
covenunl lhul ls belveen me und you und every llvlng creulure of ull
flesh; und lhe vulers shull never uguln become u flood lo deslroy ull
flesh.` `

I09
Cf. I Klngs I8.4I-46.

II0
2 Chronlcles 7.I3.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

40
opens lhe vlndovs of heuven.
III
vho vlll shul lhem! Vho could endure loo
much or loo llllle ruln from lhe Cne vho mukes ll full.
II2
unless Cod govern
lhe unlverse vllh Hls ovn meusures und bulunces!
II3
If you huve lruvelled vllh your lhoughl lhrough lhe ulr und ull lhe lhlngs
of ulr. nov reuch oul vllh me lo heuven und lhe lhlngs of heuven. And lel
fullh leud us rulher lhun reuson. lf you huve lruly leurnl lhe veukness of lhe
luller ln mullers neurer lo you. und knov reuson by knovlng lhe lhlngs lhul
ure ubove reuson. so us nol lo be complelely of lhe eurlh or ulluched lo lhe
eurlh. becuuse you ure lgnorunl even of your lgnorunce.
Vhul speculullons vlll
you dreum up concernlng lhunder und llghlnlng ÷ you vho lhunder from lhe
eurlh und cunnol shlne vllh even llllle spurks of lrulh! To vhul mlsls rlslng
from eurlh vlll you ullrlbule lhe creullon of lhunderclouds! Is ll due lo some
lhlckenlng of lhe ulr. or some compresslon or bumplng logelher of lhln
clouds. so us lo muke you lhlnk lhul lhe compresslon cuuses lhe llghlnlng. und
lhe bumplng logelher mukes lhe lhunder! Cr vhul vlnd. flndlng llself
conslrulned und huvlng no oullel. vlll produce lhe llghlnlng by lls
compresslon. und lhe lhunder by lls bursllng oul!
§ 29. Vho spreud lhe sky uround us. und sel lhe slurs ln lhelr pluce! Cr
rulher. before lhul. vhul ure lhe sky und lhe slurs! Cun you lell me. C exulled
one! ÷ you vho do nol knov vhul lles ul your very feel. und cunnol even
luke lhe meusure of yourself. und yel musl busy yourself vllh vhul ls ubove
your nulure und slund open-moulhed before lhul vhlch hus no llmll! Crunled.
you underslund lhe slurs. lhelr orblls und perlods. lhelr vuxlngs und vunlngs.
lhelr selllngs und rlslngs. some purls of lhe zodluc. und ull lhe olher lhlngs
vhlch muke you so proud of your vonderful knovledge. 8ul you huve nol
urrlved ul u comprehenslon of lhe reulllles lhemselves. only ul un observullon
of u cerluln movemenl vhlch. conflrmed by long prucllce und collecllng lhe
observullons of muny olhers lnlo u syslemullc explunullon. hus ucqulred lhe
nume of ¨sclence`. Llkevlse. lhe phuses of lhe moon ure knovn lo mosl
people. bul ll ls due lo observullon vllh lhe eyes lhul lhey ure so vell knovn.
If you. hovever. ure very leurned ln lhls sub|ecl und huve u |usl clulm lo
udmlrullon. lell me vhul ls lhe cuuse of lhls order und lhls movemenl! Hov
dld lhe sun come lo be llke u beucon lo lhe vhole vorld. und lo ull eyes llke
lhe leuder of some chorus. vhose brlghlness conceuls ull lhe slurs more

III
Muluchl 3.I0.

II2
Cf. Mullhev 5.45: ¨Your Fulher ln heuven [vho] mukes hls sun rlse on
lhe evll und on lhe good. und sends ruln on lhe rlghleous und on lhe
unrlghleous.`

II3
Cf. 1ob 28.25: ¨He guve lo lhe vlnd lls velghl. und upporlloned oul lhe
vulers by meusure.`
Theologlcul Crullons 2

4I
complelely lhun some of lhem conceul olhers. The proof of lhls ls lhul. lf lhey
shlne ugulnsl ll. lhe sun oulshlnes lhem und does nol even ullov us lo percelve
lhul lhey rose slmulluneously vllh ll. fulr llke u brldegroom. svlfl und lurge us
u glunl
II4
-- for I vlll nol lel lhe sun`s prulses be sung from uny olher source
bul my ovn Scrlplures. Il so poverful lhul from one end of lhe vorld lo lhe
olher ll embruces ull lhlngs ln lls heul. und nolhlng ls hldden from lls heul.
II5
§ 30. And vhul do you huve lo suy uboul lhls (lf you huve nollced ll):
¨The sun holds lhe sume poslllon ln lhe reulm of lhe senses us Cod holds ln
lhe reulm of lhe Ideus.` us someone vho ls nol one of ours hus suld

The sun fllls every eye vllh llghl. und every bodlly creulure vllh heul; ll
vurms. bul does nol burn. lhunks lo lhe genlleness of lls lemper und lhe order
of lls movemenl; ll ls presenl lo ull und embruces ull equully.
II6
For lhe
one glves llghl lo lhe eyes us lhe Clher enllghlens lhe mlnd; und us lhe one ls
lhe mosl beuullful ob|ecl ln lhe vlslble vorld. so ls lhe Clher lhe mosl
beuullful ob|ecl ln lhe lnlelllglble vorld.
II7
8ul vho guve lhe sun lls movemenl
ul flrsl! And vhul ls ll keeps ll movlng ln lls orbll.
II8

II4
Psulm I9.5.
lhough ln lls nulure ll ls
sluble und lmmovuble. lruly unllrlng. lhe glver und suslulner of llfe. und ull lhe
olher lllles lhul lhe poels |uslly slng of ll. und never resllng ln lls course or lls
beneflls! Hov does ll come lo be lhe creulor of duy vhen ubove lhe eurlh.
und of nlghl vhen belov ll ÷ or vhulever muy be lhe rlghl expresslon vhen
one conlemplules lhe sun! Vhul ure lhe lncreuse und decreuse of duy und
nlghl ln relullon lo one unolher. und lhelr regulur lrregulurllles ÷ lo use u
somevhul purudoxlcul expresslon! Hov does lhe sun huppen lo be lhe muker
und dlvlder of lhe seusons vhlch urrlve und depurl ln regulur order. und us ln

II5
Psulm I9.6.

II6
Plulo. Republlc 508 c.

II7
lhe lnlelllglble vorld. The order of reullly vhlch cun only be
upprehended by pure lhoughl. In Plulonlc und Neo-Plulonlc
phllosophles. lhls meunl lhul lhe lnlelllglble order vus lhe ¨mosl reul`
reullly. 8y conlrusl. lhe senslble order (lhe dlmenslon of reullly vhlch cun
be upprehended by lhe senses) ls u vorld of shudovs. lrunslenl.
chungeuble. und flnlle.

II8
Copernlcus und Cullleo vere sllll more lhun u lhousund yeurs ln lhe
fulure vhen Cregory vrole; he und hls conlemporurles look for grunled
lhe uslronomlcul syslem of Plolemy (2nd cenlury C.L.). uccordlng lo
vhlch lhe eurlh vus lhe cenlre of lhe unlverse und lhe sun orblled
uround ll.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

42
u dunce lnlerveuve vllh euch olher. or slund upurl by u luv of love on lhe
one hund. und of order on lhe olher. und mlngle llllle by llllle. und sleul on
lhelr nelghbour. |usl us nlghls und duys do. so us nol lo glve us puln by lhelr
suddenness. 8ul nov ve vlll lel lhe sun follov lls ovn course.
II9
As for you. do you knov lhe nulure und phuses of lhe moon. lhe meusure
of lls llghl. lls courses. und hov ll ls lhul lhe sun beurs rule over lhe duy und
lhe moon presldes over lhe nlghl! Hov ls ll lhul lhe moon glves confldence lo
vlld beusls. vhlle lhe sun rouses humuns lo do lhelr vork. rulslng or loverlng
llself us muy be mosl servlceuble!

I20
Do you knov lhe chulns of lhe Pleludes or
lhe cords of Crlon
I2I
us lhe Cne vho counls lhe number of lhe slurs und culls
lhem ull by lhelr numes!
I22
Do you knov lhe dlfferences of lhe glory of euch
I23

und lhe order of lhelr movemenl. lhul I should lrusl you vhen you use lhem
lo veuve lhe veb of humun concerns und urm lhe creulure ugulnsl lhe
Creulor!
I24
§ 3I. Vhul do you suy! Shull ve slop here. llmlllng our dlscusslon lo muller
und vlslble lhlngs! Cr. slnce our mlnd knovs lhe lubernucle of Moses lo be u
flgure of lhe vhole creullon

I25

II9
I.e. Lnough suld uboul lhe sun.
÷ I meun lhe enllre syslem of lhlngs vlslble und

I20
Cf. Psulm I04.20-24: ¨You uppolnled lhe moon lo murk lhe seusons.
und lhe sun knovs lhe llme of lls selllng. You muke durkness lhul ll muy
be nlghl. ln vhlch lhe beusls of lhe foresl provl. The llons rour ufler
lhelr prey und seek lhelr food from Cod. The sun rlses. und lhey sllp
uvuy und luy lhemselves dovn ln lhelr dens. Morluls go forlh lo lhelr
vork und lo lhelr lubour unlll lhe evenlng.`

I2I
Cf. 1ob 38.3I: ¨Cun you blnd lhe chulns of lhe Pleludes. or loose lhe
cords of Crlon!`

I22
Psulm I47.4.

I23
Cf. I Corlnlhluns I5.4I: ¨There ls one glory of lhe sun. und unolher glory
of lhe moon. und unolher glory of lhe slurs; lndeed. slur dlffers from slur
ln glory.`

I24
Here Cregory ls lurgellng uslrology.

I25
Cf. Vlsdom 9.8: ¨You huve glven commund lo bulld u lemple on your
holy mounluln. und un ullur ln lhe clly of your hubllullon. u copy of lhe
holy lenl lhul you prepured from lhe beglnnlng.` Also Hebrevs 9.24:
¨For Chrlsl dld nol enler u suncluury mude by humun hunds. u mere
copy of lhe lrue one. bul he enlered lnlo heuven llself.`
Theologlcul Crullons 2

43
lnvlslble
I26
÷ shull ve puss lhrough lhe flrsl vell und. slepplng beyond lhe
reulm of lhe senses. shull ve look lnlo lhe Holy Pluce ÷ lhul ls lo suy. lnlo
splrlluul und heuvenly nulure!
I27
8ul ve cunnol see even lhls ln un lncorporeul
vuy. ullhough ll ls lncorporeul llself. Thls splrlluul und heuvenly nulure ls
culled ÷ or ls ÷ ¨flre` und ¨vlnd`. For ll ls suld lhul Cod mukes lhe vlnds Hls
messengers und flumes of flre Hls servunls
I28
÷ {u curlous lurn of phruse.] unless
lo muke meuns preservlng lhem ln lhe luv of lhelr orlglnul creullon.
I29
The
ungellc nulure. lhen. ls culled ¨vlnd` und ¨flre` ÷ vlnd. lo slgnlfy lhul purl of
lhelr nulure lhul ls pure lnlelllgence. und flre. lo slgnlfy lhul purl of lhelr
nulure lhul purlfles; for I knov lhul lhe sume numes ure upproprlule lo lhe
Flrsl Nulure. 8ul ve musl reckon lhe ungellc nulure lncorporeul. ul leusl ln
compurlson vllh our nulure. or us neurly so us posslble. You see hov lhls
sub|ecl mukes our heuds svlm und hov ve ure uble lo udvunce only so fur.
All ve knov ls lhul lhere ure Angels und Archungels.
I30
Thrones. Domlnlons.
Rulers. Povers.
I3I
Splendours. Ascenslons.
I32
Splrlluul Povers or Splrlls.
I33

I26
Colossluns I.I6.


I27
nulure (phusls) hus u collecllve sense here; ll refers lo ull creuled belngs.
such us ungels. vho ure splrlluul und heuvenly ln nulure.

I28
Psulm I04.4.

I29
A. 1. Muson commenls: ¨To 'muke` lhe ungels vlnds suggesls u chunge ln
lhelr mode of exlslence; bul Cregory lhlnks lhul ll muy denole vhul ls
conlulned ln lhe orlglnul ucl of creullon. und nol somelhlng subsequenl.`
8y lhe vuy. lhe vord ungel ls derlved from lhe Creek vord o¸¸cìoç.
vhlch meuns ¨messenger`.

I30
Romuns 8.38; Dunlel I0.I3. I Thessulonluns 4.I6; 1ude 9.

I3I
Colossluns I.I6.

I32
Thls seems lo be lhe only pluce ln ull of Creek pulrlsllc lllerulure vhere
Splendours und Ascenslons ure numed us purl of lhe heuvenly hlerurchy.
Vllh respecl lo Ascenslons (ovo|oociç. unubusels). Muson remurks lhul
Cregory muy huve been lhlnklng of vhul 1ucob suv ln hls dreum
(Cenesls 28.I2): ¨And he dreumed lhul lhere vus u ludder sel up on lhe
eurlh. lhe lop of ll reuchlng lo heuven; und lhe ungels of Cod vere
uscendlng und descendlng on ll.` Cf. 1ohn I.5I: ¨And [1esus] suld lo
[Nulhunuel]. 'Very lruly. I lell you. you vlll see heuven opened und lhe
ungels of Cod uscendlng und descendlng upon lhe Son of Mun.` `

I33
Cf. Lphesluns I.2I. Revelullon 4.5.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

44
nulures pure und unulloyed. lncupuble (or hurdly cupuble) of lurnlng lo evll.
ever clrcllng ln chorus round lhe Flrsl Cuuse ÷ else. hov could ve slng lhelr
prulses. lhese belngs vho shlne vllh brllllunce druvn from lhe puresl
Splendour. or one ln one degree und one ln unolher. uccordlng lo lhelr nulure
und runk! They ure so murked und formed by Cod`s beuuly. lhul lhey become
secondury Llghls. und cun enllghlen olhers by shlnlng lhe Flrsl Llghl on lhem
und lhereby communlcule lhelr ovn selves. They ure servunls of Cod`s vlll.
I34
If I huve sung lhese lhlngs fllllngly. lhunks should be glven lo lhe Trlnlly
und lo lhe one dlvlnlly ln lhe Three. If lhe resull hus been less udequule lhun I
deslred. even so my dlscourse hus gulned lls purpose. For lhls ls vhul I vus
lubourlng lo shov ÷ lhul lf even lhe secondury nulures surpuss lhe pover of
our lnlellecl. by hov much more. lhen. does lhe Flrsl und Cnly Nulure ÷ for I
hesllule lo suy merely ¨lhul vhlch ls ubove ull`.

poverful by lhelr lnnule slrenglh und by lhul vhlch vus lmpurled lo lhem.
lruverslng lhe unlverse. reudlly presenl lo ull ul uny pluce lhrough lhelr zeul
for servlce und lhe uglllly of lhelr nulure. Some of lhem huve recelved us lhelr
porllon one purl of lhe vorld. und olhers ure pul ln churge of some olher
purl of lhe unlverse. us He declded vho ordered und dlslrlbuled lhem. They
brlng ull lhlngs lnlo unlly. vllh u vlev lo lhe upprovul of lhe Creulor of ull
lhlngs; for vhlch ulone lhey cure. They hymn lhe dlvlne mu|esly und elernully
conlemplule lhe elernul glory. Thls ls nol lhul Cod muy be lncreused ln glory ÷
for nolhlng cun be udded lo lhul vhlch ls full or lo lhe Cne vho supplles
good lhlngs lo ull olhers ÷ bul lhul even lhese nulures. vho ure lhe flrsl ufler
Cod. muy never ceuse lo recelve blesslngs.






I34
Cf. Hebrevs I.I4: ¨Are nol ull ungels splrlls ln lhe dlvlne servlce. senl lo
serve for lhe suke of lhose vho ure lo lnherll sulvullon!`

45
The Thlrd Theologlcul Crullon
Crullon 29

Cn lhe Son.
I

HIS. lhen. ls vhul cun be suld lo check our opponenls` propenslly lo
enguge ln debule ul lhe drop of u hul. vllh lhe consequenl dunger of
over-husly |udgemenl ln ull mullers bul ubove ull ln dlscusslons vhlch huve lo
do vllh Cod. 8ul rebuklng olhers ls u muller of no dlfflcully ul ull ÷ ll ls lhe
euslesl lhlng ln lhe vorld. und uny one so dlsposed cun do ll ÷ vhereus
eslubllshlng one`s ovn poslllon ln exchunge for lhelrs ls vhul u plous und
lnlelllgenl person should do. So lel us rely on lhe Holy Splrll ÷ vho umong
our opponenls ls dlshonoured bul umong us ls udored
!
÷ und brlng oul lnlo
lhe llghl of publlc vlev our ovn oplnlons (vhulever lhey muy be) concernlng
lhe dlvlne nulure. llke some vell-born und vell-bred chlld. Nol lhul on olher
occuslons I huve been sllenl. for concernlng lhls one sub|ecl I um full of
slrenglh und durlng. 8ul ln lhe presenl clrcum-slunces I um even bolder lo
declure lhe lrulh. lesl by shrlnklng buck (us ll ls vrlllen) I should be
condemned us dlspleuslng lo Cod.
"
And slnce every dlscourse hus lvo purls. lhe one eslubllshlng one`s ovn
poslllon. und lhe olher overlhrovlng lhe poslllon of one`s opponenls. lel me
flrsl of ull slule lhe leuchlng of our slde. und lhen lry lo refule lhul of our
opponenls. I vlll do bolh us brlefly us posslble. so lhul my urgumenls muy be
luken ln ul u glunce ÷ us ln lhe elemenlury lreullses vhlch our opponenls huve
devlsed lo decelve slmple or foollsh persons. 8esldes. u lenglhy dlscourse
mukes ll ull loo eusy lo lose lhe lruln of lhoughl. llke vuler vhlch ls nol
conlulned ln u chunnel bul spreudlng over open lund. goes lo vusle.

§ 2. The lhree mosl unclenl oplnlons concernlng Cod ure Anurchy.
Polyurchy. und Monurchy.
#

!
A reference lo lhe fucl lhul Arluns ln generul. und Lunomlus und hls
dlsclples ln purllculur. denled lhe dlvlnlly of lhe Holy Splrll.
The flrsl lvo ure lhe sporl of lhe chlldren of lhe

"
Cf. Hebrevs I0.38-39: ¨ 'My soul lukes no pleusure ln unyone vho
shrlnks buck` [Hubukkuk 2.4. ucc. lo Sepluuglnl]. 8ul ve ure nol umong
lhose vho shrlnk buck und so ure losl. bul umong lhose vho huve fullh
und so ure suved.`

#
Anurchy meuns ¨vllhoul (u-. un-) soverelgnly` or ¨u condlllon vhere
nobody und nolhlng rules.` ln effecl. ulhelsm; Polyurchy. ¨soverelgnly
T
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

46
Creeks. und muy lhey conllnue lo be so. For Anurchy ls. ln effecl. pure
dlsorder. Polyurchy ls u slule of dlscord. und lhus unurchy. und lhus dlsorder.
For bolh lhese lend lo lhe sume lhlng. numely dlsorder ÷ und dlsorder leuds lo
dlslnlegrullon. for dlsorder ls lhe prelude lo dlslnlegrullon.
Il ls Monurchy lhul ve hold ln honour ÷ bul nol u Monurchy lhul ls
conlulned ln one slngle person.
$
For ll ls posslble for lhls one person. lf ul
vurlunce vllh llself. lo become u plurullly of persons. 8ul ll ls u plurullly vhlch
conslsls of un equullly of nulure. u ununlmlly of vlll. und un ldenllly of ucllon.
und vhlch converges buck lnlo lhe Cne from vhlch lhey come ÷ u lhlng
unheurd of umong creuled nulures. In lhls cuse. lhough lhe soverelgnly ls
dlsllncl vllh respecl lo number. yel ll ls nol dlvlded vllh respecl lo subslunce.
Thus from lhe beglnnlng
&
lhe Cne. movlng lovurd lhe Tvofold. found lls resl
ln lhe Threefold. Thls ls vhul ve meun by Fulher. Son. und Holy Splrll. The
Fulher begels und produces ÷ lo be sure. vllhoul pusslon.
'
und vllhoul
reference lo llme. und nol ln u physlcul munner. The Son ls begollen. und lhe
Holy Splrll ls produced -- I do nol knov hov lo express lhls ln lerms vhlch
exclude ull reference lo lhlngs lhul cun be seen. For ve cerlulnly do nol huve
lhe uuduclly lo speuk of ¨un overflov of goodness.` us some Creek
phllosophers dured lo speuk of ¨un overflovlng bovl` ln hls dlscusslon of ¨lhe
Flrsl Cuuse` und ¨lhe Second Cuuse`.
(

exerclsed by muny (polus).` ln effecl. polylhelsm; Monurchy.
¨soverelgnly exerclsed by one (monos).` ln effecl. monolhelsm. These
lerms muke ll cleur lhul Cregory ls lhlnklng of dlvlnlly prlmurlly lhe sense
of rulershlp or muslery over lhe communlly of creullon.
Lel us luke cure never lo look on lhls

$
Thls ls lhe flrsl llme lhul Cregory uses lhe lerm person ÷ tµooetov
(PRCSCPCN) ÷ ln connexlon vllh Cod. The vord orlglnully deslgnuled
lhe musk vorn by un uclor vhlle pluylng u purl ln lhe unclenl Creek
lheulre. vhelher drumu or comedy. (Tvo such musks ÷ one luughlng. lhe
olher frovnlng ÷ sllll represenl ucllng und lhe lheulre.) Hence. prosopon
cume lo refer lo one`s presence lo olhers ÷ us ln
T. S. Lllol`s llne. ¨To prepure u fuce lo meel lhe fuces lhul you meel`
(¨The Love Song of 1. Alfred Prufrock`).

&
I 1ohn I.I: ¨Ve declure lo you vhul vus from lhe beglnnlng..`

'
Vllhoul pusslon. Thul ls lo suy. nol ln u vuy lhul sub|ecls lhe Fulher lo
chunge. ullerullon. or modlflcullon.

(
Thls ls u dlspuruglng reference lo Plollnus. Lnneuds V. I.6. vhere Plollnus
deflned lhe Flrsl Cuuse us ¨lhe Cne` und lhe Second Cuuse us ¨8elng`.
Theologlcul Crullons 3: Cn lhe Son. I

47
generullon
)
us lnvolunlury. llke some nulurul overflov. hurd lo hold buck. und
by no meuns befllllng our concepllon of dlvlnlly. Therefore lel us ublde vllhln
our ovn bounds und speuk of ¨lhe one vho ls unbegollen.` ¨lhe one vho ls
begollen.` und ¨lhe one vho proceeds from lhe Fulher.` us Cod lhe Vord
suys somevhere.
*
§ 3. Vhen dld lhe one vho ls begollen und lhe one vho proceeds from
lhe Fulher come lnlo belng! They ure ubove und beyond lhe nollon of u
¨vhen`. Indeed. lf I muy speuk somevhul more boldly ÷ lhey cume lnlo belng
vhen lhe Fulher dld. And vhen dld lhe Fulher come lnlo belng! There never
vus u llme vhen lhe Fulher dld nol exlsl. And lhe sume lhlng ls lrue of lhe
Son und lhe Holy Splrll. Ask me uguln: ¨Vhen vus lhe Son begollen!` And
uguln I vlll unsver you: Vhen lhe Fulher vus unbegollen. ÷ ¨And vhen dld
lhe Holy Splrll proceed!` Vhen lhe Son vus. nol proceedlng. bul begollen
beyond lhe sphere of llme und ln u munner vhlch cunnol be expressed ÷
ullhough ve cunnol uvold lhe lmugery of llme vhen ve vlsh lo express vhul
ls ubove llme. For such expresslons us vhen und before und ufler und from lhe
beglnnlng ure nol llmeless. hovever much ve lvlsl lhelr meunlng. Il vlll be
necessury for us lo udopl lhe slundurd of Llernlly. lhul lnlervul vhlch exlends
lhrough ull lhlngs ubove und beyond llme. und vhlch ls nol dlvlded or
meusured by uny movemenl. nor by lhe revolullon of lhe sun. us llme ls
meusured.

!+

)
lhls generullon ÷ ¸cvvqoiç (gennesls). Thls lerm meuns ¨lhls begelllng.` us
ln lhe slrlng or lhe breedlng of offsprlng. lhus (by exlenslon) lhe ucl by
vhlch one cuuses unolher lo exlsl. The Nlcene movemenl lnslsled on lhls
lerm. vhen speuklng of lhe Son`s orlgln from (und relullon lo) lhe
Fulher. becuuse Arluns lnslsled lhul lhe Son cume from lhe Fulher by vuy
of ¸cvcoiç (genesls) ÷ lllerully. ¨beglnnlng of llfe.` ¨creullon`.


*
1ohn I5.26: ¨Vhen lhe Advocule comes. vhom I vlll send lo you from
lhe Fulher. lhe Splrll of lrulh VHC CCMLS FRCM THL FATHLR. he vlll
lesllfy on my behulf.`

!+
Llernlly uppeurs lo be u lemporul concepl. lnsofur us ve lend lo lhlnk of
ll us lhe endless exlenslon of llme. Thls much Cregory concedes vhen he
speuks of lhul lnlervul vhlch exlends lhrough ull lhlngs ubove und
beyond llme. 8ul he lmmedlulely quullfles lhe churucler of lhls lnlervul ln
lhe follovlng cluuses. The lrulh ls. elernlly does nol huve lo do vllh
llme so much us vllh lhe lrunscendence of llme. For elernlly ls nol
slmply llme ln unendlng exlenslon; ll ls u condlllon ln vhlch llme hus
lllerully ceused lo be counluble. In u sense. elernlly ls olher-lhun-llme.
llme`s opposlle.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

48
Hov lhen cun lhe one vho ls begollen und lhe one vho proceeds nol be
¨vllhoul beglnnlng.` lf lhey ure elernul! Il ls becuuse lhey ure from lhe Fulher.
bul nol ufler lhe Fulher.
!!
§ 4. 8ul hov cun lhls generullon of lhe Son be vllhoul pusslon!
For vhulever ls vllhoul beglnnlng ls elernul. lhough
vhulever ls elernul ls nol necessurlly vllhoul beglnnlng. so long us ll muy be
referred lo lhe Fulher us lls orlgln. So lhe begollen one und lhe one vho
proceeds ure nol vllhoul beglnnlng vllh respecl lo cuusullon. 8ul ll ls evldenl
lhul lhe cuuse does nol necessurlly come before lls effecls. for lhe sun ls nol
prlor lo lls llghl. And yel lhe begollen one und lhe one vho proceeds ure ln
some sense vllhoul beglnnlng vllh respecl lo llme. even lhough you vould
scure slmple mlnds vllh your qulbbles; for lhe sources of llme ure nol sub|ecl
lo llme.
!"
8ecuuse
ll ls lncorporeul. For lf corporeul generullon lnvolves pusslon. lncorporeul
generullon excludes ll. And I ln my lurn vlll usk you: Hov cun lhe Son be
Cod lf He ls creuled!
!#

!!
Thls purugruph ls dlrecled ugulnsl lhe leuchlng of Lunomlus. vho
mulnlulned lhul un cuuse musl be prlor lo lhe lhlng ll cuuses. Slnce lhe
Unbegollen (lhe Fulher) cuused or orlglnuled lhe 8egollen (lhe Son). lhe
Unbegollen musl come before lhe 8egollen. bolh ln lhe order of llme
und ln lhe order of belng. Cregory concedes lhul lhe Unbegollen
orlglnules lhe 8egollen. bul polnls oul lhul u cuuse need nol precede lls
effecl. As ve shull see luler on ln lhls Crullon. ll ls posslble lo concelve of
u cuuse vhlch vould nol be u cuuse. or even be ul ull. vllhoul lhe
presence of lls effecls.
For lhul vhlch ls creuled ls nol Cod. I refruln from
remlndlng you lhul. lf ve luke ¨creullon` ln u corporeul sense. pusslons ure
presenl here. loo ÷ such us llme. deslre. lmuglnullon. lhoughl. hope. puln. rlsk.
fullure. success. ull of vhlch und muny more uffecl lhe creulure. us ls cleur lo
every one. Indeed. I um umuzed lhul you do nol venlure so fur us lo lhlnk of
curnul coupllngs. lerms of pregnuncy und lhe dungers of mlscurrluge ÷ us lf lhe
Fulher could nol huve begollen ul ull lf He hud nol begollen lhus. Cr uguln. I
um surprlsed lhul you dld nol counl up lhe vurlous vuys ln vhlch blrds und
mummuls und flshes generule lhemselves. und clusslfy under one of lhese

!"
vllhoul pusslon. See foolnole 6. puge 34 ÷ lhough. us Cregory`s
exposlllon here mukes cleur. he ls ulso lhlnklng of pusslon ln lhe sense
sexuul lnlercourse.

!#
Arluns generully usserled lhul lhe Son ls creuled. bul nol ull Arluns ugreed
lhul lhls meunl lhe Son vus nol dlvlne ÷ dlvlnlly. such Arluns oplned.
vus deleguled lo lhe Son by lhe Fulher. Lunomlus und hls dlsclples hud
no lruck vllh lhls luller vlev ÷ slnce lhe Son vus creuled. lhey usserled.
he vus nol dlvlne. und nol Cod.
Theologlcul Crullons 3: Cn lhe Son. I

49
modes of generullon lhe dlvlne und unspeukuble mode of generullon ÷ or
else. us u resull of your novel hypolhesls. gel rld of lhe Son ullogelher. And
you cunnol even see lhls. lhul us lhe Son`s generullon uccordlng lo lhe flesh
dlffers from ull olhers ÷ for vhere umong humuns huve you knovn of u Cod-
beurlng vlrgln!
!$
§ 5. Vhul Fulher. lhen. ls lhls vho never hud u beglnnlng us u fulher! ÷
Cne vhose very exlslence hud no beglnnlng; for one vhose exlslence hud u
beglnnlng musl ulso huve begun lo be u Fulher. He dld nol become u Fulher
ul some polnl ufler He begun lo be. becuuse Hls belng hud no beglnnlng. And
He ls Fulher ln lhe proper sense of lhe vord. for He ls nol ul lhe sume llme
Son; |usl us lhe Son ls Son ln lhe proper sense of lhe vord. becuuse He ls nol
ul lhe sume llme Fulher. These numes do nol belong lo us ln lhe proper sense.
becuuse ve ure bolh purenl und chlld. und nol one more lhun lhe olher. And
ve come from lvo purenls. nol from only one. vllh lhe resull lhul lhere ls u
dlvlslon ln us. Moreover. ve become humun by degrees. und perhups nol
qulle humun bul such us our purenls dld nol deslre;
÷ so does He dlffer ulso ln Hls splrlluul generullon. Cr rulher
He vhose exlslence ls nol lhe sume us ours. dlffers from us ulso ln Hls
generullon.
!&
¨8ul.` suy our opponenls. ¨do nol lhe very expresslons begol und vus
begollen lmply u beglnnlng of generullon!`
ve leuve our purenls
und lhey leuve us. so lhul only lhe relullons remuln. vllhoul lhe underlylng
reullly.
!'
Vell. lhen. suppose ve do nol
use lhese expresslons bul suy lhul ¨lhe Son vus begollen from lhe beglnnlng`!
Thls ullovs us euslly lo evude your fur-felched und llme-lovlng ob|ecllons.
!(

!$
Cod-beurlng vlrgln ÷ ucotokoç toµuqcvoç (lheolokos purlhenos).
Cregory ulreudy uses lhe lllle of lhe blessed Vlrgln Mury ÷ lheolokos.
¨Cod-beurer` ÷ vhlch vould preclpllule lhe councll of Lphesus (43I).


!&
Cregory ls referrlng lo our gruduul developmenl bolh ln lhe vomb und
lhrough lnfuncy. chlldhood. udolescence. und udullhood. Lven so. some
chlldren full lo ulluln lhe full mulurlly us humun belngs. lhrough
hundlcups of mlnd or body. so lhul (us Muson commenls) ¨lhe vlshes of
humun purenls for lhelr offsprlng ure oflen fur from reullsed.`

!'
The Lunomlun ob|ecllon. us Cregory frumes ll. nov moves beyond (or
rulher behlnd) lhe fucl of generullon und hov ll huppens. lo conslder lhe
grummur of lhe lerms used lo express ll. The lerm begol ls pusl lense. lhe
lerm vus begollen ls pusslve perfecl lense ÷ und verb-lenses necessurlly
lmply lhe ldeu of u momenl vhen.

!(
Cregory solves lhe Lunomlun ob|ecllon by proposlng u formulu vhlch
sels lhe ¨momenl` of lhe Son`s belng begollen before lhe beglnnlng of
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

50
Vlll you flle u churge ugulnsl us us lf ve vere forglng somelhlng conlrury lo
Scrlplure und lhe lrulh! Vhy. every one knovs lhul ln prucllce ve very oflen
flnd lenses lnlerchunged vhen llme ls spoken of. Thls ls especlully so ln lhe
holy Scrlplures. nol only vllh respecl lo lhe pusl lense und lhe presenl lense.
bul even vllh respecl lo lhe fulure lense ÷ for lnslunce. Vhy huve lhe nullons
ruged logelher!
!)
vhen ll ls cleur lhul lhey hud nol yel ruged; und lhey shull
puss lhrough lhe rlver on fool.
!*
§ 6. So much for lhls polnl. Vhul ls lhelr nexl ob|ecllon. conlenllous und
lmpudenl us ever! ¨Hov dld lhe Fulher begel lhe Son.` lhey usk. ¨ ÷ vus ll
vllllngly or unvllllngly!` Then lhey blnd us on bolh sldes vllh cords ÷ or so
lhey lhlnk. 8ul lhese cords ure nol slrong. lndeed lhey ure qulle fllmsy. For lf
lhe Fulher begol lhe Son unvllllngly. lhey suy. lhe Fulher vus under
compulslon ÷ und vho could compel lhe Fulher! And hov could lhe Cne so
compelled be Cod! 8ul lf lhe Fulher begol lhe Son vllllngly. lhe Son ls
offsprlng of lhe vlll ÷ und hov lhen ls He lhe Son of lhe Fulher! They huve
recusl lhe vlll us some nev klnd of molher ln pluce of lhe Fulher. Cne lhlng.
hovever. ls dellghlful uboul lhe vuy lhey lulk ÷ lhul lhey sel uslde lhe nollon
of pusslon [ln lhe Fulher`s begelllng of lhe Son]. und luke refuge ln lhe vlll.
For lhe vlll ls nol u pusslon.
vhere lhe meunlng ls lhey dld cross over. Il
vould luke loo long lo clle ull lhe expresslons of lhls klnd vhlch huve been
nollced by lhe dlllgenl.
Nexl. lel us look ul vhul lhey conslder lhelr slrong polnl. And ll ls besl lo
grupple vllh lhem ul close quurlers. ÷ You yourself. vho so recklessly usserl
vhulever lukes your funcy; vere you begollen vllllngly or unvllllngly by
your fulher! If unvllllngly. lhen he vus under compulslon. Vhul vlolence!
And vho dld lhe compelllng! You vlll hurdly suy ll vus nulure. for nulure
udmlls of self-reslrulnl. If you vere begollen vllllngly. lhen your fulher
dlsuppeurs by u fev syllubles. for you ure shovn lo be u chlld of lhe vlll und
nol of your fulher. 8ul I move on lo lhe relullon belveen Cod und creulures.
und I pul your quesllon lo your ovn vlsdom. Dld Cod creule ull lhlngs
vllllngly. or under compulslon! If under compulslon. here ulso ls lhe lyrunny
und one vho pluyed lhe lyrunl. If Cod creuled vllllngly. lhe creulures ulso ure
deprlved of lhelr Cod ÷ und. before olher creulures. you vho lnvenl such
urgumenls und lrlcks of loglc. For u purllllon ls sel up belveen lhe Creulor
und lhe creulures ln lhe shupe of lhe vlll. And yel I lhlnk lhul lhe person vho
vllls ls dlsllncl from lhe ucl of vllllng. lhe one vho begels from lhe ucl of

llme ÷ lhul ls lo suy. lhe Son vus ulreudy begollen vhen lhe beglnnlng
begun.

!)
Psulm 2.I (uccordlng lo lhe Sepluuglnl).

!*
Psulm 66.6 (uccordlng lo lhe Sepluuglnl).
Theologlcul Crullons 3: Cn lhe Son. I

5I
begelllng. lhe speuker from lhe speech ÷ unless ve ure ull very slupld. Cn lhe
one hund ve huve lhe mover. und on lhe olher hund (so lo speuk) lhe
movemenl. Thus lhe lhlng vllled ls nol lhe offsprlng of lhe vlll. for ll does
nol follov lhul lhe vlll us such produced ll. Nor ls lhul vhlch ls begollen lhe
offsprlng of lhe ucl of begelllng us such. nor ls vhul ls heurd lhe offsprlng of
speech. No. lhe lhlng vllled ls lhe offsprlng of lhe person vho vllled ll; vhul
ls begollen ls lhe offsprlng of lhe person vho dld lhe begelllng; und vhul ls
heurd ls lhe offsprlng of lhe person vho spoke. 8ul Cod lrunscends ull lhls.
und ll muy be lhul ln Cod lhe vlll lo begel ls llself lhe ucl of generullon.
Absolulely nolhlng lnlervenes. so lhul lhe generullon of lhe Son surpusses even
lhe vlll.
"+
§ 7. Do you vlsh me lo pluy gumes for u bll vllh lhe Fulher ulso! For your
exumple encouruges me lo be so bold.

"!
§ 8. Hov lhen vus lhe Son begollen! Hls generullon vould nol be u blg
lssue. lf you could huve comprehended ll ÷ you vho huve no reul knovledge
even of your ovn generullon. or vho comprehend only u very llllle of ll. und
of lhul llllle you ure ushumed lo speuk; und lhen you lhlnk you knov lhe
vhole lhlng! You vlll huve lo go lhrough u lol of hurd vork before you
dlscover lhe luvs vhlch expluln hov you vere composed. formed. und cume
lnlo lhe llghl of duy; hov lhe soul ls bonded lo lhe body. lhe mlnd lo lhe
Does lhe Fulher vlll lo be Cod. or ls
ll ugulnsl Hls vlll! 1usl lry lo escupe from your ovn clever slelghl-of-hund! If
lhe Fulher ls Cod by un ucl of vlll. vhen dld He begln lo vlll! Il could nol
huve been before He begun lo be Cod. for He vus never unylhlng else. Cr
dld one purl of Hlm vlll ll. vhlle unolher purl vus lhe resull of lhul vlll! If
so. He ls dlvlslble. In lhul cuse. ls nol lhe Fulher ÷ uccordlng lo you ÷ Hlmself
lhe offsprlng of lhe vlll! And lf lhe Fulher ls Cod ugulnsl Hls vlll. vhul
compelled Hlm lo be Cod! And hov ls He Cod lf He vus compelled ÷ und
compelled lo no olher lhlng bul lhls. numely. lo be Cod! My opponenl usks:
Hov vus lhe Son begollen! Hov vus lhe Son creuled! ÷ lf (us you suy) He
vus creuled! For lhls ls u purl of lhe sume dlfflcully. Perhups you vould suy.
¨The Son vus creuled by vlll und vord.` You sllll huve nol solved lhe vhole
dlfflcully; for ll yel remulns for you lo shov hov vlll und vord cume lo huve
such effecllve pover. For humunlly vus nol creuled ln lhls vuy.

"+
Cregory uppeurs lo meun lhul lhe generullon of lhe Son ls un ucl of
Cod`s very exlslence ÷ lhul ls. un ucl by vhlch Cod ls Cod ÷ nol u cholce
or declslon mude subsequenlly. The Fulher does nol vlll lhe Son lnlo
exlslence. us lf lhe Fulher hud opllons. becuuse (us Cregory vlll urgue u
llllle furlher on) lhe Fulher cunnol be lhe Fulher vllhoul lhe Son.

"!
In Cregory`s vlev. lhe Lunomluns hud been ¨pluylng gumes` vllh (lhe
concepl of) lhe Son; he vlll nov do lhem one beller by prelendlng lo
¨pluy gumes` vllh (lhe concepl of) lhe Fulher.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

52
soul. und reuson lo lhe mlnd; hov huppen movemenl. grovlh. usslmllullon of
food. sensullon. memory. recollecllon. und ull lhe olher fucullles vhlch muke
you vhul you ure; hov some of lhese fucullles belong lo lhe soul und body
logelher. vhlle olhers belong ellher lo lhe soul ulone or lo lhe body ulone.
und sllll olhers vork ln muluul co-operullon. For lhose fucullles vhlch come
lo mulurlly luler ln llfe nonelheless recelved lhelr luvs ul lhe llme of
concepllon. Tell me vhul lhese luvs ure. Lven lf you cun. do nol venlure lo
expound lhe generullon of Cod. for lhul ls dungerous. For even lf you knev
ull uboul your ovn generullon. you do nol knov u lhlng uboul Cod`s. And lf
you do nol underslund your ovn. hov cun you knov uboul Cod`s! So fur us
Cod ls hurder lo expluln lhun humunlly. by so much ls lhe heuvenly
generullon hurder lo comprehend lhun your ovn. And lf you suy lhul.
becuuse you ure unuble lo comprehend ll. lherefore lhe Son cunnol huve been
begollen. ll vlll be llme for you lo vrlle off uny number of lhlngs vhlch you
cunnol comprehend ÷ und flrsl of ull. Cod Hlmself. For you cunnol suy vhul
Cod ls. desplle your boldness und your presumpluous lnvesllgullons. Clve up
your verbul dlurrhou. your hulrsplllllngs und unulyllcul dlssecllons. your hubll
of lmuglnlng lncorporeul nulure us u body. und lhen you muy perhups lhlnk
somelhlng of vulue concernlng lhe dlvlne generullon. Hov vus lhe Son
begollen! ÷ Cnce uguln I exclulm vllh lndlgnullon lhul lhe begelllng of Cod
musl be honoured by sllence. Il ls u greul lhlng for you lo leurn lhul lhe Son
vus begollen. 8ul us for lhe hov of ll. ve ucknovledge lhul nol even ungels
cun concepluullse ll. much less you. Shull I lell you hov ll vus! Il vus ln u
munner knovn lo lhe Fulher vho begol und lo lhe Son vho vus begollen.
Anylhlng more lhun lhls ls hldden by u cloud und escupes your dlm slghl.
§ 9. Ah. bul dld lhe Fulher generule someone vho ulreudy exlsled. or
someone vho dld nol exlsl!
""
Vhul lvuddle! Thls ls u quesllon vhlch upplles
lo you or me ÷ on lhe one hund. ve ulreudy exlsled before ve vere born. us
Levl vus ln lhe lolns of Abruhum;
"#

""
Cregory ls puruphruslng u dllemmu lhul Arluns posed lo defenders of lhe
Nlcene selllemenl: ¨Dld lhe Son exlsl before He vus begollen!`
on lhe olher hund. ve cume lnlo exlslence
[ul u purllculur momenl ln llme]. So ln u cerluln sense ve come purlly from
vhul exlsled und purlly from vhul vus nonexlslenl; vhereus lhe conlrury ls
lhe cuse vllh lhe prlmævul muller. vhlch vus cerlulnly creuled oul of vhul
vus non-exlslenl. nolvllhslundlng some phllosophers vho represenl ll us

"#
Hebrevs 7.I0. The ldeu. ulmosl unlversul ln lhe unclenl vorld. ls lhul ull
subsequenl lndlvlduuls ure conlulned ln lhe ¨seed` of u (mule) unceslor.
Thls nollon underglrds lhe doclrlne of Crlglnul Sln: slnce ull humun
belngs vere presenl ln lhe seed of Adum from lhe beglnnlng. ull ure
lulnled vllh hls gulll.
Theologlcul Crullons 3: Cn lhe Son. I

53
belng unbegollen.
"$
8ul ln Cod. belng begollen colncldes vllh exlslence from
lhe beglnnlng.
"&
Cn vhul. lhen. vlll you buse lhls cupllous quesllon!
"'
For
vhul ls older lhun vhul ls from lhe beglnnlng. lf ve muy pluce lhere lhe
prevlous exlslence or non-exlslence of lhe Son! In ellher cuse ve deslroy lls
clulm lo be lhe beglnnlng.
"(
I do nol udmll ellher solullon. und I declure lhul your quesllon conlulns un
ubsurdlly. nol u dlfflcully lo unsver. If you lhlnk. ln uccordunce vllh your
ussumpllons. lhul one or olher of lhese ullernullves musl necessurlly be lrue ln
every cuse. lel me usk you one llllle quesllon: ÷ Is llme ln llme. or ls ll nol ln
llme! If ll ls conlulned ln llme. vhul ls lhls llme! And vhy ls lhls llme dlfferenl
from lhe llme ll conlulns! And hov does ll conluln ll! 8ul lf llme ls nol
conlulned ln llme. vhul surpusslng vlsdom vlll lnlroduce u llmeless llme!
Nov. vllh respecl lo lhe slulemenl. ¨I um nov lelllng u lle.` udmll one of
lhese ullernullves. ellher lhul ll ls lrue or lhul ll ls fulse. vllhoul quullflcullon ÷
for ve cunnol udmll lhul ll ls bolh. 8ul ll ls lmposslble lo choose ellher
ullernullve vllhoul quullflcullon. For. necessurlly. ellher I um lylng. und so
lelllng lhe lrulh. or else I um lelllng lhe lrulh. und so lylng.
Cr lf ve vere lo usk you vhelher lhe Fulher
cume of ulreudy-exlsllng elemenls or of nolhlng. perhups you vlll suy lhul lhe
Fulher ls lvofold. purlly pre-exlsllng. purlly exlsllng; or lhul Hls cuse ls lhe
sume us lhul of lhe Son ÷ lhul ls. lhul lhe Fulher cume lnlo belng oul of
nolhlngness. becuuse of your rldlculous quesllons und your houses of sund
vhlch cunnol slund ugulnsl lhe sllghlesl rlpple of vlnd.
")

"$
An ulluslon lo lhe leuchlngs of Plulo und Arlslolle.
As ln lhe flrsl cuse

"&
I 1ohn I.I. Il should be cleur by nov lhul Cregory underslunds from lhe
beglnnlng lo meun ¨from ull elernlly`.

"'
I.e. lhe quesllon vllh vhlch Cregory opened lhls secllon: ¨Dld lhe Fulher
generule someone vho ulreudy exlsled. or someone vho dld nol exlsl!`

"(
Muson (p. 85. nole on llne 7) commenls: ¨[Cregory ls usklng lhe
Lunomluns:] Vhere vlll you flnd u pluce. u dule. for your quesllon lo
upply lo! '[The Son vus u]lreudy ln exlslence vhen He vus begollen`
lmplles u llme before lhe begelllng; bul lhere vus no such llme. He vus
begollen from lhe beglnnlng. Vhul vus lhere before 'lhe beglnnlng.`
lhul ve muy suy vhelher lhe Son exlsled or nol! In ellher cuse. vhelher
ve ufflrm or deny Hls exlslence. ll ls cleur lhul lhe subsequenl momenl ul
vhlch ve suppose Hlm lo huve been begollen cunnol reully huve been
lhe beglnnlng.`

")
Thls phllosophlcul vord-puzzle venl u long vuy buck; Clcero. lhe greul
Romun orulor und phllosophlusler of lhe Isl cenlury 8.C.L.. ullrlbuled ll
lo lhe sllll more unclenl Creek sophlsl Chrysslpus.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

54
conlrurles ure lrue und ln lhe second cuse bolh ure fulse. ls ll uny vonder.
lhen. lhul your clever puzzle becomes sllly! Clve me lhe solullon of one more
rlddle. Vere you presenl ul your ovn generullon. und ure you nov presenl lo
yourself! Cr ls nellher lhe cuse! If you vere und ure presenl. vho vere you.
und vllh vhom ure you presenl! And hov dld your lndlvlduul self become
lhus bolh sub|ecl und ob|ecl! 8ul lf nellher of lhe ubove ls lhe cuse. hov dld
you gel sepuruled from yourself. und vhul ls lhe cuuse of lhls dls|olnlng! 8ul.
you vlll suy. ll ls slupld lo muke u fuss uboul lhe quesllon. vhelher u slngle
lndlvlduul ls presenl lo hlmself or nol. for such lhlngs upply lo olhers. nol lo
oneself. Vell. you muy be cerluln lhul ll ls even more slupld lo dlscuss lhe
quesllon. vhelher lhul vhlch vus begollen from lhe beglnnlng exlsled before
lls generullon or nol. For such u quesllon urlses only vllh respecl lo lhlngs
vhlch cun be dlvlded by lnlervuls of llme.
§ I0. 8ul lhey suy. ¨The Unbegollen und lhe 8egollen ure nol lhe sume. If
lhls ls so. lhen ls lhe Son nol lhe sume lhlng us lhe Fulher.`
"*
Il ls hurdly
necessury lo polnl oul lhul lhls llne of urgumenl cleurly excludes ellher lhe Son
or lhe Fulher from lhe dlvlne nulure. For lf lo be Unbegollen ls lhe essence of
Cod. lo be begollen ls nol lhul essence. If lhe opposlle ls lrue. lhe Unbegollen
ls excluded from dlvlnlly. Vhul urgumenl cun conlrudlcl lhls! Choose lhen
vhlchever blusphemy you prefer. my nev lheologlun. lf lndeed you ure euger
ul ull cosls lo be blusphemous. Nexl. ln vhul sense do you suy lhul lhe
Unbegollen und lhe 8egollen ure nol lhe sume! If you meun lhul lhe
Uncreuled und lhe creuled ure nol lhe sume. I ugree vllh you; for cerlulnly
lhe unorlglnule belng
#+

"*
ls nol lhe sume lhlng. Thls Lunomlun ob|ecllon ls drlvlng ul more lhun u
dlfference of persons ÷ l.e. lhe person of lhe Fulher ls dlfferenl from lhe
person of lhe Son. The sume lhlng ln quesllon ls lhe dlvlne subslunce or
nulure. The Lunomluns. lhen. ure lrylng lo ¨prove` lhul lhe Fulher und
lhe Son dlffer ln lhe nulures lhul euch possesses.
und creuled belng ure nol of lhe sume nulure. 8ul lf
you suy lhul lhe Cne vho begol und lhe Cne vho ls begollen ure nol lhe
sume [sc. ln nulure]. lhe slulemenl ls lnuccurule. For ll ls ln fucl u necessury
lrulh lhul lhey ure lhe sume. For ll ls lhe very essence of lhe ucl of begelllng.
lhul lhe offsprlng ls. vllh respecl lo nulure. lhe sume lhlng us lhe purenl. Cr
uguln. ve muy urgue lhls vuy. Vhul do you meun by ¨Unbegollen` und
¨8egollen`! If you meun lhe slmple fucl of belng unbegollen or belng
begollen. lhese ure nol lhe sume. 8ul lf you meun lhose lo vhom lhese lerms
upply. hov ure lhey nol lhe sume! For exumple. vlsdom und luck of vlsdom

#+
lhe unorlglnule belng meuns. of course. lhe dlvlne nulure consldered us
lhul vhlch never hud un orlgln. lhul ls. u slurl or beglnnlng. In
phllosophlcul us vell us lheologlcul lerms. un orlgln lmplles u cuuse
oulslde of (und superlor lo) lhe lhlng orlglnuled.
Theologlcul Crullons 3: Cn lhe Son. I

55
ure nol lhe sume ln lhemselves. Yel bolh ure ullrlbules of lhe sume lhlng.
humunlly; lhey do nol dlvlde lhe essences. bul murk dlvlslons vllhln lhe sume
essence. Are lmmorlullly. lnnocence. und lmmulublllly ulso lhe essence of
Cod! If so. Cod hus muny essences und nol |usl one ÷ lhul. or lhe dlvlne
essence ls u compound of lhese quulllles. For Cod cunnol be ull lhese lhlngs
vllhoul formlng u compound ÷ lf ull lhese lhlngs ure essences.
§ II. In fucl. lhey do nol usserl lhls. for lhese quulllles ure common ulso lo
olher belngs.
#!
8ul Cod`s essence ls proper lo Cod ulone. No doubl lhose vho
conslder muller und form lo be unbegollen.
#"
vould refuse lo ullov lhul
belng unbegollen ls lhe properly of Cod ulone ÷ us for lhe ¨durkness` of lhe
Munlchæuns. ve lhrov ll uvuy us even complele gurbuge.
##
8ul suppose lhul
belng unbegollen ls somelhlng proper lo Cod ulone. Vhul uboul Adum! Vus
he nol ulone lhe dlrecl creulure of Cod! ¨Yes.` you vlll suy. Vus he lhen lhe
only humun belng! ¨Nol ul ull.` And vhy so! 8ecuuse humunlly does nol
conslsl ln dlrecl creullon; lhul vhlch ls begollen ls ulso humun. 1usl so. nellher
ls lhe Cne vho ls unbegollen ulone Cod. lhough lhul Cne ulone ls lhe Fulher.
8ul grunl lhul lhe Cne vho ls begollen ls ulso Cod. For lhe 8egollen comes
from Cod. us you musl ullov. desplle your excesslve ulluchmenl lo [lhe
nollon of] lhe Unbegollen. Then hov do you descrlbe lhe essence of Cod!
Nol by declurlng vhul ll ls. bul by excludlng vhul ll ls nol. For your lunguuge
slules only lhul Cod ls nol begollen; ll does nol express vhul ls lhe reul nulure
or condlllon of lhul vhlch does nol huve uny generullon. Vhul lhen ls lhe
essence of Cod! Il ls your ovn folly vhlch prompls you lo usk lhe quesllon ÷
you vho curry oul rush lnqulrles lnlo lhe generullon of Cod. To us. hovever.
ll vlll be u very greul lhlng lf ve leurn lhe lrulh of lhls generullon ul some
polnl ln lhe fur off fulure. vhen lhe lmpenelruble durkness of lhls presenl uge
ure luken uvuy for us.
#$

#!
For exumple. ungels ure lmmorlul. vhlle doves und lumbs ure oflen
culled ¨lnnocenl`.
uccordlng lo lhe promlse of lhe Cne vho ls vllhoul

#"
A reference lo lhe leuchlngs of lhose phllosophers vho vere more
Plulonlsl lhun Plulo hlmself.

##
The Munlchæuns vere lhe unclenl vorld`s verslon of ¨Nev Age`. They
vere nol u slngle movemenl so much us u guggle of secls. euch of vhlch
usserled lls ovn vurlunl of u common mylh us lhe only pulh of sulvullon.
Accordlng lo one of lhe buslc elemenls ln lhls common mylh. ¨Llghl`
(vhlch vus pure splrll. lherefore lhe Cood) und ¨Durkness` (vhlch vus
muller. lherefore Lvll) vere elernul prlnclples und equully ¨unbegollen`.

#$
Cf. I Corlnlhluns I3.I2: ¨Nov ve see ln u mlrror. dlmly [or durkly]. bul
lhen ve vlll see fuce lo fuce. Nov I knov only ln purl; lhen I vlll knov
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

56
fulsehood.
#&
§ I2. ¨8ul.` lhey suy. ¨lf lhe Son ls lhe sume us lhe Fulher vhen ll comes lo
essence. lhen lf lhe Fulher ls unbegollen. lhe Son musl be unbegollen. loo.`
Qulle so ÷ lf unbegollenness ls lhe essence of Cod. Thul vould muke lhe Son
u slrunge mlxlure. lhe begollen-Unbegollen. 8ul lf lhe dlfference [belveen
belng begollen und belng unbegollen] surrounds lhe essence.
Thls. lhen. muy be lhe lhoughl und lhe hope of lhose vho ure
purlfylng lhemselves for lhe suke of lhul knovledge. For our purl. ve vlll be
bold enough lo suy lhls much: ÷ If ll ls u greul lhlng for lhe Fulher lo be
ullogelher underlved [from unylhlng else]. ll ls no less u lhlng for lhe Son lo
huve been derlved from such u Fulher. For nol only does lhe Son shure lhe
glory of lhe Cne vho ls underlved. slnce he comes from lhe Underlved. bul
he ulso hus lhe uddlllonul glory of Hls generullon ÷ u reullly so very greul und
so lruly veneruble for lhose vhose mlnds ure nol ullogelher ulluched lo lhe
eurlh und lmmersed lhe reulm of muller.
#'
hov cun you
be so cerluln ln speuklng of lhls! Are you ulso your purenl`s purenl. so us lo be
ln no vuy lnferlor lo your purenl. slnce you ure lhe sume vllh your purenl ln
essence!
#(
Is ll nol evldenl lhul our lnqulry lnlo lhe essence of Cod ÷ lf ve
ullempl ll ul ull ÷ vlll ln no vuy uffecl ¨properly`!
#)
In uny cuse. ll cun be
demonslruled lhul ¨unbegollen` und ¨Cod` ure nol synonyms ÷ und ln lhls
vuy: ÷ If lhe lvo lerms vere synonyms. Cod. vho ls Cod of cerluln belngs.
musl ulso be lhe Unbegollen of cerluln belngs ÷ or conversely. slnce Cod ls lhe
Unbegollen of no-one. so musl Cod be lhe Cod of no-one.
#*

fully. even us I huve been fully knovn.` In Cregory`s duy. us eurller ln
Puul`s. mlrrors vere mude of pollshed sllver. nol of gluss; so lhe
reflecllons lhey guve vere lndeed ¨dlm` or ¨durk`.
For lerms vhlch

#&
Tllus I.2.

#'
Thul ls lo suy. lhe dlfference belveen begollen und unbegollen hus lo do
vllh lhe vuys ln vhlch lhe dlvlne nulure ls reullsed und exlsls. nol vllh
lhul nulure ln und of llself.

#(
Cregory ls pursulng un lmpllcullon of lhe Lunomlun ob|ecllon posed ul
lhe beglnnlng of lhls secllon. If you ure nol your purenl`s purenl
(Cregory ucluully suys. ¨your fulher`s fulher`). lhen lhe Lunomluns` ovn
poslllon requlres lhem lo suy lhul no-one hus lhe sume essence ÷ lhe
sume humun nulure ÷ us hls or her purenl.

#)
Properly. As ln lhe Pruyer of Humble Access (Cun8CP I962. p. 83). ¨8ul
lhou url lhe sume Lord. Vhose properly ls ulvuys lo huve mercy.` A
¨properly` ls somelhlng proper lo u cluss of belngs. u dlsllngulshlng
churuclerlsllc vhlch dlfferenllules one lhlng from unolher.

Theologlcul Crullons 3: Cn lhe Son. I

57
ure ubsolulely synonymous musl be ldenllcully upplled. 8ul surely Cod ls nol
¨lhe Unbegollen of cerluln belngs` ÷ lo vhom hus He ever been ¨lhe
Unbegollen`! Cod ls ¨lhe Cod of cerluln belngs` ÷ ln olher vords. of ull
lhlngs. Hov lhen cun ¨Cod` und ¨unbegollen` be ldenllcul lerms! And uguln.
slnce [lhe lerms ¨begollen` und ¨unbegollen`] conlrudlcl one unolher. llke
¨possesslon` und ¨deprlvullon.` ve vould huve lo suy lhul conlrudlclory
essences co-exlsl ln Cod ÷ vhlch ls lmposslble. Cr uguln. slnce possesslon
comes before deprlvullon. lhe luller deslroylng lhe former. nol only musl lhe
essence of lhe Son come before lhul of lhe Fulher. bul lhe essence of lhe Son
musl ulso be deslroyed by lhe Fulher ÷ ul leusl. uccordlng lo your hypolhesls!
§ I3. Vhul nov remulns of lhelr lnvlnclble urgumenls! Perhups lhelr lusl
refuge vlll be lhls urgumenl: ¨If Cod hus never ceused lo begel. lhe begelllng
ls lmperfecl ÷ und vhen vlll He ceuse! 8ul lf Cod hus ceused begelllng. lhen
He musl huve begun begelllng.` Thus uguln lhese curnul mlnds brlng forvurd
curnul urgumenls. I vlll nol us yel suy vhelher lhe Son ls elernully begollen or
nol. unlll I huve exumlned vllh greuler exuclness lhe lexl. 8efore ull lhe
mounlulns I vus begollen.
$+

#*
Cod. vho ls Cod of cerluln belngs .. so musl Cod be lhe Cod of no-
one. Thls urgumenl ls bused on lhe nollon lhul lhe lerm ¨Cod`
deslgnules u relullonshlp ÷ Cod ls lhe Cod of so-und-so. Muson (p. 9I.
nole on llne I) noles lhul lhls urgumenl hus lls llmllullons; lf pursued ln
lsolullon. one mlghl end up suylng lhul ¨upurl from creullon. Cod vould
nol be Cod`. Muson. of course. llved before Alfred Norlh Vhlleheud
und ¨process lheology.` vhlch buslcully mulnlulned lhls very nollon ln
lhe sense lhul. us Cod precedes und guldes creullon ln und lhrough lls
process of developmenl. so Cod needs creullon ln order lo reullse lhe
dlvlne belng.
8ul I cunnol see lhe necesslly of lhelr concluslon.
For lf (uccordlng lo lhem) vhulever comes lo un end musl ulso huve hud u
beglnnlng. lhen surely vhulever hus no end hud no beglnnlng. Vhul lhen vlll
lhey declde concernlng lhe soul. or concernlng lhe ungellc nulure! If lhe soul
hud u beglnnlng. ll vlll ulso huve un end; und lf ll hus no end. ll ls evldenl lhul
(uccordlng lo lhem) ll hud no beglnnlng. 8ul lhe lrulh ls lhul lhe soul dld huve
u beglnnlng ÷ und ll vlll never huve un end. Thelr usserllon. lhen. lhul
vhulever vlll huve un end musl ulso huve hud u beglnnlng. ls unlrue. Cur
ovn poslllon ls lhls: ÷ 1usl us ln lhe cuse of u horse or un ox or u humun. lhe
sume deflnlllon upplles lo ull lhe lndlvlduuls of lhe sume specles. und vhulever
shures lhe deflnlllon hus ulso u rlghl lo lhe nume; so ln lhe very sume vuy
lhere ls one essence of Cod. und one nulure. und one Nume. And ullhough
lhe dlverslly of our vlevpolnls leuds us lo use dlsllncl numes. yel vhulever ls

$+
Proverbs 8.25. vhere lhe speuker ls Ludy Vlsdom. Cregory poslponed
hls exumlnullon of lhls lexl unlll lhe Fourlh Theologlcul Crullon § 2.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

58
properly culled by lhls one Nume reully ls Cod. 8y lhe sume loken. vhul Cod
ls ln nulure. lhul ls vhul He ls lruly culled ÷ glven lhul. for us. lhe lrulh ls nol
ln lhe numes bul ln lhe reulllles lhemselves. 8ul our opponenls. us lf ufruld lo
leuve uny slone unlurned ln subverllng lhe lrulh. ucknovledge lhul lhe Son ls
Cod vhen lhey ure compelled lo do so by lhe dlvlne Vord und lhe
lesllmonles of Scrlplure ÷ bul lhey lhen expluln lhul lhe Son shures lhe nume
of Cod only ln un equlvocul sense.
$!
§ I4. Ve rulse lhls ob|ecllon ugulnsl lhem: ¨Vhul do you meun lo suy. lhen
÷ lhul lhe Son ls nol properly Cod. |usl us u plclure of un unlmul ls nol
properly un unlmul! And lf lhe Son ls nol properly Cod. ln vhul sense ls He
Cod ul ull!` And lhey reply. ¨Vhul ls lo hlnder us from uslng lhese lerms ln
un equlvocul sense. vhlle ln bolh cuses upplylng lhem ln u proper sense!`

$"

$!
ln un equlvocul sense. Lqulvocul predlcullon ls u rhelorlcul munouvre by
vhlch dlfferenl lhlngs vllh dlfferenl nulures ure culled or deslgnuled by
lhe sume nume. The uppllcullon of lhe sume nume lo lvo dlfferenl lhlngs
hus no busls ln reullly. Hence. ln Lunomlun lhoughl. lhe Son muy lndeed
be culled ¨Cod.` bul lhe nume ls reully u flcllon becuuse lhe Son does
nol huve or shure lhe nulure of Cod.

And lhey vlll glve us such lnslunces us lhe dog vhlch runs on lund und lhe
dogflsh; vhere lhe vord ¨dog` ls equlvocul und ul lhe sume llme upplled lo
bolh unlmuls ln lhe proper sense ÷ for ll ls un uspecl of such u cluss ln lhe
order of equlvocul predlcullon. ln vhlch one lhlng muy recelve lhe sume
deslgnullon us unolher lhlng und be lreuled us lls equlvulenl. ullhough lhe lvo
lhlngs ure of dlfferenl nulures. 8ul ln lhls cuse. C besl of humuns (!). vhen you
lnclude lvo nulures under lhe sume nume. you do nol usserl lhul ellher ls
beller lhun lhe olher. or lhul lhe one ls older und lhe olher younger. or lhul
one ls more und lhe olher less of vhul ls predlculed of lhem bolh. for lhere ls
no connecllng llnk vhlch forces lhls necesslly upon lhem. The flrsl klnd of dog
ls nol more of u dog und lhe olher klnd less of u dog lhun lhe olher ÷ lhul ls
lo suy. lhe dogflsh ls nol more of u dog lhun lhe dog vhlch runs on lund. or
lhe lund-dog more of u dog lhun lhe dogflsh. Vhy should lhey be! on vhul
prlnclple! There ls u communlly of nume belveen lhlngs of equul vulue.
lhough of dlfferenl nulure. In lhe cuse of vhlch ve ure speuklng. hovever.
you ulluch lo Cod un uvesome solemnlly und suy lhul Cod ls loo hlgh lo be
descrlbed us huvlng uny essence or nulure ÷ u quullly vhlch belongs lo Cod
ulone und lndeed conslllules dlvlnlly llself. Then you glve lhls ¨descrlpllon` lo
lhe Fulher. vhlle you deprlve lhe Son of ll. und muke Hlm sub|ecl lo lhe
Fulher. und glve Hlm only u secondury honour und vorshlp. And even us

$"
Thul ls lo suy. lhe nume ¨Cod` muy be upplled bolh lo lhe Fulher und lo
lhe Son ln u proper sense ÷ bul lhe vord vlll huve dlfferenl vulue or
meunlng vhen upplled lo one or lhe olher Person.
Theologlcul Crullons 3: Cn lhe Son. I

59
your syllubles pronounce lhe Son lo be llke lhe Fulher. you reully mulllule Hls
dlvlnlly und puss lreucherously from un equlvocullon vhlch lmplles un exucl
equullly lo un equlvocullon vhlch ussoclules lhlngs lhul ure nol equul. And so
lhe person ln u pulnled porlrull und lhe ucluul person beur for you u much
closer relullon lo dlvlnlly lhun lhe dogs ln lhe exumple you guve. Lllher lhul.
or else you musl concede lo bolh [lhe Fulher und lhe Son] nol only u
communlly of nume bul ulso un equul dlgnlly of nulures. even lhough you
suppose lhese nulures lo be dlfferenl ÷ und lhus you deslroy lhe exumple of
your dogs. vhlch you hud lnvenled lo demonslrule lhe lnequullly of nulures.
For vhul udvunluge ls ll lo huve lhe sume nume. lf lhose vhom you
dlsllngulsh do nol huve equullly of honour! For ll vus nol lo prove un
equullly bul un lnequullly lhul you look refuge ln your dogs. Hov could
unybody be more cleurly convlcled of flghllng bolh ugulnsl hls ovn urgumenls
und ugulnsl lhe dlvlne nulure!
§ I5. And vhen ve udmll lhul lhe Fulher ls greuler lhun lhe Son by vlrlue
of belng lhe cuuse of lhe Son`s exlslence. lhey luke us lhelr secondury premlse
lhul lhe Fulher ls lhe cuuse by nulure. And vhen lhey deduce from lhls lhul
lhe Fulher ls ulso greuler [lhun lhe Son] by nulure. I cunnol lell vhom lhey
decelve lhe mosl ÷ lhemselves or lhose lo vhom lhey uddress such lunguuge.
For everylhlng vhlch ls suld uboul purllculur lndlvlduuls cunnol ulso be suld.
vllhoul quullflcullon. uboul lhelr underlylng nulure. for lhe dlfferenl
purllculurs muy belong lo dlfferenl lndlvlduuls. Suppose I look lhe sume
premlse ÷ numely. ¨The fulher ls greuler [lhun lhe son] by nulure` ÷ und lhen
mude lhls my secondury premlse. ¨8ul lhe fulher ls nol by nulure necessurlly
greuler. nor even by nulure necessurlly u fulher.` Vhul lhen could slop me
from concludlng. ¨Therefore. lhe greuler ls nol ln every respecl greuler. nor ls
lhe fulher ln every respecl u fulher!` Cr. lf you prefer. lel us pul ll ln lhls vuy:
¨Cod ls un essence: 8ul un essence ls nol ln every respecl Cod.` Druv lhe
concluslon for yourself: ¨Therefore. Cod ls nol ln every respecl Cod.` I lhlnk
lhe fullucy here ls ln urgulng from lhe relullve lo lhe ubsolule use of u lerm. lo
use lhe lechnlcul expresslon of lhe loglcluns. For vhlle ve usslgn lhe lerm
¨greuler` lo lhe Fulher`s nulure vleved us u Cuuse. lhey lnfer ll of lhe Fulher`s
nulure vleved ln llself. Il ls |usl us lf ve vere lo suy lhul So-und-so vus u deud
mun. und lhey vere lo lnfer lhul ull humunlly. vllh quullflcullon. vus deud.
§ I6. And hov shull ve puss over lhe follovlng polnl. vhlch ls no less
umuzlng lhun lhe one ve huve |usl heurd! ¨Fulher.` lhey suy. ¨ls u nume
vhlch deslgnules ellher un essence or un ucllon` ÷ und lhlnk lhul lhey huve
plnned us dovn on bolh sldes.
$#

$#
Cregory uguln resorls lo lhe meluphor of vreslllng. A conleslunl ls
deemed lo huve von lhe mulch vhen he (or. ln modern Norlh Amerlcu.
she) hus plnned bolh shoulders of hls/her opponenl lo lhe mul.
If ve suy lhul ll ls u nume of un essence. lhey
vlll suy lhul ve ugree vllh lhem lhul lhe Son ls of unolher essence. slnce lhere
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

60
ls bul one essence of Cod ÷ und. uccordlng lo lhem. lhe Fulher hus luken
possesslon of lhls essence flrsl. Cn lhe olher hund. lf ve suy lhul ¨lhe Fulher`
ls lhe nume of un ucllon. ve shull be supposed lo ucknovledge plulnly lhul
lhe Son ls creuled und nol begollen. For vhere ve flnd someone performlng
un ucllon. lhere ve musl ulso flnd lhe resull of lhe ucllon. And lhey vlll suy
lhul lhey vonder hov vhul ls mude cun be ldenllcul vllh vhul mude ll. I
myself should huve been uved by your dlsllncllon. lf ll hud been necessury lo
uccepl one or olher of lhe ullernullves. 8ul ll ls nol necessury; ve muy
dlspense vllh bolh ullernullves und slule u lhlrd und lruer one: ÷ ¨Fulher` ls
nol u nume vhlch deslgnules ellher un essence or un ucllon. C mlghly suges; ll
ls lhe nume of lhe RLLATICN ln vhlch lhe Fulher slunds lo lhe Son und lhe Son
lo lhe Fulher. For |usl us vllh us humuns lhese numes [¨fulher` und ¨son`]
muke knovn u genulne und lnllmule relullon. so ln lhe cuse before us nov
lhey deslgnule un ldenllly of nulure belveen lhe Cne vho ls begollen und lhe
Cne vho begels. Neverlheless. lel us (for lhe suke of urgumenl) concede lo
you lhul ¨Fulher` ls u nume vhlch deslgnules un essence. Il vlll sllll lmply lhe
nollon of u Son. und vlll nol muke lhul Son lo be of u dlfferenl nulure.
uccordlng lo lhe ldeus of lhe vhole vorld und lhe force of lhese numes. Lel
¨Fulher` be lhe nume of un ucllon. lf you llke; bul you vlll nol defeul us ln
lhls vuy. ellher. The Fulher`s ucllon vlll sllll huve produced lhe sume resull
vhlch ls ¨of one belng vllh` Hlm
$$
And nov lhul ve huve shovn hov lnvlnclble you ure ln your urgumenls
und munouvres. lel us look ul your slrenglh ln lhe dlvlne vords of Scrlplure.
|usl ln cuse you counl on uslng lhem lo persuude us.
÷ olhervlse. lhe your nollon of un ucllon
vllh respecl lo lhe Son vould be ubsurd. Do you see hov. even lhough you
lry lo flghl unfulrly. ve escupe your lrlcky munouvres!
§ I7. For ll ls from lhese greul und subllme vords lhul ve huve leurned lhe
dlvlnlly of lhe Son und proclulmed ll. And vhul ure lhey! These: ¨Cod.` ¨lhe
Vord.` ¨lhe Cne vho vus ln lhe beglnnlng und vllh lhe beglnnlng und lhe
beglnnlng`: In lhe beglnnlng vus lhe Vord. und lhe Vord vus vllh Cod. und
lhe Vord vus Cod.
$&
und Vllh you ls lhe beglnnlng.
$'
und He vho culls her
lhe beglnnlng from ull generullons.
$(

$$
¨of one belng vllh [lhe Fulher]` ÷ µoouoiov te Hotµi (homoouslon l
Pulrl). Thls ls lhe flrsl llme lhul Cregory mukes use of lhe phruse vhlch ull
Arluns regurded us lhe Nlcene Creed`s chlef rock of offence.
Then lhe Son ls ¨only-begollen`: Il ls
Cod lhe only-begollen Son. vho ls close lo lhe Fulher`s heurl. vho hus mude

$&
1ohn I.I.

$'
Psulm I09.3 (Sepluuglnl).

$(
Isuluh 4I.4. The ¨she` vho ls lhus culled ls rlghleousness.
Theologlcul Crullons 3: Cn lhe Son. I

6I
hlm knovn.
$)
The Son ls ¨lhe vuy. lhe lrulh. lhe llfe. lhe llghl`: I um lhe vuy.
lhe lrulh. und lhe llfe.
$*
und I um lhe llghl of lhe vorld.
&+
The Son ls ¨vlsdom`
und ¨pover`: Chrlsl lhe pover of Cod und lhe vlsdom of Cod.
&!
The Son ls
¨lhe reflecllon.` ¨lhe lmprlnl.` ¨lhe lmuge.` ¨lhe seul`: Vho ls lhe reflecllon
of Cod`s glory und lhe exucl lmprlnl of Cod`s very subslunce.
&"
und lhe lmuge
of [Cod`s] goodness.
&#
und ll ls on hlm lhul Cod lhe Fulher hus sel hls seul.
&$

The Son ls ¨Lord.` ¨Klng.` ¨He Vho Is.` ¨lhe Almlghly`: lhe LCRD rulned flre
from lhe LCRD.
&&
und A sceplre of rlghleousness ls lhe sceplre of your
klngdom;
&'
und Vho ls und vho vus und vho ls lo come. lhe Almlghly.
&(
§ I8. 8ul ln opposlllon lo ull lhese. enumerule for me lhe pussuges vhlch
your scorn mlsunderslunds. such us My Cod und your Cod.
÷
All of lhese lhlngs ure cleurly spoken of lhe Son. vllh ull lhe olher pussuges of
lhe sume force; und none of lhem ls un uflerlhoughl. udded luler lo lhe Son or
lhe Splrll. uny more lhun lo lhe Fulher Hlmself. For lhelr perfecllon ls nol
uffecled by uddlllons. There never vus u llme vhen lhe Fulher vus vllhoul
lhe Vord; lhere never vus u llme vhen He vus nol lhe Fulher; lhere never
vus u llme vhen He vus vllhoul lrulh. or vllhoul vlsdom. or vllhoul
pover. or devold of llfe. of splendour. or of good-ness.
&)
or lhe Fulher ls
greuler [lhun I].
&*
or He creuled me.
'+
or ¨Cod mude me.`
'!

$)
1ohn I.I8. The Creek vord µovo¸cvqç (monogenes). here lrunsluled us
¨only-begollen` for lhe suke of keeplng Cregory`s polnl ln vlev. ls nov
generully luken lo meun ¨only` or ¨unlque`.
or He suncllfled

$*
1ohn I4.6.

&+
1ohn 8.I2.

&!
I Corlnlhluns I.24.

&"
Hebrevs I.3.

&#
Vlsdom 7.26.

&$
1ohn 6.27.

&&
Cenesls I9.24.

&'
Psulm 45.7; Hebrevs I.8.

&(
Revelullon I.8.

&)
1ohn 20.I7.

&*
1ohn I4.28.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

62
me.
'"
Add. lf you llke. lhe lerms servunl.
'#
und obedlenl.
'$
und such
expresslons us lhe Fulher guve lo hlm
'&
und He leurned.
''
He vus
communded
'(
und He vus senl.
')
und He cun do nolhlng on hls ovn
'*
ln lhe
vuy of speuklng
(+
or |udglng
(!
or grunllng
("
or vllllng.
(#

'+
Proverbs 8.22 (Ludy Vlsdom ls speuklng).
And furlhermore.

'!
Cf. Acls 2.36: ¨Cod hus mude hlm bolh Lord und Messluh. lhls 1esus
vhom you cruclfled.`

'"
Cf. 1ohn I0.36: ¨Cun you suy lhul lhe one vhom lhe Fulher hus
suncllfled und senl lnlo lhe vorld ls blusphemlng becuuse I suld. 'I um
Cod's Son`!`

'#
Isuluh 49.3. 5. In lhese lvo verses lhe Sepluuglnl uses lhe vord oouìoç.
¨sluve.` us opposed lo toiç. vhlch refers lo un ullendunl or courller.

'$
Phlllppluns 2.8: ¨[Chrlsl] . becume obedlenl lo lhe polnl of deulh ÷
even deulh on u cross.`

'&
Cf. 1ohn I8.9: ¨I dld nol lose u slngle one of lhose vhom you [C Fulher]
guve me.`

''
Hebrevs 5.8: ¨Allhough [Chrlsl] vus u Son. he leurned obedlence
lhrough vhul he suffered.`

'(
Cregory (or hls opponenls) uppeur lo be lhlnklng of 1ohn I5.I0: ¨If you
keep my commundmenls. you vlll ublde ln my love. |usl us I huve kepl
my Fulher`s commundmenls und ublde ln hls love.`

')
1ohn 9.4: ¨Ve musl vork lhe vorks of hlm vho senl me vhlle ll ls duy.`

'*
1ohn 5.I9: ¨1esus suld lo lhem. 'Very lruly. I lell you. lhe Son cun do
nolhlng on hls ovn. bul only vhul he sees lhe Fulher dolng; for
vhulever lhe Fulher does. lhe Son does llkevlse.` `

(+
1ohn 8.28: ¨So 1esus suld. 'Vhen you huve llfled up lhe Son of Mun.
lhen you vlll reullse lhul I um he. und lhul I do nolhlng on my ovn. bul
I speuk lhese lhlngs us lhe Fulher lnslrucled me.` ` 1ohn I2.49: ¨I huve
nol spoken on my ovn. bul lhe Fulher vho senl me hus hlmself glven
me u commundmenl uboul vhul lo suy und vhul lo speuk.`

(!
1ohn 8.I5-I6: ¨You |udge by humun slundurds; I |udge no one. Yel even
lf I do |udge. my |udgemenl ls vulld; for ll ls nol I ulone vho |udge. bul I
und lhe Fulher vho senl me.`

Theologlcul Crullons 3: Cn lhe Son. I

63
lhese ÷ hls lgnorunce.
($
hls submlsslon.
(&
hls pruylng.
('
hls quesllons.
((
hls
lmprovemenl und gruduul perfecllng.
()
And lf you llke. udd quulllles even
more humble lhun lhese ÷ hls sleeplng.
(*
hls belng hungry.
)+
hls fullgue.
)!
hls
veeplng.
)"
und hls dreud und ungulsh.
)#

("
Murk I0.40: ¨8ul lo sll ul my rlghl hund or ul my lefl ls nol mlne lo
grunl. bul ll ls for lhose for vhom ll hus been prepured.` Cf. Mullhev
20.23.
Perhups you vould muke even hls
cross und deulh u muller of reprouch lo hlm. I funcy you vlll leuve hls
resurrecllon und uscenslon lo me. slnce ln lhese evenls ls found somelhlng lo
supporl our poslllon. And you could plck up u good muny olher lhlngs us

(#
Mullhev 26.39: [In Celhsemune 1esus] ¨pruyed. 'My Fulher. lf ll ls
posslble. lel lhls cup puss from me; yel nol vhul I vunl bul vhul you
vunl.` ` 1ohn 5.30: ¨I cun do nolhlng on my ovn. As I heur. I |udge;
und my |udgemenl ls |usl. becuuse I seek lo do nol my ovn vlll bul lhe
vlll of hlm vho senl me.`

($
Murk I3.32: ¨8ul uboul lhul duy or hour no one knovs. nellher lhe
ungels ln heuven. nor lhe Son. bul only lhe Fulher.` Cf. Mullhev 24.36.

(&
Luke 2.5I.

('
Luke 6.I2: ¨Nov durlng lhose duys [1esus] venl oul lo lhe mounluln lo
pruy; und he spenl lhe nlghl ln pruyer lo Cod.`

((
Luke 2.46: The chlld 1esus vus ¨sllllng umong lhe leuchers [ln lhe
Temple]. llslenlng lo lhem und usklng lhem quesllons.` Muson. by
conlrusl. guesses lhul Cregory vus lhlnklng of 1ohn II.34 (before lhe
rulslng of Luzurus).

()
Luke 2.5I: ¨And 1esus lncreused ln vlsdom und ln yeurs. und ln dlvlne
und humun fuvour.` Cf. Hebrevs 2.I0.

(*
Mullhev 8.24.

)+
Mullhev 4.2 (lhe lemplullon ln lhe vllderness).

)!
1ohn 4.6 (|usl before encounlerlng lhe Sumurllun vomun ul 1ucob`s
vell).

)"
1ohn II.35 (ul lhe lomb of Luzurus).

)#
Murk I2.33. Luke 22.44 (ln Celhsemune).
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

64
vell. lf you deslre lo plece logelher vhul ls. for you. Cod ln un equlvocul und
fruudulenl sense ÷ bul vho ls. for us. ls lrue Cod und equul lo lhe Fulher.
For ll ls very eusy lo exumlne lhese scrlplurul lexls one by one und glve
you u lruly rellglous lnlerprelullon of euch. so us lo cleur uvuy lhe slumbllng-
block vhlch you flnd ln lhelr lllerul sense ÷ ussumlng. of course. lhul your
slumbllng ls honesl und nol vllfully mullclous. To glve you lhe explunullon ln
one senlence: ÷ Vhul ls lofly. you ure lo ullrlbule lo lhe dlvlnlly. lo lhul
nulure ln Hlm vhlch lrunscends sufferlngs und lhe body; bul ull lhul ls humble.
you ure lo ullrlbule lo lhe composlle condlllon of Hlm vho for your sukes
emplled hlmself
)$
und becume flesh ÷ yes. ll ls no vorse lo suy. vus mude
humun und uflervurds vus ulso exulled.
)&

)$
Phlllppluns 2.7.
The resull vlll be lhul you vlll

)&
Cf. Leo lhe Creul. Lplslle 28 (lo Fluvlun of Conslunllnople). § 4: ¨For he
vho ls lrue Cod ls ulso u lrue humun belng; und lhere ls no fulsehood ln
lhls unlly us long us lhe lovllness of humunlly und lhe pre-emlnence of
Cod co-exlsl ln muluul relullonshlp. For |usl us Cod does nol chunge by
hls bovlng dovn. so humun nulure ls nol svul-loved up by belng
exulled. Luch nulure exerclses vhul ls proper lo ll. ln communlon vllh
lhe olher. The Vord does vhul ls proper lo lhe Vord. lhe flesh fulflls
vhul ls proper lo lhe flesh. Cne nulure ls resplendenl vllh mlrucles. lhe
olher fulls vlcllm lo ln|urles. And |usl us lhe Vord does nol lose equullly
vllh lhe Fulher`s glory. so lhe flesh does nol leuve behlnd lhe nulure of
our ruce. Cne und lhe sume person ÷ lhls musl be suld over und over
uguln ÷ ls lruly lhe Son of Cod und lruly lhe chlld of humunlly. He ls
Cod ln vlrlue of lhe fucl lhul ln lhe beglnnlng vus lhe Vord. und lhe
Vord vus vllh Cod. und lhe Vord vus Cod [1ohn I.I]. He ls humun ln
vlrlue of lhe fucl lhul lhe Vord vus mude flesh und dvell umong us
[1ohn I.I4]. He ls Cod ln vlrlue of lhe fucl lhul ull lhlngs vere mude
lhrough hlm. und vllhoul hlm nol one lhlng vus mude [1ohn I.3]; he ls
humun ln vlrlue of lhe fucl lhul he vus born of u vomun. born under
lhe luv [Cul. 4.4].. To hunger. lo lhlrsl. lo be veury. und lo sleep ls
obvlously humun. 8ul lo sullsfy flve lhousund people vllh flve louves.
und lo glve lo u vomun of Sumurlu llvlng vuler. lhe drlnklng of vhlch
ullovs lhe drlnker never lo lhlrsl uguln; lo vulk on lhe surfuce of lhe seu
vllh feel lhul do nol slnk. und lo rebuke lhe slorm so us lo overcome
lhe upllfled vuves ÷ lhls. vllhoul u doubl. ls dlvlne. And lhen ÷ lo puss
over muny olher exumples ÷ |usl us ll does nol belong lo lhe sume nulure
lo veep vllh plly for u deud frlend und. ufler lhe slone hud been
removed from lhe lomb vhere lhul frlend hud luln for four duys. by u
volce of commund lo rulse hlm ullve uguln. ÷ |usl so. ll does nol belong
lo lhe sume nulure lo suy. I und lhe Fulher ure one. und lo suy. The
Theologlcul Crullons 3: Cn lhe Son. I

65
ubundon lhese curnul und eurlh-bound doclrlnes; you vlll leurn lo rlse ubove
lhese lhlngs und lo uscend vllh Hls dlvlnlly; you vlll nol remuln permunenlly
umong vlslble lhlngs. bul vlll rulse yourself lo be umong splrlluul lhlngs. Then
you vlll underslund vhlch pussuges refer lo Hls dlvlne nulure. und vhlch lo
Hls uccommodullon lo our condlllon.
)'
§ I9. For He vhom you nov lreul vllh conlempl vus once ubove you. He
vho ls nov humun vus once uncompounded. Vhul He vus. He conllnued lo
be; vhul He vus nol. He look lo Hlmself. In lhe beglnnlng He vus uncuused
÷ for vhul cuuses Cod! 8ul uflervurds He vus born for u cuuse ÷ und lhul
cuuse vus. lhul you mlghl be suved. you vho lnsull Hlm und desplse Hls
dlvlnlly becuuse He look upon Hlm your courseness und. huvlng unlled
hlmself vllh flesh by meuns of lhe soul.

)(
becume humun. lhe eurlhly Cod.
Cur humunlly vus |olned lo und mude one vllh Cod ÷ lhe hlgher nulure
huvlng prevulled ÷ ln order lhul I loo mlghl be mude Cod us lruly us He ls
mude humun. He vus born ÷ bul He hud been begollen elernully: He vus
born of u vomun ÷ bul she vus u Vlrgln. The flrsl ls humun. lhe second
dlvlne.
))
He ls vllhoul u fulher here belov. bul vllhoul u molher on hlgh.
)*

Fulher ls greuler lhun I [1ohn I0.30. I4.28]. For lhough ln lhe Lord 1esus
Chrlsl lhere ls one person conslsllng of Cod und humun belng. yel lhe
prlnclple vhereby sufferlng ls common lo bolh ls one lhlng. und lhe
prlnclple vhereby glory ls common lo bolh ls unolher lhlng. For from us
he hus lhe humunlly vhlch ls less lhun lhe Fulher; from lhe Fulher he hus
lhe dlvlnlly vhlch ls equul vllh lhe Fulher.`

8olh of lhese fucls belong lo hls dlvlnlly. He vus currled ln hls molher`s vomb
÷ bul He vus recognlsed by lhe prophel. hlmself sllll ln lhe vomb. leuplng ln

)'
Hls uccommodullon lo our condlllon. In Creek. lhe slngle vord
oikovoµio (olkonomlu) ÷ ¨economy`.

)(
huvlng unlon vllh flesh by meuns of lhe soul. Cregory meuns lhul lhe
dlvlne nulure of lhe Son/Vord ls unlled vllh humun flesh lhrough lls
unlon vllh humun nulure`s rullonul soul.

))
I.e. ll ls humun lo be born. und born of u vomun; ll ls dlvlne lo be
begollen elernully und. vhen born us u humun ln llme und spuce. lo be
born of u vlrgln.

)*
Cf. Ambrose. Cn lhe Sucrumenls IV.3. § I2: ¨The Son of Cod vus born
vllhoul u molher by u heuvenly blrlh. becuuse he vus born of Cod lhe
Fulher ulone. And uguln. he vus born vllhoul u fulher vhen he vus
born of u vlrgln.`
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

66
lhe presence of lhe Vord for vhose suke he hud been mude.
*+
He vus
vrupped ln svuddllng clolhes ÷ bul He shed lhe svulhlng shroud of lhe gruve
by Hls rlslng uguln. He vus luld ln u munger ÷ bul He vus glorlfled by ungels.
und proclulmed by u slur. und vorshlpped by mugl. Vhy ure you offended by
vhul ls seen by lhe eyes. vllhoul looklng ul vhul ls percelved by lhe splrll!
He vus drlven lnlo exlle lnlo Lgypl ÷ bul He drove uvuy lhe Lgypllun ldols.
*!

He hud no form or mu|esly ln lhe eyes of lhe 1evs
*"
÷ bul lo Duvld He ls lhe
fulresl of men
*#
÷ und on lhe mounluln He shone us brlghl us lhe llghlnlng
und becume more resplendenl lhun lhe sun.
*$
§ 20. He vus bupllsed us u humun. bul He look uvuy slns us Cod ÷ nol
becuuse He hlmself needed lo be purlfled. bul ln order lo suncllfy lhe elemenl
of vuler. He vus lempled us u humun. bul He conquered us Cod -- lndeed.
He blds us luke couruge. for He hus conquered lhe vorld.
lhereby lnlllullng us lnlo lhe
myslery of lhlngs lo come.
*&
He hungered. bul
He fed lhousunds ÷ lndeed. He ls lhe llvlng 8reud from heuven.
*'
He lhlrsled.
bul He crled. Lel unyone vho ls lhlrsly come lo me und drlnk ÷ yes. und He
promlsed lhul founlulns should flov from lhose vho belleve.
*(
He vus
veurled. bul He ls lhe resl of lhose vho ure veury und currylng heuvy
burdens.
*)
He vus heuvy vllh sleep. bul He vulked llghlly over lhe seu
**
÷
lndeed. He rebuked lhe vlnds und mude Peler llghl us he begun lo slnk.
!++

*+
1ohn lhe 8upllsl. ln Luke I.4I: ¨Vhen Lllzubelh heurd Mury`s greellng.
lhe chlld leuped ln her vomb.`
He

*!
A Chrlsllun legend mulnlulned lhul. vhen lhe lnfunl 1esus vus broughl
lnlo Lgypl (durlng lhe fllghl from Herod. Mullhev 2.I3-I5). hls enlrunce
lnlo lhe lund broke ull lhe ldols of Lgypl.

*"
Isuluh 53.2.

*#
Psulm 45.2.

*$
Mullhev I7.2 (lhe Trunsflgurullon).

*&
1ohn I6.33.

*'
1ohn 6.4I.

*(
1ohn 7.37-38.

*)
Mullhev II.28.

**
Mullhev 8.24. Murk 4.38; Mullhev I4.25. Murk 6.48. 1ohn 6.I9.

!++
Mullhev 8.26. Murk 4.39; Mullhev 29.3I.
Theologlcul Crullons 3: Cn lhe Son. I

67
puys lrlbule. bul ll ls oul of u flsh
!+!
÷ yes. und He ls lhe klng for lhose vho
demunded ll of hlm.
!+"
He ls culled u Sumurllun und u demonluc.
!+#
bul He
suves lhe one vho vus golng dovn from 1erusulem und fell lnlo lhe hunds of
robbers;
!+$
lhe demons ucknovledge Hlm und He drlves lhem oul demons;
He slnks u leglon of foul splrlls ln lhe seu
!+&
und vulched lhe prlnce of lhe
demons full llke u flush of llghlnlng.
!+'
People cusl slones ul hlm. bul he ls nol
luken.
!+(
He pruys. bul He heurs pruyer. He veeps. bul He cuuses leurs lo
ceuse.
!+)
He usks vhere Luzurus vus burled. for He vus humun; bul He rulses
Luzurus. for He vus Cod.
!+*
He ls sold. und ul u very cheup prlce ÷ merely for
lhlrly pleces of sllver ÷ bul He redeems lhe vorld. und lhul ul u very greul
prlce ÷ for lhe prlce vus Hls ovn blood. Llke u lumb He ls led lo lhe
sluughler.
!!+
bul He ls lhe shepherd of Isruel ÷ und nov of lhe vhole vorld
ulso. Llke u sheep He ls sllenl. yel He ls lhe Vord ÷ und ls proclulmed by lhe
volce of one crylng oul ln lhe vllderness.
!!!
He ls brulsed und vounded.
!!"
bul
He cures every dlseuse und every slckness.
!!#
He ls llfled up on lhe lree
!!$

!+!
Mullhev I7.24-27.
und

!+"
Cf. 1ohn I8.37: ¨Pllule usked hlm. 'So you ure u klng!` 1esus unsvered.
'You suy lhul I um u klng. For lhls I vus born. und for lhls I cume lnlo lhe
vorld. lo lesllfy lo lhe lrulh.` `

!+#
1ohn 8.48.

!+$
Luke I0.30 (lhe puruble of lhe good Sumurllun).

!+&
Murk 5.I-20. Mullhev 8.28-34. Luke 26-33.

!+'
Luke I0.I8.

!+(
1ohn I0.3I. 39.

!+)
1ohn II.35 (1esus veeps ul lhe lomb of Luzurus); Luke 7.I3 (1esus lells
lhe vldov of Nuln nol lo veep).

!+*
1ohn II.34. 38-44.

!!+
Isuluh 53.7.

!!!
Murk I.3; cf. Isuluh 40.3.

!!"
Cf. Isuluh 53.5.

!!#
Mullhev 9.35.

!!$
I Peler 2.24.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

68
nulled lhere. bul He reslores us by lhe lree of llfe; He suves even lhe lhlef
cruclfled vllh Hlm. und He vrupped lhe vlslble vorld ln durkness. He ls glven
vlnegur lo drlnk und ls fed vllh gull ÷ vho! He vho lurned lhe vuler lnlo
vlne.
!!&
vho overcume lhe blller lusle.
!!'
vho ls Hlmself mosl sveel und
ullogelher deslruble.
!!(
He luys dovn Hls llfe. bul He hus pover lo luke ll
uguln.
!!)
And lhe vell [of lhe lemple] ls lorn. for lhe doors of heuven ure
opened; lhe rocks ure clefl. lhe deud urlse.
!!*
He dles. bul He glves llfe und by
Hls deulh He ubollshes deulh.
!"+
He ls burled. bul He rlses uguln; He goes
dovn lnlo lhe pluce of lhe deud. bul He brlngs up souls. He uscends lo
Heuven. und shull come uguln lo |udge lhe llvlng und lhe deud
!"!
§ 2I. Such ls our response lo lhose vho lry lo puzzle us. Il ls nol glven
vllllngly. for ldle chuller und urgulng ure dlsugreeuble lo lhe fullhful ÷ und
besldes. one Adversury
÷ und lo pul
lo lhe lesl such vords us yours. If cerluln pussuges [of lhe Scrlplures] glve you
u slurllng polnl for your error. lel cerluln olhers pul un end lo ll.
!""

!!&
1ohn 2.7-9.
ls enough for us. 8ul muklng u response vus
necessury for lhe suke of our ussullunls ÷ medlclnes. ufler ull. exlsl becuuse of
dlseuses ÷ ln order lhul lhey muy be led lo see lhul lhey ure nol ull-vlse or
lnvlnclble ln lhose vuln urgumenls vhlch muke lhe Cospel null und vold. For
vhen ve sel fullh uslde und udvunce mere force of urgumenl; vhen ve defeul
lhe uulhorlly of lhe Splrll by our conlenllons. und lhen our urgumenl ls nol
slrong enough for lhe lmporlunce of lhe sub|ecl ÷ und lhls musl necessurlly be
lhe cuse. slnce ll ls pul ln mollon by un orgun of so llllle pover us ls our mlnd
÷ vhul huppens! The veukness of lhe urgumenl mukes lhe myslery look

!!'
Cf. Lxodus I5.23-25: ¨Vhen lhey cume lo Muruh. lhey could nol drlnk
lhe vuler of Muruh becuuse ll vus blller. Thul ls vhy ll vus culled
Muruh. And lhe people complulned ugulnsl Moses. suylng. 'Vhul shull
ve drlnk!` He crled oul lo lhe LCRD; und lhe LCRD shoved hlm u plece
of vood; he lhrev ll lnlo lhe vuler. und lhe vuler becume sveel.`

!!(
Song of Solomon 5.I6.

!!)
1ohn I0.I7-I8.

!!*
Mullhev 27.52.

!"+
1ohn 5.2I; Hebrevs 2.I4. 2 Tlmolhy I.I0.

!"!
2 Tlmolhy 4.I. Thls slulemenl ls ulso found ln lhe Nlcene Creed.

!""
Numely. Sulun.
Theologlcul Crullons 3: Cn lhe Son. I

69
veuk. und lhus eloquence emplles lhe cross of lls pover. us Puul lhoughl.
!"#
Muy He vho glves povers of lnlerprelullon und solves rlddles.

For fullh ls vhul compleles our urgumenl.
!"$
vho
enubles our mlnds lo unruvel lhe llghlly-lvlsled knols of lhelr vlolenl
leuchlngs ÷ muy He chunge lhese people und muke lhem bellevers lnsleud of
urgumenl-cruflers. dlsclples of Chrlsl lnsleud of vhul lhey nov ure culled.
!"&

Thls ulso ls vhul ve exhorl you: Ve enlreul you on behulf of Chrlsl. be
reconclled lo Cod.
!"'
und do nol quench lhe Splrll
!"(
÷ or rulher. muy Chrlsl be
reconclled lo you. und muy lhe Splrll. even ul lhls lule dule. enllghlen you.
8ul lf you ure loo fond of your quurrel. ve ul uny rule vlll hold fusl lo lhe
Trlnlly. und by lhe Trlnlly muy ve be suved. remulnlng pure und blumeless
!")

unlll lhe more perfecl revelullon of lhul vhlch ve deslre. ln Chrlsl hlmself our
Lord. lo vhom be lhe glory for ever und ever. Amen.
!"*




!"#
Cf. I Corlnlhluns I.I7: ¨Chrlsl dld nol send me lo bupllse bul lo proclulm
lhe gospel. und nol vllh eloquenl vlsdom. so lhul lhe cross of Chrlsl
mlghl nol be emplled of lls pover.`

!"$
Cf. Dunlel 5.I6. Klng 8elshuzzur lo Dunlel: ¨8ul I huve heurd lhul you
cun glve lnlerprelullons und solve problems.`

!"&
I.e. dlsclples of Lunomlus.

!"'
2 Corlnlhluns 5.20.

!"(
I Thessulonluns 5.I9.

!")
Phlllppluns I.I0.

!"*
Revelullon I.6.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

70


"#


$%& '()*+% $%&(,(-./0, 1*0+.(2
1*0+.(2 34

12 +%& 5(26
7

8 +%& 9(:&* (; +%& 59.*.+ :& %0<& =*(>&2 +%& +:.?+.2-? 02@ +)*2.2-? (; ()*
(99(2&2+?A 0*-)B&2+?6 02@ %0<& @.?9&*?&@ +%& /,)?+&* (; @.;;./),+.&? 02@
(=C&/+.(2? :%./% :&*& *.99&@ ;*(B +%& %(,D 5/*.9+)*&? =D +%(?& :%( 9*(;02&
+%& E.=,& 02@ 9&*<&*+ +%& ?&2?& (; .+? +&F+? .2 (*@&* +( :.2 +%& B(= +( +%&.*
?.@& 02@ /(2;)?& +%& :0D (; +*)+%G H2@ I 0B /(2<.2/&@ +%0+ :& %0<& @(2& ?(
:.+%()+ 02D (=;)?/0+.(2 ;(* +%(?& :%( 0*& :&,,J.2+&2+.(2&@G K& %0<&
0++*.=)+&@ +( +%& @.<.2.+D L(; +%& 5(2M +%& %.-%&* 02@ :(*+%.&* &F9*&??.(2?6 02@
+%& ,(:&* 02@ B(*& %)B02 +( N.B :%( :0? ;(* )? +%& 5&/(2@ H@0B
!

02@ +%&
O(@ B0@& /090=,& (; ?);;&*.2- +( <02P).?% ?.2G E)+ :& %0<& 2(+ D&+ -(2&
+%*()-% +%& 90??0-&? .2 @&+0.,6 =&/0)?& ()* 0*-)B&2+ :0? .2 0 %)**DG 5.2/& D()
?&&> 0 =*.&; &F9,020+.(2 (; &0/% (2&6 ?( +%0+ D() B0D 2(+ =& /0**.&@ 0:0D =D
.2?.@.()? 0*-)B&2+?6 :& :.,, ?)BB0*.?& +%& @.;;./),+.&?6 -.<.2- +%&B 2)B=&*?
?( +%0+ D() B0D >&&9 +%&B B(*& &0?.,D .2 B.2@G
L#GM
Q 7G I2 ()* (99(2&2+?A &D&? +%& ;(,,(:.2- .? (2,D +(( *&0@D +( %02@R $%&
S1TU /*&0+&@ B& 0? +%& =&-.22.2- (; %.? :0D?6 :.+% 0 <.&: +( %.? :(*>?G
"
N(:
?%0,, :& B&&+ +%.?V 5%0,, :& =*.2- 02 0//)?0+.(2 0-0.2?+ 5(,(B(26 (* *&C&/+ %.?
&0*,.&* :(*@? =&/0)?& (; %.? ;0,, ,0+&* .2 ,.;&V
#
5%0,, :& ?0D +%0+ +%& :(*@? 0*&
+%(?& (; K.?@(B %&*?&,;6 +%& >2(:,&@-&6 ?( +( ?9&0>6 02@ +%& ;0?%.(2.2-
9*.2/.9,& .2 0//(*@02/& :.+% :%./% 0,, +%.2-? :&*& B0@&V
$

!
W;G # W(*.2+%.02? #XGYXR Z$%)? .+ .? :*.++&26 $%& ;.*?+ B026 H@0B6 =&/0B&
0 ,.<.2- =&.2- LO&2G 7G"M[ +%& ,0?+ H@0B =&/0B& 0 ,.;&J-.<.2- ?9.*.+G\
'(* 5/*.9+)*& (;+&2

"
]*(<&*=? ^G77 _5&9+)0-.2+`G

#
# a.2-? ##G#J^6 :%&*& .+ ?0D? +%0+ Z:%&2 5(,(B(2 :0? (,@6 %.? :.<&?
+)*2&@ 0:0D %.? %&0*+ 0;+&* (+%&* -(@?[ 02@ %.? %&0*+ :0? 2(+ +*)& +( +%&
S1TU %.? O(@6 0? :0? +%& %&0*+ (; %.? ;0+%&* U0<.@G\

$
W;G K.?@(B (; 5(,(B(2 ^GXJbR ZI; *./%&? 0*& 0 @&?.*0=,& 9(??&??.(2 .2 ,.;&6
:%0+ .? *./%&* +%02 :.?@(B6 +%& 0/+.<& /0)?& (; 0,, +%.2-?V H2@ .;
E
O*&-(*D (; c0d.02d)?

"7
9&*?(2.;.&? B02D ,.;&,&?? (=C&/+? e ;(* .2?+02/&6 $%& ?&0 ?0.@ ?)/% 02@ ?)/%6 02@
$%& @&&9 ?0D?6 ZI+ .? 2(+ .2 B&6\
%
02@ $%& %&0<&2? @&/,0*& +%& -,(*D (; O(@6
&

02@ 0-0.2 0 /(BB02@ .? -.<&2 +( 0 ?:(*@6
'
02@ +%& B()2+0.2? 02@ %.,,? 0*&
0?>&@ :%D +%&D ?>.9G
(
K& @( 2(+ /.+& 02D (; +%&?& 90??0-&?6 +%()-% ?(B& (;
()* 9*&@&/&??(*? )?&@ +%&B 0? 9(:&*;), 0*-)B&2+?G E)+ ,&+ )? -*02+ +%0+ +%&
&F9*&??.(2 L.2 ]*(<&*=? ^M .? )?&@ (; ()* 50<.()* N.B?&,;6 +%& +*)& K.?@(BG S&+
)? /(2?.@&* (2& ?B0,, 9(.2+ +(-&+%&*G HB(2- 0,, +%.2-? +%0+ &F.?+6 :%0+ .?
:.+%()+ (*.-.2V U.<.2.+DG '(* 2( (2& /02 +&,, +%& (*.-.2 (; O(@ e .; .+ :&*&
(+%&*:.?&6 .+ :(),@ =& ?(B&+%.2- (,@&* +%02 O(@G E)+ :%0+ .? +%& /0)?& (; +%&
%)B02.+D :%./% O(@ 0??)B&@ ;(* ()* ?0>&V I+ :0? ?)*&,D ()* ?0,<0+.(2G K%0+
&,?& /(),@ .+ =&V 5.2/& :& /,&0*,D ;.2@ %&*& L.2 ]*(<&*=?M =(+% $%& S1TU
/*&0+&@ B& 02@ N& =&-&+? B&6
)
+%& 0*-)B&2+ .? ?.B9,&G K%0+&<&* :& ;.2@
C(.2&@ :.+% 0 /0)?& :& 0*& +( *&;&* +( +%& %)B02.+D6 =)+ 0,, +%0+ .? 0=?(,)+&
02@ :.+%()+ (*.-.2 :& 0*& +( @&9(?.+ .2 +%& 0//()2+ (; N.? @.<.2.+DG K&,,6
+%&26 .? 2(+ +%.? &F9*&??.(2 /*&0+&@ ?0.@ .2 /(22&/+.(2 :.+% 0 /0)?&V N& /*&0+&@
B&6 .+ ?0D?6 0? +%& =&-.22.2- (; %.? :0D?6 :.+% 0 <.&: +( %.? :(*>?G c(:6 +%&
:(*>? (; N.? %02@? 0*& ;0.+%;),2&?? 02@ C)?+./&G
!*
Q 3G I2 +%& ?0B& /0+&-(*D 0*& +&F+? :%&*& N& .? /0,,&@ +%& ?&*<02+ :%(
?&*<&? +%& -((@ (; B02D6
I+ :0? ;(* ?0>& (; +%&?& :(*>?
+%0+ N& :0? 02(.2+&@ :.+% @.<.2.+D6 ;(* +%.? 02(.2+.2- .? 02 02(.2+.2- (; +%&
%)B02.+DG ED /(2+*0?+6 +%& &F9*&??.(2 N& =&-&+? B& .? 2(+ /(22&/+&@ :.+% 0
/0)?& e (* .+ .? ;(* D() +( ?%(: %(: .+ B.-%+ =& ?(G K%0+ 0*-)B&2+ +%&2 :.,,
@.?9*(<& +%0+ K.?@(B .? /0,,&@ /*&0+&@ :.+% *&?9&/+ +( %.? -&2&*0+.(2 %&*&
=&,(:6 =)+ =&-(++&2 :.+% *&?9&/+ +( +%& ;.*?+ 02@ B(*& .2/(B9*&%&2?.=,&
-&2&*0+.(2V
!!

)2@&*?+02@.2- .? &;;&/+.<&6 :%( B(*& +%02 ?%& .? ;0?%.(2&* (; :%0+
&F.?+?V\
02@ ?0D +%0+ .+ .? 0 -*&0+ +%.2- ;(* N.B +( =& /0,,&@

%
f(= 7^G#YG

&
]?0,B #gG#G

'
h&/%0*.0% #3G"R Z iH:0>&6 1 ?:(*@6 0-0.2?+ BD ?%&9%&*@6 0-0.2?+ +%&
B02 :%( .? BD 0??(/.0+&6A ?0D? +%& S1TU (; %(?+?G 5+*.>& +%& ?%&9%&*@6
+%0+ +%& ?%&&9 B0D =& ?/0++&*&@[ I :.,, +)*2 BD %02@ 0-0.2?+ +%& ,.++,&
(2&?G\

(
]?0,B ##YGbR ZLK%0+ 0.,&@ D()6M 8() B()2+0.2?6 +%0+ D() ?>.99&@ ,.>&
*0B?V D() ,.++,& %.,,?6 ,.>& D()2- ?%&&9V\

)
]*(<&*=? ^G776 7XG

!*
]?0,B ###G"G

$%&(,(-./0, 1*0+.(2? YR 12 +%& 5(26 7

"3
+%& /%.,@ (; O(@G
!"
'(* .2 +*)+% N& :0? .2 ?&*<.+)@& +( ;,&?% 02@ +( =.*+% 02@
+( +%& 90??.(2? :%./% =&,(2- +( )? :.+% 0 <.&: +( ()* ,.=&*0+.(2 02@ +%0+ (; 0,,
+%(?& :%(B N& %0? ?0<&@6 :%( :&*& .B9*.?(2&@ =D ?.2G K%0+ /02 =& -*&0+&*
;(* +%& ,(:,.2&?? (; %)B02.+D +%02 +( =& .2+&*B.2-,&@ :.+% O(@6 02@ =D +%.?
.2+&*B.2-,.2- +( =& @&.;.&@6
!#
02@ +%0+ +%& U0D?9*.2- ;*(B (2 %.-% ?%(),@ ?(
=*&0> )9(2 )?6
!$
+%0+ +%& %(,D (2& :%( .? +( =& =(*2 ?%(),@ =& /0,,&@ +%& 5(2
(; +%& j(?+ N.-%6
!%
02@ +%0+ +%& 20B& +%0+ .? 0=(<& &<&*D 20B& ?%(),@ =&
=&?+(:&@ )9(2 N.B
!&
e 02@ :%0+ &,?& /02 +%.? 20B& =& =)+ O(@V e 02@ +%0+
&<&*D >2&& ?%(),@ =(: +( N.B
!'
:%( &B9+.&@ %.B?&,; ;(* )? 02@ B.2-,&@ +%&
;(*B (; O(@ :.+% +%& ;(*B (; 0 ?,0<&6
!(
02@ +%0+ +%& &2+.*& %()?& (; I?*0&,
?%(),@ >2(: +%0+ O(@ %0? B0@& %.B =(+% S(*@ 02@ j&??.0%V
!)

'(* 0,, +%.? :0?
@(2& =D +%& 0/+.(2 (; +%& 12& :%( %0? =&&2 =&-(++&26 02@ =D +%& -((@
9,&0?)*& (; +%& 12& :%( =&-(+ N.BG

!!
I?0.0% YgG76 X3G## _5&9+)0-.2+`G
!"
I?0.0% YgGb _5&9+)0-.2+`G

!#
$%& 2(+.(2 (; +%& Z@&.;./0+.(2\ _(* Z@.<.2.?.2-\` (; %)B02? :0? (; /09.+0,
.B9(*+02/& +( @&;&2@&*? (; c./&2& (*+%(@(FD ?)/% 0? H+%020?.)?6 E0?.,
+%& O*&0+6 02@ O*&-(*D (; cD??0G I+ :0? +%& *&0?(2 :%D +%&D .2?.?+&@ (2
+%& @.<.2.+D (; +%& 50<.()*G '(* .; ?0,<0+.(2 .? 2(+%.2- (+%&* (* ,&?? +%02 +(
=&/(B& 90*+./.902+? (; +%& @.<.2& 20+)*& _7 ]&+&* #GY`6 +%& 50<.()* B)?+
%0<& +%& <&*D 20+)*& +%0+ %& =&?+(:? e 0;+&* 0,,6 2( (2& /02 -.<& :%0+
+%&D ,0/>G $%& ,02-)0-& (; Z@&.;./0+.(2\ :0?6 +( =& ?)*&6 ?(B&:%0+
9&*.,()? .2 .+? .B9,./0+.(2?G H+%020?.)? 02@ +%& (+%&*? @.@ 2(+ +&0/% +%0+
%)B02? /&0?&@ +( =& %)B02 02@ 0/+)0,,D =&/0B& O(@[ +%&D )2@&*?+((@
+%& +&*B .2 +%& ?&2?& (; 7 ]&+&* #GY6 0? +%& :0D .2 :%./% %)B02? =&/0B&
/090=,& 9*&/.?&,D 0? %)B02? (; ?%0*.2- .2 +%& ,.;& (; +%& +%*&&J9&*?(2&@
O(@G

!$
S)>& #G"^ _5(2- (; h&/%0*.0%`G

!%
S)>& #G37 _O0=*.&, ?9&0>.2- +( j0*D 0+ +%& H22)2./0+.(2`G

!&
]%.,.99.02? 7GgG

!'
]%.,.99.02? 7G#4G

!(
]%.,.99.02? 7Gb6 "G

!)
H/+? 7G3bG
O*&-(*D (; c0d.02d)?

"Y
L7GM
Q YG K%0+ .? +%& ?&/(2@ (; +%&.* -*&0+ .**&?.?+.=,& 90??0-&?V N& B)?+ *&.-2
)2+., ?)/% 02@ ?)/% 0 +.B&
"*
02@ B)?+ *&B0.2 .2 %&0<&2 )2+., +%& +.B& (;
)2.<&*?0, *&?+(*0+.(26
"!
02@ ?.+ 0+ +%& *.-%+ %02@ L(; O(@M6 )2+., 0,, %.? &2&B.&?
0*& ?)=C)-0+&@G
""
E)+ 0;+&* +%.? %099&2?V j)?+ N& /&0?& +( =& a.2-6 (* =&
*&B(<&@ ;*(B %&0<&2V K%( :.,, B0>& N.B /&0?&6 (* ;(* :%0+ /0)?&V K%0+
02 0)@0/.()? &F&-&+& D() 0*&6 +( 9(?& 0? ?)/% 02 0@<&*?0*D (; %.? *&.-2k H2@
D&+ D() %0<& %&0*@ +%0+ (; %.? >.2-@(B +%&*& :.,, =& 2( &2@G
"#
8()* B.?+0>&
0*.?&? ;*(B 2(+ )2@&*?+02@.2- +%0+ +%& :(*@ )2+., @(&? 2(+ 0,:0D? &F/,)@&
:%0+ .? D&+ +( /(B&6 =)+ .2@./0+&? :%0+ .? +%& /0?& )9 +( 0 -.<&2 +.B&6 :.+%()+
@&2D.2- :%0+ /(B&? 0;+&* +%0+ +.B&G 1+%&*:.?&6 +( /.+& =)+ (2& &F0B9,&6 %(:
:(),@ D() )2@&*?+02@ +%& +&F+6 I 0B :.+% D() 0,:0D?6 +( +%& &2@ (; +%& 0-&V
"$
E)+ +%.? .? 2(+ D()* (2,D &**(*G 8() 0,?( ;0., +( @.?+.2-).?% =&+:&&2 +%&
+%.2-? +%0+ 0*& ?.-2.;.&@G N& .? ?0.@ +( *&.-2 .2 (2& ?&2?& 0? +%& 0,B.-%+D a.2-6
=(+% (; +%& :.,,.2- 02@ +%& )2:.,,.2-[ =)+ .2 02(+%&* ?&2?& N& .? ?0.@ +( *&.-2
0? 9*(@)/.2- ?)=B.??.(2 .2 )? 02@ 9,0/.2- )? )2@&* N.? ?(<&*&.-2+D 0? +%(?&
:.,,.2-,D 0//&9+ +%0+ N& ?%(),@ =& ()* >.2-G 1; N.? >.2-@(B6 /(2?.@&*&@ .2 +%&
;(*B&* ?&2?&6 +%&*& ?%0,, =& 2( &2@G E)+ .2 +%& ?&/(2@ ?&2?&6 :%0+ &2@ :.,,
+%&*& =&V N.? +0>.2- )? 0? N.? ?&*<02+? (2 ()* &2+*02/& .2+( 0 ?+0+& (;
?0,<0+.(2G '(* :%0+ 2&&@ .? +%&*& +( 9*(@)/& ?)=B.??.(2 .2 )? :%&2 :& %0<&
0,*&0@D ?)=B.++&@V H;+&* +%.? ?)=B.??.(26 N& 0*.?&? +( C)@-& +%& &0*+%

U(&? .+ B&02 +%0+ 0;+&* +%& &2@ (; +%& 0-& N& :.,, 2( ,(2-&* =& :.+% +%&BV I;
?(6 ;(* :%0+ *&0?(2V
"%
02@ +(
?&90*0+& +%& ?0<&@ ;*(B +%& ,(?+G
"&

"*
# W(*.2+%.02? #XG7XG
H;+&* +%0+ N& +0>&? N.? ?+02@ .2 +%& B.@?+ (;

"!
H/+? 3G7#G

""
]?0,B ##4G#G

"#
S)>& #G33G

"$
j0++%&: 7^G74G

"%
]?0,B gYG7G

"&
W;G j0++%&: 7XG3#JYb _+%& 90*0=,& (; +%& ?%&&9 02@ +%& -(0+?`G

$%&(,(-./0, 1*0+.(2? YR 12 +%& 5(26 7

"X
-(@?
"'
e +%0+ .?6 (; +%& ?0<&@
"(
e @.?+.2-).?%.2- 02@ @&/.@.2- (; :%./% %(2()*
02@ (; :%./% @:&,,.2- 9,0/&
")
Q XG I2 +%& 2&F+ 9,0/&6 +0>& +%& ?)=C&/+.(2 =D :%./% D() ?)=C&/+ +%& 5(2 +(
+%& '0+%&*G ZK%0+k\ D() ?0D6 Z.? N& 2(+ ?)=C&/+ 2(:6 02@ .? .+ ?+.,, 2&/&??0*D
;(* N.B :%( _D() ?0D` .? O(@ +( =& ?)=C&/+&@ +( O(@V\
&0/% .? :(*+%DG
#*
8() 0*& ?9&0>.2- (;
L+%& 5(2M 0? .; N& :&*& ?(B& *(==&* (* 0 *.<0, (; O(@G E)+ ,((> 0+ .+ .2 +%.?
:0DR e f)?+ 0? ;(* BD ?0>& N& :0? /0,,&@ 0 /)*?&6
#!
:%( @&?+*(D&@ +%& /)*?& (;
:%./% I :0? +%& (=C&/+[ 02@ LC)?+ 0? ;(* BD ?0>& N& :0? /0,,&@M ?.26
#"
:%(
+0>&? 0:0D +%& ?.2 (; +%& :(*,@[ 02@ LC)?+ 0? ;(* BD ?0>& N&M =&/0B& 2&:
H@0B +( +0>& +%& 9,0/& (; +%& (,@ e ?( N& B0>&? BD @.?(=&@.&2/& N.? (:2 0?
N&0@ (; +%& :%(,& =(@DG H? ,(2- 0? I 0B @.?(=&@.&2+ 02@ *&=&,,.()?6 +%&26
=(+% =D @&2.0, (; O(@ 02@ =D BD 90??.(2?6 =D C)?+ ?( ,(2- .? W%*.?+ 0,?( /0,,&@
@.?(=&@.&2+ (2 BD 0//()2+G E)+ :%&2 0,, +%.2-? 0*& ?)=C&/+&@ +( %.B
##

"'
]?0,B ^7G#G
e (2
+%& (2& %02@ =D 0/>2(:,&@-.2- O(@ 02@ (2 +%& (+%&* =D =&.2- +*02?;(*B&@ e
+%&2 N& N.B?&,; 0,?( :.,, %0<& ;),;.,,&@ N.? ?)=B.??.(26 =*.2-.2- B& :%(B N&
%0? ?0<&@ +( O(@G '(* +%.?6 .2 BD <.&:6 .? +%& ?)=C&/+.(2 (; W%*.?+ e 20B&,D6
+%& ;),;.,,.2- (; +%& '0+%&*A? :.,,G E)+ 0? +%& 5(2 ?)=C&/+? 0,, +( +%& '0+%&*6 ?(
@(&? +%& '0+%&* ?)=C&/+ 0,, +( +%& 5(2 e +%& 5(2 =D N.? 0/+.(26 +%& '0+%&* =D

"(
O*&-(*D %&*& ;(,,(:? +%*()-% (2 +%& 2(+.(2 (; Z@&.;.&@\ %)B02.+DG

")
f(%2 #YG7R ZI2 BD '0+%&*l? %()?& +%&*& 0*& B02D @:&,,.2- 9,0/&?G I; .+
:&*& 2(+ ?(6 :(),@ I %0<& +(,@ D() +%0+ I -( +( 9*&90*& 0 9,0/& ;(*
D()V\

#*
O*&-(*D .? .B0-.2.2- _(* 90*09%*0?.2-` +%& m)2(B.02 *&?9(2?&6 :%./% %0?
.2 <.&: # W(*.2+%.02? #XG7"J7^R Z'(* O(@ %0? 9)+ 0,, +%.2-? .2 ?)=C&/+.(2
)2@&* %.? ;&&+ L]?G ^G"MG E)+ :%&2 .+ ?0D?6 H,, +%.2-? 0*& 9)+ .2 ?)=C&/+.(26
.+ .? 9,0.2 +%0+ +%.? @(&? 2(+ .2/,)@& +%& 12& :%( 9)+ 0,, +%.2-? .2
?)=C&/+.(2 )2@&* %.BG K%&2 0,, +%.2-? 0*& ?)=C&/+&@ +( %.B6 +%&2 +%& 5(2
%.B?&,; :.,, 0,?( =& ?)=C&/+&@ +( +%& (2& :%( 9)+ 0,, +%.2-? .2 ?)=C&/+.(2
)2@&* %.B6 ?( +%0+ O(@ B0D =& 0,, .2 0,,G\

#!
O0,0+.02? 3G#3R ZW%*.?+ *&@&&B&@ )? ;*(B +%& /)*?& (; +%& ,0: =D
=&/(B.2- 0 /)*?& ;(* )? e ;(* .+ .? :*.++&26 W)*?&@ .? &<&*D(2& :%( %02-?
(2 0 +*&& LU&)+G 7"G7bMG\

#"
7 W(*.2+%.02? XG7#R Z'(* ()* ?0>& LO(@M B0@& %.B +( =& ?.2 :%( >2&:
2( ?.26 ?( +%0+ .2 %.B :& B.-%+ =&/(B& +%& *.-%+&()?2&?? (; O(@G\

##
# W(*.2+%.02? #XG7^G
O*&-(*D (; c0d.02d)?

"b
N.? -((@ 9,&0?)*&6 0? :& %0<& 0,*&0@D ?0.@G
#$
I2 +%& ?0B& /0+&-(*D6 .+ ?&&B? +( B&6 .? +%& &F9*&??.(26 jD O(@6 BD O(@6
:%D %0<& D() ;(*?0>&2 B&V
$%)? N& :%( ?)=C&/+? L0,, +%.2-?M
9*&?&2+? +( O(@ +%0+ :%./% %& %0? ?)=C&/+&@6 /,0.B.2- )? 0? N.? (:2G
#%
I+ :0? 2(+ +%0+ N& :0? ;(*?0>&2 &.+%&* =D +%&
'0+%&* (* _0? ?(B& %0<& +%()-%+ ` =D N.? (:2 @.<.2.+D6 0? .; N.? @.<.2.+D :&*&
0;*0.@ (; +%& ]0??.(26 02@ +%&*&;(*& :.+%@*&: .+?&,; ;*(B N.B .2 N.? ?);;&*.2-?
e ;(* :%( /(B9&,,&@ N.B &.+%&* +( =& =(*2 (2 &0*+% 0+ 0,, (* +( =& ,.;+&@ )9
(2 +%& /*(??V E)+ 0? I ?0.@6 N& :0? *&9*&?&2+.2- )?G '(* :& :&*& +%& (2&?
;(*?0>&2 02@ @&?9.?&@ =&;(*&6 =)+ 2(: =D +%& ?);;&*.2-? (; N.B :%( /(),@
2(+ ?);;&*6 :& :&*& +0>&2 )9 02@ ?0<&@G 5.B.,0*,D6 N& B0>&? ()* ;(,,D 02@ ()*
+*02?-*&??.(2? N.? (:2 02@ ?0D? :%0+ ;(,,(:? .2 +%& ]?0,B[
#&
;(* .+ .? <&*D
&<.@&2+ +%0+ +%& ]?0,B 7# L77M
#'
Q bG $%& ?0B& /(2?.@&*0+.(2 099,.&? +( +%& +&F+ :%./% ?0D? +%0+ N& ,&0*2&@
(=&@.&2/& +%*()-% :%0+ %& ?);;&*&@[
*&;&*? +( W%*.?+G
#(
,.>&:.?&6 +%& *&;&*&2/&? +( N.? ,()@ /*.&?
02@ +&0*?6 +( N.? ?)99,./0+.(2? =&.2- %&0*@6 02@ +( N.? *&<&*&2/&
#)
e 0,, 0? .; .2
0 @*0B0 B0*<&,,()?,D /(2?+*)/+&@ ;(* ()* 0@<02+0-&G '(* 0? +%& K(*@6 N&
:0? 2&.+%&* (=&@.&2+ 2(* @.?(=&@.&2+G 5)/% &F9*&??.(2? =&,(2- +( ?&*<02+? 02@
.2;&*.(*?[ (=&@.&2/& 099,.&? +( +%& =&++&* ?(*+6 :%.,& @.?(=&@.&2/& =&,(2-? +(
+%(?& :%( @&?&*<& 9)2.?%B&2+G E)+ .2 +%& ;(*B (; 0 ?,0<&6
$*

#$
I2 +%& 9*&?&2+ 1*0+.(26 0+ +%& &2@ (; Q 3 _9G "3`G
N& =(:? @(:2
+( +%& ,&<&, (; N.? ;&,,(: ?,0<&? e (* *0+%&*6 N& =(:? @(:2 +( N.? ?,0<&? e 02@
+0>&? )9(2 N.B 0 ;(*B 2(+ N.? (:26 =&0*.2- .2 N.B?&,; 0,, +%0+ I 0B 02@ 0,,

#%
]?0,B 77G#6 j0*> #XG3YG

#&
:%0+ ;(,,(:? .2 +%& ]?0,B6 .BB&@.0+&,D 0;+&* +%& ,.2& P)(+&@ 0+ +%&
(9&2.2- (; +%.? 90*0-*09%G ]?0,B 77G#J7R ZjD O(@6 BD O(@6 :%D %0<&
D() ;(*?0>&2 B&Vn 02@ 0*& ?( ;0* ;*(B BD /*D 02@ ;*(B +%& :(*@? (; BD
@.?+*&??V 1 BD O(@6 I /*D .2 +%& @0D+.B&6 =)+ D() @( 2(+ 02?:&*[n =D
2.-%+ 0? :&,,6 =)+ I ;.2@ 2( *&?+G\

#'
I2 +%& ]?0,+&* (; +%& 5&9+)0-.2+6 ]?0,B? g 02@ #4 0*& /(B=.2&@ 0? ]?0,B g6
?( +%0+ +%& 2)B&*0+.(2 (; ?)=?&P)&2+ ]?0,B? .? (2& ,&?? +%02 .2 +%& ]?0,+&*
(; +%& j0?(*&+./ N&=*&: +&F+ e )2+., ]?0,B #Y^6 =&/0)?& :%&*& +%&
j0?(*&+./ +&F+ %0? ]?0,B #Y"6 +%& 5&9+)0-.2+ %0? +:( ]?0,B?6 #Yb 02@
#Y"G

#(
N&=*&:? XG^G

#)
N&=*&:? XG"G

$*
]%.,.99.02? 7G"G
$%&(,(-./0, 1*0+.(2? YR 12 +%& 5(26 7

""
+%0+ .? B.2& .2 (*@&* +%0+ N& B.-%+ /(2?)B& .2 N.B?&,; :%0+&<&* .? =0@ 0? ;.*&
/(2?)B&? :0F (* 0? +%& ?)2 @.?9&*?&? +%& B.?+? (; &0*+%6 02@ .2 (*@&* +%0+ I
B0D 90*+0>& (; N.? 20+)*& =D +%& =,&2@.2-G
$!
H2@ 9&*%09? .+ :(),@ 2(+ =& :*(2- +( 0??)B& +%0+ N& *&/>(2? ()*
(=&@.&2/& =D +%& 0*+ (; N.? ,(<& 02@ B&0?)*&? &<&*D+%.2- =D N.? (:2
?);;&*.2-?6 .2 (*@&* +%0+ N& B.-%+ >2(: ()* /(2@.+.(2 e %(: B)/% .?
@&B02@&@ (; )? 02@ %(: B)/% :& B)?+ =& ;(*-.<&2 e =D N.? (:26 :&.-%.2-
()* :&0>2&?? .2 0//(*@02/& :.+% N.? ?);;&*.2-?G '(* .; +%& ,.-%+ +%0+ ?%.2&? .2
+%& @0*>2&??
$%.? .? %(: N& %(2()*?
(=&@.&2/& =D :%0+ %& @(&?6 02@ N& 9*(<&? .+ .2 0/+.(2 =D N.? ?);;&*.2-?G '(* .+
.? 2(+ &2()-% +( 9(??&?? +%& .2+&*.(* @.?9(?.+.(26 C)?+ 0? .+ :(),@ 2(+ =&
&2()-% ;(* )?6 )2,&?? :& 0,?( 9*(<&@ .+ =D ()* 0/+?[ ;(* 0/+.(2 .? +%& 9*((; (; 0
@.?9(?.+.(2G
$"
(; +%.? ,.;& :0? 9&*?&/)+&@ =D +%& (+%&* @0*>2&?? e I B&02 +%&
m<., 12& 02@ +%& $&B9+&* e :%0+ ?+*(>&? :.,, ?)=@)& +%(?& :%( 0*&
@0*>2&??6
$#
-.<&2 +%&.* -*&0+&* :&0>&*V H2@ .? .+ 02D :(2@&* +%0+6 +%()-% N&
&2+.*&,D &?/09&@6 :& %0<& =&&2 _0+ ,&0?+ .2 90*+` (<&*+0>&2V '(* .+ .? &<&2
B(*& 0?+()2@.2- +%0+ N& ?%(),@ %0<& =&&2 /%0?&@ +%02 +%0+ :& ?%(),@ %0<&
=&&2 /09+)*&@ e 0+ ,&0?+ +( +%(?& :%( *&0?(2 0*.-%+ (2 +%& ?)=C&/+G I :.,, 0@@
D&+ 02(+%&* +&F+ +( +%(?& I %0<& B&2+.(2&@6 =&/0)?& I +%.2> .+ /,&0*,D +&2@? +(
+%& ?0B& ?&2?&R E&/0)?& %& %.B?&,; :0? +&?+&@ =D :%0+ %& ?);;&*&@6 %& .? 0=,&
+( %&,9 +%(?& :%( 0*& =&.2- +&?+&@G
$$
E)+ O(@ :.,, =& 0,, .2 0,,
$%
:%&2 0,,
+%.2-? 0*& *&?+(*&@
$&

$!
O*&-(*D @(&? 2(+ B&02 +%0+ +%&*& .? 02D+%.2- =0@ .2 W%*.?+A? (:2 ?&,;6
/(2?.@&*&@ .2 .?(,0+.(2 ;*(B )?G E)+ O*&-(*DA? 9(.2+ .? +%0+ +%&*& .? 2(
,(2-&* ?)/% 0 9&*?(2G ED +%& -*0/& (; =09+.?B6 :& =&/(B& ZB&B=&*?
.2/(*9(*0+& (; N.? BD?+./0, =(@D\G $%.? B&02? +%0+ :& ()*?&,<&? 0*&
Z.2?.@&\ W%*.?+6 90*+ (; N.? <&*D ?&,;6 ?( +%0+ +%& =0@ .2 )? .? /(2?)B&@
;*(B :.+%.2 W%*.?+ =D .2/(*9(*0+.(2 .2+( N.BG
e 2(+ .2 +%& ?&2?& +%0+ +%& '0+%&* 0,(2& :.,, &F.?+[ +%& 5(2
=&.2- &2+.*&,D 0=?(*=&@ =0/> .2+( N.B ,.>& 0 +(*/% +0>&2 (;; 0 -*&0+ 9D*& ;(* 0
:%.,& 02@ +%&2 *&+)*2&@ +( .+G _I :(),@ 2(+ ,&+ &<&2 +%& 50=&,,.02? =& %)*+ =D

$"
f(%2 #GXG

$#
W;G m9%&?.02? XG^R Z'(* (2/& D() :&*& @0*>2&??6 =)+ 2(: .2 +%& S(*@ D()
0*& ,.-%+G\

$$
N&=*&:? 7G#^G

$%
# W(*.2+%.02? #XG7^G

$&
W;G H/+? 3G7#6 P)(+&@ .2 ;2G 7#G
O*&-(*D (; c0d.02d)?

"^
+%.? +&F+G
$'
` c(6 .+ :.,, =& +%& :%(,& L+*.)2&M @.<.2.+D6 :%&2 :& ()*?&,<&? ?%0,,
=& 2( ,(2-&* @.<.@&@ 0? :& 2(: 0*& =D &B(+.(2? 02@ 90??.(2?6 =&0*.2-
2(+%.2- 0+ 0,, (; O(@6 (* <&*D ,.++,&[ (2 +%& /(2+*0*D6 :& ?%0,, =& &2+.*&,D ,.>&
O(@6
$(
;(* :& ?%0,, =& 0=,& +( %(,@ O(@ :%(,& 02@ 0,(2&G $%.? .? +%&
9&*;&/+.(2 +(:0*@ :%./% :& %0?+&2G ]0), %.B?&,; -.<&? )? 02 &<&2 ?+*(2-&*
9*((;G N&*&
$)
%& ?9&0>? (; O(@ .2 02 .2@&+&*B.20+& B022&*[ &,?&:%&*& %.?
,02-)0-& /,&0*,D ?9&/.;.&? W%*.?+G H2@ :%&*& .? +%0+V K%&*& %& ?0D? +%0+ +%&*& .?
2( ,(2-&* O*&&> 02@ f&:6 /.*/)B/.?&@ 02@ )2/.*/)B/.?&@6 =0*=0*.026 5/D+%.026
?,0<& 02@ ;*&&[ Eo$ WNTI5$ I5 HSS HcU Ic HSSG
%*


L3GM
Q "G I2 +%& +%.*@ 9,0/& +%&*& .? +%& +&*B -*&0+&*[
%!
02@ .2 +%& ;()*+% 9,0/& +%&
?0D.2-6 $( BD O(@ 02@ D()* O(@G
%"

$'
50=&,,.)? _&0*,D 3*@ /&2+)*D` :0? ?)99(?&@ +( %0<& +0)-%+ +%0+ +%& 20B&?
Z'0+%&*6\ Z5(26\ 02@ ZN(,D 59.*.+\ :&*& ?.B9,D ?)//&??.<& ZB(@&?\ e 0? .+
:&*&6 B0?>? (* -).?&? e 0??)B&@ =D +%& (2& O(@G
H2@ .2@&&@6 .; +%& 5(2 %0@ =&&2 /0,,&@
-*&0+&* :.+%()+ =&.2- /0,,&@ &P)0,6 +%.? B.-%+ 9&*%09? %0<& =&&2 0 9(.2+ .2
+%&.* ;0<()*G E)+ .; :& ;.2@ =(+% :(*@? /,&0*,D )?&@6 :%0+ :.,, +%&?& %&0*+.&?
%0<& +( ?0DV N(: :.,, .+ ?+*&2-+%&2 +%&.* 0*-)B&2+V N(: :.,, +%&D *&/(2/.,&
+%& .**&/(2/.,0=,&V '(* .+ .? 02 .B9(??.=.,.+D +%0+ +%& ?0B& +%.2- ?%(),@ =& 0+
(2/& -*&0+&* +%02 02@ &P)0, +( +%& ?0B& +%.2-G $%& (=<.()? ?(,)+.(2 .? +%0+
+%& -*&0+&* *&;&*? +( (*.-.20+.(26 :%.,& +%& &P)0, =&,(2-? +( +%& 20+)*&[ 02@
+%.? :& 0/>2(:,&@-& :.+% -*&0+ -((@ :.,,G E)+ 9&*%09? ?(B& (2& &,?& :.,,
=0/> )9 ()* 0++0/> (2 D()* 0*-)B&2+ 02@ 0??&*+ +%0+ +%& 12& :%( .? ;*(B
?)/% 0 W0)?& .? 2(+ .2;&*.(* +( +%& 12& :%( %0? 2( /0)?&[ ;(* .+ :(),@ ?%0*&
+%& -,(*D (; +%& o2/0)?&@6 =&/0)?& .+ .? ;*(B +%& o2/0)?&@G H2@ +%&*& .?6

$(
W;G # f(%2 3G7R ZE&,(<&@6 :& 0*& O(@A? /%.,@*&2 2(:[ :%0+ :& :.,, =&
%0? 2(+ D&+ =&&2 *&<&0,&@G K%0+ :& @( >2(: .? +%.?R :%&2 %& .?
*&<&0,&@6 :& :.,, =& ,.>& %.BG\

$)
H+ # W(*.2+%.02? #XG7^6 :%&*& ]0), ?0D? +%0+ O(@ :.,, =& 0,, .2 0,,G

%*
W(,(??.02? 3G##G

%!
f(%2 #YG7^R ZI; D() ,(<&@ B&6 D() :(),@ *&C(./& +%0+ I 0B -(.2- +( +%&
'0+%&*6 =&/0)?& +%& '0+%&* .? -*&0+&* +%02 IG\

%"
f(%2 74G#"R Zf&?)? ?0.@ +( Lj0*D j0-@0,&2&M6 iU( 2(+ %(,@ (2 +( B&6
=&/0)?& I %0<& 2(+ D&+ 0?/&2@&@ +( +%& '0+%&*G E)+ -( +( BD =*(+%&*?
02@ ?0D +( +%&B6 ZI 0B 0?/&2@.2- +( BD '0+%&* 02@ D()* '0+%&*6 +( BD
O(@ 02@ D()* O(@G\ A \
$%&(,(-./0, 1*0+.(2? YR 12 +%& 5(26 7

"g
=&?.@&?6 +%& -&2&*0+.(2 e 0 B0++&* ?( -*&0+ 02@ <&2&*0=,&6 0+ ,&0?+ ;(* %)B02?
:%( %0<& 02D ?&2?& 0+ 0,,G '(* +( ?0D +%0+ +%& '0+%&* .? -*&0+&* +%02 +%& 5(2
/(2?.@&*&@ 0? %)B02 .? +*)& .2@&&@6 =)+ .? 2( -*&0+ +%.2-G '(* :%0+ B0*<&, .? .+
.; O(@ .? -*&0+&* +%02 %)B02.+DV 5)*&,D +%0+ .? &2()-% +( ?0D .2 02?:&* +( +%&.*
+0,> 0=()+ -*&0+&*G
Q ^G H? +( +%& (+%&* 90??0-& L$( BD O(@ 02@ D()* O(@
%#
M6 BD O(@ :(),@
=& )?&@ .2 *&?9&/+6 2(+ (; +%& K(*@ 0? ?)/%6 =)+ (; +%& <.?.=,& K(*@G '(* %(:
/(),@ +%&*& =& 0 O(@ (; N.B :%( .? O(@ .2 +%& 9*(9&* ?&2?&V I2 +%& ?0B&
:0D +%& '0+%&* .? 2(+ '0+%&* (; +%& 12& :%( .? ?&&2 =)+ (; +%& K(*@ 0? ?)/%[
;(* ()* S(*@ :0? (; +:( 20+)*&?[ ?( +%0+ (2& &F9*&??.(2 .? )?&@ 9*(9&*,D6 +%&
(+%&* .B9*(9&*,D .2 &0/% (; +%& +:( /0?&?[ =)+ &F0/+,D +%& (99(?.+& :0D +(
+%&.* )?& .2 ()* (:2 /0?&G '(* :.+% *&?9&/+ +( )?6 O(@ .? 9*(9&*,D ()* O(@6
=)+ 2(+ 9*(9&*,D ()* '0+%&*G H2@ +%.? .? +%& /0)?& (; +%& &**(* (; +%& %&*&+./? e
+%&.* C(.2.2- (; +%&?& +:( 20B&? LO(@ 02@ '0+%&*M6 :%./% 0*& .2+&*/%02-&@
=&/0)?& (; +%& )2.(2 (; +%& 20+)*&? L.2 W%*.?+MG
%$
H2@ 02 .2@./0+.(2 (; +%.? .?
;()2@ .2 +%& ;0/+ +%0+ :%&*&<&* +%& 20+)*&? 0*& @.?+.2-).?%&@ .2 ()* +%()-%+?
;*(B (2& 02(+%&*6 +%& 20B&? 0*& 0,?( @.?+.2-).?%&@ e 0? D() %&0* .2 ]0),A?
:(*@?6 $%& O(@ (; ()* S(*@ f&?)? W%*.?+6 +%& '0+%&* (; -,(*DG
%%

$%& O(@ (;
W%*.?+6 =)+ +%& '0+%&* (; -,(*DG '(* 0,+%()-% +%&?& +:( +&*B? &F9*&?? 0 ?.2-,&
:%(,&6 D&+ +%.? .? 2(+ =D 0 )2.+D (; 20+)*& ?( B)/% 0? =D 0 )2.(2 (; +:(
20+)*&?G K%0+ /(),@ =& /,&0*&*V

%#
f(%2 74G#" _?&& 9*&<.()? ;((+2(+&`G

%$
+%&?& +:( 20B&? p 0*& .2+&*/%02-&@ =&/0)?& (; +%& )2.(2 (; +%& 20+)*&?G
$%.? .? 0 ?)//.2/+ ?+0+&B&2+ (; :%0+ :(),@ ,0+&* =& >2(:26 .2 +%&
+&/%2./0, ,02-)0-& (; /,0??./0, /%*.?+(,(-D6 0? /(BB)2./0+.( .@.(B0+)B6
Z+%& &F/%02-& _(* .2+&*/%02-&` (; /%0*0/+&*.?+./?\G K%0+ =&,(2-? +(
W%*.?+A? @.<.2& 20+)*& B0D 0,?( =& 0++*.=)+&@ +( W%*.?+A? %)B02 20+)*&6
02@ <./& <&*?06 =&/0)?& (; Z+%& %D9(?+0+./ )2.(26\ +%& )2.(2 (; +%& +:(
20+)*&? :%./% .? +%& (2& 9&*?(2 _%D9(?+0?.?` (; f&?)? W%*.?+G

%%
m9%&?.02? #G#"G
O*&-(*D (; c0d.02d)?

^4
LXGM
Q gG I2 +%& ;.;+% 9,0/&6 ,&+ .+ =& ?0.@ +%0+ +%& 5(2 *&/&.<&? ,.;&6
%&
(*
C)@-&B&2+6
%'
(* +%& .2%&*.+02/& (; +%& 20+.(2?6
%(
(* 9(:&* (<&* 0,, ;,&?%6
%)
(*
-,(*D6
&*

(* @.?/.9,&?6 (* :%0+&<&* &,?& .? B&2+.(2&@G $%.? 0,?( =&,(2-? +( +%&
%)B02 20+)*&G H2@ D&+ .; D() :&*& +( 0?/*.=& .+ +( +%& @.<.2& 20+)*& 0? :&,,6 .+
:(),@ =& 2( 0=?)*@.+DG '(* D() :(),@ 2(+ ?( 0?/*.=& .+ 0? .; .+ :&*& 2&:,D
0/P).*&@6 =)+ 0? =&,(2-.2- +( N.B ;*(B +%& =&-.22.2- =D *&0?(2 (; N.? 20+)*&6
2(+ =D *&0?(2 (; 0 ;0<()*G
LbGM
Q #4G I2 +%& ?.F+% 9,0/&6 ,&+ .+ =& 2(+&@ +%0+6 0? .+ .? :*.++&26 $%& 5(2 /02 @(
2(+%.2- (2 %.? (:26 =)+ (2,D :%0+ %& ?&&? +%& '0+%&* @(.2-G
&!
$%& ?(,)+.(2 (;
+%.? .? 0? ;(,,(:?R e /02 02@ /022(+ 0*& 2(+ :(*@? :.+% (2,D (2& B&02.2-6 =)+
%0<& B02D B&02.2-?G 12 +%& (2& %02@ +%&D 0*& )?&@ +( @&2(+& ,0/> (;
?+*&2-+%6 ?(B&+.B&? :.+% *&?9&/+ +( +.B&6 ?(B&+.B&? .2 *&,0+.(2 +( 0 /&*+0.2
(=C&/+ e 0? ;(* .2?+02/&6 0 ,.++,& /%.,@ /022(+ =& 02 0+%,&+./ :*&?+,&*6 (* 0 9)99D
/022(+ +&,, (2& +%.2- ;*(B 02(+%&* (* ;.-%+ :.+% ?(B& (+%&* @(-G 5(B& @0D6
9&*%09?6 +%& /%.,@ :.,, =& 02 0+%,&+./ :*&?+,&*6 +%& 9)99D :.,, ?&&6 :.,, ;.-%+
:.+% +%0+ @(-6 +%()-% .+ B0D ?+.,, =& )20=,& +( ;.-%+ :.+% 02D (+%&* @(-G 1*
0-0.26 /02 02@ /022(+ ?(B&+.B&? @&2(+& ?(B&+%.2- :%./% .? +*)& 0? 0 -&2&*0,
*),&G '(* .2?+02/&R H /.+D =).,+ (2 0 %.,, /022(+ =& %.@
&"

%&
f(%2 XG7bR Z'(* C)?+ 0? +%& '0+%&* %0? ,.;& .2 %.B?&,;6 ?( %& %0? -*02+&@
+%& 5(2 0,?( +( %0<& ,.;& .2 %.B?&,;\
e &<&2 +%()-% .+ B.-%+
9(??.=,D =& %.@@&2 =D 02(+%&*6 %.-%&* %.,, ?+02@.2- .2 ;*(2+ (; .+G 1* .2 02(+%&*
?&2?& /02 02@ /022(+ B0D @&2(+& ?(B&+%.2- :%./% .? 2(+ *&0?(20=,&R $%&

%'
f(%2 XG7"R ZH2@ L+%& '0+%&*M %0? -.<&2 L+%& 5(2M 0)+%(*.+D +( &F&/)+&
C)@-&B&2+6 =&/0)?& %& .? +%& 5(2 (; j02G\

%(
]?0,B 7G^R ZH?> (; B&6 02@ I :.,, -.<& D() +%& 20+.(2? ;(* D()*
.2%&*.+02/&G\

%)
f(%2 #"G7R ZL'0+%&*6M D() %0<& -.<&2 L+%& 5(2M 9(:&* (<&* 0,, ;,&?%6 +(
-.<& &+&*20, ,.;& +( 0,, :%(B D() %0<& -.<&2 %.BG\

&*
f(%2 #"G#R Z'0+%&*6 +%& %()* %0? /(B&[ -,(*.;D D()* 5(2 ?( +%0+ +%& 5(2
B0D -,(*.;D D()G\ T&<&,0+.(2 XG#7R ZK(*+%D .? +%& S0B= +%0+ :0?
?,0)-%+&*&@ +( *&/&.<& 9(:&* 02@ :&0,+% 02@ :.?@(B 02@ B.-%+ 02@
%(2()* 02@ -,(*D 02@ =,&??.2-k\

&!
f(%2 XG#gG

&"
j0++%&: XG#YG
$%&(,(-./0, 1*0+.(2? YR 12 +%& 5(26 7

^#
:&@@.2- -)&?+? /022(+ B()*2 0? ,(2- 0? +%& E*.@&-*((B .? :.+% +%&B6 /02
+%&DV
&#
e :%&+%&* .+ /(2/&*2? N.B 0? <.?.=,& .2 =(@.,D ;(*B e ;(* +%& +.B& (;
N.? 9*&?&2/& 0B(2- )? :0? 2(+ (2& (; B()*2.2-6 =)+ (; -,0@2&?? e (*
:%&+%&* .+ /(2/&*2? N.B 0? +%& K(*@ :%( .? ?9.*.+)0,,D @.?/&*2&@ e ;(* :%D
?%(),@ +%(?& :%( 0*& /,&02?&@ =D +%& :(*@ L(; +%& K(*@M >&&9 0 =(@.,D
;0?+V
&$
1* 0-0.26 /02 02@ /022(+ B0D @&2(+& ?(B&+%.2- :%./% .? /(2+*0*D +(
+%& :.,,6 0? .2 +%& +&F+R N& /(),@ @( 2( @&&@ (; 9(:&* +%&*& =&/0)?& (;
)2=&,.&;6
&%
+%0+ .?6 +%& )2=&,.&; (; +%(?& :%( ?%(),@ %0<& *&/&.<&@ N.BG '(*
?.2/& 0 %&0,.2- *&P).*&? =(+% ;0.+% .2 +%& 90+.&2+ 02@ 9(:&* .2 +%& N&0,&*6
:%&2 (2& (; +%& +:( :0? 0=?&2+ +%& (+%&* :0? .B9(??.=,&G E)+ 9*(=0=,D +%.?
)?& (; /022(+ .? *&,0+&@ +( +%& ?&2?& (; ?(B&+%.2- )2*&0?(20=,&G '(* %&0,.2- .?
2(+ *&0?(20=,& .2 +%& /0?& (; +%(?& :%( :(),@ 0;+&*:0*@? =& .2C)*&@ =D
)2=&,.&;G $%& ?0B& ?&2?& 099,.&? +( +%& ?0D.2-6 $%& :(*,@ /022(+ %0+& D()6
&&

0? :&,, 0? +( +%& ?0D.2-6 N(: /02 D() ?9&0> -((@ +%.2-?6 :%&2 D() 0*& &<.,V
&'
'(* %(: .? &.+%&* (; +%&?& +%.2-? .B9(??.=,&6 &F/&9+ +%0+ .+ .? /(2+*0*D +( +%&
:.,,V $%&*& .? 0 ?(B&:%0+ ?.B.,0* B&02.2- .2 +%& +&F+? :%./% .B9,D +%0+ 0
+%.2- .B9(??.=,& =D 20+)*& .? 9(??.=,& +( O(@ .; N& ?( :.,,?
&(
e 0? +%0+ 0 B02
/022(+ =& =(*2 0 ?&/(2@ +.B&6
&)
(* +%0+ +%& &D& (; 0 2&&@,& :.,, 2(+ ,&+ 0
/0B&, +%*()-% .+G
'*

&#
j0++%&: gG#XG
'(* :%0+ /(),@ 9*&<&2+ &.+%&* (; +%&?& +%.2-? %099&2.2-6 .;
O(@ ?( :.,,&@V

&$
f(%2 #XG3R Z8() %0<& 0,*&0@D =&&2 /,&02?&@ =D +%& :(*@ +%0+ I %0<&
?9(>&2 +( D()G\

&%
H /(2;,0+.(2 (; j0*> bGX 02@ j0++%&: #3GX^G

&&
f(%2 "G"G

&'
j0++%&: #7G3YG

&(
j0++%&: #gG7bR Zf&?)? ,((>&@ 0+ +%&B 02@ ?0.@6 i'(* B(*+0,? .+ .?
.B9(??.=,&6 =)+ ;(* O(@ 0,, +%.2-? 0*& 9(??.=,&GA \

&)
f(%2 3GYR Zc./(@&B)? ?0.@ +( Lf&?)?M6 iN(: /02 02D(2& =& =(*2 0;+&*
%0<.2- -*(:2 (,@V W02 (2& &2+&* 0 ?&/(2@ +.B& .2+( +%& B(+%&*l? :(B=
02@ =& =(*2VA \

'*
j0++%&: #gG7YR ZH-0.2 I +&,, D()6 .+ .? &0?.&* ;(* 0 /0B&, +( -( +%*()-%
+%& &D& (; 0 2&&@,& +%02 ;(* ?(B&(2& :%( .? *./% +( &2+&* +%& >.2-@(B
(; O(@G\
O*&-(*D (; c0d.02d)?

^7
Q ##G H2@ =&?.@&? 0,, +%.?6 +%&*& .? +%& 0=?(,)+&,D .B9(??.=,& 02@ .20@B.??.=,&6
?)/% 0? :%0+ :& 0*& 2(: &F0B.2.2-G '(* 0? :& 0??&*+ +%0+ .+ .? .B9(??.=,& ;(*
O(@ +( =& &<., (* 2(+ +( &F.?+ e ;(* +%.? :(),@ .2@./0+& :&0>2&?? .2 O(@ *0+%&*
+%02 ?+*&2-+% e (* ;(* +%& 2(2J&F.?+&2+ +( &F.?+6 (* ;(* +:( 02@ +:( +( B0>&
=(+% ;()* 02@ +&26 ?( .+ .? .B9(??.=,& 02@ .2/(2/&.<0=,& +%0+ +%& 5(2 ?%(),@ @(
02D+%.2- +%0+ +%& '0+%&* @(&? 2(+ @(G
'!
'(* 0,, +%0+ +%& '0+%&* %0? .? +%& 5(2A?
'"

e 02@ =D +%& ?0B& +(>&26 0,, +%0+ =&,(2-? +( +%& 5(2 .? +%& '0+%&*A?G
'#
c(+%.2-
+%&2 .? 9&/),.0* L+( &.+%&* 12&M6 =&/0)?& 0,, +%.2-? 0*& /(BB(2 L+( =(+%MG '(*
+%&.* =&.2- .+?&,; .? /(BB(2 02@ &P)0,6 &<&2 +%()-% +%& 5(2 *&/&.<&? .+ ;*(B
+%& '0+%&*G I+ .? .2 +%.? ?&2?& +%0+ .+ .? ?0.@6 I ,.<& =D +%& '0+%&*
'$
JJ 2(+ 0?
+%()-% N.? ,.;& 02@ =&.2- :&*& >&9+ +(-&+%&* =D +%& '0+%&*6 =)+ =&/0)?& N&
%0? N.? =&.2- ;*(B +%& '0+%&* =&D(2@ 0,, +.B& 02@ =&D(2@ 0,, /0)?&G E)+ %(:
@(&? N& ?&& +%& '0+%&* 0/+.2- 02@ @( ,.>&:.?&V I? .+ ,.>& +%(?& :%( 90.2+
9./+)*&? 02@ +*0/& ,&++&*?6 =&/0)?& +%&D /022(+ 0++0.2 +%& +*)+% &F/&9+ =D
,((>.2- 0+ +%& (*.-.20, 02@ =D ,&++.2- +%&B?&,<&? =& -).@&@ =D .+V E)+ %(:
?%0,, K.?@(B ?+02@ .2 2&&@ (; 0 +&0/%&*6 (* =& .2/090=,& (; 0/+.2- )2,&??
+0)-%+V H2@ .2 :%0+ ?&2?& @(&? +%& '0+%&* @( 02D+%.2- .2 +%& 9*&?&2+ (* .2 +%&
90?+V U.@ N& B0>& 02(+%&* :(*,@ =&;(*& +%.? (2&6 (* .? N& -(.2- +( B0>& 0
:(*,@ +( /(B&V H2@ @.@ +%& 5(2 ,((> 0+ +%0+ &0*,.&* :(*,@ 02@ B0>& +%.?
:(*,@V 1* :.,, N& ,((> 0+ +%& :(*,@ +( /(B& 02@ B0>& (2& ,.>& .+V H//(*@.2-
+( +%.? 0*-)B&2+ +%&*& B)?+ =& ;()* :(*,@? e +:( B0@& =D +%& '0+%&*6 02@
+:( =D +%& 5(2G K%0+ 02 0=?)*@.+Dk N& /,&02?&? ,&9&*?6 @&,.<&*? 9&(9,& ;*(B
&<., ?9.*.+? 02@ @.?&0?&?6 *&<.<&? +%& @&0@6 :0,>? (2 +%& ?&06 02@ @(&? 0,, N.?
(+%&* :(*>? e =)+ .2 :%0+ /(2+&F+ 02@ 0+ :%0+ +.B& @.@ +%& '0+%&* @( +%&?&
0/+? =&;(*& +%& 5(2V I? .+ 2(+ /,&0* +%0+ +%& '0+%&* .B9*&??&@ +%& .@&0? (; +%&?&
?0B& 0/+.(2?6 02@ +%& K(*@ =*.2-? +%&B +( 90??6 2(+ .2 ?,0<.?% (* )2?>.,;),
;0?%.(26 =)+ :.+% ;),, >2(:,&@-& 02@ .2 0 B0?+&*,D :0D e (* +( ?9&0> B(*&
9*(9&*,D6 ,.>& +%& '0+%&*V I+ .? .2 +%.? ?&2?& +%0+ I )2@&*?+02@ +%& ?+0+&B&2+6
K%0+&<&* .? @(2& =D +%& '0+%&*6 +%& 5(2 @(&? ,.>&:.?&
'%

'!
W;G f(%2 XG#gR Zf&?)? ?0.@ +( +%&B6 iq&*D +*),D6 I +&,, D()6 +%& 5(2 /02 @(
2(+%.2- (2 %.? (:26 =)+ (2,D :%0+ %& ?&&? +%& '0+%&* @(.2-[ ;(*
:%0+&<&* +%& '0+%&* @(&?6 +%& 5(2 @(&? ,.>&:.?&GA \
e 2(+6 +%0+ .?6 =&/0)?&
(; +%& ,.>&2&?? (; +%& +%.2-? @(2&6 =)+ :.+% *&?9&/+ +( +%& &P)0,.+D (; 9(:&*G

'"
f(%2 #bG#XR ZH,, +%0+ +%& '0+%&* %0? .? B.2&G\

'#
W;G f(%2 #"G#4 _f&?)?6 .2 9*0D&* +( +%& '0+%&*`R ZH,, B.2& 0*& D()*?6 02@
D()*? 0*& B.2&G\

'$
f(%2 bGX"G

'%
f(%2 XG#gG
$%&(,(-./0, 1*0+.(2? YR 12 +%& 5(26 7

^3
$%.? 0,?( B0D :&,, =& +%& B&02.2- (; +%& 90??0-& :%./% ?0D? +%0+ +%& '0+%&* .?
?+.,, :(*>.2-6 02@ +%& 5(2 0,?( .? :(*>.2-G
'&
c(+ (2,D +%0+6 =)+ .+ *&;&*? 0,?( +(
+%& -(<&*2B&2+ 02@ 9*&?&*<0+.(2 (; +%& +%.2-? :%./% N& %0? B0@& e 0? .?
?%(:2 =D +%& 90??0-&? :%./% ?0D6 N& B0>&? +%& :.2@? N.? B&??&2-&*?6
''
02@
N& %0? ?&+ +%& &0*+% )9(2 .+? ;()2@0+.(2?
!"
e (2/& ;(* 0,, :&*& +%&?& +%.2-?
:&*& &?+0=,.?%&@ 02@ B0@&6 e 02@ N& ?+*&2-+%&2? +%& +%)2@&*
')
02@ /*&0+&?
+%& :.2@
(*

e +%& 9*.2/.9,& (; 0,, +%&?& +%.2-? :0? -.<&2 (2/& ;(* 0,,6 =)+ +%&.*
0/+.<.+D /(2+.2)&? &<&2 +( +%& 9*&?&2+G
L"GM
Q #7G I2 +%& ?&<&2+% 9,0/&6 ,&+ +%&B /.+& +%& +&F+ :%./% ?0D? +%0+ +%& 5(2
/0B& @(:2 ;*(B %&0<&26 2(+ +( @( N.? (:2 :.,,6 =)+ +%& :.,, (; N.B :%(
?&2+ N.BG
(!
K&,,6 .; +%.? %0@ 2(+ =&&2 ?0.@ =D +%& <&*D 12& :%( /0B& @(:26
:& ?%(),@ ?0D +%0+ +%& &F9*&??.(2 =&0*? +%& .B9*.2+ (; +%& %)B02 20+)*&6 2(+
+%0+ (; +%& 50<.()* *&-0*@&@ 0? ?)/%6 ;(* N.? :.,, 0? +%& 50<.()* /022(+ =&
(99(?&@ +( O(@6 ?&&.2- +%0+ .+ .? 0,+(-&+%&* 9(??&??&@ =D O(@G I+ .? N.? %)B02
:.,,6 +%&26 /(2?.@&*&@ .2 +%& ,.-%+ (; ()* /(2@.+.(26 .20?B)/% 0? +%& %)B02
:.,, @(&? 2(+ 0=?(,)+&,D ;(,,(: +%& @.<.2& :.,,6 =)+ B(?+ (; +%& +.B& ?+*)--,&?
0-0.2?+ 02@ *&?.?+? .+G $%.? .? 0,?( :& )2@&*?+02@ +%& :(*@?6 '0+%&*6 .; .+ .?
9(??.=,&6 ,&+ +%.? /)9 90?? ;*(B B&[ D&+ @( ,&+ 2(+ :%0+ I :.,, =)+ ,&+ :%0+ D()
:.,, 9*&<0.,G
("

'&
f(%2 XG#"G
'(* .+ .? 2(+ ,.>&,D +%0+ N& @.@ 2(+ >2(: :%&+%&* .+ :0? 9(??.=,&
(* 2(+6 (* +%0+ N& :(),@ (99(?& :.,, +( :.,,G E)+ ?.2/& +%.? .? +%& ,02-)0-& (;
N.B :%( 0??)B&@ ()* 20+)*& _;(* N& :0? +%& 12& :%( /0B& @(:2`6 02@ 2(+
(; +%& 20+)*& :%./% N& 0??)B&@6 :& B)?+ B&&+ +%& (=C&/+.(2 .2 +%.? :0DR e
$%& 90??0-& @(&? 2(+ B&02 +%0+ +%& 5(2 %0? 0 ?9&/.0, :.,, (; N.? (:2 090*+
;*(B +%0+ (; +%& '0+%&* =)+6 (2& +%& /(2+*0*D6 +%0+ N& %0? 2( (+%&* :.,, =)+
+%& '0+%&*A?G 5( +%& B&02.2- :(),@ =&6 ZI %0<& /(B& @(:2 ;*(B %&0<&2 2(+
+( @( BD (:2 :.,,6 ;(* +%&*& .? 2( :.,, (; B.2& 090*+ ;*(B D()*?6 =)+ (2,D

''
]?0,B #4YGYG

'(
]?0,B #4YGXG

')
f(= 3^G7XG

(*
HB(? YG#3G

(!
f(%2 bG3^G

("
j0++%&: 7bG3g _f&?)? .2 +%& -0*@&2 (; O&+%?&B02&`G $%& ,0?+ 9(*+.(2 (;
+%& 90??0-& _D&+ @( 2(+ ,&+pG` .? O*&-(*DA? 90*09%*0?&G
O*&-(*D (; c0d.02d)?

^Y
+%0+ :.,, :%./% .? /(BB(2 +( D() 02@ B& +(-&+%&*[ ;(* 0? K& %0<& (2& @.<.2&
20+)*&6 ?( K& %0<& (2& :.,,G\ '(* B02D ?)/% &F9*&??.(2? 0*& )?&@ .2 +%.?
@()=,& :0D6 02@ 0*& &F9*&??&@ 2(+ 9(?.+.<&,D =)+ 2&-0+.<&,D e ;(* &F0B9,&6
O(@ @(&? 2(+ -.<& +%& 59.*.+ =D B&0?)*&6
(#
;(* 0? 0 B0++&* (; ;0/+ N& @(&? 2(+
-.<& +%& 59.*.+ +( +%& 5(26 2(* @(&? N& B&0?)*& +%& 59.*.+6 ;(* O(@ .? 2(+
B&0?)*&@ =D O(@G 1* 0-0.26 c(+ =&/0)?& (; 02D -).,+ (* ?.2 (; B.2&R
($
+%&
:(*@? 0*& 2(+ )?&@ =&/0)?& N& %0? +%&?& +%.2-?6 =)+ =&/0)?& N& @(&? 2(+ %0<&
+%&BG H2@ 0-0.2R I+ .? 2(+ (2 +%& -*()2@ (; ()* *.-%+&()? @&&@? +%0+ :& %0<&
@(2&6
(%
;(* :& %0<& 2(+ @(2& 02DG H2@ +%.? B&02.2- .? &<.@&2+ 0,?( .2 +%&
;(,,(:.2- 90??0-&R ZK%0+ +%&26\ N& ?0D?6 .? +%& :.,, (; BD '0+%&*V I+ .? +%0+ 0,,
:%( =&,.&<& .2 +%& 5(2 ?%(),@ =& ?0<&@ 02@ (=+0.2 +%& ;.20, *&?)**&/+.(2G\
(&

c(: .? +%.? +%& :.,, (; +%& '0+%&*6 =)+ 2(+ (; +%& 5(2V 1* @(&? N& 9*&0/% +%&
-(?9&, 02@ *&/&.<& 9&(9,&A? ;0.+% 0-0.2?+ N.? :.,,V K%( /(),@ =&,.&<& +%0+V
$%&2 +%&*& 0,?( .? +%& 90??0-&6 B0>.2- B)/% +%& ?0B& 9(.2+6 :%./% ?0D? +%0+
+%& :(*@ :%./% .? %&0*@ .? 2(+ +%& 5(2A? =)+ +%& '0+%&*A?G
('

'(* I /022(+ ?&&
%(: :%0+ .? /(BB(2 +( +:( /02 =& ?0.@ +( =&,(2- (2,D +( (2&6 %(:&<&*
B)/% I /(2?.@&* .+ e 02@ I @( 2(+ +%.2> 02D (2& &,?& /026 &.+%&*G I; +%&2 D()
%(,@ +%.? (9.2.(2 /(2/&*2.2- +%& :.,,6 D() :.,, =& *.-%+ 02@ *&<&*&2+ .2 D()*
(9.2.(2 e +%0+ .? :%0+ I +%.2>6 02@ ?( @(&? &<&*D ?&2?.=,& 9&*?(2G
L^GM
Q #3G $%& &.-%+% 90??0-& .?6 $%0+ +%&D B0D >2(: D()6 +%& (2,D +*)& O(@6
02@ f&?)? W%*.?+ :%(B D() %0<& ?&2+[
((
02@6 c( (2& .? -((@ =)+ O(@ 0,(2&G
()

$%& ?(,)+.(2 (; +%.? 099&0*? +( B& <&*D &0?DG '(* .; D() ?&+ +%& :(*@? (2,D
+*)& (2 +%& '0+%&* 0,(2&6 :%&*& :.,, D() ?&+ +%& $*)+% N.B?&,;V
)*

(#
f(%2 3G3Y
'(* .; +%0+ .?

($
]?0,B XgGX _5&9+)0-.2+`G

(%
U02.&, gG#^ _5&9+)0-.2+`G

(&
H 90*09%*0?& (; f(%2 bGY4R Z$%.? .? .2@&&@ +%& :.,, (; BD '0+%&*6 +%0+ 0,,
:%( ?&& +%& 5(2 02@ =&,.&<& .2 %.B B0D %0<& &+&*20, ,.;&[ 02@ I :.,, *0.?&
+%&B )9 (2 +%& ,0?+ @0DG\

('
f(%2 #YG7YR ZK%(&<&* @(&? 2(+ ,(<& B& @(&? 2(+ >&&9 BD :(*@?[ 02@
+%& :(*@ +%0+ D() %&0* .? 2(+ B.2&6 =)+ .? ;*(B +%& '0+%&* :%( ?&2+ B&G\

((
f(%2 #"G3G

()
j0*> #4G#^6 S)>& #^G#gG

$%&(,(-./0, 1*0+.(2? YR 12 +%& 5(26 7

^X
%(: D() )2@&*?+02@ +%& B&02.2- (; +%&?& :(*@?R $( +%& (2,D :.?& O(@6
)!
(*R
$( N.B 0,(2& :%( %0? .BB(*+0,.+D 02@ @:&,,? .2 )2099*(0/%0=,& ,.-%+6
:%(B 2( (2& %0? &<&* ?&&2 (* /02 ?&&6
)"
(*R $( +%& a.2- (; +%& 0-&?6
.BB(*+0,6 .2<.?.=,&6 +%& (2,D O(@
)#
e +%&2 +%& 5(2 @.?099&0*? ;(* D()6
/(2@&B2&@ +( @&0+%6 (* +( @0*>J2&??6 (* +( =&.2- 2&.+%&* :.?&6 2(* >.2-6 2(*
.2<.?.=,&6 2(* O(@ 0+ 0,,6 :%./% ?)B? )9 0,, +%&?& 9(.2+?G H2@ %(: :.,, D()
9*&<&2+ N.? -((@2&??6 :%./% &?9&/.0,,D =&,(2-? +( O(@ 0,(2&6 ;*(B 9&*.?%.2-
:.+% +%& *&?+V I +%.2> +%0+ +%& 90??0-&6 $%0+ +%&D B0D >2(: D()6 +%& (2,D +*)&
O(@6 :0? ?0.@ +( (<&*+%*(: +%(?& -(@? :%./% 0*& ;0,?&,D ?( /0,,&@G '(* N&
:(),@ 2(+ %0<& 0@@&@ 02@ f&?)? W%*.?+ :%(B D() %0<& ?&2+6 .; +%& (2,D +*)&
O(@ :&*& /(2+*0?+&@ :.+% N.B6 02@ +%& ?&2+&2/& @.@ 2(+ 9*(/&&@ )9(2 +%&
=0?.? (; +%& @.<.2& 20+)*& :%./% .? +%&.*? .2 /(BB(2G H? ;(* +%& +&F+ c( (2& .?
-((@6 .+ .? W%*.?+A? *&?9(2?& +( +%& ,0:D&* :%( :.?%&@ +( 9)+ %.B +( +%& +&?+
02@ :%( :0? 0/>2(:,&@-.2- N.? -((@2&?? .2?(;0* 0? N& .? %)B02G
)$
'(*
9&*;&/+ -((@2&??6 N& ?0D?6 .? O(@A? 0,(2&6 &<&2 .; 0 %)B02 .? /0,,&@ 9&*;&/+,D
-((@ e 0? .2 +%& +&F+6 H -((@ 9&*?(2 =*.2-? -((@ +%.2-? ()+ (; +%& -((@
+*&0?)*& (; %.? %&0*+G
)%
H2@R I :.,, -.<& +%& >.2-@(B +( ?(B&(2& :%( .? =&++&*
+%02 D()
)&
e:(*@? (; O(@6 ?9&0>.2- +( 50), 0=()+ U0<.@G 1* 0-0.2R U( -((@6
1 S1TU6 +( +%(?& :%( 0*& -((@6
)'

)*
W;G f(%2 #YG#bR Zf&?)? ?0.@ +( L$%(B0?M6 iI Hj +%& :0D6 02@ $Nm $To$N6
02@ +%& ,.;&GA \
02@ 0,, (+%&* &F9*&??.(2? (; +%& ?0B& >.2@
/(2/&*2.2- +%(?& (; )? :%( 0*& 9*0.?&:(*+%D6 )9(2 :%(B +%& ()+;,(:.2- (;
+%& 5)9*&B& O((@ %0? /(B& .2 0 ?&/(2@0*D @&-*&&G I+ :.,, =& =&?+ (; 0,, .; :&
/02 9&*?)0@& D() (; +%.?G E)+ .; 2(+6 :%0+ :.,, D() ?0D +( +%& ?)--&?+.(2 (2 +%&

)!
T(B02? #bG7"G

)"
# $.B(+%D bG#bG

)#
# $.B(+%D #G#"G

)$
O*&-(*D %0? /(2;)?&@ S)>& #4G7XJ7^6 :%./% *&/()2+? %(: Z0 ,0:D&*
?+((@ )9 +( +&?+ f&?)?\ :.+% 0 P)&?+.(2 0=()+ :%0+ %& %0@ +( @( +(
.2%&*.+ &+&*20, ,.;&6 :.+% S)>& #^G#^J736 +%& ?+(*D (; +%& *./% *),&*G I2 +%&
;(*B&* &9.?(@&6 +%& ,0:D&* 0@@*&??&@ f&?)? ?.B9,D 0? Z$&0/%&*\[ .+ .? .2
+%& ,0++&* &9.?(@& +%0+ +%& *),&* 0@@*&??&@ f&?)? 0? ZO((@ $&0/%&*6\ 02@
-(+ +%& *&?9(2?& :%./% O*&-(*D @.?/)??&?G

)%
j0++%&: #7G3XG

)&
# 50B)&, #XG7^ _5&9+)0-.2+`G

)'
]?0,B #7XGYG
O*&-(*D (; c0d.02d)?

^b
(+%&* ?.@&6 +%0+ (2 D()* %D9(+%&?.? +%& 5(2 %0? =&&2 /0,,&@ +%& (2,D O(@G I2
:%0+ 90??0-&V K%D6 .2 +%.?R $%.? .? D()* O(@[ 2( (+%&* /02 =& /(B90*&@ +(
N.B6
)(
02@ 0 ,.++,& ;)*+%&* (26 H;+&*:0*@ N& 099&0*&@ (2 &0*+% 02@ /(2?(*+&@
:.+% %)B02>.2@G
))

$%.? 0@@.+.(2 9*(<&? /,&0*,D +%0+ +%& :(*@? 0*& 2(+ )?&@ (;
+%& '0+%&*6 =)+ (; +%& 5(2[ ;(* .+ :0? N& :%( .2 =(@.,D ;(*B /(2?(*+&@ :.+% )?
02@ :0? ;()2@ 0B(2- )? %)B02? %&*& =&,(:G c(:6 .; +%& (9.2.(2 ?%(),@
9*&<0., :%./% %(,@? +%0+ +%&?& :(*@? 0*& ?0.@ .2 (99(?.+.(2 +( +%& '0+%&* 02@
2(+ .2 (99(?.+.(2 +( .B0-.20*D -(@?6 :& ,(?& +%& '0+%&* =D +%& <&*D +&*B?
:%./% :& :&*& 9*&??.2- 0-0.2?+ +%& 5(2G H2@ :%0+ /(),@ =& B(*& @.?0?+*()?
+%02 ?)/% 0 <./+(*DV
LgGM
Q #YG I2 +%& 2.2+% 9,0/&6 +%&D /.+& +%.? +&F+R LW%*.?+M 0,:0D? ,.<&? +( B0>&
.2+&*/&??.(2 ;(* )?G
!**
N(: -((@ 02@ +*),D BD?+./0, 02@ -&2&*()? +( %)B02?k
'(* +( .2+&*/&@& @(&? 2(+ .B9,D6 0? .+ (*@.20*.,D @(&? ;(* B(?+ B(*+0,?6 +( ?&&>
<&2-&02/& e +%&*& :(),@ =& 0 %.2+ (; .2;&*.(*.+D .2 +%0+ e =)+ .+ .? +( 0/+ 0? 0
*&9*&?&2+0+.<& ;(* )? =D <.*+)& (; N.? B&@.0+.(26 C)?+ 0? +%& 59.*.+ 0,?( .? ?0.@ +(
.2+&*/&@& ;(* )?G
!*!
'(* +%&*& .? (2& O(@6 02@ (2& B&@.0+(* =&+:&&2 O(@ 02@
%)B02>.2@6 W%*.?+ f&?)?6 %.B?&,; %)B02G
!*"
'(* N& ?+.,, 9,&0@? &<&2 2(: 0?
%)B02 =&.2- ;(* BD ?0,<0+.(2[ ;(* N& ?+.,, %0? +%& =(@D :%./% N& 0??)B&@6
)2+., N& B0>&? B& O(@ =D +%& 9(:&* (; N.? .2/0*20+.(26 &<&2 +%()-% N& .?
2( ,(2-&* >2(:2 0//(*@.2- +( +%& ;,&?%
!*#
e I B&026 +%& 90??.(2? :%./% =&,(2-
+( +%& =(@D6 +%& ?0B& 0? ()*?6 &F/&9+ ;(* ?.2G
!*$

)(
E0*)/% 3G3XG
S.>&:.?&6 :& %0<& 02

))
E0*)/% 3G3"G

!**
N&=*&:? "G7XG

!*!
W;G T(B02? ^G7bR ZS.>&:.?& +%& 59.*.+ %&,9? )? .2 ()* :&0>2&??[ ;(* :&
@( 2(+ >2(: %(: +( 9*0D 0? :& ()-%+6 =)+ +%0+ <&*D 59.*.+ .2+&*/&@&?
:.+% ?.-%? +(( @&&9 ;(* :(*@?G\

!*"
W;G # $.B(+%D 7GXG

!*#
W;G 7 W(*.2+%.02? XG#bR Zm<&2 +%()-% :& (2/& >2&: W%*.?+ ;*(B 0
%)B02 9(.2+ (; <.&: Lkoto ooµko6 0//(*@.2- +( +%& ;,&?%M6 :& >2(: %.B
2( ,(2-&* .2 +%0+ :0DG\

!*$
N&=*&:? YG#XR Z'(* :& @( 2(+ %0<& 0 %.-% 9*.&?+ :%( .? )20=,& +(
?DB90+%.?& :.+% ()* :&0>2&??&?6 =)+ :& %0<& (2& :%( .2 &<&*D *&?9&/+
%0? =&&2 +&?+&@ 0? :& 0*&6 D&+ :.+%()+ ?.2G\
$%&(,(-./0, 1*0+.(2? YR 12 +%& 5(26 7

^"
0@<(/0+&6 f&?)? W%*.?+6
!*%

2(+ .2 +%& ?&2?& +%0+ %& 9*(?+*0+&? N.B?&,; ;(* )?
=&;(*& +%& '0+%&* 02@ ;0,,? 0+ +%& '0+%&*A? ;&&+ ,.>& 0 ?,0<& e 0:0D :.+% 0
2(+.(2 ?( +*),D ?,0<.?% 02@ )2:(*+%D (; +%& 59.*.+k '(* +%& '0+%&* @(&? 2(+
*&P).*& +%.?6 2(* @(&? +%& 5(2 ?)=B.+ +( .+G N0? 02D(2& +%& *.-%+ +( +%.2> ?)/%
0 +%.2- (; O(@V E)+ =D :%0+ N& ?);;&*&@ 0? %)B02 =&.2-6 N& 0? +%& K(*@ 02@
+%& W()2?&,,(* 9&*?)0@&? B& +( &2@)*&G I +%.2> +%.? .? +%& B&02.2- (; N.?
0@<(/0/DG
L#4GM
Q #XG I2 +%& +&2+% 9,0/&6 ()* (99(2&2+? *0.?& +%& (=C&/+.(2 (; +%& .-2(*02/&
(; W%*.?+ 02@ %.? ?+0+&B&2+ +%0+ 2( (2& >2(:? +%& ,0?+ @0D (* %()*6 2(+ &<&2
+%& 5(2 N.B?&,;6 =)+ (2,D +%& '0+%&*G
!*&
E)+ %(: /02 K.?@(B =& .-2(*02+ (;
02D+%.2- :%./% &F.?+? e K.?@(B :%( B0@& +%& :(*,@?6 :%( 9&*;&/+? 02@
*&2&:? +%&B6 :%( .? +%& &2@ (; 0,, +%.2-? +%0+ :&*& B0@&6 :%( >2(:? +%&
+%.2-? (; O(@ 0? +%& ()* %)B02 ?9.*.+ >2(:? +%& +%.2-? +%0+ 0*& .2 )?V
!*'
Q #bG I; +%.? 0*-)B&2+ 099&0*? 0@&P)0+& +( D()6 ,&+ )? ?+(9 %&*& 02@ &2P).*&
2( ;)*+%&*G E)+ .; 2(+6 ()* ?&/(2@ 0*-)B&2+ .? 0? ;(,,(:?R e S&+ )? 0,,(: +%0+
N& *&;&*? N.? >2(:,&@-& (; +%& -*&0+&?+ &<&2+?6 0? :&,, 0? (; &<&*D+%.2- &,?&6
+( +%& '.*?+ W0)?&6 .2 %(2()* (; 12& :%( =&-(+ N.BG H2@ I @( 2(+ +%.2> +%0+
'(*
:%0+ /02 =& B(*& 9&*;&/+ +%02 +%.? >2(:,&@-&V N(: +%&2 @(&? N& 0//)*0+&,D
>2(: 0,, +%.2-? =&;(*& +%0+ %()*6 02@ 0,, +%.2-? +%0+ 0*& +( %099&2 0=()+ +%&
+.B& (; +%& &2@6 =)+ .? .-2(*02+ (; +%& %()* .+?&,;V '(* ?)/% 0 +%.2- :(),@ =&
,.>& 0 *.@@,& e 0? .; ?(B&(2& :&*& +( ?0D +%0+ +%&D 0//)*0+&,D >2&: &<&*D+%.2-
.2 ;*(2+ (; +%& :0,,6 =)+ @.@ 2(+ >2(: +%& :0,, .+?&,;[ (* +%0+6 >2(:.2- +%& &2@
(; +%& @0D6 +%&D @.@ 2(+ >2(: +%& =&-.22.2- (; +%& 2.-%+G I2 ?)/% /0?&?6
>2(:,&@-& (; +%& (2& 2&/&??0*.,D =*.2-? .2 +%& (+%&*G 5)*&,D &<&*D(2& ?&&? +%0+
N& >2(:? 0? O(@6 =)+ +%0+ N& ?0D? N& @(&? 2(+ >2(: 0? 0 %)B02 e .; (2&
B0D ?&90*0+& :%0+ .? <.?.=,& ;*(B :%0+ .? ?9.*.+)0,G '(* .2 +%.? 90??0-& +%&
20B& +%& 5(2 .? 0=?(,)+& 02@ :.+%()+ *&-0*@ +( *&,0+.(26 L+%0+ .? +( ?0D6M
:.+%()+ 0@@.2- +%& 5(2 (; :%(BG $%.? 0,,(:? )? +( ?)99(?& +%0+ :& 0*& +(
.2+&*9*&+ +%& .-2(*02/& .2 +%& B(?+ *&<&*&2+ ?&2?&6 =D 0++*.=)+.2- .+ +( W%*.?+A?
%)B02 20+)*&6 2(+ +( N.? @.<.2& 20+)*&G

!*%
# f(%2 7G#R ZE)+ .; 02D(2& @(&? ?.26 :& %0<& 02 0@<(/0+& :.+% +%&
'0+%&*6 f&?)? W%*.?+ +%& *.-%+&()?\

!*&
H 90*09%*0?& (; j0*> #3G37R ZE)+ 0=()+ +%0+ @0D (* %()* 2( (2&
>2(:?6 2&.+%&* +%& 02-&,? .2 %&0<&26 2(* +%& 5(26 =)+ (2,D +%& '0+%&*G\

!*'
:%( >2(:? +%& +%.2-? (; O(@ 0? +%& ()* %)B02 ?9.*.+ >2(:? +%& +%.2-?
+%0+ 0*& .2 )?G W;G # W(*.2+%.02? 7G##R Z'(* :%0+ %)B02 =&.2- >2(:? :%0+
.? +*),D %)B02 &F/&9+ +%& %)B02 ?9.*.+ +%0+ .? :.+%.2V 5( 0,?( 2( (2&
/(B9*&%&2@? :%0+ .? +*),D O(@A? &F/&9+ +%& 59.*.+ (; O(@G\
O*&-(*D (; c0d.02d)?

^^
.+ :(),@ =& ?+.2-D (; )? +( ?0D6 0? (2& (; +%& ,&0*2&@ B&2 (; ()* (:2 @0D %0?
?0.@6
!*(
I+ *&B0.2? ;(* )? +( .2+&*9*&+ +%& 90??0-&? 0=()+ N.? *&/&.<.2- /(BB02@?6
+%0+ 2(+ &<&2 +%& 5(2 >2(:? +%& @0D (* %()* (+%&*:.?& +%02 0? +%&
'0+%&* >2(:? .+G K%0+ @( :& /(2/,)@& ;*(B +%.?V 5.2/& +%& '0+%&* %0? +%.?
>2(:,&@-&6 +%&*&;(*& +%& 5(2 %0? .+ 0,?(6 0? .+ .? &<.@&2+ +%0+ +%.? /022(+ =&
>2(:2 (* /(B9*&%&2@&@ =D 02D =)+ +%& '.*?+ c0+)*&G
!*)

02@ %0<.2- >&9+ /(BB02@B&2+?6
!!*
02@ %0<.2- 0,:0D? @(2& +%(?& +%.2-? +%0+
9,&0?& +%& '0+%&*G
!!!
H2@ +%&2 +%&*& 0*& +%& 90??0-&? 0=()+ N.? =&.2- B0@&
9&*;&/+6
!!"
02@ N.? &F0,+0+.(26 02@ N.? ,&0*2.2- (=&@.&2/& +%*()-% :%0+ N&
?);;&*&@[
!!#
02@ 0,?( +%0+ N& .? %.-% 9*.&?+6
!!$

!*(
O*&-(*D B&02? %.? ;*.&2@ E0?., +%& O*&0+6 :%( B0@& +%.? <&*D 9(.2+ .2
%.? S&++&* 73bR Z$%& ?&2?&6 +%&26 .2 j0*> .? +%.?R *&-0*@.2- +%0+ @0D (*
%()* 2( (2& >2(:&+%6 2&.+%&* +%& 02-&,? .2 %&0<&26 20D 2(+ &<&2 +%&
5(2 :(),@ %0<& >2(:2 L.+M %0@ 2(+ +%& '0+%&* >2(:2 L.+M[ ;(* ;*(B +%&
'0+%&* :0? >2(:,&@-& -.<&2 N.B L.G&G +%& 5(2M ;*(B +%& =&-.22.2-G H2@
+%.? .? +%& B(?+ *&<&*&2+.0, 02@ =&;.++.2- @.<.2.+D +( ?0D (; +%& 5(26 +%0+
;*(B N.B :.+% :%(B N& .? /(2?)=?+02+.0, N& @&*.<&? =(+% N.? 9(:&* (;
>2(:.2- 02@ N.? =&.2- (=?&*<&@ .2 0,, :.?@(B 02@ -,(*D =&;.++.2- N.?
O(@%&0@G\ 5+ E0?.,R $%& S&++&*?6 +*02?G T(D fG U&;&**0*.G S(&= W,0??./0,
S.=*0*D6 Y <(,?G _W0B=*.@-&6 j0??GR N0*<0*@ o2.<&*?.+D ]*&??6 #g7bJ#g37`6
<(,G 3 _#g34`6 9G 3gXG
02@ +%0+ N& B0>&? 02

!*)
W;G f(%2 #4G#^R ZI %0<& 9(:&* +( ,0D @(:2 LBD ,.;&M6 02@ I %0<& 9(:&*
+( +0>& .+ )9 0-0.2G I %0<& *&/&.<&@ +%.? /(BB02@ ;*(B BD '0+%&*G\

!!*
W;G f(%2 #XG#4R ZI; D() >&&9 BD /(BB02@B&2+?6 D() :.,, 0=.@& .2 BD
,(<&6 C)?+ 0? I %0<& >&9+ BD '0+%&*A? /(BB02@B&2+? 02@ 0=.@& .2 %.?
,(<&G\

!!!
W;G f(%2 ^G7gR ZH2@ +%& 12& :%( ?&2+ B& .? :.+% B&[ %& %0? 2(+ ,&;+ B&
0,(2&6 ;(* I 0,:0D? @( :%0+ .? 9,&0?.2- +( %.BG\

!!"
W;G N&=*&:? XGgR ZH2@ %0<.2- =&&2 B0@& 9&*;&/+6 LW%*.?+M =&/0B& +%&
?()*/& (; &+&*20, ?0,<0+.(2 ;(* 0,, :%( (=&D %.BG\

!!#
W;G N&=*&:? XG^R ZH,+%()-% %& :0? 0 5(26 %& ,&0*2&@ (=&@.&2/& +%*()-%
:%0+ %& ?);;&*&@G\

!!$
N&=*&:? XG#4R ZLW%*.?+M %0<.2- =&&2 @&?.-20+&@ =D O(@ 0 %.-% 9*.&?+
0//(*@.2- +( +%& (*@&* (; j&,/%.d&@&>G\ N&=*&:? bG74R Zf&?)?6 0
;(*&*)22&* (2 ()* =&%0,;6 %0? &2+&*&@ L+%& .22&* ?02/+)0*D (; %&0<&2M6
$%&(,(-./0, 1*0+.(2? YR 12 +%& 5(26 7

^g
(=,0+.(26
!!%
02@ +%0+ N& .? =&+*0D&@6 02@ +%0+ %& (;;&*? ?)99,./0+.(2? +( N.B
:%( :0? 0=,& +( ?0<& N.B ;*(B @&0+%6
!!&
02@ +%0+ %& -(&? +%*()-% +%& 0-(2D
02@ ?:&0+? =,((@ 02@ 9*0D?6
!!'

02@ 0,, (+%&* +%.2-? (; +%& ?0B& ?(*+G H+ +%&
<&*D ,&0?+ .+ ?%(),@ =& &<.@&2+ +( &<&*D (2& +%0+ ?)/% &F9*&??.(2? %0<& +( @(
:.+% +%& %)B02 20+)*& :%./% .? /090=,& (; ?);;&*.2-6 2(+ :.+% +%0+ 20+)*&
:%./% .? )2/%02-&0=,& 02@ 0=(<& 0,, /090/.+D +( ?);;&*G
H,, +%0+ :& %0<& ?0.@ /(2/&*2.2- +%&?& (=C&/+.(2?6 =*.&; 0? .+ .?6 :.,, ?&*<& 0?
0 =0?.? 02@ *()-% @*0;+ ;(* +%& )?& (; +%(?& :%( /02 -.<& 0 B(*& /(B9,&+&
+*&0+B&2+G I+ B0D =& :(*+%:%.,&6 %(:&<&*6 02@ /(2?.?+&2+ :.+% :%0+ %0? =&&2
0,*&0@D ?0.@6 2(+ +( 90?? (<&* :.+%()+ *&B0*> +%& 0/+)0, +.+,&? (; +%& 5(2G '(*
+%&?& 0*& 2)B&*()?6 02@ +%&D 099,D +( B02D @.;;&*&2+ 0?9&/+? (; N.BG K&
?%0,, ?&+ =&;(*& D() +%& B&02.2- (; &0/% (2& (; +%&B6 02@ 9(.2+ ()+ +%&
BD?+./0, ?.-2.;./02/& (; +%& 20B&?G
Q #"G K& :.,, =&-.2 :.+% +%.?R e $%& @.<.2& 20+)*& /022(+ =& &F9*&??&@ =D
02D 20B&G H2@ +%.? .? 9*(<&@ 2(+ (2,D =D 0*-)B&2+6 =)+ 0,?( =D +%& :.?&?+
02@ B(?+ 02/.&2+ (; +%& N&=*&:?6 ?( ;0* 0? +%&D %0<& -.<&2 )? *&0?(2 ;(*
/(2C&/+)*&G '(* +%&D -0<& %(2()* +( O(@ :.+% 90*+./),0* /%0*0/+&*?6
!!(
02@
:(),@ 2(+ &<&2 0,,(: +%& 20B& (; 02D+%.2- .2;&*.(* +( O(@ +( =& :*.++&2
:.+% +%& ?0B& ,&++&*? 0? +%0+ (; O(@6 =&/0)?& +%&D +%()-%+ +%0+ +%& U&.+D
?%(),@ =& )2/(22&/+&@ &<&2 +( +%0+ &F+&2+ :.+% 02D+%.2- (; ()*?G N(: +%&2
/(),@ +%&D %0<& 0@B.++&@ +%0+ 0 :(*@ :%(?& ?()2@ B&,+? 0:0D
!!)

%0<.2- =&/(B& 0 %.-% 9*.&?+ ;(* &<&* 0//(*@.2- +( +%& (*@&* (;
j&,/%.d&@&>G\
/02

!!%
W;G N&=*&:? ^G3R Z'(* &<&*D %.-% 9*.&?+ .? 099(.2+&@ +( (;;&* -.;+? 02@
?0/*.;./&?[ %&2/& .+ .? 2&/&??0*D ;(* +%.? 9*.&?+ 0,?( +( %0<& ?(B&+%.2- +(
(;;&*G\

!!&
W;G N&=*&:? XG"R ZI2 +%& @0D? (; %.? ;,&?%6 f&?)? (;;&*&@ )9 9*0D&*? 02@
?)99,./0+.(2?6 :.+% ,()@ /*.&? 02@ +&0*?6 +( +%& (2& :%( :0? 0=,& +( ?0<&
%.B ;*(B @&0+%G\

!!'
S)>& 77GYY _f&?)? .2 +%& -0*@&2 (; O&+%?&B02&`G

!!(
H *&;&*&2/& +( Z+%& $&+*0-*0BB0+(26\ +%& ;()* /(2?(202+? 8NKNG W;G
mF(@)? 3G#3J#YR ZE)+ j(?&? ?0.@ +( O(@6 iI; I /(B& +( +%& I?*0&,.+&? 02@
?0D +( +%&B6 Z$%& O(@ (; D()* 02/&?+(*? %0? ?&2+ B& +( D()6\ 02@ +%&D
0?> B&6 ZK%0+ .? %.? 20B&V\ :%0+ ?%0,, I ?0D +( +%&BVA O(@ ?0.@ +(
j(?&?6 i8NKN LI Hj KN1 I HjMGA N& ?0.@ ;)*+%&*6 i$%)? D() ?%0,, ?0D +(
+%& I?*0&,.+&?6 ZI Hj %0? ?&2+ B& +( D()G\ A \

O*&-(*D (; c0d.02d)?

g4
@&?.-20+& +%& .2@.??(,)=,& 02@ .2@.<.?.=,& 20+)*&V '(* 2( (2& %0? &<&* =*&0+%&@
+%& :%(,& (; +%& 0.*[ 2&.+%&* %0? 02D B.2@ &2+.*&,D /(B9*&%&2@&@6 (* 02D
:(*@ &F%0)?+.<&,D /(2+0.2&@6 +%& =&.2- (; O(@G E)+ :& ?>&+/% N.B =D N.?
0++*.=)+&?6 02@ ?( ;0?%.(2 ;*(B <0*.()? ;&0+)*&? ;()2@ .2 @.;;&*&2+ P)0*+&*? 0
/&*+0.2 .B0-& (; N.B :%./% .? ;0.2+ 02@ ;&&=,&G $%& =&?+ +%&(,(-.02? ;(* )? 0*&
2(+ +%(?& :%( %0<& @.?/(<&*&@ +%& :%(,& e ()* 9*&?&2+ .B9*.?(2B&2+
!"*
Q #^G $%.? .? 0? ;0* 0? :& /02 -(6 +%&2R Z$%& 12& K%( I?\ 02@ ZO(@\ 0*&
+%& ?9&/.0, 20B&? (; +%& @.<.2& &??&2/& e 02@ (; +%&?& +:( +&*B?6 &?9&/.0,,D
Z$%& 12& K%( I?\G $%.? .? ?( 2(+ (2,D =&/0)?&6 :%&2 N& ?9(>& +( j(?&? (2
+%& B()2+0.2 02@ j(?&? 0?>&@ :%0+ N.? c0B& :0?6 +%.? :0? :%0+ N& /0,,&@
N.B?&,;6 (*@&*.2- %.B +( +&,, +%& 9&(9,&R I Hj %0? ?&2+ B&G I+ .? 0,?( =&/0)?&
:& ;.2@ +%0+ +%.? 20B& .? +%& B(?+ 099*(9*.0+&G '(* &<&2 .; +%& :(*@ $%&(?
LO(@M e 0? +%(?& :%( 0*& ?>.,,&@ .2 +%&?& B0++&*? ?0D e :&*& @&*.<&@ ;*(B
+%&&.2 L+( *)2M (* ;*(B 0.+%&.2 L+( =)*2M6 =&/0)?& N& 0,:0D? B(<.2- 02@
=&/0)?& N& @&<()*? ()* &<., @.?9(?.+.(2? _+%0+ .? :%D N& .? 0,?( /0,,&@ 0
@&<()*.2- ;.*&`6
@(&?
2(+ %0<& *((B ;(* +%& :%(,& e =)+ +%(?& :%( %0<& .B0-.2&@ +%& @.<.2&
20+)*& =&++&* +%02 (+%&*? 02@ %0<& -0+%&*&@ B(*& ;),,D .2 +%&B?&,<&? 02
.B0-& (* ?%0@(: e (* :%0+&<&* :& B0D /0,, .+ e (; +%& $*)+%G
!"!
ZO(@\ :(),@ ?+.,, =& 0 *&,0+.<&6 2(+ 02 0=?(,)+& 20B&G $%&
?0B& .? +*)& :.+% ZS(*@6\ :%./% 0,?( .? ?0.@ +( =& 0 20B& (; O(@R I 0B +%&
S1TU D()* O(@6 N& ?0D?6 +%0+ .? BD 20B&6
!""
02@R $%& S1TU .? %.? 20B&G
!"#
Q #gG 1; +%& (+%&* +.+,&?6 ?(B& /,&0*,D *&;&* +( N.? 9(:&*6 (+%&*? +( N.?
-(<&*2.2- (; +%& :(*,@ e 02@ +%.? <.&:&@ )2@&* 0 +:(;(,@ 0?9&/+6 +%& (2&
.2@&9&2@&2+ (; +%& I2/0*20+.(26 +%& (+%&* :.+% *&;&*&2/& +( +%& I2/0*20+.(2G
'(* .2?+02/&6 Z+%& H,B.-%+D6\ Z+%& a.2-\ e :%&+%&* Z(; -,(*D\ (* Z(; +%& 0-&?\
E)+
:& 0*& &2P).*.2- .2+( 0 20+)*& :%(?& =&.2- .? 0=?(,)+&6 2(+ .2+( =&.2- +%0+ .?
=()2@ )9 :.+% ?(B&+%.2- &,?&G E)+ Z+%0+ :%./% .?\ .? *&0,,D 9*(9&* +( O(@6
02@ =&,(2-? +( N.B &2+.*&,D6 :.+%()+ 02D ,.B.+0+.(2 (* @.?J0=.,.+D6 :.+%()+
02D+%.2- /(B.2- =&;(*& N.B (* 0;+&* N.B6 =&/0)?& .2 N.B +%&*& .? 2( 90?+ (*
;)+)*&G

!!)
O*&-(*D ?+.,, ,.<&@ .2 0 /),+)*& .2 :%./% :(*@? :&*& 9*.B0*.,D %&0*@
*0+%&* +%02 _0? .2 ()* /),+)*&` ?&&2 (* *&0@G

!"*
ocoµoç _%( @&?B(?` r Z=(2@\ (* Z/%0.2\G $%& .@&0 .? +%0+ +%& ?(), .?
=()2@6 *&?+*0.2&@6 .B9*.?(2&@ =D +%& =(@DG

!"!
U&)+&*(2(BD YG7YR Z'(* +%& S1TU D()* O(@ .? 0 @&<()*.2- ;.*&6 0
C&0,()? O(@G\ W;G N&=*&:? #7G7gG

!""
mF(@)? 74G7 02@ I?0.0% Y7G^G

!"#
mF(@)? #XG3 _+%& ?(2- (; j(?&? 0+ +%& T&@ 5&0`G
$%&(,(-./0, 1*0+.(2? YR 12 +%& 5(26 7

g#
(* Z(; +%& 9(:&*?\ (* Z(; +%& =&,(<&@\ (* Z(; >.2-?\ e 02@ Z+%& S(*@ (;
50=0(+%\ _+%0+ .?6 Z(; %(?+?\` (* Z(; 9(:&*?\ (* Z(; ,(*@?\G H,, +%&?& +.+,&?
/,&0*,D =&,(2- +( N.? 0)+%(*.+DG E)+ Z+%& O(@ (; ?0,<0+.(2\ (* Z(; <&2-&02/&\
(* Z(; 9&0/&\ (* Z(; *.-%+&()?2&??\ (* Z(; H=*0%0B6 I?00/6 02@ f0/(=\ 02@ (;
0,, +%& ?9.*.+)0, I?*0&, +%0+ ?&&? O(@ e +%&?& =&,(2- +( N.? -(<&*2.2- (; +%&
:(*,@G 5.2/& :& 0*& -(<&*2&@ =D +%&?& +%*&& +%.2-?R +%& ;&0* (; 9)2.?%B&2+6
+%& %(9& (; ?0,<0+.(2 02@ (; -,(*D =&?.@&?6 02@ +%& 9*0/+./& (; +%& <.*+)&? =D
:%./% +%&?& 0*& 0++0.2&@6 e +%& +.+,& ZO(@ (; <&2-&02/&\ -(<&*2? +%& ;&0*6 02@
+%& +.+,& ZO(@ (; ?0,<0+.(2\ -(<&*2? ()* %(9&6 02@ +%& +.+,& ZO(@ (; <.*+)&?\
!"$
5)/% 0*& +%& 20B&? /(BB(2 +( +%& @.<.2& 20+)*&G E)+ +%& 9*(9&* 20B& (;
+%& 12& :%( .? :.+%()+ =&-.22.2- .? +%& '0+%&*6 +%0+ (; +%& 12& :%( .?
=&-(++&2 :.+%()+ =&-.22.2- .? +%& 5(26 02@ +%0+ (; +%& 12& :%( 9*(/&&@? (*
-(&? ;(*+% :.+%()+ =&.2- =&-(++&2 .? +%& N(,D 59.*.+G

-(<&*2? ()* 9*0/+./&G 5(6 +%(?& :%( 0++0.2 02D (; +%&?& +%*&& +%.2-? B0D _?( +(
?9&0>` /0**D O(@ .2 +%&BJ?&,<&? 02@ 9*&?? (2 B(*& *&0@.,D +(:0*@ 9&*;&/+.(2
02@ +(:0*@ +%0+ 0;;.2.+D :.+% O(@ :%./% 0*.?&? ()+ (; 9*0/+.?.2- +%& <.*+)&?G

S&+ )? 2(: +)*2 +( +%& 20B&? (; +%& 5(26 :%./% :&*& ()* ?+0*+.2- 9(.2+ .2
+%.? 90*+ (; ()* 0*-)B&2+G
Q 74G I+ ?&&B? +( B& +%0+ N& .? /0,,&@ Z5(2\ =&/0)?& N& .? .@&2+./0, :.+% +%&
'0+%&* .2 &??&2/& e 02@ 2(+ (2,D ;(* +%.? *&0?(26 =)+ 0,?( =&/0)?& N& .? ;*(B
+%& '0+%&*G H2@ N& .? /0,,&@ 12,DJE&-(++&26 2(+ =&/0)?& N& .? +%& (2,D 5(2
;*(B +%& '0+%&* 0,(2&6 02@ 2(+%.2- =)+ 0 5(2[ =)+ 0,?( =&/0)?& +%& B022&* (;
N.? ?(2?%.9 .? 9&/),.0* +( N.B?&,; 02@ 2(+ ?%0*&@ =D =(@.&?G
H2@ N& .? /0,,&@ Z+%& K(*@6\ =&/0)?& N& .? *&,0+&@ +( +%& '0+%&* 0? :(*@
+( B.2@
!"%
e 2(+ (2,D =&/0)?& N.? -&2&*0+.(2 .? &F&B9+ ;*(B 90??.(26 =)+ 0,?(
=&/0)?& (; %.? )2.(2 L:.+% +%& '0+%&*M 02@ N.? &F9*&??.2- L(; +%& '0+%&*MG
!"&

$%.? *&,0+.(2?%.9 B.-%+ 0,?( =& /(B90*&@ +( +%& *&,0+.(2 =&+:&&2 0 @&;.2.+.(2
02@ +%& +%.2- @&;.2&@6 ?.2/& Z@&;.2.+.(2\ .? 0,?( /0,,&@ ,(-(?G '(* N& ?0D? +%0+
02D(2& :%( %0? >2(:2 +%& 5(2 e ;(* +%.? .? +%& B&02.2- (; %0? ?&&2 e %0? 0,?(
>2(:2 +%& '0+%&*G
!"'

!"$
$%& Z<.*+)&?\ %&*& 0*& Z9&0/&\ 02@ Z*.-%+&()?2&??\G
H2@ +%& 5(2 .? 0 /(2/.?& 02@ &0?D @&B(2?+*0+.(2 (; +%&

!"%
N& .? *&,0+&@ +( +%& '0+%&* 0? :(*@ Lìo¸oç e ,(-(?M +( B.2@G N&*& :(*@
%0? +%& ?&2?& (; Z?9(>&2 :(*@6\ +%0+ :%./% &F9*&??&? +%& ?9&0>&*A? B.2@G

!"&
+%& )2.(2G $%& 20B& ZK(*@\ =&;.+? +%& 5(2 =&/0)?& +%& 5(2 02@ +%&
'0+%&* 0*& 0? .2?&90*0=,D )2.+&@ 0? :(*@ 02@ B.2@G _$%.? ?+0+&B&2+
B0>&? ?&2?& .2 +%& O*&&>6 =&/0)?& ìo¸oç L,(-(?M 2(+ (2,D B&02? Z:(*@\
=)+ 0,?( Z*&0?(2\ 02@ Z@.?/()*?&\G` +%& &F9*&??.2-G $%& 5(2 .? +%& 9&*;&/+
&F9*&??.(2 (; +%& '0+%&*A? &F.?+&2/&G

!"'
f(%2 #YGgR ZK%(&<&* %0? ?&&2 B& %0? ?&&2 +%& '0+%&*G\
O*&-(*D (; c0d.02d)?

g7
'0+%&*A? 20+)*&G '(* &<&*D +%.2- +%0+ .? =&-(++&2 .? 0 ?.,&2+ @&;.2.+.(2 (; +%& (2&
+%0+ =&-(+ .+G H2@ .; 02D ?%(),@ ?0D +%0+ +%.? 20B& LZK(*@\M :0? -.<&2 N.B
=&/0)?& N& .? 9*&?&2+ +( 0,, +%0+ &F.?+?6 +%&D :(),@ 2(+ =& :*(2-G '(* .? +%&*&
02D+%.2- +%0+ @(&? 2(+ &F.?+ +%*()-% +%& K(*@V
!"(
N& .? 0,?( /0,,&@ ZK.?@(B6\ .2?(;0* 0? N& .? +%& >2(:,&@-& (; +%.2-? @.<.2&
02@ %)B02G '(* %(: .? .+ 9(??.=,& +%0+ N& :%( B0@& 0,, +%.2-? ?%(),@ =&
.-2(*02+ (; +%& -(<&*2.2- 9*.2/.9,&? (; :%0+ N& %0? B0@&V H2@ N& .? 0,?(
/0,,&@ Z](:&*6\ .2?(;0* 0? N& ?)?+0.2? +%& +%.2-? :%./% %0<& =&&2 B0@&

!")
02@
;)*2.?%&? +%&B :.+% 9(:&* +( %(,@ +%&B?&,<&? +(-&+%&*G H2@ N& .? /0,,&@
Z$*)+%6\ 0? =&.2- (2& 02@ 2(+ B02D =D 20+)*& e ;(* +*)+% .? (2& 02@ ;0,?&%((@
.? B02.;(,@ e 02@ 0,?( 0? =&.2- +%& 9)*& ?&0, (; +%& '0+%&*
!#*
02@ N.? -&2).2&
.B9*.2+G
!#!
N& .? 0,?( /0,,&@ Z+%& IB0-&6\
!#"
.2 +%0+ %& .? Z(; (2& =&.2- :.+% +%&
'0+%&*6\
!##
02@ =&/0)?& N& /(B&? ;*(B +%& '0+%&* 02@ 2(+ +%& '0+%&* ;*(B
N.BG '(* +%& 20+)*& (; 02 .B0-& .? +( =& +%& *&9*(@)/+.(2 (; .+? B(@&, 02@ (;
+%& +%.2- :%(?& 20B& .+ =&0*?G I2 +%.? /(2+&F+6 %(:&<&*6 +%&*& .? B(*&G H2
.B0-& .? 2(*B0,,D 0 B(+.(2,&?? *&9*&?&2+0+.(2 (; ?(B&+%.2- :%./% B(<&?G I2
+%.? /0?&6 %(:&<&*6 +%& IB0-& .? +%& ,.<.2- *&9*(@)/+.(2 (; +%& S.<.2- 12&6 02@
%0? 0 B(*& &F0/+ ,.>&2&?? +( +%0+ 12& +%02 5&+% %0@ +( H@0B
!#$
(* 02D (+%&*
/%.,@ +( .+? 90*&2+G '(* ?)/% .? +%& 20+)*& (; ?.B9,& +%.2-?
!#%

!"(
W;G f(%2 #G3R ZH,, +%.2-? /0B& .2+( =&.2- +%*()-% L+%& K(*@M6 02@
:.+%()+ %.B 2(+ (2& +%.2- /0B& .2+( =&.2-G\
+%0+ .+ :(),@ =&
:*(2- +( ?0D +%0+ +%&D 0*& 0,.>& .2 (2& 90*+./),0* 02@ )2,.>& .2 02(+%&*[ (2
+%& /(2+*0*D6 +%& :%(,& .B0-& 0,+(-&+%&* *&?&B=,&? +%& :%(,& (; +%& (=C&/+
+%0+ .+ *&9*&?&2+? 02@ .? *&0,,D .@&2+./0, :.+% +%& (=C&/+ *0+%&* +%02 ,.>& .+G

!")
f(%2 #G3G

!#*
f(%2 bG7"R ZI+ .? (2 %.B L?/G +%& 5(2 (; j02M +%0+ O(@ +%& '0+%&* %0? ?&+
%.? ?&0,G\

!#!
N&=*&:? #G3R ZN& .? p +%& &F0/+ .B9*.2+ (; O(@l? <&*D =&.2-G\

!#"
W;G 7 W(*.2+%.02? YGYR Zp+%& ,.-%+ (; +%& -(?9&, (; +%& -,(*D (; W%*.?+6
:%( .? +%& .B0-& _cikev e &.>(26 Z./(2\` (; O(@G\

!##
O*&-(*D )?&? +%& c./&2& W*&&@A? 0@C&/+.<& ioµoouoiov _%(B(()?.(2`G

!#$
5&+% :0? +%& /%.,@ +%0+ H@0B 02@ m<& %0@ 0;+&* W0.2 B)*@&*&@ H=&,
_O&2&?.? YG#X`G

!#%
?.B9,& +%.2-?G Z5.B9,&\ .2 +%& ?&2?& (; =&.2- )2/(B9()2@&@6 :.+%()+
90*+?6 2(+ @.<&*?& .2 /(2?+.+)+.(2G
$%&(,(-./0, 1*0+.(2? YR 12 +%& 5(26 7

g3
j(*&(<&*6 +%& 5(2 .? /0,,&@ ZS.-%+6\
!#&
.2 +%0+ N& .? +%& &2,.-%+&2B&2+ (;
?(),? +%0+ 0*& /,&02?&@ .2 +%&.* )2@&*J?+02@.2- L,(-(?M 02@ .2 +%&.* ,.;&G '(* .;
.-2(*02/& 02@ ?.2 0*& @0*>2&??6 >2(:,&@-& 02@ -(@,D ,.;& :.,, =& ,.-%+G H2@
+%& 5(2 .? /0,,&@ ZS.;&6\
!#'
=&/0)?& N& .? S.-%+6 02@ +%& ](:&* +%0+ /(2?+.+)+&?
02@ -.<&? =&.2- +( &<&*D *&0?(20=,& 20+)*&G '(* .2 N.B :& ,.<& 02@ B(<& 02@
%0<& ()* =&.2-6
!#(
0//(*@.2- +( +%& @()=,& 9(:&* 02@ +%& @()=,& =*&0+%.2- =D
:%./% :& 0,, *&/&.<&@ ;*(B N.B +%& =*&0+% (; ,.;& 02@ _0? B02D (; )? 0? 0*&
/090=,& (; .+6 02@ .2 ?( ;0* 0? :& (9&2 +%& B()+%
!#)
(; ()* )2@&*?+02@.2-` +%&
N(,D 59.*.+G
!$*
N& .? ZT.-%+&()?2&??6\
!$!
=&/0)?& N& *&:0*@? 0,, 0//(*@.2- +(
:%0+ +%&D @&?&*<&6
!$"
02@ =&/0)?& N& .? 0 *.-%+&()? 0*=.+&* =(+% ;(* +%(?&
)2@&* +%& S0: L(; j(?&?M 02@ ;(* +%(?& )2@&* -*0/&6
!$#

!#&
W;G f(%2 #GgR Z$%& +*)& ,.-%+6 :%./% &2,.-%+&2? &<&*D(2&6 :0? /(B.2-
.2+( +%& :(*,@G\ ^G#7R ZH-0.2 f&?)? ?9(>& +( +%&B6 ?0D.2-6 iI 0B +%& ,.-%+
(; +%& :(*,@G K%(&<&* ;(,,(:? B& :.,, 2&<&* :0,> .2 @0*>2&?? =)+ :.,,
%0<& +%& ,.-%+ (; ,.;&GA \ gGXR ZH? ,(2- 0? I 0B .2 +%& :(*,@6 I 0B +%& ,.-%+
(; +%& :(*,@G\
0? :&,, 0? ;(* +%& ?(),
02@ +%& =(@D6 ?( +%0+ +%& ;(*B&* ?%(),@ *),& 02@ +%& ,0++&* (=&D6 02@ +%&
%.-%&* ?%(),@ %0<& ?)9*&B0/D (<&* +%& ,(:&*6 +%0+ +%& :(*?& B0D 2(+ *&=&,

!#'
f(%2 #YGbR Zf&?)? ?0.@ +( L$%(B0?M6 iI 0B +%& :0D6 02@ +%& +*)+%6 02@ +%&
,.;&GA \

!#(
H/+? #"G7^G

!#)
]?0,B ##gG#3#G

!$*
+%& @()=,& 9(:&* 02@ +%& @()=,& =*&0+%.2-G $%& +:( =*&0+%.2-?6 :%./%
0*& +:( 0/+? (; @.<.2& 9(:&*6 *&;&* +( O&2&?.? 7G" _Z$%& S1TU O(@
;(*B&@ B02 ;*(B +%& @)?+ (; +%& -*()2@6 02@ =*&0+%&@ .2+( %.? 2(?+*.,?
+%& =*&0+% (; ,.;&[ 02@ +%& B02 =&/0B& 0 ,.<.2- =&.2-\` 02@ f(%2 74G77
_ZL$%& *.?&2 S(*@M =*&0+%&@ (2 +%&B 02@ ?0.@ +( +%&B6 iT&/&.<& +%&
N(,D 59.*.+A \`G

!$!
W;G # W(*.2+%.02? #G34R ZLO(@M .? +%& ?()*/& (; D()* ,.;& .2 W%*.?+ f&?)?6
:%( =&/0B& ;(* )? :.?@(B ;*(B O(@6 02@ *.-%+&()?2&?? 02@
?02/+.;./0+.(2 02@ *&@&B9+.(2G\

!$"
W;G j0++%&: #bG7"R Z'(* +%& 5(2 (; j02 .? +( /(B& :.+% %.? 02-&,? .2
+%& -,(*D (; %.? '0+%&*6 02@ +%&2 %& :.,, *&90D &<&*D(2& ;(* :%0+ %0?
=&&2 @(2&G\

!$#
T(B02? bG#YR Z5.2 :.,, %0<& 2( @(B.2.(2 (<&* D()6 ?.2/& D() 0*& 2(+
)2@&* ,0: =)+ )2@&* -*0/&G\
O*&-(*D (; c0d.02d)?

gY
0-0.2?+ +%& =&++&*G $%& 5(2 .? /0,,&@ Z502/+.;./0+.(26\
!$$
.2?(;0* 0? N& .? ])*.+D6
+%0+ +%& 9)*& B0D =& &B=*0/&@ =D ])*.+DG H2@ N& .? /0,,&@ ZT&@&B9+.(26\
!$%

=&/0)?& N& ,.=&*0+&? )? :%( :&*& %&,@ /09+.<& )2@&* ?.26 =D -.<.2- N.B?&,; ;(*
)? 0? +%& *02?(B :%./% 9)*.;.&? +%& :(*,@G H2@ N& .? /0,,&@ ZT&?)**&/+.(26\
!$&
Q 7#G $%&?& 20B&? 0*& ?+.,, /(BB(2 +( N.B :%( .? 0=(<& )? 02@ +( N.B
:%( =&/0B& :%0+ N& .? ;(* ()* ?0>&G

=&/0)?& N& *0.?&? )? )9 ;*(B %&*& 02@ =*.2-? )? +( ,.;& 0-0.26 :%( :&*& ?,0.2
=D ?.2G
!$'
E)+ (+%&*? 0*& 9*(9&*,D ()* (:2 02@
=&,(2- +( +%& %)B02 20+)*& +%0+ N& 0??)B&@G $%)? N& .? /0,,&@ Z+%& B02\
_ovuetoç`G $%.? .? ?( 2(+ (2,D .2 (*@&* +%0+ +%*()-% N.? =(@D N& B.-%+ =&
0//&??.=,& +( +%(?& /*&0+)*&? :%( %0<& =(@.&? e (+%&*:.?&6 N& :(),@ =&
.20//&??.=,& =&/0)?& (; N.? .2/(B9*&%&2?.=,& 20+)*&6 e =)+ 0,?( .2 (*@&* +%0+
+%*()-% N.B?&,; N& B.-%+ ?02/+.;D %)B02.+D 02@ =&/(B& _0? .+ :&*&` 0 ,&0<&2
;(* +%& :%(,& ,)B9[ 02@ =D )2.+.2- +( N.B?&,; :%0+ :0? /(2@&B2&@ B.-%+
*&,&0?& .+ ;*(B 0,, /(2@&B20+.(26 =&/(B.2- ;(* 0,, %)B02? 0,, +%.2-? +%0+ :&
0*&6 &F/&9+ ?.2 e =(@D6 ?(),6 B.2@6 02@ 0,, +%(?& +%.2-? +%*()-% :%./% @&0+%
/(B&?G $%)? N& =&/0B& 0 %)B026 :%( .? +%& /(B=.20+.(2 (; 0,, +%&?& e O(@
.2 <.?.=,& ;(*B6 =D <.*+)& +%0+ :%./% .? 9&*/&.<&@ .2<.?.=,DG N& .? Z5(2 (; j026\
=(+% (2 0//()2+ (; H@0B 02@ (2 0//()2+ (; +%& q.*-.2 ;*(B :%(B N& /0B&
e ;*(B +%& (2& 0? +%& ;.*?+ 02/&?+(*6 ;*(B +%& (+%&* 0? N.? B(+%&*6 =(+% .2
0//(*@02/& :.+% +%& ,0: (; -&2&*0+.(2 02@ 090*+ ;*(B .+G
!$(
N& .? ZW%*.?+6\
!$)

!$$
# W(*.2+%.02? #G34 _?&& ;((+2(+& #Y#`G

=&/0)?& (; N.? @.<.2.+DG '(* +%.? .? +%& 02(.2+.2- (; N.? %)B02.+D6 02@ +%.?
02(.2+.2- @(&? 2(+ ?02/+.;D =D B&02? (; 02 &F+*.2?./ 0/+.(26 0? .? +%& /0?& :.+%
0,, (+%&* Z02(.2+&@ (2&?\ L_µiotouç e /%*.?+()?M6 =)+ =D B&02? (; +%& 9*&?&2/&

!$%
W;G j0*> #4GYXR Z'(* +%& 5(2 (; j02 /0B& 2(+ +( =& ?&*<&@ =)+ +(
?&*<&6 02@ +( -.<& %.? ,.;& 0 *02?(B Lìutµov e ,)+*(2M ;(* B02DG\ $%&
:(*@ %&*& +*02?,0+&@ 0? Z*&@&B9+.(2\ .? ìutµovG

!$&
f(%2 ##G7XR Zf&?)? ?0.@ +( Lj0*+%0M6 iI 0B +%& *&?)**&/+.(2 02@ +%& ,.;&GA \

!$'
O*&-(*D B&02? =(+% +%& @.<.2& K(*@ .2 %.B?&,;6 :%( .? 0=(<& )?6 02@
+%& @.<.2& K(*@ .2/0*20+& 0? f&?)? W%*.?+6 :%( =&/0B& :%0+ N& .? ;(*
()* ?0>&G

!$(
$%& .2/0*20+& K(*@ :0? =(*2 .2 0//(*@02/& :.+% +%& ,0:? (; 20+)*&6 =)+
%.? /(2/&9+.(2 .2 j0*DA? :(B= :0?6 0? 0 B.*0/,&6 &F&B9+ ;*(B +%(?&
?0B& ,0:?G

!$)
$%& O*&&> :(*@ _µiotoç _/%*.?+(?` +*02?,0+&? +%& H*0B0./ :(*@ B&?%.
&
%6
Z02(.2+&@ (2&6\ 02@ B&02? +%& ?0B& +%.2-G
$%&(,(-./0, 1*0+.(2? YR 12 +%& 5(26 7

gX
(; +%& H2(.2+.2- 12& .2 N.? ;),,2&??G $%& &;;&/+ (; +%.? 9*&?&2/& .? +%0+ +%& 12&
:%( 02(.2+? .? /0,,&@ Z%)B026\ 02@ B0>&? :%0+ .? 02(.2+&@ O(@G N& .? Z+%&
K0D\
!%*
.2?(;0* 0? N& ,&0@? )? +%*()-% N.B?&,;[ Z+%& O0+&6\
!%!
.2?(;0* 0? N&
,&+? )? &2+&*[ Z+%& 5%&9%&*@6\
!%"
.2?(;0* 0? N& B0>&? N.? ;,(/> @:&,, .2 0 9,0/&
(; -*&&2 90?+)*&? 02@ *&0*? .+ =D +%& ?+.,, :0+&*?6
!%#
,&0@.2- )? +%*()-% +%.? ,.;&
02@ 9*(+&/+.2- )? ;*(B :.,@ =&0?+?[ N& B0>&? +%& ?+*0D.2- ?%&&9 +)*2 =0/> 02@
=*.2-? =0/> :%0+ :0? ,(?+6 =.2@? )9 :%0+ :0? =*(>&2 02@ :0+/%&? (<&* +%&
?+*(2-6
!%$
02@ N& -0+%&*? +%&B +(-&+%&* .2 +%& ;(,@ (2 %.-% =D +%& :(*@? (;
%.? >2(:,&@-& 0? 5%&9%&*@G N& .? /0,,&@ Z+%& 5%&&96\ =&/0)?& N& .?
?,0)-%+&*&@[ Z+%& S0B=6\
!%%
=&/0)?& N& .? :.+%()+ =,&B.?%[
!%&
Z+%& N.-%
]*.&?+6\
!%'
=&/0)?& N& (;;&*? +%& ?0/*.;./&[ Zj&,/%.d&@&>6\ =&/0)?& N& .?
:.+%()+ B(+%&* .2 +%0+ 20+)*& :%./% .? 0=(<& )? 02@ :.+%()+ ;0+%&* .2 ()*
20+)*&6 :.+%()+ -&2&0,(-D 0=(<& _;(* :%(6 .+ ?0D?6 ?%0,, @&/,0*& N.?
-&2&*0+.(2V
#$"

!%*
f(%2 #YGbR Zf&?)? ?0.@ +( L$%(B0?M6 iI 0B +%& :0D6 02@ +%& +*)+%6 02@ +%&
,.;&GA \
`6 02@ =&/0)?& N& .? a.2- (; 50,&B6 :%./% B&02? Z9&0/&6\ 02@

!%!
f(%2 #4GgR ZI 0B +%& -0+&G K%(&<&* &2+&*? =D B& :.,, =& ?0<&@6 02@ :.,,
/(B& .2 02@ -( ()+ 02@ ;.2@ 90?+)*&G\

!%"
f(%2 #4G##R ZI 0B +%& -((@ ?%&9%&*@G\

!%#
W;G ]?0,B 73G#J7R Z$%& S1TU .? BD ?%&9%&*@[n I ?%0,, 2(+ =& .2 :02+G N&
B0>&? B& ,.& @(:2 .2 -*&&2 90?+)*&? n 02@ ,&0@? B& =&?.@& ?+.,, :0+&*?G\

!%$
W;G md&>.&, 3YG#bR ZI :.,, ?&&> +%& ,(?+6 L?0D? +%& S(*@ O1U6M 02@ I :.,,
=*.2- =0/> +%& ?+*0D&@6 02@ I :.,, =.2@ )9 +%& .2C)*&@6 02@ I :.,,
?+*&2-+%&2 +%& :&0>6 =)+ +%& ;0+ 02@ +%& ?+*(2- I :.,, @&?+*(DG I :.,, ;&&@
+%&B :.+% C)?+./&G

!%%
W;G I?0.0% X3G"R ZS.>& 0 ,0B= +%0+ .? ,&@ +( +%& ?,0)-%+&*6 02@ ,.>& 0 ?%&&9
+%0+ =&;(*& .+? ?%&0*&*? .? ?.,&2+6 ?( %& @.@ 2(+ (9&2 %.? B()+%G\

!%&
W;G mF(@)? #7G36 XR H? (2& (; +%& (*@.202/&? (; +%& ]0??(<&* B&0,6 Z+%&
:%(,& /(2-*&-0+.(2 (; I?*0&,p 0*& +( +0>& 0 ,0B= ;(* &0/% ;0B.,D6 0 ,0B=
;(* &0/% %()?&%(,@pG 8()* ,0B= ?%0,, =& :.+%()+ =,&B.?%6 0 D&0*J(,@
B0,&[ D() B0D +0>& .+ ;*(B +%& ?%&&9 (* ;*(B +%& -(0+?G\

!%'
5&& ;((+2(+& ##Y6 90-& ^^G

!%(
I?0.0% X3G^ _5&9+)0-.2+`G
O*&-(*D (; c0d.02d)?

gb
a.2- (; T.-%+&()?2&??6 02@ =&/0)?& N& *&/&.<&? (2&J+&2+% (; &<&*D+%.2- ;*(B
90+*.0*/%? :%&2 +%&D 9*&<0., (<&* &<., 9(:&*?G
!%)
$%&?&6 +%&26 0*& +%& +.+,&? (; +%& 5(2G K0,> +%*()-% +%&B e +%*()-% +%(?&
+%0+ 0*& ,(;+D[ :.+% 02 0++.+)@& (; *&<&*&2/& ;(* O(@[ +%*()-% +%(?& +%0+
=&,(2- +( +%& =(@D6 :.+% 02 0++.+)@& ?).+0=,& +( +%&BG 1* *0+%&*6 :0,> +%*()-%
+%&?& 20B& :.+% 02 0++.+)@& 0,+(-&+%&* (; *&<&*&2/& ;(* O(@6 ?( +%0+ D() B0D
=&/(B& O(@ =D 0?/&2@.2- ;*(B =&,(: ;(* +%& ?0>& (; N.B :%(6 ;(* )?6 /0B&
@(:2 ;*(B (2 %.-%G I2 0,, +%.2-? 02@ 0=(<& 0,, +%.2-?6 >&&9 +( +%.? 02@ D()
:.,, 2&<&* &** :.+% *&?9&/+ &.+%&* +( +%& ,(;+.&* (* +( +%& ,(:,.&* 20B&?G f&?)?
W%*.?+ D&?+&*@0D 02@ +(@0D =(@.,D6 +%& ?0B& .2 +%& (*@&* (; +%& 59.*.+ ;(* &<&*
02@ &<&*G

!&*

HB&2G




!%)
W;G N&=*&:? bG74 e "G3R ZLf&?)? %0?M =&/(B& 0 %.-% 9*.&?+ ;(* &<&*
0//(*@.2- +( +%& (*@&* (; j&,/%.d&@&>G $%.? ia.2- j&,/%.d&@&> (; 50,&B6
9*.&?+ (; +%& j(?+ N.-% O(@6 B&+ H=*0%0B 0? %& :0? *&+)*2.2- ;*(B
@&;&0+.2- +%& >.2-? 02@ =,&??&@ %.BA LO&2G #YG#^J#gM[ 02@ +( %.B
H=*0%0B 099(*+.(2&@ i(2&J+&2+% (; &<&*D+%.2-A LO&2G #YG74MG N.? 20B&6
.2 +%& ;.*?+ 9,0/&6 B&02? i>.2- (; *.-%+&()?2&??A[ 2&F+ %& .? 0,?( >.2- (;
50,&B6 +%0+ .?6 i>.2- (; 9&0/&AG K.+%()+ ;0+%&*6 :.+%()+ B(+%&*6 :.+%()+
-&2&0,(-D6 %0<.2- 2&.+%&* =&-.22.2- (; @0D? 2(* &2@ (; ,.;&6 =)+
*&?&B=,.2- +%& 5(2 (; O(@6 %& *&B0.2? 0 9*.&?+ ;(* &<&*G\

!&*
N&=*&:? #3G^G

97



The Flflh Theologlcul Crullon
Crullon 3I

Cn lhe Holy Splrll


UCH. lhen. ls our uccounl of lhe Son. und by meuns of our dlscourse He
hus escuped lhose vho vould slone Hlm. pusslng lhrough lhe mldsl of
lhem.
!
For lhe Vord ls nol sloned. bul cusls slones vhen He pleuses; und uses
u sllng ugulnsl vlld beusls ÷ lhul ls. our opponenl`s vords ÷ vhlch upprouch
lhe mounl [of Cod] ln u godless munner.
"
¨8ul vhul do you huve lo suy
uboul lhe Holy Splrll!` lhey suy. ¨From vhere do you lmporl lhls slrunge
god. of vhom Scrlplure ls sllenl!` And even lhose vho keep vllhln bounds
regurdlng lhe Son speuk ln lhls vuy.
#
§ 2. Nov lhe sub|ecl of lhe Holy Splrll presenls u speclul dlfflcully. Il ls nol
only becuuse. vhen lhese men huve become veury ln lhelr dlspulullons
concernlng lhe Son. lhey slruggle vllh greuler heul ugulnsl lhe Splrll ÷ for ll
For |usl us ve flnd lhul rouds und rlvers
splll off from one unolher und |oln uguln. so ll huppens ln lhls cuse us vell
lhrough lhe superubundunce of lmplely: people vho dlffer ln ull olher
respecls huve here some polnls of ugreemenl. so lhul you never cun lell for
cerluln ellher vhere lhey ure of one mlnd or vhere lhey ure ln confllcl.

!
Cf. Luke 4.28-30: ¨Vhen lhey heurd lhls. ull ln lhe synugogue [ul
Nuzurelh] vere fllled vllh ruge. They gol up. drove hlm oul of lhe
lovn. und led hlm lo lhe brov of lhe hlll on vhlch lhelr lovn vus bulll.
so lhul lhey mlghl hurl hlm off lhe cllff. 8ul he pussed lhrough lhe mldsl
of lhem und venl on hls vuy.`

"
Cf. Lxodus I9.I2-I3: ¨[The LCRD suld lo Moses:] 'You shull sel llmlls for
lhe people ull uround. suylng. ¨8e cureful nol lo go up lhe mounluln or
lo louch lhe edge of ll. Any vho louch lhe mounluln shull be pul lo
deulh. No hund shull louch lhem. bul lhey shull be sloned or shol vllh
urrovs; vhelher unlmul or humun belng. lhey shull nol llve.` ` `

#
A reference lo conservullve church-leuders vho vere ¨Nlcene-frlendly`
on lhe quesllon of lhe Son`s elernul dlvlnlly bul becume ¨fellov-
lruvellers` of lhe Arluns on lhe quesllon of lhe Splrll. Cregory und hls
ussoclules culled ull such people Pneumulomuchol. ¨flghlers (or gungslers)
ugulnsl lhe Splrll`.
S
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

98
seems lo be ubsolulely necessury for lhem lo huve some ob|ecl on vhlch lo
venl lhelr lmplely. or llfe vould uppeur lo lhem no longer vorlh llvlng. Il ls
ulso becuuse ve ourselves. vorn oul by lhe mullllude of lhelr quesllons. ure ln
somelhlng llke lhe sume slule us people vho huve losl lhelr uppellle. Huvlng
luken u dlsllke lo some purllculur klnd of food. lhey ure dlsgusled by ull food.
1usl so vllh us ÷ ve ure dlsgusled by ull dlscusslons. Neverlheless. so long us
lhe Splrll ulds us. our urgumenl vlll run svlflly

und Cod muy be glorlfled.
%
§ 3. Cerluln people. lhen. lhlnklng lhul ve huve lnlroduced lhe Holy Splrll
us u slrunge or counlerfell god; ure ungry ul us und flghl very hurd lo defend
¨lhe leller`.
Ve
vlll leuve lo olhers vho huve vorked upon lhls sub|ecl for us us vell us for
lhemselves. us ve huve vorked upon ll for lhem. lhe lusk of exumlnlng
curefully und dlsllngulshlng ln hov muny senses lhe vord Splrll or lhe vord
Holy ure used und underslood ln Scrlplure. vllh lhe evldence sulluble lo such
un enqulry; ve vlll ulso leuve lo olhers lhe uddlllonul lusk of shovlng hov
lhe comblnullon of lhe lvo vords ÷ I meun. ¨Holy Splrll` ÷ ls used ln u
pecullur sense. Lel us nov upply ourselves lo vhul comes ufler lhose sub|ecls.
&
8ul lhey should knov lhul lhey ure ufruld vhere lhere ls nolhlng
lo feur;
'
und I vould huve lhem cleurly underslund lhul lhelr love for ¨lhe
leller` ls bul u clouk for lhelr lmplely. us ve shull see luler on vhen ve refule
lhelr ob|ecllons lo lhe ulmosl of our pover. 8ul ve huve so much confldence
ln lhe dlvlnlly of lhe Splrll vhom ve udore. lhul ve vlll begln our leuchlng
concernlng Hls dlvlnlly by upplylng lo Hlm lhe numes vhlch belong lo lhe
Trlnlly. even lhough some persons muy lhlnk us reckless. The Fulher vus lhe
lrue llghl vhlch enllghlens every one vho comes lnlo lhe vorld.
(

%
Cf. Psulm I47.I5: ¨[The LCRD] sends forlh hls commund lo lhe eurlh.*
und hls vord runs very svlflly.` And 2 Thessulonluns 3.I: ¨Flnully.
brolhers und slslers. pruy for us. so lhul lhe vord of lhe Lord muy spreud
rupldly und be glorlfled everyvhere..`
The Son

&
¨lhe leller`. I.e. of lhe Scrlplures. Cregory does nol suy ¨lhe leller of lhe
Scrlplures.` becuuse he vlll nol concede lo lhe opponenls he nov hus ln
vlev lhul lhey ure. ln lrulh. fullhfully lnlerprellng lhe Scrlplures. Cf.
Crullon 4. § I (puge 7I). vhere Cregory spoke of ¨dlfflcullles und
ob|ecllons vhlch vere rlpped from lhe holy Scrlplures by lhose vho
profune lhe 8lble und perverl lhe sense of lls lexls ln order lo vln lhe
mob lo lhelr slde und confuse lhe vuy of lrulh.`

'
Psulm 53.5 (Sepluuglnl. Ps. 52.6).

(
1ohn I.9. Thls ls hov lhe Aulhorlsed (¨Klng 1umes`) Verslon und bolh lhe
Lngllsh Revlsed Verslon (I88I) und lhe Amerlcun Slundurd Verslon (I90I)
Theologlcul Crullons 5: Cn lhe Holy Splrll

99
vus lhe lrue llghl vhlch enllghlens every one vho comes lnlo lhe vorld. The
olher Advocule
)
vus lhe lrue llghl vhlch enllghlens every one vho comes
lnlo lhe vorld. He vus. und He vus. und He vus ÷ bul vus Cne. He vus
llghl. und llghl. und llghl ÷ bul one Llghl. one Cod. Thls vus vhul Duvld
reullsed long ugo vhen he suld. In your llghl ve see llghl.
*
And nov ve huve
bolh seen und proclulm ln u brlef und slmple fushlon lhe lheology of lhe
Trlnlly:
!+
from Llghl ÷ lhe Fulher ÷ ve knov Llghl ÷ lhe Son ÷ ln Llghl ÷ lhe
Holy Splrll. Vhoever re|ecls ll. lel lhem re|ecl ll. und vhoever commlls
lnlqully. lel lhem commll ll ÷ ve proclulm vhul ve huve underslood. Ve vlll
gel us up lo u hlgh mounluln. lf ve ure nol heurd belov; ve vlll exull lhe
Splrll und vlll nol feur
!!
§ 4. If ever lhere vus u llme vhen lhe Fulher vus nol. lhen lhere vus u
llme vhen lhe Son vus nol. If ever lhere vus u llme vhen lhe Son vus nol.
lhen lhere vus u llme vhen lhe Splrll vus nol. If lhe Cne vus from lhe
beglnnlng.
÷ or lf ve ure ufruld. ll shull be of keeplng sllence. nol
of proclulmlng.
!"

lrunslule lhls verse. The RSV und lhe NRSV lrunslule ll: ¨The lrue llghl.
vhlch enllghlens everyone. vus comlng lnlo lhe vorld.`
lhen lhe Three vere so. loo. If you lhrov dovn one of lhe
Three. I vlll be so bold us lo suy lhul you do nol exull lhe olher Tvo. For
vhul ls lhe use of un lmperfecl dlvlnlly! Cr rulher. vhul dlvlnlly cun lhere be
lf ll ls nol perfecl! And hov cun lhul be perfecl vhlch lucks somelhlng ll
should huve! And surely lhere ls somelhlng mlsslng lf ll does nol huve hollness
÷ und hov vould ll huve lhls lf ll does nol huve lhe Holy Splrll! For ellher

)
1ohn I4.I6: ¨And I vlll usk lhe Fulher. und he vlll glve you unolher
Advocule. lo be vllh you for ever.`

*
Psulm 36.9.

!+
Cf. I 1ohn I.3. 5: ¨Ve declure lo you vhul ve huve seen und heurd so
lhul you ulso muy huve fellovshlp vllh us; und lruly our fellovshlp ls
vllh lhe Fulher und vllh hls Son 1esus Chrlsl.. Thls ls lhe messuge ve
huve heurd from hlm und proclulm lo you. lhul Cod ls llghl und ln hlm
lhere ls no durkness ul ull.` 8y lhe vuy. Cregory ucluully uses lhe vord
ucoìo¸io (lheologlu) here.

!!
Cf. Isuluh 40.9: ¨Cel you up lo u hlgh mounluln. C Zlon. heruld of good
lldlngs; llfl up your volce vllh slrenglh. C 1erusulem. heruld of good
lldlngs. llfl ll up. do nol feur; suy lo lhe cllles of 1uduh. 'Here ls your
Cod!` `

!"
I 1ohn I.I.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

I00
hollness ls somelhlng dlfferenl from lhe Splrll ÷ und lf so. lel someone lell me
hov ve mlghl concelve of ll ÷ or lf hollness ls lhe sume us lhe Splrll. hov ls
lhe Splrll nol from lhe beglnnlng. us lf ll vere beller for Cod lo be ul once
lmperfecl und vllhoul lhe Splrll! If He ls nol from lhe beglnnlng. He ls ln lhe
sume runk us I um. even lhough u llllle before me ÷ for ve ure bolh sepuruled
from Cod by llme. If He ls ln lhe sume runk us I um. hov cun He muke me
Cod or |oln me vllh lhe dlvlne nulure!
§ 5. Cr rulher. lel me reuson vllh you uboul Hlm by resumlng u polnl
mude somevhul eurller. for ve huve ulreudy dlscussed lhe Trlnlly. The
Sudducees denled ullogelher lhe exlslence of lhe Holy Splrll. |usl us lhey dld
lhul of ungels und lhe resurrecllon; I do nol knov hov lhey could huve
re|ecled lhe lmporlunl lesllmonles concernlng Hlm ln lhe Cld Teslumenl. And
umong lhe Creeks.
!#
ll seems lo me lhul lhe beller ¨lheologluns` und lhose
vho come neuresl lo us huve formed some concepllon of Hlm. lhough lhey
huve dlffered us lo Hls nume. They huve uddressed Hlm us ¨Mlnd of lhe
unlverse.`
!%
or us ¨Lxlernul Mlnd.`
!&
und lhe llke. 8ul of lhe vlse umong
ourselves. some huve concelved of hlm us un energy. some us u creulure. some
us Cod; und some huve been uncerluln vhul lo cull Hlm ÷ oul of reverence
for Scrlplure. lhey suy. us lf ll dld nol muke lhe muller cleur ellher vuy. And
lherefore lhey nellher vorshlp Hlm nor lreul Hlm vllh dlshonour. bul luke up
u neulrul poslllon ÷ or rulher. u very mlseruble one ÷ vllh respecl lo Hlm.
And of lhose vho conslder Hlm lo be Cod. some ure orlhodox only ln lhelr
lhlnklng.
!'
§ 6. Ve cunnol. of course. enler lnlo uny dlscusslon vllh lhose vho do nol
even belleve ln lhe Splrll`s exlslence. nor vllh Creek bubblers; for lhe oll of
lhe unrlghleous vlll nol unolnl our dlscourse!
vhlle olhers venlure lo be orlhodox vllh lhe llps us vell. And I
huve heurd of some vho ure even cleverer: lhey meusure dlvlnlly! These
fellovs ugree vllh us lhul lhere ure Three; bul lhey huve sepuruled lhese
Three from one unolher so complelely us lo muke one of lhem lnflnlle bolh ln
essence und pover. und lhe second ln pover bul nol ln essence. und lhe lhlrd
clrcumscrlbed ln bolh. Thus lhey lmllule ln unolher vuy lhose vho cull lhem
¨lhe Creulor.` ¨lhe Co-operulor.` und ¨lhe Servunl.` und see ln lhe runk und
dlgnlly lmplled by lhese numes u subordlnullon ln reullly.
!(

!#
Cregory meuns non-Chrlsllun Creek phllosophers.
Vllh lhe olhers. hovever. ve

!%
Plulo. Phuedo 97 c-d; Phllebus 28 c.

!&
Arlslolle. The Cenerullon of Anlmuls II.3. 9.

!'
I.e. some of lhe orlhodox keep lhelr bellef ln lhe dlvlnlly of lhe Splrll lo
lhemselves; lhey luck lhe couruge of lhelr convlcllon.

Theologlcul Crullons 5: Cn lhe Holy Splrll

I0I
vlll urgue ln lhls vuy. The Holy Splrll musl be runked ellher umong lhose
belngs vhlch exlsl ln und of lhemselves. or umong lhe lhlngs vhlch ure
observed ln somelhlng else. Those vho ure skllled ln such mullers cull lhe flrsl
u ¨subslunce` [ouoio ÷ ouslu] und lhe second un ¨uccldenl`.
!)
Nov lf lhe
Splrll vere un ¨uccldenl.` He vould be un energy of Cod ÷ vhul else could
He be. or from vhom else could He come! Surely lhls ls lhe besl vuy lo uvold
lhe nollon of composlllon!
!*
And lf He ls un energy of Cod. He hus ull lhe
quulllles vhlch belong lo un energy. [Thls meuns.] He vlll be lhe uulhor of
effecl. und He vlll ceuse lo exlsl us soon us He hus been effecled ÷ for lhls ls
lhe nulure of un energy. 8ul hov ls ll lhul lhe Splrll ucls.
"+
und ullers speech.
und sels upurl.
"!
und ls grleved.
""
§ 7. There ÷ nov ll ls your lurn. Lel lhe sllngs be lel go; lel lhe sylloglsm be
voven. Lllher He ls ullogelher Unbegollen. you suy. or else He ls 8egollen. If
und ls ungered. und does such lhlngs us
cleurly lndlcule u belng lhul moves. nol u movemenl! 8ul lf He ls u subslunce
und nol un ullrlbule of u subslunce. He vlll be regurded ellher us u creulure or
us Cod. For unylhlng belveen lhese lvo. vhelher ll hus nolhlng ln common
vllh ellher or ls u compound of bolh. nol even lhose vho lnvenled lhe goul-
slug could lmuglne. Nov. lf He ls u creulure. hov do ve belleve ¨ln` Hlm.
hov ure ve mude perfecl ¨ln` Hlm! For ll ls nol lhe sume lhlng lo belleve ln u
lhlng und lo belleve slulemenls uboul ll. The flrsl belongs lo dlvlnlly. lhe
second lo ÷ vell. unylhlng. 8ul lf lhe Splrll ls Cod. lhen He ls nellher u
creulure. nor u lhlng mude. nor u fellov servunl. nor uny of lhese lovly
uppellullons.

!(
Psulm I4I.5.
!)
These ure lhe lvo buslc culegorles. or clusses. of Arlslolle`s meluphyslcs. A
¨subslunce` (or ¨essence`) ls lhe underlylng nulure vhlch mukes
somelhlng lo be vhul ll ls. ¨Accldenls` ure lhe subsequenl churuclerlsllcs
vhlch glve lhe ouslu lls purllculurlly ÷ such us colour. helghl. pluce. elc.

!*
Composlllon lnvolves complexlly; lhe slmpler explunullon ls ulvuys lo be
preferred.

"+
Cf. I Corlnlhluns I2.II: ¨All lhese [glfls] ure ucllvuled by one und lhe
sume Splrll. vho ullols lo euch one lndlvlduully |usl us lhe Splrll
chooses.`

"!
Cf. Acls I3.2: ¨Vhlle lhey vere vorshlpplng lhe Lord und fusllng. lhe
Holy Splrll suld. 'Sel upurl for me 8urnubus und Suul for lhe vork lo
vhlch I huve culled lhem.` `

""
Cf. Lphesluns 4.30: ¨And do nol grleve lhe Holy Splrll of Cod. vllh
vhlch you vere murked vllh u seul for lhe duy of redempllon.`
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

I02
He ls Unbegollen. lhere ure lvo vho ure vllhoul orlgln. If he ls 8egollen.
you musl muke u furlher subdlvlslon: He comes ellher from lhe Fulher or from
lhe Son. If He comes from lhe Fulher. lhere ure lvo Sons ÷ und lhey ure
8rolhers! And you muy muke lhem lvlns lf you llke. or lhe one older und lhe
olher younger. slnce you ure so very fond of bodlly nollons. 8ul someone vlll
lhen suy lhul. lf He comes from lhe Son. ve culch u gllmpse of Cod lhe
Crundson! Could unylhlng be more ubsurd! Such ls lhe vord-pluy of lhose
vho ure skllled ln dolng evll
"#
und refuse lo vrlle vhul ls good. For my purl.
lf I suv lhe necesslly of lhe dlsllncllon. I should huve ucknovledged lhe fucls
vllhoul feur of lhe numes. For lhe Son ls ¨Son` uccordlng lo un exulled klnd
of relullon. slnce lhere ls no olher vuy ln vhlch ve cun slule lhul He ls from
Cod und of one belng [homoouslon]. Il does nol follov from lhls. lhul ve
should conslder ll necessury lo upply. ln u meluphorlcul sense. lhe lerms of lhls
lover vorld. especlully lhose vhlch huve lo do vllh our fumlllul relullonshlps.
lo lhe dlvlnlly. If lhul vere so. you mlghl lmuglne lhul Cod ls u mule becuuse
he ls culled ¨Cod` und ¨Fulher.`
"%
und lhul ¨dlvlnlly` ls femlnlne becuuse of
lhe grummullcul gender of lhe vord. und lhul Splrll ls neuler becuuse Il does
nol ¨begel`! 8ul lf you vould be sllly enough lo suy. vllh lhe old mylhs und
fubles. lhul Cod hus begollen lhe Son by u murrluge vllh Hls ovn vlll. ve
should be lnlroduced lo lhe hermuphrodlle god of Murclon. vho mude up
lhese slrunge ¨æons`.
"&
§ 8. 8ul slnce ve do nol udmll your flrsl dlsllncllon. vhlch declures lhul
lhere ls no lnlermedlury belveen lhe 8egollen und lhe Unbegollen. poof!
ulong vllh your fumous dlsllncllon. uvuy go your 8rolhers und your Crund-
sons. ln lhe sume vuy us un lnlrlcule chuln fulls upurl vhen lhe flrsl llnk ls
broken. so ure your funlusles broken. lhe vhole lol of lhem. und dlsuppeur


"#
1eremluh 4.22.

"%
In lhe Creek lunguuge. ucoç (lheos ÷ ¨god`) und totqµ (puler ÷ ¨fulher`)
ure muscullne ln gender.

"&
Murclon vus u second-cenlury leucher commonly ussocluled vllh lhe
Cnosllc movemenl. Hls lheology ÷ or vhul ve knov of hls lheology ÷
dld nol huve unylhlng lo do vllh u ¨hermuphrodlle god` or vllh
¨æons.` slrunge or nol. The nollon of hermuphrodlle belngs vus very
much u purl of lhe leuchlng of Vulenllnus. u genulne Cnosllc of lhe
second cenlury. und hls dlsclple Murcos proposed u syslem of ¨æons`.
Cregory muy huve confused Murcos vllh Murclon. Thls muy be vhy one
of lhe lvo groups ln lhe munuscrlpl lrudlllon of The Flve Theologlcul
Crullons hus lhe reudlng ¨Murclon und Vulenllnus`. Muson uccepls ¨und
Vulenllnus` ln hls edlllon. Culluy (SC 250. p. 288-289. foolnole 2)
re|ecls ll us u luler lnlerpolullon.
Theologlcul Crullons 5: Cn lhe Holy Splrll

I03
from lheology. For. lell me. vhul poslllon ln your dlsllncllon vlll you usslgn
lo lhul vhlch proceeds! Il uppeurs us un lnlermedlule lerm. und ll ls
lnlroduced by u beller lheologlun lhun you ÷ our Suvlour Hlmself. Cr perhups
lo sull your Thlrd Teslumenl you huve removed lhese vords from your
Cospels: The Holy Splrll vho proceeds from lhe Fulher!
"'
§ 9. ¨Vhul does lhe Splrll luck.` suy lhey. ¨vhlch prevenls Hls belng u Son!
For lf lhere vere nol somelhlng lucklng. He vould be u Son. vouldn`l He!`
Ve usserl lhul lhere ls nolhlng lucklng. for Cod does nol ¨luck` unylhlng. 8ul
lhe dlfference of vuy ln vhlch Luch ls munlfesled ÷ lf I muy so express myself
÷ or rulher. lhe dlfference of lhelr muluul relullons lo euch olher. hus cuused
lhe dlfference of lhelr numes. For lndeed ll ls nol some deflclency ln lhe Son
vhlch prevenls Hls belng Fulher ÷ Sonshlp. ufler ull. ls nol u deflclency ÷ und
yel He ls nol Fulher. Clhervlse. lhere ls some deflclency ln lhe Fulher. vllh
respecl lo Hls nol belng Son. for lhe Fulher ls nol Son. And yel lhese lerms do
nol ellher u deflclency or u subordlnullon vllh respecl lo lhe dlvlne essence.
Cn lhe conlrury. lhe expresslons ¨belng Unbegollen` or ¨belng 8egollen` or
¨Proceedlng` huve glven lhe nume of Fulher lo lhe flrsl. lhe nume of Son lo
lhe second. und lhe nume of Holy Splrll lo lhe lhlrd. of vhom ve ure
speuklng here. of lhe Holy Chosl. Thus ls lhe dlsllncllon of lhe Three
hyposluses
Inusmuch us lhe
Splrll proceeds from lhul Source. He ls no creulure; lnusmuch us He ls nol
8egollen. He ls nol Son; und lnusmuch us He ls belveen lhe Unbegollen und
lhe 8egollen. He ls Cod. Thus does He escupe lhe vebs of your sylloglsms und
munlfesl Hlmself us Cod. slronger lhun your dlsllncllons. Vhul lhen ls lhls
¨processlon`! You lell me vhul ls lhe unbegollenness of lhe Fulher. und I vlll
expluln lo you lhe nulurul hlslory of lhe Son`s generullon und lhe Splrll`s
processlon. Then bolh of us vlll be ruvlng mud for prylng lnlo lhe myslery of
Cod. And vho ure ve lo do lhese lhlngs! ÷ ve vho cunnol even see vhul lles
ul our feel. or number lhe sund of lhe seu. or lhe drops of ruln. or lhe duys of
elernlly. much less enler lnlo lhe deplhs of Cod und provlde un uccounl of
lhul nulure vhlch ls so unspeukuble und so ullerly ubove our reuson!
"(

"'
1ohn I5.26.
muy be preserved ln lhe one nulure und one dlgnlly of lhe
dlvlnlly. For nellher ls lhe Son lhe Fulher. for lhere ls only one Fulher. bul lhe

"(
hyposluses ('utootoociç) ÷ slngulur: hyposlusls ('utootooiç). Thls lerm
lllerully meuns ¨lhul vhlch ls slundlng (slusls) under (hypo-)`. In lhls
lllerul sense. eurller Creek Chrlsllun lheologluns lreuled lhe lerm us u
synonym for ¨underlylng nulure`. Cregory. hovever. ls here uslng
hyposlusls ln lhe sense of ¨dlsllncl exlslence ln relullon lo olhers` ÷ or. us
ve vould suy. ¨person`. In lhls cuse. ¨lhul vhlch ls slundlng under` ls
nol lhe one nulure llself so much euch lndlvlduul`s possesslon of lhul one
nulure.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

I04
Son ls vhul lhe Fulher ls. Nor ls lhe Splrll lhe Son becuuse He comes from
Cod. for lhere ls only one Son. lhe Cnly-begollen; bul lhe Splrll ls vhul lhe
Son ls. The Three ure Cne vllh respecl lo lhe dlvlnlly. und lhe Cne ls Three
vllh respecl lo lhe properlles.
")
Thus. lhe Cne ls nol lhe unlly meunl by
Subelllus.
"*
§ I0. ¨Vhul lhen! Is lhe Splrll Cod!` Cerlulnly. ¨Vell lhen. ls He 'of one
8elng [homoouslon]`!` Yes. slnce He ls Cod. ¨Co uheud.` suys my opponenl.
¨convlnce me lhul from lhe sume Source sprlng one vho ls u Son und one
vho ls nol u Son. lhen convlnce me lhul lhese ure 'of one 8elng` [vllh lhe
Source]. und I vlll udmll u Cod und u Cod.` And you ÷ you shov me lhul
lhere ls unolher Cod und sllll only one nulure of Cod. und I vlll shov you lhe
sume Trlnlly. vllh lhe sume nume und lhe sume reullly. 8ul slnce Cod ls Cne
und lhe supreme nulure ls Cne. hov cun I presenl vllh uny compurlson! Cr
vlll you seek ll uguln ln lover reglons und ln your ovn surroundlngs! Il ls
very shumeful ÷ und nol only shumeful bul ulso very foollsh ÷ lo luke from
lhlngs belov u guess ul lhlngs ubove. und lo seek ln chungeuble lhlngs lhe
lmuge of unchungeuble reullly. Il ls. us Isuluh suys. lo seek lhe llvlng umong lhe
deud.
und lhe Three ure nol lhe lhree meunl by lhe pernlclous fucllon of
loduy.
#+
8ul sllll. for your suke. I vlll lry lo glve my exposlllon some supporl
from here belov. I lhlnk I vlll puss over olher polnls. lhough I mlghl brlng
forvurd muny exumples from unlmul-llfe. some generully knovn. olhers only
knovn lo u fev. of vhul nulure hus conlrlved vllh vonderful url ln
connecllon vllh lhe generullon of unlmuls. For nol only ure llkes suld lo
generule llkes. und unllke lhlngs lo begel lhlngs unllke ellher purenl. bul ulso
llke lhlngs ure suld lo be begollen by unllke lhlngs. und unllke lhlngs by llke
lhlngs.
#!
And lf ve muy belleve lhe slory. lhere ls yel unolher mode of
generullon. vhen un unlmul ls self-consumed und self-begollen.
#"

")
See Thlrd Theologlcul Crullon. puge 56. foolnole 38.
There ure

"*
Subelllus vus u Chrlsllun lheologlun of lhe eurly 3rd cenlury. perhups
orlglnully from Rome. He vus lhe mosl nolorlous udvocule of
¨modullsm.` lhe lheory lhul lhe one und lndlvlslble dlvlne nulure
munlfesled llself ln lhree successlve ¨modes.` or musks. vllhoul uny reul
or ob|ecllve dlsllncllon.

#+
Isuluh 8.I9.

#!
The rulher blzurre-soundlng blology here ls derlved from Arlslolle`s
Cenerullon of Anlmuls. Neverlheless. lhe polnl mukes some sense lf one
remembers mules ÷ lhe hybrld offsprlng of u mule donkey und u femule
horse.

Theologlcul Crullons 5: Cn lhe Holy Splrll

I05
ulso creulures vhlch depurl ln some vuy from lhelr lrue nulures und undergo
chunge und lrunsformullon from one creulure lnlo unolher. by u mugnlflcence
of nulure. And lndeed somellmes ln lhe sume specles purl muy be generuled
und purl nol; und yel ull of one subslunce; vhlch ls more llke our presenl
sub|ecl. I vlll |usl menllon one fucl of our ovn nulure lhul everyone knovs.
und lhen I vlll puss on lo unolher purl of lhe sub|ecl.
§ II. Vhul vus Adum! A creulure of Cod. Vhul lhen vus Lve! A frugmenl
of lhe creulure.
##
§ I2. ¨8ul vho hus ever vorshlpped lhe Splrll!` our opponenl usks ¨Vho
umong ull lhe flgures of lhe Cld or lhe Nev Teslumenl! Vho hus ever pruyed
lo Hlm! Vhere ls ll vrlllen lhul ve oughl lo vorshlp Hlm or pruy lo Hlm.
und from vhere do you gel lhls oplnlon of yours!` Ve vlll glve u fuller
explunullon luler on. vhen ve dlscuss lhe quesllon of unvrlllen leuchlngs.
And vhul vus Selh! The begollen of bolh. Does ll lhen seem
lo you lhul lhe creulure. lhe frugmenl. und lhe begollen-of-bolh ure lhe sume
lhlng! Cf course nol. Are lhey 'of lhe sume belng [homoouslu].` or vhul! Cf
course lhey ure ÷ hov cun lhey nol be 'of one belng`! Vell lhen. here ll ls un
ucknovledged fucl lhul dlfferenl persons muy huve lhe sume belng. I do nol
speuk ln lhls vuy becuuse I ullrlbule creuledness or belng u frugmenl or uny
properly of body lo lhe dlvlnlly ÷ lel none of your lrlcky udvocules come
dovn on me uguln! ÷ bul ln order lhul I muy conlemplule ln lhese flgures. us
on u sluge. lhlngs vhlch ure ob|ecls of pure lhoughl ulone. For ll ls nol
posslble for uny compurlson lo mulch exuclly lhe vhole lrulh ln lls purlly.
¨8ul.` our opponenls suy. ¨vhul ls lhe meunlng of ull lhls! For ls nol lhe one
un offsprlng. und lhe olher u somelhlng else of lhe Cne! Dld nol bolh Lve und
Selh come from lhe one Adum! And vere lhey bolh begollen by hlm!` Nol
ul ull ÷ Lve vus u frugmenl of hlm. und Selh vus begollen by hlm. And yel lhe
lvo vere one und lhe sume lhlng; for bolh vere humun belngs ÷ no-one vlll
deny lhul. Vlll you lhen glve up your conlenllon ugulnsl lhe Splrll. by
prelendlng lhul ellher He musl be begollen or else He cun be nellher of lhe
sume 8elng nor Cod. Vlll you nol udmll from humun exumples lhe posslblllly
of our poslllon! I lhlnk ll vlll be vell for you. unless you ure delermlned lo be
very quurrelsome und lo flghl ugulnsl lhe evldence.
#%

#"
I.e. lhe (legendury) phonlx.

##
Cf. Cenesls 2.22-23: ¨So lhe LCRD Cod cuused u deep sleep lo full upon
lhe mun. und he slepl; lhen he look one of hls rlbs und closed up lls
pluce vllh flesh. And lhe rlb lhul lhe LCRD Cod hud luken from lhe mun
he mude lnlo u vomun und broughl her lo lhe mun. Then lhe mun suld.
'Thls ul lusl ls bone of my bones und flesh of my flesh; lhls one shull be
culled Vomun. for oul of Mun lhls one vus luken.` `

#%
See § 26 und § 27 of lhe presenl Crullon.

Cregory of Nuzlunzus

I06
For lhe llme belng ll vlll be enough lo suy |usl lhls: ll ls ln lhe Splrll lhul ve
vorshlp. und ll ls ln lhe Splrll lhul ve pruy. For Scrlplure suys: Cod ls Splrll.
und lhose vho vorshlp Hlm musl vorshlp ln Splrll und ln lrulh.
#&
And uguln:
Ve do nol knov hov lo pruy us ve oughl. bul lhul very Splrll lnlercedes
vllh slghs loo deep for vords. And: I vlll pruy vllh lhe Splrll. bul I vlll pruy
vllh lhe mlnd ulso
#'
So I vlll nol be frlghlened by lhe lexl. All lhlngs huve been mude by lhe
Son.
÷ lhul ls. ln lhe mlnd und ln lhe Splrll. Therefore ll seems
lo me lhul vorshlpplng or pruylng vllh lhe Splrll ls slmply lhe Splrll offerlng
pruyer or vorshlp lo Hlmself. And vhul godly or leurned person vould
dlsupprove of lhls! For ln fucl lo vorshlp lhe Cne ls lo vorshlp lhe Three.
becuuse lhe honour. llke lhe dlvlnlly. ls equul umong lhe Three.
#(
§ I3. Cur urgumenl hus nov come lo lls prlnclpul polnl; und I um grleved
lhul u problem lhul vus long deud und hud glven vuy lo fullh. ls nov sllrred
up ufresh. Neverlheless. ll ls necessury lo slund ugulnsl lhese bubblers und nol
lo lel |udgemenl be glven ugulnsl us by defuull. vhen ve huve lhe Vord on
our slde und slund ln defence of lhe Splrll. ¨If lhere ls u Cod und u Cod und u
Cod.` lhey suy. ¨hov ls ll lhul lhere ure nol Three Cods! or hov cun vhul ls
us lf lhe Holy Splrll vere lncluded ln lhls ull lhlngs. For lhe lexl ucluully
suys: All lhlngs VHICH huve been mude. und nol slmply ull lhlngs. For lhe
Fulher vus nol mude. nor vere uny of lhe lhlngs vhlch vere nol mude. Prove
lhul lhe Fulher vus mude. und lhen glve Hlm lo lhe Son und number Hlm
umong lhe creulures; bul unlll you cun prove lhls. you vlll guln nolhlng for
your lmplely from lhls comprehenslve phruse. For lf lhe Fulher vus mude. ll
vus cerlulnly lhrough Chrlsl ÷ I myself vould nol deny lhul. 8ul lf lhe Fulher
vus nol mude. hov cun He be ellher one of lhe ull lhlngs vhlch huve been
mude. or hov cun He huve been mude lhrough Chrlsl! Ceuse lhen lo
dlshonour lhe Fulher by your opposlllon lo lhe Cnly-begollen ÷ for ll ls no
reul honour lo lhe Fulher lo rob Hlm of lhe Son by presenllng lhe luller us u
creulure. hovever superlor. And ceuse lo dlshonour lhe Son by your
opposlllon lo lhe Splrll. For lhe Son ls nol lhe muker of u fellov servunl. bul
shures glory vllh Cne of equul honour. Runk nolhlng ln lhe Trlnlly vllh
yourself. lesl you full uvuy from lhe Trlnlly. Do nol cul off from Lllher lhe
one und equully uugusl nulure. becuuse lf you overlhrov uny of lhe Three.
you vlll huve overlhrovn lhe vhole. 8eller lo huve un lncomplele nollon of
lhe unlon [of lhe Three] lhun lo venlure on u complele lmplely.


#&
Romuns 8.26.
#'
I Corlnlhluns I4.I5.


#(
Cf. 1ohn I.3.
Theologlcul Crullons 5: Cn lhe Holy Splrll

I07
glorlfled nol be u polyurchy!`
#)
§ I4. And hov ure ve lo combul und dlspule ugulnsl bolh of lhese purlles
logelher! Vhul ls our response! For us lhere ls one Cod. becuuse lhere ls only
one dlvlne nulure. und ull lhul proceeds from lhe Cne ls referred lo Il.
ullhough ve belleve lhul lhere ure Three. For one ls nol more und unolher
less Cod; nor ls Cne before und unolher ufler; nellher ure They dlvlded ln vlll
or purled ln pover; nor cun you flnd here uny of lhe quulllles of dlvlslble
lhlngs. To pul lhe muller conclsely. lhe dlvlne nulure undlvlded ln lhose vho
ure dlsllncl; lhere ls u unlque fuslon of Llghl. us lf lhree suns vere |olned lo
euch olher. Therefore. vhen ve look ul lhe dlvlne nulure. lhe Flrsl Cuuse. und
lhe Monurchy.
Vho ure lhey lhul lulk lhls vuy! Those vho
huve uchleved complele lmplely. or even lhose vho occupy lhe second runk
ln lmplely ÷ I meun lhose vho lhlnk rlghlly uboul lhe Son. For my response ls
dlrecled purlly ugulnsl bolh ln common. purlly ugulnsl lhese luller ln
purllculur. To lhls second group I suy: Vhul rlghl huve you vho vorshlp lhe
Son. even lhough you huve revolled from lhe Splrll. lo cull us lrllhelsls! Are
nol you dllhelsls! For lf you deny ulso lhe vorshlp of lhe Cnly-begollen. you
huve cleurly runged yourself umong our udversurles. And vhy should ve deul
klndly vllh you us nol qulle deud! 8ul lf you do vorshlp Hlm. und ure so fur
ln lhe vuy of sulvullon. ve vlll usk you vhul reusons you huve lo glve for
your dllhelsm. lf you ure churged vllh ll! If you knov u skllful urgumenl.
unsver. und glve us ulso lhe meuns lo unsver. For lhe very sume reuson vllh
vhlch you vlll repel u churge of dllhelsm vlll prove sufflclenl for us ugulnsl u
churge of lrllhelsm. And lhus ve shull vln lhe duy by muklng use of you. our
uccusers. us our udvocules. Could unylhlng be more generous lhun lhul!
#*
§ I5. ¨So vhul!` our opponenl perhups vlll suy; ¨Don`l lhe Creeks ulso
belleve lhul lhere ls one dlvlnlly. us lhelr more udvunced phllosophers declure.
und don`l ve lreul humunlly us one. numely lhe enllre ruce! And yel lhey sllll
huve muny gods. don`l lhey. nol Cne. |usl us lhere ure muny humun belngs!`
8ul ln lhe cuse of humunlly. our common nulure hus u unlly vhlch ls
concelvuble only ln lhoughl; und lhe lndlvlduuls ure very dlfferenl from one
unolher. for lhey ure dlvlded by llme und by lhe cupuclly lo experlence und lo
ucl. For ve ure nol only composlle belngs; ve ure ulso conlrusled belngs. bolh
vllh respecl lo one unolher und vllh respecl lo our ovn selves. Ve do ve
remuln enllrely lhe sume even for u slngle duy. lo suy nolhlng of u vhole
llfellme. bul bolh ln body und ln soul ure ln u perpeluul slule of flux und
chunge. And perhups lhe sume muy be suld of lhe ungels und of lhe vhole of
ll ls lhe Cne lhul uppeurs lo us. 8ul vhen ve look ul lhose ln
vhom lhe dlvlne nulure dvells. ul lhose vho llmelessly und vllh equul glory
come oul of lhe Flrsl Cuuse ÷ lhen lhere ure Three vhom ve vorshlp.


#)
polyurchy. See Crullon 3. § 2 (puge 45 und foolnole 3).
#*
Monurchy. Aguln. see Crullon 3. § 2 (puge 45 und foolnole 3).
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

I08
lhul superlor nulure vhlch ls second lo lhe Trlnlly ulone; ullhough lhey ure

slmple
%+
§ I6. Nor do lhose vhom lhe Creeks vorshlp. lhe gods und lhe
¨dæmons`
ln some meusure und more flrmly orlenled lo 8euuly. slnce lhey ure
neurer lo lhe supreme 8euuly.
%!
(us lhey cull lhem). need us lo be lhelr uccusers. Thelr ovn
lheologluns convlcl
%"
lhese gods of belng sub|ecl lo pusslons und lnflghllng. full
of lnnumeruble evlls und lluble lo chunges. These ¨gods` slruggle nol only
vllh one unolher bul even vllh lhelr flrsl cuuses. vhom lhe Creeks cull
Cceun. Telhys. Phunes. und severul olher numes; lusl of ull lhere vus u cerluln
god vho. lhrough love of pover. huled hls chlldren und svulloved up ull lhe
resl lhrough hls greedlness so lhul he mlghl become ¨lhe fulher` of ull ¨lhe
morluls und gods` vhom he hud mlserubly devoured und lhen vomlled oul
uguln.
%#
And lf lhese ure nolhlng bul mylhs und fubles. us lhey suy ln order lo
escupe lhe shumefulness of lhe slory. vhul vlll lhey suy uboul lhe suylng lhul
¨ull lhlngs ure dlvlded lnlo lhree purls.` und lhul lhree gods preslde over u
dlfferenl purl of lhe Unlverse. euch huvlng u dlsllncl provlnce us vell us u
dlsllncl runk!
%%
8ul lhls ls nol our fullh. Thls ls nol lhe porllon of 1ucob. suys my
lheologlun.

%&

%+
slmple. I.e. nol composlle. nol composed of dlfferenl purls (for exumple.
soul und body) lhe vuy humuns ure.
8ul euch of lhe Three ls us enllrely one vllh Those vllh vhom ll
ls unlled us ll ls vllh llself. becuuse of lhe ldenllly of essence und pover
umong Them. And lhls ls lhe ground of lhe unlon. so fur us ve huve
upprehended ll. If lhen lhls uccounl ls lhe lrue one. lel us lhunk Cod for lhe
gllmpse He hus grunled us; lf ll ls nol. lel us seek for u beller.

%!
In lhe mylhology of unclenl Creek polylhelsm. ¨dæmons` vere belngs ln
belveen lhe gods und humuns; lhey dld nol possess lmmorlullly.

%"
Cregory muy be lhlnklng of Plulo. vho ln The Republlc II und III.
denounced lhe slorles of lhe gods lold by eurller Creek poels such us
Heslod und Homer.

%#
Cregory ls referrlng lo Sulurn. lhe Romun god of ugrlcullure.

%%
Cf. Homer. Illud XV.I89. vhere lhe god Poseldon speuks lhe quoled
vords und slules lhul he rules lhe surfuce of lhe eurlh. vhlle Zeus rules
lhe heuvens. und Hudes rules lhe undervorld.

%&
1eremluh I0.I6.
Theologlcul Crullons 5: Cn lhe Holy Splrll

I09
§ I7. As for lhe urgumenls vllh vhlch you vould over-lhrov lhe unlon
vhlch ve supporl. I do nol knov vhelher ve should suy you ure |esllng or ln
eurnesl. For vhul ls lhls urgumenl! ¨Thlngs of one essence [homoouslu].` you
suy. ¨ure counled logelher` ÷ und by lhls ¨counled logelher.` you meun lo
suy lhul lhey cun be reduced lnlo u slngle number ÷ ¨bul lhlngs vhlch ure nol
of one essence [homoouslu] ure nol counled logelher. So lhen.` you udd.
¨you cunnol uvold speuklng of lhree gods. uccordlng lo lhls uccounl. vhlle ve
do nol run uny rlsk ul ull of ll. lnusmuch us ve usserl lhul lhey ure nol 'of one
essence` [homoouslu].` And so by u slngle vord you huve freed yourselves
from lrouble und mude yourselves lhe vlclors. 8ul ll ls u pernlclous vlclory. for
ln fucl you huve ucled llke lhose vho hung lhemselves for feur of deulh. For
lo suve yourselves lrouble ln your chumplonshlp of monolhelsm. you huve
denled lhe dlvlne nulure und surrendered lo your opponenls lhe very polnl
lhul you vere seeklng lo eslubllsh. 8ul for my purl. I vlll nol surrender vhul I
vorshlp. vhulever lhe lrouble ll muy cosl me. And yel on lhls polnl I cunnol
see vhul lhe lrouble ls.
§ I8. You suy. ¨Thlngs of lhe sume essence [homoouslu] ure counled
logelher. bul lhlngs vhlch ure nol 'of lhe sume essence` ure counled one by
one.` Vhere dld you gel lhls from! From vhlch leuchers or splnners of mylh!
Do you nol knov lhul every number expresses lhe quunllly of vhul ls
lncluded under ll. und nol lhe nulure of lhe lhlngs lhem-selves! 8ul I um so
old fushloned ÷ or perhups I should suy so lgnorunl ÷ us lo use lhe vord lhree
for |usl lhul number of lhlngs. even lf lhey ure of u dlfferenl nulure; und by
lhe sume loken lo use one und one und one lo deslgnule so muny dlfferenl
unlls. even lf lhey ure unlled ln essence. For I um nol looklng ul lhe lhlngs
lhemselves so much us ul lhe quunllly of lhe lhlngs vllh respecl lo vhlch lhe
enumeru-llon ls mude. 8ul slnce you hold so very close lo ¨lhe lllerul
meunlng` [of lhe Scrlplures] ÷ ullhough you ure conlendlng ugulnsl ¨lhe lllerul
meunlng` ÷ pleuse luke your proofs from lhls source. In lhe book of Proverbs
ll suys: Three lhlngs ure slulely ln lhelr slrlde. lhe llon. lhe he-goul. und lhe
roosler; und lo lhese ls udded u fourlh. u klng hurungulng hls people
%'
÷ nol
lo menllon lhe olher sels of four vhlch ure lhere counled up. ullhough lhlngs
of dlfferenl nulures. And I flnd lvo cherublm counled sepurulely by Moses.
%(

%'
Proverbs 30.29-30 (Sepluuglnl).

Accordlng lo lhe rules of your crufl. hov could lhe former lhlngs be culled
lhree vhen lhey dlffer so greully ln lhelr nulure. or lhe luller lhlngs be lreuled

%(
Lxodus 37.7-8: Vhen conslrucllng lhe urk of lhe covenunl. Moses ¨mude
lvo cherublm of hummered gold; ul lhe lvo ends of lhe mercy seul he
mude lhem. one cherub ul lhe one end. und one cherub ul lhe olher
end; of one plece vllh lhe mercy seul he mude lhe cherublm ul lls lvo
ends.`
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

II0
us dlsllncl unlls vhen lhey ure ln nulure so slmllur und so unlled! For lf I vere

lo speuk of Cod und Mummon us lvo muslers.
%)
§ I9. ¨8ul lo my mlnd.` our opponenl suys. ¨lhose lhlngs ure suld lo be
numbered logelher und of lhe sume essence vhen lhey ure reclprocully
deslgnuled by lhe sume nume ÷ for exumple. 'lhree humuns` or 'lhree gods`.
8ul lhls does nol upply lo u group of lhree composed of dlfferenl lhlngs.`
Vhul does lhls relorl umounl lo! Il beflls someone luylng dovn lhe luv us lo
numes. nol lo one vho ls usserllng lhe lrulh. I ulso vlll concede lhul Peler.
Puul. und 1ohn ure nol lhree und ure nol ¨of lhe sume belng [homoouslol].`
lnsofur us I cunnol suy ¨lhree Pelers.` or ¨lhree Puuls.` or ¨lhree 1ohns`.
counllng lhem under one
deslgnullon [l.e. ¨musler`] desplle lhe vusl dlfference belveen lhem. I should
probubly be even more rldlculous ln your eyes for my melhod of numberlng
lhlngs logelher.
%*
Vhul does 1ohn suy! In hls Culhollc Lplslles he suys: There ure lhree lhul
beur vllness: lhe Splrll und lhe vuler und lhe blood.
For
vhul you huve reserved for numes vhlch ure common lo u generul cluss of
lhlngs. ve clulm ÷ ln conformlly vllh your unulyllcul flgmenl ÷ for proper
numes us vell; olhervlse. you vlll be unfulr ln nol concedlng lo olhers vhul
you urrogule for yourself.
&+

%)
Cf. Mullhev 6.24: ¨No one cun serve lvo muslers; for u sluve vlll ellher
hule lhe one und love lhe olher. or be devoled lo lhe one und desplse
lhe olher. You cunnol serve Cod und Veullh [µoµevo ÷ mumonu].`
Moµevo. ¨veullh.` ls one of lhose curlous survlvuls of un Arumulc vord
or phruse lnlo lhe Creek of lhe evungellsls; unolher exumple ls Murk
5.4I.
Do you lhlnk he ls
lulklng nonsense! ÷ Tulklng nonsense. flrsl. becuuse he hus been so bold us lo
usslgn u slngle numerul lo lhlngs vhlch ure nol ¨of lhe sume belng
[homoouslu].` lhough you suy lhls oughl lo be done only ln lhe cuse of lhlngs
vhlch ure ¨of lhe sume belng`. For vho vould usserl lhul lhese lhree
¨vllnesses` huve lhe sume essence! Tulklng nonsense. secondly. becuuse he hus
nol been conslslenl ln lhe vuy he huppened upon hls lerms. For ufler uslng
lhree ln lhe muscullne gender [tµciç ÷ lrels]. he udds lhree vords vhlch ure
neuler [to tµio ÷ lu lrlu]. conlrury lo lhe rules und regulullons vhlch you und
your grummurluns huve luld dovn. For vhul ls lhe dlfference belveen pulllng

%*
Peler. Puul. und 1ohn ure nol lhree und ure nol ¨of lhe sume belng.`
lnsofur us I cunnol suy ¨lhree Pelers.` or ¨lhree Puuls.` or ¨lhree 1ohns`.
Peler. Puul. und 1ohn do nol huve lhe sume exlslence. such lhul uny one
of lhelr lhree numes could be used lnlerchungeubly for lhe olher lvo.

&+
I 1ohn 5.7-8.
Theologlcul Crullons 5: Cn lhe Holy Splrll

III
u muscullne-gender lhree flrsl. und lhen uddlng one und one und one ln lhe
neuler gender. or ufler u muscullne-gender one und one und one lo use lhe
lhree nol ln lhe muscullne bul ln lhe neuler gender! Is lhls nol vhul you
yourself re|ecl ln lhe cuse of lhe dlvlnlly!
Vhul huve you lo suy uboul lhe vord koµkivoç [kurklnos]. vhlch cun
meun un unlmul. un lnslrumenl. und u conslellullon!
&!
And vhul uboul lhe
vord ¨dog`! ÷ nov somelhlng vhlch runs on lhe ground. nov somelhlng
vhlch svlms ln lhe seu. nov somelhlng vhlch slls ln lhe heuvens!
&"
§ 20. I nole ulso lhls furlher polnl. vhlch ls nol vllhoul lls beurlng on lhe
sub|ecl. Don`l one und one udded logelher muke lvo. und doesn`l lvo.
dlvlded uguln. resolve buck lnlo one und one! ÷ ¨Cbvlously.` ÷ In lhul cuse.
uccordlng lo your lheory. lf elemenls vhlch ure udded logelher musl huve lhe
sume essence. und lhlngs vhlch huve dlfferenl essences musl be counled
sepurulely. lhen ll vlll follov lhul lhe sume lhlngs musl huve bolh lhe sume
essence und dlfferenl essences! I luugh ul your culculullng nov ln one order.
lhen ln unolher order. of vhlch you ure so proud. us lf lhe lhlngs lhemselves
depend upon lhe order ln vhlch lhey ure numed. If lhls vere so. uccordlng lo
lhe sume luv. ll vould follov lhul. slnce holy Scrlplure numes lhe sume lhlngs
nov ln one order. lhen ln unolher order on uccounl of lhelr equul dlgnlly of
nulure. vhul prevenls lhem from belng ul once more honouruble und less
honouruble lhun lhemselves! I muke lhe sume observullon concernlng lhe
numes Cod und Lord. und concernlng lhe preposlllons of vhom. und by
vhom. und ln vhom. by vhlch you presume lo sub|ecl lhe dlvlnlly lo your
ovn rules. ullrlbullng lhe flrsl [l.e. Cod] lo lhe Fulher. lhe second [l.e. Lord]
lo lhe Son. und lhe lhlrd [l.e. lhe preposlllons] lo lhe Holy Splrll. Vhul vould
you do. lhen. lf euch of lhese expresslons vere lnvurlubly ullolled lo Luch [of
Do you
nol see lhul lhree crubs or lhree dogs ure belng spoken of! ÷ ¨Vhy. cerlulnly.`
÷ Vell lhen. ure lhey lherefore of lhe sume essence [homoouslu]! ÷ ¨Cnly u
fool vould suy lhul.` ÷ So you see hov complelely your urgumenl ÷ lhul only
lhlngs of lhe sume essence [homoouslu] cun be counled logelher ÷ hus broken
dovn. und ls refuled by ull lhese lnslunces. For lf lhlngs of sume essence ure
nol ulvuys deslgnuled by lhe sume numerul. und lhlngs nol of lhe sume
essence cun be deslgnuled by lhe sume numerul. und lf lhe nouns ln bolh cuses
ure sluled vllh lhe numeruls ÷ vhul remulns of your leuchlngs!

&!
Thul ls lo suy. koµkivoç cun refer lo u crub (shellflsh). lo u pulr of plncers.
or lo lhe conslellullon Cuncer.

&"
Thul ls lo suy. u pooch. u dog-flsh. or one of lvo conslellullons (Cunls
Mu|or [¨lhe Lurger Dog` = Crlon`s Hound]. und Cunls Mlnor [¨lhe
Lesser Dog`]). Cregory used lhe exumple of lhe dog und lhe dog-flsh lo
muke u slmllur polnl uboul lhe umblvulence of lunguuge ln Crullon 3.
§ I4 (puges 58-59).
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

II2
lhe Three] ÷ slnce. ln fucl. ull lhese expresslons ure upplled lo ull Three. us ls
evldenl lo lhose vho huve sludled lhe quesllon! Neverlheless. you muke lhe
expresslons u busls for usserllng un lnequullly of nulure und dlgnlly.
Thls ls sufflclenl for lhose vho do nol lolully luck sense. 8ul ll hurd for
you. once you huve ussuulled lhe Splrll. lo check your rush und. llke u furlous
bour. nol push your quurrel lo lhe blller end und churge lnlo lhe blude unlll
you huve recelved u fulul vound ln your ovn breusl. All rlghl. lhen. lel us go
on lo see vhul furlher urgumenl remulns lo you.
§ 2I. Cver und over uguln you come buck ul us vllh lhls reply: ¨Il`s nol ln
Scrlplure.` 8ul lhul lhe Holy Splrll ls nol un ullen smuggled lnlo our rellglon
bul ucknovledged und plulnly sel forlh bolh by lhe unclenls und by lhose of
our ovn duy. ls u polnl ulreudy demonslruled by muny vho huve deull vllh
lhls sub|ecl und vho huve hundled lhe holy Scrlplures. nol vllh lndlfference
or us u mere pusllme bul by openlng up lhe leller of lhe lexl und looklng lnlo
lhe lnner meunlng. These huve been deemed vorlhy lo see lhe beuuly hldden
lhere. und huve been lllumlned by lhe llghl of knovledge.
Ve ln our lurn vlll prove our leuchlng us succlnclly us posslble. ln order
nol lo seem lo be over-curlous or lmproperly umblllous by bulldlng on u
foundullon luld by someone else.
&#
§ 22. Some lhlngs huve no exlslence bul ure spoken of [ln lhe Scrlplures];
olher lhlngs vhlch do exlsl ure nol spoken of; some nellher exlsl nor ure
spoken of. und some bolh exlsl und ure spoken of. Do you usk me for proof
of lhls! I um reudy lo glve ll. Accordlng lo Scrlplure. Cod sleeps und
uvukens.
8ul slnce lhe fucl lhul Scrlplure does nol
very cleurly or very oflen suy ln so muny vords lhul lhe Splrll ls Cod. us ll
suys flrsl of lhe Fulher und uflervurds of lhe Son ÷ slnce lhls hus provoked
your blusphemy us vell us lhls excesslve vordlness und lmplely of yours. ve
vlll releuse you from lhls lnconvenlence by u shorl dlscusslon of lhlngs und
numes. und especlully of lhelr use ln Scrlplure.
&%
ls ungry. vulks. hus lhe cherublm for Hls lhrone.
&&

&#
Romuns I5.20.
And yel vhen

&%
Cf. Psulm 44.23: ¨Avuke. C Lord! vhy ure you sleeplng!` Psulm 78.65:
¨Then. C LCRD. you voke us lhough from sleep.` 1eremluh 3I.26:
¨Thereupon I uvoke und looked [suys lhe LCRD]. und my sleep vus
pleusunl lo me.`

&&
Cod`s unger. L.g. Psulm 79.5: ¨Hov long vlll you be ungry. C LCRD!*
vlll your fury bluze llke flre for ever!` Isuluh 5.25: ¨Therefore lhe unger
of lhe LCRD vus klndled ugulnsl hls people. und he slrelched oul hls
hund ugulnsl lhem und slruck lhem; lhe mounlulns quuked. und lhelr
corpses vere llke refuse ln lhe slreels. For ull lhls hls unger hus nol lurned
uvuy. und hls hund ls slrelched oul sllll.` Cod vulks. L.g. Cenesls 3.8:
Theologlcul Crullons 5: Cn lhe Holy Splrll

II3
hus He ever been sub|ecl lo such lhlngs [us sleeplng und vuklng und unger]!
Huve you ever heurd lhul Cod hus u body [vhlch vulks und slls on u lhrone]!
These ure flgures of speech. nol reulllles. For ve huve deslgnuled us vell us
posslble lhe lhlngs of Cod by reference lo lhlngs of our ovn. Hls lelllng us
ulone und (us ll vere) nol curlng for us. for reusons knovn lo Hlmself. ls vhul
ve cull Hls sleeplng; for our ovn sleep ls such u slule of lnucllvlly. And uguln.
Hls sudden lurnlng lo do us good ls lhe vuklng up. for lo vuke up ls lo sleep
no longer. us lo lurn lovurds someone ls no longer lo lurn uvuy. And vhen
He punlshes. ve suy He ls ungry; for so ll ls vllh us. punlshmenl ls lhe resull of
unger. And Hls vorklng nov here. nov lhere. ve cull vulklng; for vulklng ls
lo move from one pluce lo unolher. Hls resllng umong lhe holy compuny of
heuven ÷ so lo speuk. Hls lovlng lo dvell umong lhem ÷ ls Hls sllllng und
belng enlhroned; lhls. loo. ls un lmuge lhul ve derlve from our ovn
condlllon. for Cod resls on no-one und nolhlng so much us on lhe sulnls. Hls
svlflness of movemenl ls culled flylng.
&'
und Hls vulchful cure ls culled Hls
¨fuce.`
&(
und hls glvlng und beslovlng ls Hls ¨hund`.
&)
§ 23. Aguln. vhere do you gel your lerms Unbegollen und Vllhoul-orlgln.
lhose lvo clludels of your poslllon!
In shorl. lhe vurlous
povers or ucllvllles of Cod huve been plclured for us by vurlous bodlly
lmuges.
&*

¨[Adum und Lve] heurd lhe sound of lhe LCRD Cod vulklng ln lhe
gurden ul lhe llme of lhe evenlng breeze.` Cod hus lhe cherublm for Hls
lhrone. L.g. Psulm 80.I: ¨Heur. C Shepherd of Isruel. leudlng 1oseph llke
u flock;* shlne forlh. you lhul ure enlhroned upon lhe cherublm.` Isuluh
37.I6: ¨C LCRD of hosls. Cod of Isruel. vho ure enlhroned ubove lhe
cherublm. you ure Cod. you ulone. of ull lhe klngdoms of lhe eurlh.`
Cr ve ourselves ÷ vhere do ve gel our

&'
Cf. Psulm I8.II: ¨[The LCRD] mounled on cherublm und flev; / He
svooped on lhe vlngs of lhe vlnd.`

&(
Cf. (umong muny olher pluces) Psulm 27.II-I2: ¨You speuk ln my heurl
und suy. 'Seek my fuce.` / Your fuce. LCRD. vlll I seek. Hlde nol your fuce
from me. / nor lurn uvuy your servunl ln dlspleusure.`

&)
Cf. (uguln. umong muny olher pluces) Psulm I45.I5-I6: ¨The eyes of ull
vull upon you. C LCRD. / und you glve lhem lhelr food ln due seuson.
You open vlde your hund / und sullsfy lhe needs of every llvlng
creulure.`

&*
Cregory`s polnl ls lhul lhe lvo lerms ln quesllon. ¨unbegollen` und
¨vllhoul-orlgln` (ovoµ_ov ÷ unurchon). ure nol lo be found ln lhe
Scrlplures.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

II4
lerm Immorlul! Shov me exuclly vhere lhese lerms ure found. or else ve vlll
dlscurd lhem or eruse lhem us nol conlulned ln Scrlplure. You ure sluln by
your ovn prlnclple ÷ lhe numes you rely on ure overlhrovn und vllh lhem
lhe rumpurl behlnd vhlch you look sheller vllh such confldence. Is ll nol
evldenl lhul lhey derlved from pussuges vhlch lmply lhem. lhough lhe lerms
lhemselves do nol ucluully occur! Vhul ure lhese pussuges! ÷ I um lhe flrsl.
und I um lhe lusl;
'+
und. 8efore me lhere vus no god. nor shull lhere be uny
ufler me.
'!
Nov. vhul ure lhe lhlngs vhlch do nol exlsl ln fucl und ure nol spoken of!
These: ¨Cod ls evll;` ¨A sphere ls squure;` ¨The pusl ls presenl;` ¨Humunlly ls
nol u compound belng.` Huve you ever knovn unyone so slupld us lo dure lo
lhlnk or lo usserl unylhlng of lhe sorl!
For ull lhul depends on lhul I um mukes for my slde. for ll hus
nellher beglnnlng nor endlng. Vhen you uccepl lhls ÷ lhul nolhlng ls before
Hlm. und lhul He does nol huve u prlor cuuse. ÷ you huve lmpll-cllly glven
Hlm lhe lllles Unbegollen und Vllhoul-orlgln. And lo suy lhul He hus no end
of belng ls lo cull Hlm Immorlul und Imperlshuble. The flrsl lvo pulrs of lerms
ure lhus uccounled for.
Il remulns lo shov vhul ure lhe lhlngs vhlch bolh exlsl und ure spoken of:
Cod. humun belng. ungel. |udgemenl. vunlly ÷ numely. sylloglsms such us
yours ÷ und lhe subverslon of fullh und emplylng of lhe myslery.
§ 24. Seelng lhul lhere ls so much dlverslly ln lerms und lhlngs. vhy ure
you such u sluve lo lhe leller. so luken vllh 1evlsh vlsdom und ulluched lo
syllubles ul lhe expense of reulllles! If you suld ¨lvo llmes flve` or ¨lvo llmes
seven.` und lf I concluded lhul you meunl ¨len` or ¨fourleen`; or lf you
spoke of u belng lhul hud u soul und vus rullonul und morlul. und lf I
concluded lhul you meunl u humun belng ÷ vould you lhlnk lhul I vus lulklng
nonsense! Surely nol. becuuse I vould be merely slullng vhul you meunl.
Afler ull. vords belong us much lo lhe one vho speuks lhem us lo lhe one
vho prompls lhem. 1usl us here I huve been focuslng less on your lerms lhun
on your lhoughl. so lf I found somelhlng else vhlch ls nol sluled ul ull or nol
cleurly sluled ln Scrlplure. bul vhlch ls lncluded ln Scrlplure`s meunlng. I
vould nol refruln from expresslng ll oul of feur of you ÷ you slunderer of
vords! In lhls vuy. ve vlll hold our ovn ugulnsl lhe seml-orlhodox ÷ umong
vhom I do nol counl you.
'"

'+
Isuluh 4I.4.
For slnce you deny lhe lllles of lhe Son. vhlch
ure so muny und so cleur. ll ls qulle evldenl lhul even lf you leurnl u greul
muny more und cleurer ones you vould nol be moved lo reverence. 8ul nov

'!
Isuluh 43.I0.

'"
lhe seml-orlhodox ure lhose vho ufflrmed lhe dlvlnlly of lhe Son bul
denled lhul of lhe Splrll; see §§ I-2 (puges 97-98) of lhe presenl Crullon.
Theologlcul Crullons 5: Cn lhe Holy Splrll

II5
I vlll uguln luke up lhe urgumenl brouched u llllle eurller und shov you.
lhough you ure so clever. lhe reuson for lhe obscurlly.
'#
§ 25. In lhe course of lhe hlslory of lhe vorld. lhere huve been lvo
noluble ¨shuklngs`

'%
ln humun llfe. These ure culled lhe lvo Teslumenls ÷ or.
on uccounl of lhe vlde fume of lhe muller. lvo ¨eurlhquukes`. The flrsl
¨eurlhquuke` shlfled lhe vorld from ldols lo lhe Luv of Moses. lhe second
shlfled lhe vorld from lhe Luv lo lhe Cospel. And ln lhe Cospel ve ure
luughl of u lhlrd ¨eurlhquuke` ÷ numely. from lhls eurlh lo vhul cunnol be
moved or shuken.
'&
Nov. lhe lvo Teslumenls ure ullke ln lhls respecl. lhul lhe
chunge vus nol mude suddenly or ul lhe flrsl movemenl of lhe ucllon. Vhy
nol! ÷ for lhls ls somelhlng ve musl knov. Thls ls vhy: ÷ So lhul ve mlghl be
persuuded. nol compelled. For nolhlng lhul ls lnvolunlury ls duruble. us ls lhe
cuse vllh slreums or lrees vhlch ure kepl buck by force. 8ul lhul vhlch ls
volunlury ls more duruble und secure. The former resull [l.e. luck of durublllly]
ls due lo one vho uses force. lhe luller resull ls due lo ourselves. The one ls
due lo lhe genlleness of Cod. lhe olher lo u lyrunnlcul pover. Cod dld nol
lhlnk ll necessury for Hlm lo benefll lhe unvllllng. bul lo do good lo lhe
vllllng. So. llke u lulor-escorl
''

'#
I.e. lhe Scrlplure`s obscurlly on lhe lssue of lhe dlvlnlly of lhe Holy Splrll.
or physlclun. He removes one cuslom und
condones unolher. muklng some concesslons lo pleusure. |usl us physlcluns do
vllh lhelr pullenls vhen lhey urlfully blend lhelr medlclne vllh somelhlng
ugreeuble so lhul ll muy be luken. For ll ls no very eusy muller lo chunge from
lhose hublls vhlch cuslom und use huve mude honouruble. For lnslunce. lhe
Luv cul off lhe ldol. bul lefl lhe sucrlflces; lhe Cospel ubollshed lhe sucrlflces
bul dld nol forbld clrcumclslon. Then. once people hud uccepled lhe

'%
Cf. Hebrevs I2.26-27: ¨Al lhul llme hls volce shook lhe eurlh; bul nov
he hus promlsed. Yel once more I vlll shuke nol only lhe eurlh bul ulso
lhe heuven [Huggul 2.6]. Thls phruse. Yel once more. lndlcules lhe
removul of vhul ls shuken ÷ lhul ls. creuled lhlngs ÷ so lhul vhul cunnol
be shuken muy remuln.`

'&
Hebrevs I2.27 (see prevlous foolnole).

''
Cf. Cululluns 3.24-26: ¨Therefore lhe luv vus our dlsclpllnurlun unlll
Chrlsl cume. so lhul ve mlghl be |usllfled by fullh. 8ul nov lhul fullh hus
come. ve ure no longer sub|ecl lo u dlsclpllnurlun. for ln Chrlsl 1esus you
ure ull chlldren of Cod lhrough fullh.` The Creek vord vhlch lhe NRSV
lrunslules us ¨dlsclpllnurlun` ls toioo¸e¸oç (puldugogos). In lhe unclenl
vorld. u pedugogue vus u sluve vho ellher lulored lhe sons of hls
musler ln lhelr flrsl lessons ul home or escorled lhem lo school.

Cregory of Nuzlunzus

II6
curlullmenl. lhey ulso ylelded vhul hud been conceded lo lhem ÷ ln lhe flrsl
lnslunce lhe sucrlflces. ln lhe second clrcumclslon. They becume 1evs lnsleud of
Cenllles. und lnsleud of 1evs. Chrlslluns. belng begulled lnlo lhe Cospel by
gruduul chunges. Puul ls u proof of lhls. Huvlng ul one llme defended
clrcumclslon und lhe purlflcullons ordulned by lhe Luv of Moses. he
developed lo lhe polnl vhere he could suy: Vhy um I sllll belng perseculed lf
I um sllll preuchlng clrcumclslon!
'(
§ 26. To lhls I muy compure lhe cuse of lheology. excepl lhul lhe
procedure ls reversed. For ln lhe cuse lhul I |usl llluslruled. lhe chunge ls mude
by successlve sublrucllons; here. perfecllon ls reuched by uddlllons. For lhe
muller slunds lhus: ÷ The Cld Teslumenl proclulmed lhe Fulher openly. und
lhe Son more obscurely. The Nev Teslumenl munlfesled lhe Son. und
suggesled lhe dlvlnlly of lhe Splrll. Nov lhe Splrll Hlmself dvells umong us.
und supplles us vllh u cleurer demonslrullon of Hlmself. For ll vus nol sufe.
vhen lhe dlvlnlly of lhe Fulher vus nol yel ucknovledged. plulnly lo
proclulm lhe Son; nor vhen lhe Son`s dlvlnlly vus nol yel recelved vus ll sufe
lo burden us furlher (lf I muy use so bold un expresslon) vllh lhe Holy Splrll ÷
lesl. llke lhose louded vllh food beyond lhelr slrenglh und looklng dlreclly ul
lhe llghl of lhe sun vllh eyes us yel loo veuk lo beur ll. people rlsk lhe loss
even of vhul vus vllhln lhe reuch of lhelr povers. 8ul by gruduul uddlllons
und (us Duvld suys) uscenls.
Hls former conducl belonged lo lhe
lemporury dlspensullon. hls luller conducl. lo mulurlly.
')
by udvunces und progress from glory lo glory.
'*
Il vus for lhls reuson. I lhlnk. lhul lhe Splrll gruduully cume lo dvell ln lhe
dlsclples [of 1esus]. meusurlng Hlmself oul lo lhem uccordlng lo lhelr cupuclly
lo recelve Hlm ul lhe beglnnlng of lhe Cospel. ufler lhe pusslon. ufler lhe
uscenslon. He perfecled lhelr povers. He vus breulhed upon lhem.

lhe llghl of lhe Trlnlly comes lo shlne vllh lhe greuler clurlly.
(+
und He
uppeured ln longues of flre.
(!

'(
Cululluns 5.II.
And lndeed llllle by llllle He vus dlsclosed by

')
Cf. Psulm 84.6: ¨[Those vhose heurls ure sel on lhe pllgrlms` vuy] vlll
cllmb from helghl lo helghl. / und lhe Cod of gods vlll uppeur ln Zlon.`

'*
2 Corlnlhluns 3.I8.

(+
Cf. 1ohn 20.22: ¨Vhen [1esus] hud suld lhls. he breulhed on lhem und
suld lo lhem. 'Recelve lhe Holy Splrll.` `

(!
Acls 2.I-4: ¨Vhen lhe duy of Penlecosl hud come. lhey vere ull logelher
ln one pluce. And suddenly from heuven lhere cume u sound llke lhe rush
of u vlolenl vlnd. und ll fllled lhe enllre house vhere lhey vere sllllng.
Dlvlded longues. us of flre. uppeured umong lhem. und u longue resled
Theologlcul Crullons 5: Cn lhe Holy Splrll

II7
1esus. us you vlll leurn for yourself lf you reud more curefully. I vlll usk lhe
Fulher. He suys. und he vlll glve you unolher Advocule. lhe Splrll of lrulh.
("

He suld lhls so lhul He mlghl nol seem lo be u rlvul Cod.
(#
or lo be speuklng
lo lhem by some olher uulhorlly. Aguln: The Fulher vlll send hlm. bul ln my
nume.
(%
He leuves oul lhe I vlll usk. bul He keeps lhe vlll send. And uguln: I
vlll send [lhe Advocule lo you]
(&
÷ lhere you huve Hls ovn dlgnlly. Then: He
vlll come
('
§ 27. You see enllghlenmenl breuklng upon us gruduully. You ulso see lhe
order of lheology.
÷ lhere you huve lhe uulhorlly of lhe Splrll.
((
I vlll udd unolher polnl lo vhul I huve suld. one vhlch muy ulreudy huve
occurred lo some olhers. bul vhlch I lhlnk u frull of my ovn lhoughl. Cur
Suvlour fllled hls dlsclples vllh muny leuchlngs bul He hud cerluln lhlngs
vhlch. He suld. could nol be borne by lhem ul lhul llme.
vhlch ll ls beller for us lo ublde by ÷ nellher proclulmlng
lhlngs loo suddenly nor keeplng lhem hldden lo lhe very end. For lhe former
course [of proclulmlng lhlngs loo suddenly] vould be lnepl. lhe luller course
[of keeplng lhem hldden lo lhe end] vould be lmplous; lhe former vould be
culcululed lo slurlle oulslders. lhe luller lo ullenule our ovn people.
()
perhups for lhe
reusons I huve menlloned; lherefore He kepl lhem hldden. And uguln He suld
lhul ull lhlngs vould be luughl us by lhe Splrll ul lhe llme of Hls comlng lo
dvell umong us.
(*

on euch of lhem. All of lhem vere fllled vllh lhe Holy Splrll und begun
lo speuk ln olher lunguuges. us lhe Splrll guve lhem ublllly.`
Cne of lhese lhlngs. I luke ll. vus lhe Splrll`s ovn dlvlnlly.

("
1ohn I4.I6-I7.

(#
A rlvul Cod ÷ l.e. u rlvul lo lhe Fulher.

(%
1ohn I4.26.

(&
1ohn I6.7.

('
1ohn I6.8.

((
lhe order of lheology. 8y lheology Cregory here meuns Cod`s revelullon
or self-dlsclosure. und (us Cregory suggesls) lls ¨order` ls geured lo lhe
splrlluul mulurlly of lhe heurers. vhelher lhey ure reudy lo luke lhe nexl
slep ln underslundlng vhul Cod hus reveuled lo fullh.

()
1ohn I6.I2: ¨I sllll huve muny lhlngs lo suy lo you. bul you cunnol beur
lhem nov.`

(*
1ohn I6.I3: ¨Vhen lhe Splrll of lrulh comes. he vlll gulde you lnlo ull
lhe lrulh; for he vlll nol speuk on hls ovn. bul vlll speuk vhulever he
heurs. und he vlll declure lo you lhe lhlngs lhul ure lo come.`
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

II8
lo be mude cleur luler on vhen such knovledge vould be more opporlune
und more reudlly recelved. ufler our Suvlour resumed Hls pluce ln glory. For
lhen ll [sc. lhe knovledge of lhe Splrll`s dlvlnlly] vould no longer be recelved
vllh lncredullly becuuse of lls murvellous churucler. For vhul greuler lhlng
lhun lhls dld He promlse or lhe Splrll leuch! If lndeed unylhlng ls lo be
consldered greul und vorlhy of lhe mu|esly of Cod. ll ls lhls promlse und lhls
leuchlng.
§ 28. Such ls my poslllon. lhen. vllh regurd lo lhese quesllons. I hope ll
vlll ulvuys be my poslllon. und lhul of vhoever ls deur lo me; lo vorshlp lhe
Fulher us Cod. lhe Son us Cod. und lhe Holy Splrll us Cod. lhree
lndlvlduulllles.
)+
one dlvlnlly. undlvlded ln honour und glory und essence und
klngdom ÷ us one of our ovn lnsplred phllosophers shoved nol long ugo.
)!
If
uny ure olhervlse mlnded. or follov lhe lemper of lhe llmes. nov belng of
one mlnd. nov of unolher. lhlnklng unsoundly on lhe greulesl sub|ecl of ull.
lel lhem nol see lhe rlslng of lhe Mornlng Slur. us Scrlplure suys.
)"
nor lhe
glory of lls brlghlness. For lf lhe Splrll ls nol lo be vorshlpped. hov cun He
delfy me by bupllsm! And lf He ls lo be vorshlpped. surely He ls un ob|ecl of
udorullon ÷ und lf un ob|ecl of udorullon. He musl be Cod. The one ls llnked
lo lhe olher. u lruly golden und suvlng chuln. And lndeed from lhe Splrll
comes our nev blrlh. und from lhe nev blrlh our nev creullon.
)#
§ 29. Thls ls vhul could be suld. ussumlng lhul ¨ll`s nol ln Scrlplure`.
und from
lhe nev creullon our deeper knovledge of lhe dlgnlly of Hlm from vhom ll
ls derlved.
)%

)+
lhree lndlvlduulllles = ioiotqtoç (ldlolelus). Ve ure used lo suylng ¨lhree
persons.` bul lhul ls nol lhe vord lhul Cregory uses.
8ul
nov shull bursl upon you lhe svurm of lesllmonles vhlch vlll demonslrule lo

)!
Cregory probubly meuns hls frlend 8usll lhe Creul (d. 379). vho vrole
hls lreullse Cn lhe Holy Splrll ln 374-375. In lhul lreullse. 8usll urgued
for lhe equullly ÷ lndeed. lhe ldenllly ÷ of honour. glory. und
soverelgnly lo be ullrlbuled lo lhe Fulher. lhe Son. und lhe Splrll.

)"
Cf. 1ob 3.9 (Sepluuglnl); 2 Peler I.I9: ¨You vlll do vell lo be ullenllve
lo lhls us lo u lump shlnlng ln u durk pluce. unlll lhe duy duvns und lhe
mornlng slur rlses ln your heurls.`

)#
our nev creullon. Cregory uses lhe vord ovotìqoiç (unuplesls). vhlch
meuns ¨reconslrucllon.` ¨rebulldlng`. He could lhus be referrlng nol lo
¨lhe nev creullon` so much us lo lhe reslorullon of our humunlly lo lls
slule before lhe full of Adum und Lve.

)%
Cf. § 2I (ubove. puge II2).
Theologlcul Crullons 5: Cn lhe Holy Splrll

II9
ull vho ure nol loo dense. or lolul slrungers lo lhe Splrll. lhul lhe dlvlnlly of
lhe Holy Splrll ls mosl ussuredly ¨ln Scrlplure`. Look ul lhese fucls: ÷ Chrlsl
comes lnlo lhe vorld; lhe Splrll goes before Hlm.
)&
He ls bupllsed; lhe Splrll
beurs vllness.
)'
He ls lempled; lhe Splrll leuds Hlm.
)(
He vorks mlrucles; lhe
Splrll uccompunles Hlm.
))
He uscends; lhe Splrll lukes Hls pluce. Vhul greul
lhlngs ure lhere vhlch muke up our ldeu of Cod. lhul lhe Splrll cunnol do!
Vhul lllles ure lhere vhlch muke up our ldeu of Cod. lhul ure nol upplled lo
lhe Splrll. excepl only ¨Unbegollen` und ¨8egollen`! For ll vus necessury
lhul vhul dlsllngulshes lhe Fulher und lhe Son should remuln pecullur lo
Them. ln order lhul lhere be no confuslon ln lhe dlvlnlly vhlch sels ull lhlngs.
even chuos llself. ln due urrungemenl und good order. Indeed. I lremble vhen
I lhlnk of lhe ubundunce of lhe lllles und hov muny numes ure vloluled by
lhose vho ulluck lhe Splrll. He ls culled ¨lhe Splrll of Cod.`
)*
¨lhe Splrll of
Chrlsl.`
*+
¨lhe mlnd of Chrlsl.`
*!
¨lhe Splrll of lhe Lord.`
*"

)&
Cf. Luke I.35: ¨The ungel suld lo [Mury]. 'The Holy Splrll vlll come upon
you. und lhe pover of lhe Mosl Hlgh vlll overshudov you; lherefore
lhe chlld lo be born vlll be holy; he vlll be culled Son of Cod.` `
und ¨lhe Lord` ln

)'
Luke 3.2I-22: ¨Nov vhen ull lhe people vere bupllsed. und vhen 1esus
ulso hud been bupllsed und vus pruylng. lhe heuven vus opened. und
lhe Holy Splrll descended upon hlm ln bodlly form llke u dove. And u
volce cume from heuven. 'You ure my Son. lhe 8eloved; vllh you I um
vell pleused.` `

)(
Luke 4.2. I4: ¨1esus. full of lhe Holy Splrll. relurned from lhe 1ordun und
vus led by lhe Splrll ln lhe vllderness.`

))
Mullhev I2.28: ¨[1esus suld.] '8ul lf ll ls by lhe Splrll of Cod lhul I cusl
oul demons. lhen lhe klngdom of Cod hus come lo you.` `

)*
I Corlnlhluns 2.II: ¨For vhul humun belng knovs vhul ls lruly humun
excepl lhe humun splrll lhul ls vllhln! So ulso no one comprehends vhul
ls lruly Cod`s excepl lhe Splrll of Cod.`

*+
Romuns 8.9: ¨Anyone vho does nol huve lhe Splrll of Chrlsl does nol
belong lo hlm.`

*!
I Corlnlhluns 2.I3. I6: ¨And ve speuk of lhese lhlngs ln vords nol luughl
by humun vlsdom bul luughl by lhe Splrll. lnlerprellng splrlluul lhlngs lo
lhose vho ure splrlluul.. For vho hus knovn lhe mlnd of lhe Lord so us
lo lnslrucl hlm! [Isu. 40.I3] 8ul ve huve lhe mlnd of Chrlsl.`

*"
Vlsdom of Solomon I.7: ¨8ecuuse lhe splrll of lhe Lord hus fllled lhe
vorld. und lhul vhlch holds ull lhlngs logelher knovs vhul ls suld..`
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

I20
Hls ovn rlghl.
*#
¨lhe Splrll of udopllon.`
*%
¨of lrulh.`
*&
¨of freedom;`
*'
¨lhe
Splrll of vlsdom. ¨of underslundlng.` ¨of counsel.` ¨of mlghl.` ¨of
knovledge.` ¨of godllness.` ¨of lhe feur of Cod`.
*(
For He ls lhe Muker of ull
lhese quulllles. fllllng ull vllh Hls essence. conlulnlng ull lhlngs. fllllng lhe
vorld ln Hls essence. yel lncupuble of belng comprehended ln Hls pover by
lhe vorld; good. uprlghl. governlng; He suncllfles by nulure und nol by
udopllon. He ls nol suncllfled; He meusures. He ls nol meusured; He ls shured
ln bul does nol shure; He fllls bul ls nol fllled; He conlulns und ls nol
conlulned; He ls recelved us un lnherllunce. glorlfled. reckoned vllh lhe Fulher
und lhe Son; He ls held oul us u lhreul.
*)
He ls ¨lhe flnger of Cod`;
**
flre. llke
Cod ÷ lo munlfesl. us I luke ll. Hls oneness of belng [vllh lhe Fulher und lhe
Son]; ÷ lhe Splrll vho creules ull lhlngs. vho by bupllsm und by resurrecllon
creules unev; lhe Splrll vho knovs ull lhlngs. vho leuches. vho blovs
vherever und lo vhulever exlenl He chooses;
!++

*#
2 Corlnlhluns 3.I7: ¨Nov lhe Lord ls lhe Splrll.`
lhe Splrll vho leuds. speuks.
sends forlh. sels upurl. ls ungry. ls pul lo lhe lesl; vho reveuls. enllghlens.
glves llfe ÷ or rulher. vho ls Llghl llself und Llfe llself; ÷ vho mukes us Hls

*%
Romuns 8.I5: ¨For you dld nol recelve u splrll of sluvery lo full buck lnlo
feur. bul you huve recelved lhe Splrll of udopllon.`

*&
1ohn I4.I7: ¨Thls ls lhe Splrll of lrulh. vhom lhe vorld cunnol recelve.
becuuse ll nellher sees hlm nor knovs hlm. You knov hlm. becuuse he
ubldes vllh you. und he vlll be ln you.`

*'
2 Corlnlhluns 3.I7: ¨vhere lhe Splrll of lhe Lord ls. lhere ls freedom.`

*(
Isuluh II.2: ¨The splrll of lhe LCRD shull resl on hlm [l.e. lhe brunch of
1esse]. lhe splrll of vlsdom und underslundlng. lhe splrll of counsel und
mlghl. lhe splrll of knovledge und lhe feur of lhe LCRD.`

*)
Murk 3.29: ¨Vhoever blusphemes ugulnsl lhe Holy Splrll cun never huve
forglveness. bul ls gullly of un elernul sln.`

**
Luke II.20: ¨8ul lf ll ls by lhe flnger of Cod lhul I cusl oul lhe demons.
lhen lhe klngdom of Cod hus come lo you.` Thls ls purl of 1esus`
response lo lhose vho suld he ¨cusl oul demons by 8eelzebul. lhe ruler
of lhe demons`. Luke`s uccounl of lhe eplsode mukes no menllon of lhe
Splrll; Cregory vus evldenlly hurmonlslng ll vllh Murk 3.22-29.

!++
1ohn 3.8: ¨[1esus suld.] 'The vlnd [to tvcuµo ÷ lo pneumu] blovs
vhere ll chooses. und you heur lhe sound of ll. bul you do nol knov
vhere ll comes from or vhere ll goes. So ll ls vllh everyone vho ls born
of lhe Splrll [ck tou tvcuµotoç ÷ ek lou pneumulos].` `
Theologlcul Crullons 5: Cn lhe Holy Splrll

I2I
lemples;
!+!
vho delfles; vho conducls us ln lhe vuy of perfecllon. so lhul He
precedes bupllsm und ls lo be soughl ufler bupllsm; vho does ull lhul Cod
does. He ls dlvlded lnlo longues of flre; He dlslrlbules splrlluul glfls; muklng
uposlles. prophels. evungellsls. puslors. und leuchers. He ls lnlelllgenl.
munlfold. cleur. plerclng. unpolluled. lrreslsllble
!+"
§ 30. Those vho speuk und leuch lhese lhlngs. und vho moreover cull Hlm
unolher Puruclele
÷ ull of vhlch ls lhe sume us
suylng lhul lhe Splrll ls supreme Vlsdom und vorks ln u vurlely of vuys; lhul
He lllumlnes und penelrules ull lhlngs; lhul He ls ovn musler. unchungeuble.
ulmlghly. ull-seelng. penelrullng ull splrlls lhul ure lnlelllgenl. pure. mosl sublle
÷ lhe ungellc povers. I lhlnk. ÷ us vell us lhe splrlls of lhe uposlles und
prophels ln lhe sume munner. lhough nol ln lhe sume pluces. slnce lhey llved
here und lhere ÷ lhus shovlng lhul nolhlng clrcumscrlbes Hlm.
!+#
ln lhe sense of unolher Cod; lhose vho knov lhul
blusphemy ugulnsl Hlm ulone cunnol be forglven.
!+%
und lhose vho brunded
Anunlus und Supphlru vllh such feurful lnfumy for huvlng lled lo lhe Holy
Splrll ÷ lhul ls lo suy. for huvlng lled lo Cod und nol lo u humun
!+&
And vhulever lhe Scrlplures ulso suy ln more lovly fushlon ÷ lhul He ls
glven. senl. dlslrlbuled; lhul He ls lhe glfl. lhe bounly. lhe lnsplrullon. lhe

÷ vhul do
you lhlnk of such people! Do lhey proclulm lhul lhe Splrll ls Cod. or
somelhlng else! Nov reully. you musl be exlruordlnurlly dull und fur from lhe
Splrll lf you huve uny doubl uboul lhls und need some one lo leuch you. So
lmporlunl. lhen. und so vlvld ure Hls numes. Vhy ls ll necessury lo luy before
you lhese lesllmonles vord for vord!

!+!
I Corlnlhluns 3.I6: ¨Do you nol knov lhul you ure Cod`s lemple und
lhul Cod`s Splrll dvells ln you!`

!+"
Vlsdom 7.22-23: ¨There ls ln [Ludy Vlsdom] u splrll lhul ls lnlelllgenl.
holy. unlque. munlfold. sublle. moblle. cleur. unpolluled. dlsllncl.
lnvulneruble. lovlng lhe good. keen. lrreslsllble. beneflcenl. humune.
sleudfusl. sure. free from unxlely. ull-poverful. overseelng ull. und
penelrullng lhrough ull splrlls lhul ure lnlelllgenl. pure. und ullogelher
sublle.`

!+#
1ohn I4.I6: ¨I vlll usk lhe Fulher. und he vlll glve you unolher Advocule
[ullon Puruklelon]. lo be vllh you for ever.`

!+%
Murk 3.29; see foolnole 98 (puge I20).

!+&
Acls 5.I-II.
Cregory of Nuzlunzus

I22
promlse. lhe lnlercesslon for us
!+'
und uny olher expresslons of lhe sorl (nol lo
reclle lhem ull one by one) ÷ ls lo be referred lo lhe Flrsl Cuuse. ln order lo
shov from vhom He comes und. on lhe olher hund. lo shov lhul lhree
sepurule prlnclples. us concelved by polylhelsls.
!+(
ure nol udmllled. For ll ls
equully lmplous lo confuse llke Subelllus und lo dlvlde llke Arlus ÷ lhe former
vllh respecl lo lhe person.
!+)
§ 3I. I huve very curefully consldered lhls muller ln my ovn mlnd. und
huve looked ul ll ln every polnl of vlev. ln order lo flnd some llluslrullon of
lhls mosl lmporlunl sub|ecl; bul I huve been unuble lo dlscover unylhlng on
eurlh vllh vhlch lo compure lhe dlvlne nulure. Lven lf I dld dlscover some
llny llkeness. vhul vus mosl lmporlunl [uboul Cod] eluded me und lefl me
sllll here belov vllh my exumple. As olhers huve done before. I huve
lmuglned u source. u founluln. und u rlver. lo see lf lhe flrsl mlghl be
unulogous lo lhe Fulher. lhe second lo lhe Son. und lhe lhlrd lo lhe Holy
Splrll. For ln lhese lhere ls no dlsllncllon ln llme. nor ure lhey sepuruled from
one unolher vllh respecl lo conllnully. lhough euch of lhe lhree seem lo be
dlsllngulshed ln some vuy by lls proper churuclerlsllcs. 8ul I vus ufruld ln lhe
flrsl pluce lhul. by lhls unulogy. I mlghl be suggesllng some sorl of flov ln lhe
dlvlne nulure. vhlch vould exclude slublllly. Secondly. I vus ufruld lhul lhls
lmuge vould lnlroduce u numerlcul unlly [of person]. For lhe source und lhe
sprlng und lhe rlver ure only one lhlng. lhough lhey luke dlfferenl forms.
lhe luller vllh respecl lo lhe nulures.
§ 32. Aguln. I lhoughl of lhe sun. u ruy. und llghl. 8ul here once more
lhere vus u dunger lhul people mlghl lmuglne u cerluln compound ln lhe
nulure vhlch ls uncompounded. such us lhere ls ln lhe sun und vhul belongs
lo ll. In lhe second pluce. lhere ls lhe rlsk lhul ve should usslgn lhe essence lo
lhe Fulher bul deny uny dlsllncllve exlslence lo lhe olhers. und lhus muke

!+'
Romuns 8.26: ¨Llkevlse lhe Splrll helps us ln our veuk-ness; for ve do
nol knov hov lo pruy us ve oughl. bul lhul very Splrll lnlercedes vllh
slghs loo deep for vords.`

!+(
us concelved by polylhelsls. Thls phruse renders u slngle vord (un
udverb) ln Cregory`s lexl ÷ toìuuceç (polylheos). ¨polylhelsllcully`. Il
uppeurs lo be u ¨hupux legomenon.` lhe one und only occurrence of lhls
vord ln ull of Creek lllerulure.

!+)
Vllh respecl lo lhe person (te tµooete ÷ lo prosopo). Il ls unusuul for
Cregory lo use lhe lerm tµooetov lo deslgnule ¨dlvlne person`; he
normully used lhe lerm hyposlusls. Clven lhe ussoclullon of tµooetov
vllh u lheulrlcul musk. ll muy huve slruck hlm us lhe mosl upproprlule
lerm vhen referrlng lo Subelllus.
Theologlcul Crullons 5: Cn lhe Holy Splrll

I23
Them only povers of Cod. exlsllng ln Hlm vllhoul belng hyposluses.
!+*
§ 33. 8ul ll ls nol posslble for me lo muke use even of lhls unulogy; becuuse
ll ls qulle cleur vhul glves lhe ruy lls mollon. 8ul lhere ls nolhlng prlor lo Cod
vhlch could sel Hlm ln mollon; for He ls Hlmself lhe cuuse of ull lhlngs. und
He hus no prlor cuuse. And secondly. lhls unulogy vlll nol do becuuse here
ulso lhere ls u suggesllon of such lhlngs us composlllon. dlffuslon. und un
unsellled und unsluble nulure ÷ none of vhlch ve cun suppose ln lhe dlvlne
nulure. In u vord. lhere ls no flxed polnl for my mlnd ln lhese llluslrullons
from vhlch lo conslder lhe Cb|ecl vhlch I um lrylng lo represenl lo myself.
unless one shrevdly uccepls one polnl of lhe lmuge vhlle re|ecllng lhe olhers.
Flnully. ll seems besl lo me lo lel lhe lmuges und lhe shudovs go. us belng
decellful und fulllng very fur shorl of lhe lrulh. und lo ulluch myself lo lhe
more reverenl concepllon. relylng on fev vords. uslng lhe guldunce of lhe
Holy Chosl. keeplng lo lhe end us my genulne comrude und compunlon lhe
enllghlenmenl vhlch I huve recelved from Hlm. Thus shull I conllnue my vuy
lhrough lhls llfe. persuudlng ull olhers. so fur us I um uble. lo vorshlp lhe
Fulher. lhe Son. und lhe Holy Splrll. lhe one und only dlvlnlly und lhe one
und only pover: To vhom be ull glory und honour und mlghl for ever und
ever.
For
nellher lhe ruy nor lhe llghl ls unolher sun. bul lhey ure only emunullons from
lhe sun und ullrlbules of lls essence. And lf ve sllck lo lhls unulogy. ve ulso
run lhe rlsk of ullrlbullng bolh belng und non-belng lo Cod ÷ und nolhlng
could be more ubsurd lhun lhul. I huve ulso heurd lhul some one hus
suggesled un explunullon ln lhese lerms: ÷ A ruy of lhe sun flushlng upon u
vull und lrembllng vllh lhe movemenl of lhe molslure vhlch lhe beum hus
luken up ln mld-ulr. und lhen. belng checked by lhe hurd surfuce. hus sel up u
slrunge qulverlng. For ll qulvers vllh muny rupld movemenls. und ls one us
much us ll ls muny. und muny us much us ll ls one; becuuse by lhe svlflness of
lls unlllng und sepurullng ll escupes before lhe eye cun see ll.
!!+

Amen.


!+*
hyposluses. Thls ls Cregory`s lechnlcul lerm for ¨persons`; ll refers nol
only lo un lndlvlduul`s presence or munner of presence lo olhers. bul
ulso lo lhe underlylng reullly vhlch mukes lhe lndlvlduul vho he or she
ls ln relullon lo olhers.

!!+
Revelullon I.6. 5.I3.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful