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Trade of Electrician

Standards Based Apprenticeship

Conduit and Trunking Systems
Phase 2 Module No. 2. !nit No. 2. .".


Revision 1 April 2000 Created by Charlie Walsh - Athlone TC Revised by: Charlie Walsh - Athlone TC Eugene Trindles - Cork TC Christy Ludlo - !undalk TC Revision 2" #eb 200$ by Christy Ludlo % !undalk TC Revision &" 'uly 200( by Christy Ludlo % !undalk TC Revision )* +ove,ber 201& -.LACo,plied by Lia, Carroll % Certi/i0ation 1 -tandards

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27-33 Upper Baggot Street Dublin 4 Ireland © SOL S - 2!"3 All rights reserved" +o part o/ this publi0ation ,ay be reprodu0ed* stored in a retrieval syste, or trans,itted in any /or, or by any ,eans* ele0troni0* ,e0hani0al* photo0opying* re0ording or other ise* ithout the prior per,ission o/ the 0opyright o ner"


#le$tri$al %ourse &otes - Unit 2'3'"

Ta%le of Contents
STEEL TRUNKING.......................................................................................................................................4 T23E- A+! -45E- .# -TEEL TR6+74+8""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ) AREA- .# A33L4CAT4.+""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ( T23E- .# -633.RT"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ( -3AC4+8 .# -633.RT-""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 10 CA9LE CA3AC4T2 A+! -3ACE #ACT.R""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 10 #A9R4CAT4.+ A+! 4+-TALLAT4.+ .# TEE- A+! 9E+!-""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""10 #.R:4+8 A TEE '.4+T""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 11 #.R:4+8 A+ 4+TER+AL 9E+!"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 12 #.R:4+8 A+ E;TER+AL 9E+!""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 1& #.R:4+8 A #LAT 9E+!"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 1) EART<4+8 .# -TEEL TR6+74+8""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 1= OVERVIEW OF CONDUIT TYPES.........................................................................................................16 STEEL CONDUIT SYSTEM......................................................................................................................16 T23E- A+! -45E- .# -TEEL C.+!64T""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 1> E!!2 C6RRE+T- 4+ -TEEL C.+!64T"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 1> -.:E A!?A+TA8E- .# -TEEL C.+!64T"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 1> -.:E !4-A!?A+TA8E- .# -TEEL C.+!64T """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""1@ CA9LE CA3AC4T2 .# -TEEL C.+!64T A -3ACE #ACT.R B """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""1@ C6TT4+8 -TEEL C.+!64T"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 1@ T<REA!4+8 -TEEL C.+!64T"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 1$ #4TT4+8 A+! #4;4+8 -TEEL C.+!64T""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 1$ -3AC4+8 .# -633.RT- #.R C.+!64T-"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 1$ -A!!LE-"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 1( !4-TA+CE -A!!LE- """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 20 :6LT43LE -A!!LE- """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 20 TER:4+AT4.+ .# -TEEL C.+!64T T. E+CL.-6RE- """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""21 C.63L4+8 A+! :ALE 96-< :ET<.!""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 21 L.C7+6T A+! #E:ALE 9RA-- 96-< :ET<.!"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""21 8AL?A+4-E! -TEEL C.+!64T ACCE--.R4E-""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 22 '.4+T4+8 -TEEL C.+!64T"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 2& -ETT4+8 63 -EC6E+CE .# A 9E+!4+8 :AC<4+E """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""2) 9E+!- -<.6L! 9E #.R:E! T. A+ 4+TER+AL RA!46- .# +.T LE-- T<A+ 2"= T4:E- T<E C.+!64T !4A:ETER2= :A74+8 A (0. 9E+! 4+ -TEEL C.+!64T"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""2= :A74+8 A !.69LE -ET .R .##-ET 4+ -TEEL C.+!64T""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""2@ #.R:4+8 .# A &0D .##-ET""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 2@ #.R:4+8 A )=D .##-ET""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 2( :A74+8 A -A!!LE -ET A'6:3B 4+ -TEEL C.+!64T """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""&0 :A74+8 A !.69LE (0. 9E+! 4+ -TEEL C.+!64T""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""&& PVC CONDUIT ............................................................................................................................................34 C.:3.-4T4.+ .# 3?C C.+!64T"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" &) C<.4CE .# 3?C C.+!64T """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" &) '.4+T4+8 3?C C.+!64T """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" &) 3RECA6T4.+- W<E+ 6-4+8 A!<E-4?E- """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""&) E;3A+-4.+ .# 3?C C.+!64T"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" &) #4TT4+8 A+! #4;4+8 .# 3?C C.+!64T"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" &= A!?A+TA8E- .# 3?C C.+!64T"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" &= !4-A!?A+TA8E- .# 3?C C.+!64T """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" &= W.R74+8 W4T< 3?C C.+!64T """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" &> <.T 9E+!4+8 .# 3?C C.+!64T""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" &@ UNIT RELATED ETCI RULES................................................................................................................38


(e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3

F @=. 100.. 1=0.ent trunking 9us-bar Trunking Typi0al sur/a0e /inishes" • • • • <ot dipped galvanised 0oating 8rey ena.SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes . F 1=0.. F 100.. F 100. F 1=0... @=. Trunking is generally supplied in & . F 1=0.s the ba0kbone or /ra.el on Hin0 0oating -tainless steel Standa d S!"#$ %& T 'n(!n) • • • • • • • =0..etre lengths" .. F =0.ther lengths are available on reEuest" ) (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 . 100.part. &00. o//ers great /leFibility hen used in 0onGun0tion ith 0onduit syste.e ork o/ an installation" Conduits run /ro...etre lengths" Lighting trunking is o/ten supplied in = . F 2=0... 100... 22=.. @=.. F =0. F 100.Unit 2'3'" Steel Trunking A trunking is an en0losure that provides /or the prote0tion o/ 0ables" 4t is nor..... 1=0. 2=0. 1=0.s" Trunking /or.. 100...ovable lid" A trunking syste. the trunking to a00essory outlet boFes" When an alteration or eFtension is reEuired to an installation it is easy to drill a hole in the side o/ the trunking and run a 0onduit to the ne a00essory point" +e iring 0an then be dra n through the ne 0onduit and the eFisting trunking to the supply point" Types and Sizes of Steel Trunking There are a nu.... F =0... F @=. F =0. F sEuare or re0tangular in 0ross se0tion* and has a re.ber o/ types o/ steel trunking su0h as:• • • • Lighting Trunking Cable trunking :ulti-Co.el on Hin0 0oating -ilver ena.. 200.

ay be used to install lu..SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .inaires" This type has Eui0k /it drive-in 0ouplings* hi0h allo /or /ast* easy installation o/ long runs" The trunking is installed ith the opening do n ards as sho n in #igure 1" " Trunking &igure " !rive-in 0oupling A range o/ /ittings is available to a00o.odate 0hanges in dire0tion* tees and interse0tions" These are bolted in position using at least t o bolts depending on trunking siHe" -ee #igure 2 #lat 9end &igure 2 Tee = (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .Unit 2'3'" L!)*t!n) T 'n(!n) -teel trunking .

inaires to the trunking and also to allo the 0ables enter /or 0onne0tion" -ee #igure & Cable Retainer &igure Atta0h.SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .ply 0lipped into position" -ee #igure ) -uspension 9ra0ket &igure ' End Cap > (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .Unit 2'3'" Cable retainers are used to prevent the 0ables /alling out o/ the trunking" -pe0ial atta0h.ents are used to /iF the lu.plete the en0losure" The lid is si.ent -uspension bra0kets are used to suspend the trunking at the reEuired height belo the 0eiling" End 0aps and either steel or plasti0 lids are installed to 0o.

SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .# T 'n(!n) -tandard 0able trunking is si.ilar in design to lighting trunking" The lid in this 0ase is held in pla0e ith turnbu0kles" A Euarter turn o/ a large /lat s0re driver ill either /asten or loosen the turnbu0kle" -ee #igure = &igure ( A range o/ /ittings is available to a00o.Unit 2'3'" Ca+.odate 0hanges in dire0tion* tees* interse0tions and to 0ouple lengths together" These are bolted in position using at least t o bolts depending on trunking siHe" -ee #igures > #lat 9end 4nternal 9end EFternal 9end Tee )=D 9end &igure ) Coupling @ (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 ..

Unit 2'3'" Changes in trunking siHe are si. %ables 23!-4!! .#nt t 'n(!n) The in0reasing use o/ ele0troni0s and di//ering voltage levels in industrial installations has ne0essitated the use o/ .ing into 0onta0t ith a lo voltage syste. even in the event o/ a /ault" #igure $ sho s a typi0al se0tion o/ .ulti-0o.ent trunking" Up to -! .ent o/ the ETC4 Rules" #or eFa.plete the en0losure" -ee #igure @ Redu0er Cable Retainer &igure * End Cap M'.ple* it prevents an eFtra lo voltage syste.t!-C%. %ables %o+puter %ables &igure + $ (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .part.part.ent trunking* hi0h is designed to segregate A separate B the various voltages and servi0es" -egregation o/ this nature is a reEuire.SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .ply .ade by using redu0ers" Cables are easily kept in pla0e in the trunking ith 0able retainers" End 0aps are used to 0o./a t.* 0o.ulti-0o.

Cla.inate large /loor areas" Cable trunking is installed at a suitable height around the alls o/ the building" Conduit drops are then used to supply outlet points" :ulti-0o.er0ial and industrial pre.part.s" <ere it . or /astened dire0tly to right angle bra0kets" 4t .odate 0ables /or supplying eEuip.ity to ea0h other" 4t is ideal in large o//i0es and 0lassroo.ent trunking is used here di//erent ele0tri0al servi0es are reEuired in 0lose proFi. ea0h other" Types of Support Trunking should be se0ured by round-headed s0re s or bolts" This prevents da.ber o/ /iFings* hi0h .ay be suspended /ro.age to 0ables during installations" 4n industrial installations* trunking .Unit 2'3'" Areas of Application -teel trunking syste.ises" Lighting trunking is generally used to supply and support /luores0ent /ittings* hi0h illu.ay be run overhead* supported at intervals by the lo er .SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .ent" &igure "- ( (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .p ?erti0al #lange <angers &igure .e..ust be segregated /ro.ay be used to support trunking" 9ea.puters* printers et0" These supplies .ay also be /iFed dire0tly to a all sur/a0e" #igure ( sho s a nu.s are used in 0o..ay be used to a00o. Channel spring +ut #igure 10 sho s a run o/ trunking supported by suspension bra0kets" The threaded rod also allo s /or /inal height adGust.ent at 2&0 ?olts* plus data 0ables /or 0o.bers o/ the roo/ trusses" 4t .

ay be ne0essary or si.a0!.1" Fabrication and Installation of Tees and Bends Tee and bends .ply .Unit 2'3'" Spacing of Supports The spa0ing o/ trunking supports is not a si.inate proble.s asso0iated ith an eF0essive build up o/ heat inside the trunking" 4/ too . nu.any 0ables are installed the 0able insulation ill su//er da. t 'n(!n).ple topi0 as there are so . is based on only )=I o/ the available spa0e being o00upied" This does n%t ..ber o/ 0ables to be installed* type and strength o/ support available" <o ever the /ollo ing table lists the +# '$#d &% 3'tt!n) $t##.e.iFture o/ all the 0o.ore ti..age due to overheating" There is also the possibility o/ /ire risk" The ETC4 Rules provides a handy guide to aid the 0al0ulation o/ the 0able 0apa0ity o/ trunking" 4t allo s /or a .ontal "'73'! 3'! 0ertical 2'! 3'! 3'! Cable Capacity and Space Factor Trunking is pri. -! 7.e -! .ust be used in the 0al0ulation A not the C-A o/ the 0ondu0tor alone B" 4/ .ulti-0ore 0able %n.SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .ore 0onvenient* parti0ularly i/ the reEuired bend or set is non-standard" 4t takes .2" .e.ain reason /or li.#nd#d t*at a 34 TPI *a3($a5 +.'.on 0able siHes up to 10 ..arily intended /or the installation o/ 3?C insulated 0ables" The .ber o/ 0ables to this level is to eli.anu/a0tured a00essories" N%t#-2 It !$ #3%.u. distan0es bet een supports /or steel trunking" Maximum Support Spacing for Steel Trunking Trunking Si.any variables su0h as: siHe o/ trunking* siHe and nu.ther 0able siHes have to be a00ounted /or on an individual basis" Re.ber that all the uno00upied spa0e in bet een the 0ables is in0luded in the 0al0ulation" The .ber o/ 0ables that 0an be installed in a trunking syste..e to /abri0ate tees or bends than to bolt on .iting the nu. -! Larger Si/es /ori.ean that the trunking should appear to be less than hal/ /ull o/ 0able" Re.ber that the overall 0able C-A .ay be /abri0ated here reEuired in lengths o/ trunking" This . 10 (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .ulti-0ore 0ables are to be installed in trunking the )=I spa0e /a0tor still applies* eF0ept in the 0ase o/ %n# .

Unit 2'3'" Forming a Tee Joint &igure "" 11 (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .

SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .Unit 2'3'" Forming an Internal Bend &igure "2 12 (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .

Unit 2'3'" Forming an xternal Bend &igure " 1& (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .

Unit 2'3'" Forming a Flat Bend &igure "' 1) (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .

ust be earthed" Earth 0ontinuity is ensured by the proper tightening o/ all bolts used throughout the syste.ore i." -o.Unit 2'3'" art!ing of Steel Trunking A trunking installation .SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .e . are tightened" 4t is not unusual to /ind that 0opper or alu.anu/a0tures re0o.portant that all the bolts involved in the syste.end that earth 0ontinuity be 0o.. 1= (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .iniu.iniu. straps are used* but are le/t loose* resulting in poor earth 0ontinuity" -ee #igure 1=" Copper Earth -trap F!)' # 16. strap a0ross all Goints" 4t is .pleted by /iFing a 0opper or alu.

anu/a0tured to spe0i/i0ations de/ined by the 9ritish -tandards 4nstitute A9-B" Class 4 conduit has a hot dip galvanized finish.This is the conduit most widely used in this country.er0ial and industrial appli0ations" EFa.SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes ..e proo/ installations" Conduit is nor.. This conduit is suitable for use in external or damp installations.e and this /leFibility* 0oupled ith .e0hani0al prote0tion* . A CPC B 1> (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .etal 0onduit and 0ables be0o.e0hani0al prote0tion /or the insulated 0ondu0tors" A 0onduit installation 0an be re ired easily or altered at any of Steel Conduit -teel 0onduits are .Unit 2'3'" #1er1ie2 of Conduit Types A 0onduit is a tube* 0hannel or pipe in hi0h insulated 0ondu0tors are 0ontained" The 0onduit in e//e0t repla0es the 3?C outer sheath o/ a 0able* providing .eters are 1>* 20* 2= and &2.its easy re iring :ini. 0orroding in use" Also .ises /ire risks" Can be utiliHed as the Cir0uit Prote0tive hot" Some Ad1antages of Steel Conduit • • • • A//ords 0ables good .etre lengths and typi0al 0onduit eFternal dia. It is of heavy gauge with a welded seam.ples o/ types o/ 0onduit used in ele0tri0al installation ork are as /ollo s : • • • • 3?C -teel #leFible -tainless -teel Steel Conduit System Types and Si.less 0onduit hi0h is .ore eFpensive and only used /or spe0ial gas tight* eFplosion proo/ or / supplied in & or &"@= .e 0onduit* to eli.anu/a0tured is a solid dra n sea.e0hani0al prote0tion 3er.inate the possibility o/ indu0ed eddy 0urrents" Eddy 0urrents 0ould result in the . +ote: The galvaniHed /inish on 0onduit is to prevent the steel /ro." Eddy Currents in Steel Conduit :etal 0onduits in hi0h a"0" 0ir0uit iring is installed :6-T 0ontain all the 0urrent 0arrying 0ondu0tors o/ ea0h 0ir0uit in the sa.akes 0onduit installations popular /or 0o.

ade at !)*t an).ber and 0ross-se0tional area o/ 0ables /or a given load it is ne0essary to sele0t the siHe o/ 0onduit that ill a00o.age and /ire .aFi.ined the 0orre0t nu.pared ith so.age to the galvanised 0oating" • -tand sEuare to the Gob and . on the inside all o/ the 0onduit" • EFpensive 0o.ber o/ 0ables dra n into a 0onduit should n%t be su0h as to 0ause da.SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .#$ to avoid di//i0ulty in threading the 0onduit" #igure 1" illustrates this pro0ess" • <old 0onduit to be 0ut se0urely in a pipe vi0e" Avoid da." 4/ a greater nu. nu.ent is unobstru0ted" • 8rip the ha0ksa lightly and apply light pressure on the /or ard 0utting stroke" 6se the /ull length o/ the blade" F!)' # 1.oisture is liable to /or. des0ribed in the ETC4 Rules" Cutting Steel Conduit Conduit should be 0ut ith a ha0ksa * using a blade having &2 teeth J in0h" The 0ut should be .ay be dra n into a 0onduit 0an be 0al0ulated by using the /a0tor syste.odate the.ay result" As a general rule the nu.e other iring syste.age to either the 0ables or the 0onduit during the installation" The .es" Ca%le Capacity of Steel Conduit 4 Space &actor 5 <aving deter.s" • Liable to 0orrosion here subGe0t to a0ids* alkalis and 0orrosive /u.ove.ber o/ 0ables are installed in the 0onduit* over-heating* insulation da. 1@ (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .ake sure your .ber o/ 0ables hi0h .Unit 2'3'" Some 3isad1antages of Steel Conduit • 6nder 0ertain 0onditions .u.

!nt# na. 8% !"%nta.. • <old the 0onduit se0urely in a pipe vi0e A ensure that pipe vi0e Ga bolts are tight B" • While threading keep the die well lubricated preferably with a manufacturer’s paste or tallow.e0hani0al da. 1@=0. o/ bends and /ittings" The table assu. +' $ . into 0onduit 0ouplings and a00essory boFes" The 0onduit ends are threaded using sto0ks and dies" A/ter threading the ends* that the 0onduit is not subGe0t to other eFternal .'$t +# $3 #5#d '/ t!)*t..'$t +# #. R'n$ 1000.SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes ...eter" -upports should be positioned ithin &00..e0hani0al stresses" C%nd'!t S!"# +ot eF0eeding 1>.. t* #ad#d #nd$ . 2000.ust be provided at points here 0ondensation is likely to 0olle0t" Spacing of Supports for Conduits The table belo sho s a suggested spa0ing o/ supports /or steel 0onduits up to 2=.ents B" &itting and &i6ing Steel Conduit Conduit ..%7#d to ensure that 0ables are not da. • Thread to re uired length and remove any burrs with a file or reamer! this will prevent sharp edges causing damage to cables while being drawn into the conduit.. R'n$ @=0.Unit 2'3'" Threading Steel Conduit 4t is ne0essary to 0ut threads on the 0onduit ends in order to s0re the..aged as they are being dra n into the 0onduits" A. V# t!3a..etal /rag. • To ensure a 0lean* unbroken thread the die should be rotated 0ounter-0lo0k ise /reEuently and /inally run up and do n the threads to re.ove any s ar/ A .age* it should be suitably prote0ted" !rainage outlets . in dia.ust be se0urely /iFed and here it is liable to . 20-2=.1 !nt% a33#$$% !#$ t% #n$' # #a t* 3%nt!n'!t1. 1$ (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .

1( (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .ent sur/a0es" Conta0t bet een 0onduit and these sur/a0es 0ould result in 0orrosion o/ the 0onduit and dis0olour.Unit 2'3'" Saddles A range o/ 0lips and saddles are available /or 0onduit installations" The spa0er bar saddle* is the devi0e .n verti0al runs ensure that saddles are /itted the 0orre0t ay round" An i.u0h installation ti.ethod o/ /iFing and )#n# a.only used /or /iFing 0onduit* see #igure 2" They provide a very se0ure ..e and e//ort reEuired in /iFing" F!)' # 3.ent o/ the sur/a0es" When a 0onduit is /iFed to 0on0rete* ..1 should be spa0ed as per the table on the previous page" F!)' # 4..ost 0o.ately =.e is spent in plugging the 0on0rete /or /iFings" -pa0er bar saddles have the advantage o/ a 0entral* single-hole /iFing" The additional 0ost o/ spa0er bar saddles over the plain saddle Asee #igure &"B 0an be o//set against the saving in ti.portant /un0tion o/ the spa0er bar saddle is to keep the 0onduit out o/ 0onta0t ith plaster and 0e. -pa0er bar saddles in0orporate a spa0ing plate" These spa0ing plates are approFi.SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes . thi0k" This spa0ing plate tends to align the 0onduit ith the kno0kouts in s it0h and so0ket outlet boFes" .

Unit 2'3'" 3istance Saddles !istan0e saddles are designed to spa0e the 0onduit approFi.ade o/ .SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .e route it is generally an advantage to use .inates the possibility o/ dust and dirt 0olle0ting behind the 0onduit" 9y adeEuate spa0ing it is possible to keep the 0onduits /ree o/ dust and it is /or this reason distan0e saddles A#igure )AB and hospital saddles A#igure )9B are generally spe0i/ied" F!)' # 4A F!)' # 49 Multiple Saddles Where t o or .ore 0onduits /ollo the sa.alleable 0ast iron" They are .ately 10. /ro.ultiple saddles* see #igure =" 3roper spa0ing o/ the 0onduits ensures that there is no need to set the 0onduits here they enter 0onduit a00essories F!)' # 6 20 (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .u0h .ore substantial than spa0er bar saddles and the additional spa0ing provides greater prote0tion against 0orrosion" The use o/ distan0e saddles eli. the all or 0eiling" These saddles are generally ..

ethod* see #igure >A A6sually used and pre/erredB • The lo0knut and /e.SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .These are earth ter..ale bush is passed through the boF entry and s0re ed tightly into the 0oupling using an open-ended spanner or a bushing spanner" Surface &inish $emo1ed Conduit Male Brass Bush Conduit Coupling F!)' # 6A 7ocknut and &emale Brass Bush Method 6sing this .ethod but it allo s .inating a 0onduit to a s it0h or so0ket boF is that the 0onduit protrudes into the boF and .ale bush . o/ ter.ale bush is then s0re ed onto the 0onduit thread" .ale bush .ethod a lo0knut is s0re ed tightly onto a standard threaded 0onduit end and the thread passed through the hole in the a00essory boF" A se0ond lo0knut is s0re ed onto the 0onduit e//e0tively sand i0hing the all o/ the boF" To prevent da. the eFposed end o/ the 0onduit* a /e.ethod* see #igure >9 A6sed here spa0e is tightB Coupling and Male %ush Method The 0oupling and .inations 21 (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .ore iring spa0e and is a stronger /or.inating steel 0onduit are 0o.ethods o/ ter.age to 0ables* /ro.ale bush .ne disadvantage in using this .ale bush .Unit 2'3'" Termination of Steel Conduit to Enclosures T o .only used" • The 0oupling and .ore eFpensive than the lo0knut and /e.ethod is slightly .ethod a 0oupling is s0re ed se0urely on to a standard threaded 0onduit end and then butted against the a00essory boF" A .ay inhibit the /iFing o/ the s it0h or so0ket" Conduit 7ocknut &emale Brass Bush 7ocknut or lockring F!)' # 69 +ote: .ethod o/ ter.ination" 6sing this .

% ro s s B o . 0ee Bo.SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes . t e n s io n 0 h r o u g h B o . e s # . n g le B o . U Bo. 0 a n g e n t 0 h ro u g h 0angent n g le 0angent 0ee 0angent 1 2 Bo. B a $ 3 # n t r y L o o p In B o .Unit 2'3'" 8al1anised Steel Conduit Accessories #igure @A illustrates a range o/ galvanised steel 0onduit boFes* redu0ers and adaptors" #nd Bo. 0 h ro u g h B o . ( edu$er F!)' # :A d a p to r 22 (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .

Unit 2'3'" 9ointing Steel Conduit Where t o lengths o/ 0onduit are to be Goined a plain 0oupling is used" To ensure good ele0tri0al 0ontinuity and ..u.ust tighten inside the 0oupling A:aF gap 2 .B* see #igure @9" Care .ust be eFer0ised to do this ithout leaving threads outside the 0oupling" F!)' # :9 Where neither tube 0an be turned it is ne0essary to resort to the te0hniEue kno n as the Krunning 0ouplingL * see #igure @C" A/ter tightening up the lo0kring the eFposed thread . .aFi.e0hani0al strength the tube ends .ust be painted to prevent 0orrosion" A 9 F!)' # :C 2& (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .

4nsert the grooved roller in the 0orre0t position /or siHe o/ 0onduit* see #igure 10" A F!)' # 1<. • 3osition the stop MCN in the 0orre0t position /or siHe o/ 0onduit* see #igure (" C -top • F!)' # .Unit 2'3'" Setting up Se:uence of a Bending Machine • 3la0e the M9N Ato suit the siHe o/ 0onduit to be bentB in position and se0ure the 0entre-pin* see #igure $" #or. 2) (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .er B F!)' # 8.i-0ir0ular /or..

ti+es the conduit diameter Making a . The /irst step is to .ethod o/ bending steel 0onduit is to use a bending . C%nd'!t The .eter or larger 0onduits it is re0o. 2= (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 ." hi0h .ed to a di.on ..ed ith the desired angle" Bends should %e formed to an internal radius of not less than 2'.-o Bend in Steel Conduit #igure 11 illustrates a right angle bend in steel 0onduit* 200.ust be /or.a0hine" <o ever* /or bending &" • 3ull do n the handle* allo ing the roller to bend the 0onduit around the /or.ost 0o.. the end o/ the 0onduit as illustrated in #igure 12" &i6ed Point Marked Point Mark 2--mm from &i6ed Point F!)' # 14. dia.ark o// 200.ension o/ 2--mm F!)' # 11..SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes . /ro.Unit 2'3'" 9#nd!n) St##.ended to use a portable rat0het bender" The /ollo ing are the .pare the angle o/ the bend /or.plate to 0o..a0hine" • 4nsert the 0onduit under the stop and into the groove in the /" • 6se a te.ain steps to be taken hen using a bending ..

+eFt pull the lever do n until the (0D angle* is a0hieved" 2> (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .er as illustrated in #igure 1&" Stop 4i.s a tangent to the edge o/ the /or.ark to the rear" 3osition the 0onduit so that a try-sEuare* held against the .er ith the .ark tou0hes and /or.ed Point 5ar3ed Point Bend do6n to 7!! F!)' # 13.SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .Unit 2'3'" The neFt step is to pla0e the 0onduit in the /or.

ent" Ease o/ dra ing-in 0ables" &orming of a a right angled triangle" 8!! 3!! 7!! F!)' # 14. in this 0aseB e 0an no 0al0ulate and . the illustration it 0an be seen that the &0D angle is one o/ three angles /or.Unit 2'3'" Making a 3ou%le Set or #ffset in Steel Conduit +or. /ro. 2nd 2@ (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .easure.ation* on0e e kno the di. #ffset #igure 1) illustrates a &0D o//set to be /or. With this in/or.ark o// the distan0e bet een the t o bends" At this point take the straight pie0e o/ 0onduit and .b /or a right angle triangle A&0D* >0D* (0DB states that the relationship bet een the three sides is in the ratio o/ 1:2:√&* see #igure 1=" 2 " √3 F!)' # 16.ed at either &0D or )=D" A &0D o//set is pre/erred /or t o reasons: • • Ease o/ .ark on it here you ant the /irst bend to start / o//sets should be /or.* then ..easure 200. "!!++ A rule o/ thu.SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .ension o/ the o//set A100..ed in steel 0onduit" #ro. that point to here the se0ond bend starts* see #igure 1>" "st 2!!+ + F!)' # 16.

at0hing the /irst .er and bend to &0D as sho n in #igure 1$" +o as sho n in #igure 1@" 3la0e the 0onduit in the /or. "st 2nd 4 ir s t S e t F!)' #* see #igure 1(" The se0ond o//set is no /or.e dire0tion as be/ore but inverted and .ark on the /or.Unit 2'3'" +o go to the bending . o r + e r < F!)' # 1:.plate" 9 : in lin e 6 it h $ e n t r e o .ove the 0onduit and 0he0k the o//set angle against a &0D te.a0hine pointing in the sa.at0h the se0ond .ark on the /or.ed until it is in parallel ith the /irst o//set" S e $ o n d 5 a r3 2$ (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 . .a0hine" :ark a point on the /or.ark on the 0onduit ith the .SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes . 3la0e the 0onduit ba0k in the .er .ark on the 0onduit ith the .

e ..ula* in this 0ase √2 O1)1.SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes . or 100 F √2 O 1)1.ula 1:1:√2" #igure 20 illustrates the use o/ this /or." " + 4" + √2 " " "!!+ + F!)' # 4<.Unit 2'3'" &orming a '(.ed in eFa0tly the sa. 2( (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 ..easure.anner as the &0D version eF0ept that the . #ffset A )=D degree o//set is /or.ents bet een the /irst and se0ond bends are 0al0ulated using the /ollo ing /or.

0learan0e reEuired" -ine o/ the Angle O . &0 (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .ula ill help you 0al0ulate the position o/ the neFt t o bends hi0h be /or." .e you are reEuired to /or.ust #igure 2& illustrates the appli0ation o/ the /or.Unit 2'3'" Making a Saddle Set 49ump5 in Steel Conduit Assu. The /irst step is to bend the 0onduit to an angle o/ )=D as sho n in #igure 22" 4- ! F!)' # 44. as illustrated in #igure 3!++ F!)' # 41.ppositeJ<ypotenuse -ine 22"= <ypothenuse <ypothenuse <ypothenuse O O O O &0J<ypothenuse &0J-ine 22"= &0J"&$2@ ..ed in order to a0hieve the &0.SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes . @$..ula" 2 2 's enu t o 1 yp e ! 3!+ + 2 2 '- ! F!)' # 43. a saddle set 21" ith a 0learan0e o/ &0. The /ollo ing /or...

ark on the /or.a0hine so that .ethod" 3la0e the 0onduit in the .er* and bend do n ards as sho n in #igure 2=" 5 a r3 3 5 a r 3 2 o n $ o n d u it 4 o r+ e r 5 a r3 5 a r3 " S e$ond Set F!)' #46.Unit 2'3'" :ark the 0onduit as sho n in #igure 2)" " 5 a r3 3 a t 7 = + + .SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .ay also be lo0ated using a straight edge or other . &1 (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .! b e n d 5 a r3 2 a t 7 = + + . :arks 2 and & .ro + 5 a r3 " 2 F!)' # + 5 a r3 " 3 3!+ + 5 a r3 " 0 h e $ e n tre o .ark 2 is opposite the eFisting . th e e . is tin g 4 .

SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes . &2 (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .Unit 2'3'" Reverse the 0onduit in the / .ark & ith the eFisting / and .ark" 9end do n until the edges o/ the 0onduit are in line* see #igure 2>" 5 a r 3 3 o n $ o n d u it 4 o r+ e r 5 a r3 F!)' # 46.at0h .

eter o/ the 0onduit A20.Unit 2'3'" Making a 3ou%le .B to the 0entre to 0entre .ents due to .B e 0an no .The above ..SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .ethods .ay reEuire adGust.ethods sho n in #igure 2@" A ll a r e 2 .B* see #igure 2$" 9end do n until the (00 angle is a0hieved" 22!+ + 2 ! ! + + % e n tre to % e n tre F!)' # 48.easur.-o Bend in Steel Conduit :easure. +ote: .ents /or a double (0D bend in steel 0onduit 0an be taken using any o/ the three ..a0hines ear && (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .ark the position o/ the se0ond bend A220. 4/ you add the outside dia.anu/a0turerNs toleran0es and in di//erent bending .ents A200.m m C e n tre to C e n tre # u t s id e t o <n s id e <n s id e t o # u t s id e F!)' # 4:...

ay be subGe0t to /uture alteration" Precautions =hen !sing Adhesi1es Care should be taken hen using adhesives* hi0h are pro-0he.ay be buried in li.ediately" E6pansion of P0C Conduit EFpansion 0ouplings should be used /or sur/a0e installations at a re0o. o/ 4 .aFi.e" Und# n% 3! 3'.#t # intervals" Where /reEuent variations in a.# 5% (!n) 5!t* t*!$ ad*#$!7#.)>0@" The 0onduit siHes and range o/ /ittings are the sa.ost o/ten Gointed by pla0ing the end o/ the 0onduit into the appropriate /itting" 'oints into a00essories 0an be easily .ust be greatly redu0ed" N%t#2 3?C 0onduit is n%t suitable /or installations subGe0t to te.%(# 5*!./ul e//e0ts" Choice of P0C Conduit The 0hoi0e is dependant on the type o/ ork being undertaken and the Gob spe0i/i0ation" • • • <eavy gauge round 0onduit is nor.peratures belo 66%C -6%C or above &) (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .anu/a0tured to 9.$tan3# $*%'.e as those available /or .aterial is poly-vinyl-0hloride A 3?C B hi0h is produ0ed in both /leFible and rigid /or.s" 4t is i...ediately a/ter use" 6se in a ventilated area a ay /ro.u.etal 0onduit" 9ointing P0C Conduit 3?C 0onduit is .able and volatile" • • • • Repla0e the lid on the tin i.Unit 2'3'" P0C Conduit Composition of P0C Conduit The basi0 .i0al based* and as su0h are Euite /la...d 1%' $.pervious to a0ids* alkalis* oil* aggressive soils* /ungi and ba0teria and is una//e0ted by sea* and air" 4t ithstands all pests and does not attra0t rodents" 3?C 0onduit .SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .val 0onduit is nor. 4/ adhesive should get into your eyes* seek /irst-aid i.ended .pa0t tube .anent solvent* dependant on the installation 0onditions" The sili0one grease should be used /or eFpansion 0ouplings and here an installation .ade dry or by the use o/ sili0one grease or a 0hosen /or use in plaster alls and 0an be used /or drops in sur/a0e ork" Typi0al ele0tri0al installations use a heavy guage standard on-site" Light gauge round 0onduit is suitable /or 0on0ealed ork" .e* 0on0rete or plaster ithout har.bient te. naked / used in sur/a0e ork and /or /or.perature are likely to o00ur this distan0e .

either side o/ a bend" Conduit should be able to ..bient a barrier a0ross the inside o/ the 0onduit" • 4/ insu//i0ent adhesive is used the Goints .SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .ore than .Unit 2'3'" &itting and &i6ing of P0C Conduit A range o/ /iFings /or 3?C 0onduit is available as sho n in #igure 2(" # p e n S a d d le S p a c e r B a r S a d d le # 1 a l S tra p S a d d le # 1 a l C lip $ o u n d > ! > C lip F!)' # 4..ust be run inside the 0onduit" &= (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .ately 16< .e0hani0al prote0tion as steel" • A separate Cir0uit 3rote0tive Condu0tor .al 0ondensation due to lo ther.. intervals unless high a.u0h as steel and this eFpansion .es as .ove /reely in the saddle" Ad1antages of P0C Conduit • • • • • • • Light eight and easy to handle Easy to 0ut and deburr -i.e ay as .al 0ondu0tivity in all o/ 0onduit" -peed o/ installation EF0ellent ele0tri0al and /ire resistant properties 3isad1antages of P0C Conduit • Care .ple to /or. intervals eF0ept here dire0tional 0hanges are .ade" -addles should be installed approFi..perature are likely to be en0ountered* hen the intervals should be redu0ed" ?erti0al runs should be saddled at not .<< .e level o/ .peratures or rapid 0hanges in te.ust be taken hen glueing Goints to avoid /or.ust be allo ed /or" • 3?C does not o//er the sa.ay not be aterproo/" • 3?C eFpands about = ti.ore than 14<< . and bend !oes not reEuire painting :ini. 3?C 0onduit is /iFed in the sa.etal 0onduit" All horiHontal runs should be saddled at not .

ilar bend /or.#" 4t is i.oved ith the aid o/ kni/e blade or si. <aving inserted the spring into the 0onduit* grip the 0onduit on either side o/ the proposed bend and bend the 0onduit $.ed in steel 0onduit o/ a si.eter using a bending spring* see #igure &0" 4t is essential to use the 0orre0t siHe bending spring and it should be noted that springs /or heavy guage 0onduit are 0olour 0oded green and those /or light gauge 0onduit are 0olour 0oded hite" T*#1 a # n%t !nt# 3*an)a+. inside the bend" The radius o/ the bends should be as near as possible to that o/ a si.1* as illustrated in #igure &1" F!)' # 31.Unit 2'3'" =orking 2ith P0C Conduit 3?C 0onduit is easily 0ut using a Gunior ha0k sa " Any roughness o/ 0ut and burrs should be re. &> (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .ply by iping ith a 0loth" There are proprietary tools available /or 0utting 3?C 0onduit" Cold bending o/ 3?C 0onduit . dia..ilar siHe" F!)' # 3<.aged or kinked" A /aulty spring 0an 0ause the 0onduit to kink and /ra0ture" The spring 0an also Ga.portant that the spring is not da.%5.ay be 0arried out on 0onduit siHes up to 2=.

er and held in position /or about one .Unit 2'3'" The 0onduit should be bent to a .ent or hot ater" 9end the 0onduit in a00ordan0e ith above instru0tions and #ig" &1" Care should be taken to avoid the dire0t appli0ation o/ /la.s during this operation do not pull hard on it* other ise the spring ill be da..oved" &@ (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .ore a0ute angle than the angle /inally desired be0ause o/ the tenden0y o/ 3?C to Kre0overL a/ter bending" This tenden0y lessens as the te.age to the bending spring" 4/ the 0onduit is intended /or sur/a0e ork it should be saddled and /iFed as soon as possible a/ter bending" .ay be t isted anti-0lo0k ise and re.inute until set" A/ter setting* the bending spring .ove the spring* t ist it in an anti-0lo0k ise dire0tion" This ill redu0e the dia.ended that the 0onduit is ar.n0e a bend has been /or.eter" A bending spring o/ the 0orre0t siHe should be used" Apply a gentle heat pre/errably ith a hot air tor0h* ele0tri0 heating ele.perature de0reases" 4n very 0old eather it is re0o.aged" /ot Bending of P0C Conduit <ot bending o/ 0onduit should be 0arried out on siHes over 2=.ed it should not be /or0ed ba0k ards as this 0an da.ake it possible to pull the 0onduit and spring apart" 4/ the spring Ga.ed slightly by rubbing ith a 0loth held in the hand" 4/ the 0onduit is bent too Eui0kly there is a risk o/ kinking and J or /ra0turing o/ the 0onduit and possible da.age both the 0onduit and the spring" To re. dia..e to the 0onduit" When the 0onduit is in a pliable state it should be slo ly bent around a suitable /or.eter o/ the spring and .SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .

at!%n t% 644 E0t# na.#nta. E&&#3t$ 648 & %. 641 =21"=* =21"="1* =21"="2 =21">* =21">"1* =21">"2* =21">"& =21">")* =21">"= =21"10 S#.SOL S #le$tri$al %ourse &otes .#3t !3a.$ t% . In&.#3t!%n and E #3t!%n %& W! !n) 64: S1$t#. C%nn#3t!%n$ 646 =2>"2"& =2>"&"& S#. Ad=a3#nt S# 7!3#$ =2$"1* =2$"1"1 ite. & B U V W > Y ? &$ (e)ision 4* &o)e+ber 2!"3 .!$# t*# $/ #ad %& F! # =2@"1"2* =2@"1"& A ite.#3t!%n and E #3t!%n !n R#.Unit 2'3'" !nit $elated ETC< $ules T1/#$ %& W! !n) S1$t#.s 2 and > B* =)&"2") 64A 649-4 A ite.s a* 0* and e P %t#3t!7# C%nd'3t% $ Ann#0 Ta+. 2 B =2@"2* =2@"2"1* =2@"2"2* =2@"2"& P #3a't!%n$ a)a!n$t D#t !.!n!.'#n3#$ =22"&"2 =22"$"2* =22"$"=* =22"$">* =22"$"11 E.#$ 643 =)&"2"1 A ite.