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The epimysium is the outer protective sheath of the muscle and these sheaths or fascia form tendons; which

are strong fibrous bands that attach the muscles to bone, or to an appropriate body tissue. All muscles taper off into tendon

Muscle Tone
Even when a muscle is firmly contracted, not all the muscle fibres are active. Some fibres are kept in reserve to take any extra strain or to relieve fatigued fibres. The fibres that are contracted though will work to their full capacity. Muscles are never normally completely at rest, even in sleep. Some fibres are in action under all circumstances. This residual contraction is called Muscle Tone and it varies from person to person. Every muscle contains its own nerve and blood supply and it consists of separate bundles of elastic fibres which vary in size and length.

Involuntary muscle/ smooth muscles. Voluntary / Skeletal muscle. 2. makes up the walls of the heart with 4 hollow chambers. Subconsciously controlled. do not tire easily and can work for long period of time.Muscle Groups 1. work in groups or teams. tire easily. does not tire easily and is subconsciously controlled Muscles of the back Trapezius Latissimus Dorsi Errector spinae Muscles of the neck and chest Sternocleido mastoid Platysma Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Muscles of the arms and shoulder Deltoid Biceps Triceps Brachialis Muscles of the thorax External Intercostals Internal Intercostals Serratus Anterior Diaphragm Muscles of the abdomen Rectus Abdominis External Oblique Internal oblique . alimentary tract etc. Cardiac Muscle. The heart has its own built-in pacemaker which produces the required electrical stimulation causing the muscle to contract in a systematic way. usually small. They line the walls of vessels. stomach. consciously controlled by the body. It works continuously through life. The nervous system’s autonomic system can influence the pacemaker to increase or reduce the heart rate according to the needs of the body. Large. A special muscle. 3.

There are three layers.Vastus Lateralis. The increased circulation feeds the muscle tissues bringing with it fresh oxygen and the waste products are absorbed more quickly.Muscles of the anterior thigh Quadriceps four muscles: Vastus medialis. . Regular massage will help muscles to function to their fullest capacity. Abductor Longus. Muscles work over joints. Massage will help relieve muscular fatigue by removing the lactic acids that build up in the tissues. and Abductor brevis Muscles of the lateral thigh Tensor fascia lata Muscles of the posterior lower leg Gastrocnemius Soleus Muscles of the anterior lower leg Tibialis anterior The effects of massage on muscles 1. Muscles that are tense and contracted can become relaxed after massage has been carried out. gaining more mobility in the joints. 3. medius and minimus Muscles of the medial thigh The Adductor s consist of Gracilis. more movement in the muscles and therefore increasing the range of movement. Rectus Femoris Sartorius Muscles of the posterior thigh The hamstrings consists of Biceps femoris. Massaging this area can help loosen and release these adhesions. when the muscles relax stiffness may often occur. and Semimembranosus The Gluteals. 2. if the movement of the joints are impaired by adhesions for example the shoulder joint. These consist of Gluteus maximus. the waste products accumulate after strenuous exercise. then the full range of movement will be prevented. Semitendinosus. Abductor magnus. Vastus intermedius. When muscles are working they need a greater supply of oxygen and more waste products are produced.



each side of vertebrae Extends the spine . across the elbow Action Abduction of the arm Flexes forearm at elbow Supinates the forearm Extends the forearm Flexes the forearm Back Muscles Muscle Trapezius Position Down back of neck onto the shoulders Large sheet of muscle down back of lower thorax and lumbar region Action Extends the spine Latissimus Dorsi Draws shoulder downwards and backwards Adducts and rotates arm Erector Spinae 3 long muscles from back of head to pelvis.Arm Muscles Muscle Deltoid Biceps Triceps Brachialis Position Lies over the shoulder Anterior aspect of upper arm Posterior aspect of upper arm Anterior aspect of lower humerus.

enlarges the chest Chief muscle of respiration .Muscles of the Thorax Muscle Position Action Pectoralis Major Covers front of chest Adducts the arm at the shoulder Draws shoulder downwards and forwards Draws scapula forwards and rotates it upwards Together. together flex the trunk Raise ribs and sternum. Single – flexes neck laterally and rotates it Pectoralis Minor Beneath Pectoralis Major Serratus Anterior Side of ribcage.flex neck. below axilla Sternocleidomastoid Sternum and clavicle to mastoid process Muscles of the Abdomen Muscle Rectus Abdominus Position Centre of abdomen Divided into 4 sections Side wall of abdomen (muscles run diagonally across each other) Action Flexes the spine Obliques (Internal and External) Intercostals Attached to ribs. In between the ribs Diaphragm Dome shaped muscle separating the chest and abdomen One acting alone twists the trunk to one side.

when sitting cross-legged Dorsi flexion. inverts foot Tibialis Anterior Tibia/fibula to ankle Muscles of the Posterior Leg Muscle Hamstrings (group of 3) Biceps femoris Semi-tendinosus Semi-membranosus Gastrocnemius Position Posterior aspect of thigh Medial side of thigh Medial side of knee Action Flexes the knee Extends the hip Back of lower leg (calf) Flexion at knee Plantar flexion of foot (pointing down) Plantar flexion of foot (pointing down) Lateral rotation of thigh and hip joint Abduction of thigh Abduction of thigh Soleus Lies under gastrocnemeus Gluteus Maximus Forms prominent part of buttock -most superficial Lies over gluteus minimus Deepest buttock muscle Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimus .Muscles of the Anterior leg Muscle Position Action Quadriceps femoris (Group of four muscles) Rectus Femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus Intermedialis Vastus Medialis Anterior aspect of thigh Muscle lying on top of 3 vasti muscles Outer vastus muscle Middle vastus muscle Inner vastus muscle Flexes the hip Extends the knee Sartorius Lies diagonally across the front of the thigh Flexes the hip and knee.

Explain 3 effects of massage on muscles 4. Name the 3 hamstring muscles 6. Mane the 4 muscles that make up the quadriceps 5. 2. Describe what is meant by muscle tone 3. List the 3 different types of muscle and give 1 example. Name the 3 main muscles that make up the back muscles .Task on Muscles Revision 1.