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MODAL VERBS

Verbele modale exprim atitudinea vorbitorului fa de enun, aciunea din cadrul acestuia fiind vzut ca posibil, probabil, necesar, obligatorie, de dorit etc.: It might rain later. S-a putea s plou mai trziu. You must meet him at the station. Trebuie s-l atepi la gar. Din punct de vedere al caracteristicilor formale, verbele modale englezeti se mpart n: 1) verbe noionale exprimnd modalitatea (want, wish, order, oblige, advise, intend, mean, prefer, etc.) care se comport ca celelalte verbe noionale: He wants to see the play. Vrea s vad piesa. Dont oblige him to do this. Nu-l obliga s fac asta. 2) verbe modale defective (Defective Modal Verbs) (can/could, may/might, must, have to, shall/should, will/would, ought to, be to, used to, need, dare), care exprim de asemenea modalitatea, dar care din punct de vedere formal, prezint anumite caracteristici. 1.20.2. Caracteristicile verbelor modale. Verbele modale au urmtoarele caracterisitici: a) sunt defective, adic le lipsesc anumite forme verbale. n consecin, nu pot fi conjugate la toate modurile i timpurile. b) nu primesc s la persoana a III-a singular (cu excepia lui be to i have to): He must see this play. Trebuie s vad aceast pies. c) formeaz interogativul i negativul fr ajutorul auxiliarului do/did (cu excepia lui have to): Must you do this ? Trebuie s faci asta ? She cannot swim. Nu tie s noate, dar: Do you have to type that report ? Trebuie s dactilografiezi raportul ? d) sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt al verbelor noionale (cu excepia lui be to, have to, ought to): She can cook. tie s gteasc, dar: He has to get up early every day. Trebuie s se scoale devreme n fiecare zi. CAN / COULD. Can este folosit pentru toate persoanele la indicativ prezent. Could este folosit pentru toate persoanele la Past Tense. Can/could poate exprima: 1) capacitatea (fizic sau intelectual) de efectuare a unei aciuni: Tom can speak three foreign languages. Tom tie trei limbi strine. I could run faster than you last year. Puteam s alerg mai repede dect tine anul trecut.

Can exprimnd capacitatea fizic sau intelectual (ability) este nlocuit de be able to/be capable of/know how to: 2) Can este folosit pentru a exprima permisiunea, ca o alternativ a lui many n exprimarea familiar: A: Can I borrow your umbrella ? B: Of course you can. Pot s iau umbrela ta ? Desigur. Could este folosit pentru a exprima permisiunea n trecut: On Sundays we could stay in be d until ten oclock. Duminic aveam voie s stm n pat pn la ora 10. 3) Posibilitatea datorit circumstanelor se exprim astfel: Prezent: You can ski at Predeal now. There is enough snow. 1

Past Tense: We could ski at Predeal last year. There was enough snow. Viitor: It will be possible for you to ski at Predeal, there will be plenty of snow in December. You will be able to ski at Predeal, there will be plenty of snow in December. 4) Can/could sunt folosite pentru a exprima: o cerere, rugminte politicoas: Can you wait a few moments ? Could este mai politicos dect can. 5) Could + infinitivul perfect este folosit pentru a exprima capacitatea nerealizat de efectuare a unei aciuni n trecut: She could have helped me. (But she didnt). Ar fi putut s m ajute. 6) Cant/couldnt + infinitivul prezent al verbului be exprim o deducie negativ despre un eveniment prezent: A: Im hungry. B: You cant be hungry. Youve just had your dinner. Cant/Couldnt + infinitivul perfect exprim o deducie negativ despre un eveniment trecut: A: Did Ann type the report ? B: She cant/couldnt have typed it. She hasnt learned to type yet. MAY/MIGHT. May este folosit la toate persoanele cu valoare de indicativ prezent i viitor. Might este folosit pentru toate persoanele cu valoare de condiional i subjonctiv. Might este ntrebuinat cu valoare de Past Tense doar n vorbirea indirect. It may rain later. , he said. He said it might rain later. May este folosit: 1) pentru a cere (a) sau a acorda (b) permisiunea (mai oficial dect can): a) May I go ? Pot s plec ? b) You may go. Poi s pleci. 2) May/might poate exprima o cerere, o rugminte politicoas (may este mai politicos i oficial dect can/could): May I use your phone ? mi dai voie s dau telefon ? Folosirea lui might n acest sens indic un grad de nesiguran mai mare dect may (cu privire la rspuns): Might I use your phone ? A putea s dau un telefon ? 3) May/might + infinitivul prezent exprim o posibilitate prezent sau viitoare (n sau dup momentul vorbirii): He may come today. Se poate s vin azi. He might come tomorrow. S-ar putea s vin mine. Might este folosit: a) pentru a exprima o posibilitate mai ndeprtat (s-ar putea...) b) dup un verb trecut, n vorbirea indirect: He said he might come. 2

4) Might mai este folosit: a) n cereri insistente sau atunci cnd vorbitorul este iritat de nendeplinirea unei aciuni (might + infinitivul prezent): You might give me a copy of that paper. (Please give me a copy. Im annoyed that you havent given me one.) b) pentru a exprima iritarea, reproul n legtur cu neefectuarea unei aciuni trecute (might + infinitivul perfect): You might have told me what had happened. Ai fi putut s-mi spui ce s-a ntmplat. MUST / HAVE TO / NEED. Must este folsit la toate persoanele, la indicativul prezent i viitor. Have to este folosit ca nlocuitor a lui must exprimnd obligaia, iar need este folosit cu valoare de prezent i viitor, mai ales n propoziii negative i interogative. Must se folosete pentru a exprima: 1) obligaia: They must stop because the traffic light is red now. Must exprimnd obligaia poate fi nlocuit de have to sau ve got to. HAVE TO. ntre must i have to exist urmtoarele diferene de sens: a) Must exprim o obligaie impus de ctre vorbitor, pe cnd have to exprim o obligaie impus din exterior: I must go. (Its my decision). We have to go. (The shop is closing). b) Must exprim o obligaie important, urgent: I must be at the hospotal at two. Its most important. Have to exprim o obligaie obinuit, repetat (habitual obligation): I have to be at the hospital at seven oclock every morning. I begin work ar seven. Prezent: You must stay in bed for a few days. Youve got flu. You have to stay in bed when you have flu. Past Tense: He had to stay in bed last week. He was quite ill. Viitor: You must stay in bed tomorrow if you dont feel better. Youll have to stay in bed when you feel feverish again. !Lipsa obligativitii se exprim cu ajutorul lui neednt, sau not have to/not need to: You neednt come early. You dont have to come early. Forma negativ a lui have to exprim o obligaie extern sau repetat, habitual: We dont have to get up early Sundays. (We dont go to schoool on Sundays). We wont have to get up early Sundays. (We dont go to schoool on Sundays). 2) Must poate exprima i deducia logic: She must be at home. She left an hour ago. Deducia negativ se exprim cu ajutorul lui cannot/cant + infinitivul prezent al verbului to be: She left ten minutes ago, she cant be at home now. Must + infinitivul perfect exprim o deducie logic (n prezent) despre o aciune trecut: Shes got a ten in her term paper. She must have worked very hard. 3

SHALL/SHOULD. Shall este folosit: 1) pentru a exprima obligaie, n stil oficial - acte, regulamente, etc. la persoana a II-a i a III-a: The seller shall supply the spare parts in due time. Vnztorul va furniza piesele de schimb n timp util. Vnztorul este obligat s furnizeze piesele de schimb n timp util. 2) Shall este folosit n propoziii interogative, la persoana I singular sau plural: a) pentru a cere un sfat, o sugestie, un ordin: Where shall we put the flowers ? Unde s punem florile ? Shall we go to the cinema tonight ? (Ce spui), mergem la cinema disear ? What shall I do ? Ce trebuie s fac ? b) pentru a face o ofert: Shall I help you ? S te ajut ? Should este folosit pentru a exprima: 1) obligaia, necesitatea logic de nfptuire a unei aciuni, de obicei sub form de sfat de ctre vorbitor: The book is very interesting. You should read it. Cartea e foarte interesant. Ar trebui s-o citeti. He shouldnt tell lies. N-ar trebui s mint. 2) o presupunere (indicnd un grad de nesiguran mai mare dect will): He should be there by now. Ar trebui s fi ajuns acolo deja. He should have left by now. Ar trebui s fi plecat deja. OUGHT TO. Ought to indic obligaia sau datoria, de obicei sub form de sfat dat de ctre vorbitor (la fel ca should): A: You ought to finish the book before going on holiday. A: Ar trebui s termini cartea nainte s pleci n vacan. B: I know I should. B: tiu c-ar trebui. Exprimarea unui sfat, a unei recomandri, sugestii, prin ought to/should este mai puin puternic dect prin must: You should see a doctor. Ar trebui s te duci la doctor. You ought to see a doctor. Ar trebui s te duci la doctor. You must see a doctor. Trebuie s te duci la doctor. WILL/WOULD. Will este folosit pentru a exprima: 1) o comand impersonal (similar cu must, be to): You will come here at once. Vino ncoace imediat. 2) insistena, hotrrea de a efectua o aciune: He will study chemistry whatever his father says. Va studia / este decis s studieze chimia, indiferent de prerea tatlui su. 3) o aciune repetat, un obicei al unei persoane (will frecventativ): He will sit on the bench for hours and gaze at the stars. Obinuiete s stea ore-n ir pe banc i s se uite la stele. 4) o invitaie, n propoziii interogative, la persoana a II-a: Will you have another sanwich ? Mai vrei / ia te rog un sandvi. 4

5) o cerere sau rugminte (pe un ton politicos, dar mai autoritar dect would): Will you sign the register ? V rog s semnai n registru. 6) o intenie spontan, nepremeditat, n momentul vorbirii la persoana I (de obicei contras n ll): A: Im thirsty. B: Ill fetch you a glass of water. A: Mi-e sete. B: S-i aduc un pahar cu ap. Will devine would sau infinitiv n vorbirea indirect, n funcie se sens: Would este folosit: 1) pentru a exprima o cerere, o rugminte politicoas: Would you do me favour ? Vrei s-mi facei un serviciu ? Would you do me a favour ? V rog s-mi facei un serviciu ? Not: Would like este de obicei folosit n locul lui want, fiind o form de exprimare mai politicoas: I would like to talk to the manager. I want to talk to the manager. A dori s vorbesc cu directorul. Would you like to talk to him now ? Dorii cu el acum ? 3) Would este folosit i pentru a exprima probabilitatea: That would be their car. Probabil c aceea este maina lor. (Ac eeaq trebuie s fie maina lor). Atenie ! Would + rather/sooner + infinitivul scurt este folosit pentru a exprima preferina: I would rather listen to the concert than see the film. I d sooner listen to the concert than see the film. A prefera s ascult concertul dect s vd filmul.

FOLLOW UP
I. Find the right words that suit in the blanks from the column below. Write the Perfect Crime Novel Most people are born with the natural ability to (0) ... stories, but only a rare few have the determination to become professional authors, and even fewer have the joy of seeing their novels top the (1) ... of bestselling books. Some of the world's famous crime writers have achieved the (2) ... success of all. Who can (3) ... the appeal of famous detectives like Sherlock Holmes, Miss Maple or Hercule Poirot? Even if you haven't read the (4) ... books you will have seen them in films or on the TV. If you have an ambition to become the (5) ... Agatha Christie what should you do? The best starting (6) ... is to read lots of examples of crime fiction written by good authors. You will need a notebook to carry around with you or, (7) ... better, some loose (8) ... of paper that you can (9) ... notes on and then file into a folder. After all, the most everyday situation - for example, watching a woman get (10) ... a train - may be the (11) ... for your first bestseller. Like any good recipe you have to know the main (12) ... of a successful novel. These are: an original story, strong characters and a memorable setting.
A 1. queue 2. largest 3. deny 4. first 5. next 6. spot 7. even 9. complete 10. out 11. notion 12. parts B list greatest refuse initial following tip sheets do down idea ingredients C row highest insist early subsequent point layers fill off invention pieces D line prime hide original later mark pieces make from inspiration sections

II. Complete the blanks with the correct form of the words in CAPITALS: Food Production In the not-too-distant past farm animals were able to live (1)(NATURE) _____________ lives in what we would now term 'free-range' conditions. Such farming methods however, were not able to supply the rapidly growing (2) (POPULATE) ______________ of the world and the increasing demands on food (3)(CONSUME)_____________. In order to cope with this rising demand, factory farming methods were introduced along with the (4)( DEVELOP) _______________of genetically engineered (5)(GROW) ____________ hormones, which resulted in a massive increase in food (6)(PRODUCE) ____________. However, these developments in the use of factory farming and drug (7)(TREAT) ___________ have led to a widespread feeling that animals are being caused a lot of distress and that the quality of the food itself suffers as a consequence. Certainly, many people (8)(AGREE) _____________ with 6

the idea of keeping animals in one building for their entire (9)(EXIST) _____________ and argue that more emphasis should be given to (10)(ALTERNATE) __________________ farming methods. A growing number of people are choosing to eat organic food, supporting farmers who use free-range methods, a system which has proved to be both (11)(ECONOMY) ______________ and more humane. (0,20px11=2,20p) III. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. 1. I want to go to university this year. INTERESTED I ........................................ to university this year. 2. I was too tired to go to the party. THAT I was ........................................ I couldn't go to the party. 3. There's no point asking Lynda to help as she's really busy. WASTE It's ........................................ asking Lynda to help as she's really busy. 4. I'm sure it was Ana I saw in town as I recognized her coat. MUST It ........................................ Ana I saw in town as I recognized her coat. 5. The boss wouldn't object to you going early today. OBJECTION The boss would not ........................................ you going early today. 6. The meal we had in the restaurant was so nice. SUCH It ........................................ meal in the restaurant. IV. Choose the correct answer for each of the sentences below: 1. Mandys room is much than mine. a. clean b. cleaning c. cleaner d. cleanest 2. The two exercises are the we had to solve so far. a. easy b. easiest c. easiest d. easier 3. We use to drink milk at breakfast. a. most b. much c. many d. worst 4. My father is heavy, but my uncle is much than my father. a. nicer b. heavier c. heavyer d. heaviest 5. Stan is a successful sportsman, but his sister is than Stan. a. successfulest b. successfuler c. more successful d. as successful 6. She's reading old comic. a. a b. an c. with d. these 7. Do you agree staying in a foreign country? a. with b. about c. off d. in 8. My friend is good playing volleyball. a. at b. about c. of d. with 9. I can't imagine Peter by bike. a. going b. go c. went d. goes 10. The teacher expected Sarah hard. a. studies b. to study c. study d. studied 11. Peter live with his grandparents? 7 a. do b. make c. makes d. does 12. Sandy's hamsters live in a cage? a. does b. do c. made d. make 13. This box is very heavy, so I not lift it. a. cannot b. shouldnt c. can d. wished 14. The children be at school at 7.35. a. must b. are c. is d. were 15. It may rain today expresses: a. polite suggestion b. necessity c. advice d. possibility 16. I can lend you my bike till Sunday expresses: a. offer b. possibility c. obligation d. habits 17. You may not work on Richard's computer expresses: a. assumption b. polite suggestion c. prohibition d. promise 18. Can you wait a moment, please? expresses: a. request b. offer c. hesitant offer d. obligation 19. Frank thinks playing chess. a. of b. with c. for d. up 20. They feel like going bed. a. at b. to c. with d. off 21. There are twenty-two in our group. a. childes b. childs c. child d. children 22. Peggy is about leave.

a. for b. to c. at d. in 23. The opposite for gentleman is : a. woman b. women c. gentlewomen d. lady 24. The opposite for guilty is : a. innocent b. nice c. heavy d. smart 25. The opposite for to suspect is : a. to like b. to dislike c. must d. to trust 26. The synonym for nice is : a. pretty b. ugly c. fine d. ice 27. When do you intend to go Spain? a. at b. into c. to d. from 28. They often meet their best friends school. a. to b. at c. inside d. for 29. Those are my photos. Give ! a. me it b. it to me c. they to me d. them to me 30. Anne has a son. name is Edward. a. her b. his c. its d. their 31. There food in the kitchen. a. aren't any b. isn't any c. isn't some d. are any 32. Peter, is this pen ? a. you b. your c. yours d. youre 33. She is the girl in the class. a. cleverer b. cleverest c. most clever d. more cleverest 34. There wasn't in the garden. a. anybody b. somebody c. nobody d. no one 35. That dress is big for you. a. so much b. too much c. too d. to 36. The lift is out of so well have to walk. a. function b. order c. walking d. work 37. That woman is very old and ill; she : a. dies b. died c. is going to die d. has died 38. What do you to do about the problem now that this solution has failed? a. attempt b. wish c. go d. intend 39. We have . for a new secretary but we havent had any replies yet. a. advertised b. advised c. wanted d. noticed 40. Ive .. for this job and I hope I get it . a. appointed b. applied c. presented d. succeeded 41. I many pancakes every day. (eat) a. eats b. eaten c. eat d. ate 42. She Fanta right now. (drink) a. is drinking b. was drinking c. drinks d. drunk 43. She us that lesson yesterday. (teach) a. teaches b. taught c. would teach d. is teaching 44. While they in the yard, the front door bell rang. (work) a. work b. worked c. were working d. was working 45. Maddy the postcard to her grandparents. (already / send) 8

a. have sent b. sends c. will already send d. has already sent 46. I the room since this morning. I still do it now. (clean) a. clean b. am cleaning c. cleans d. have been cleaning 47. My mother turkey at dinner tomorrow evening. (cook) a. will cook b. cooks c. was cooking d. cooked 48. Im not really sure where Ann is. She in the living room, or perhaps shes in the yard. a. might have sat b. might be sitting c. might sitting d. cant sit 49. Bill the video we rented on his way to work. It was on the table but now its gone. a. have returned b. must return c. must returned d. must have returned 50. The computer isnt working anymore. It during the earthquake. a. should damaged b. can be damaged c. must be damaged d. must have been damaged 51. We the tickets for the play in advance they sell out quickly. a. have to booked b. has to book c. have to book d. mustnt 52. You cant mean that. You a. mustnt joke b. have joked c. have to joke d. must be joking 53. We the piano since three oclock. a. practice b. have practiced c. practice d. have been practicing 54. If you have got the flu, you take antibiotics: a. mustnt b. would c. should d. could 55. Does Joanne mind guests for dinner? a. to have b. have c. having d. has 56. An enemy is : a. a friend b. someone hostile c. a parent d. someone who cares 57. The omelette by eggs. a. was made b. was make c. was maked d. is made 58. My colleagues like time together at the weekends. a. spends b. to spend c. spend d. spent 59. Halloween is an American tradition through which people : a. give thanks to God b. celebrate Christ c. pray a lot d. try to scare the evil spirits 60. At extremely low temperatures people may experience : a. depression b. frostbite c. madness d. happiness

61. Italian open pie made of thin bread dough spread with a spiced mixture of e.g. tomato sauce and cheese is called: a. spaghetti b. pizza c. salad d. pudding 62. The first meal of the day (usually in the morning) is: a. supper b. dinner c. breakfast d. lunch 63. represents any solid substance that is used as a source of nourishment; a. water b. gas c. oil d. food 64. A form of entertainment that enacts a story by a sequence of images giving the illusion of continuous movement is a: a. book b. video-clip c. hit d. movie 65. The latest and most admired style in clothes and cosmetics and behavior is: a. mood b. fashion c. clothes d. dressing

66. A neckwear consisting of a long narrow piece of material worn (mostly by men) is a : a. tie b. scarf c. T-shirt d. coat 67. A garment extending from the waist to the knee (ankle), covering each leg separately refers to: a. tie b. slippers c. trousers d. caps 68. Sandy would rather read than T.V. a. watch b. watches c. watching d. watched 69. Searching for or buying goods or services means : a. mailing b. carrying c. delivering d. shopping 70. A large retail store organized into departments offering a variety of merchandise, commonly part of a retail chain is a : a. grocery shop b. food shop c. department store d. greengrocery

V. CONDITONAL CLAUSES. Pair up the sentences to form conditional clauses 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Tom will catch the bus If I had a car If you had tried If you had done as you were told If it rains If Leo hadnt been so lazy Both girls would have drowned If my uncle comes If Sally sells the car If a burglar tried to rob me We will buy a bigger house I would write the letter immediately If we had gone to the party He wouldnt have been fired He would be very angry If she sends me the invitation We can go to the zoo The driver would have been seriously injured I will call for a doctor If Mrs. Smith werent so slow a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. if we have money if he saw you now if she doesnt feel better tomorrow if he hadnt worn the seat belt if he hadnt saved them I would call the police if I were you you would have been successful take your umbrella she would get a job she will have to take the bus I will go to her party if Rob arrives on time I would lend it to you this would have not happened if he had admitted to his mistake he would have taken the exam if he hurries we would have met him

VI. Translate into English: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Daca as fi avut destui bani mi-as fi cumparat casetofonul. Daca azi am liber, ies in oras. Daca vremea ar fi mai buna, am putea merge sa inotam. Pot sa iti arat strada daca gasesc harta orasului Mama ar fi mers la teatru daca n-ar fi fost bolnava Elevii ar putea invata mai mult daca ar fi mai putini intr-o clasa

TIME CLAUSES
Complete these sentences with if, unless, when, as soon as or until. 1. Well never get there on time __________ Sedef gets ready quickly. 2. Im so excited. Im going to get my skis on _________ we get there! 3. Id take that job _________ the salary was better. 4. Ill take driving lessons ________ Ive finished school. Im not in a hurry. 5. I cant go to the office ________ Ive found my car keys! 6. Alex wont get a birthday present from me __________ I go shopping today. His birthday is tomorrow. 7. We wont be able to buy a new car _________ weve saved enough money. 8. I have to take the pasta out of the water __________ its cooked, or it gets too soft and sticky. 9. Wed go and visit them more often _________ getting there was cheaper. 10. Id buy myself an up-to-date iPhone __________ I had a really good job. Complete the sentences with the verb either in future or present tense, using contractions when possible. 1. He will wash up before he (to go) to bed. 2. When it (to get) cold I 'll light the fire. 3. When the Queen (to arrive) the audience will stand up. 4. She (to give) the children their dinner before he comes home. 5. I will pay you when I (to get) my cheque. 6. She (to stay) in bed till the clock strikes seven. 7. He'll have to behave better when he (to go) to school. 8. She will go on until he (to tell) her to stop. 9. The lift (not start) until you press that button. 10. When he (to return) I'll give him the key. Future time clauses - Read the sentences and translate WHEN When I finish writing the reports, I will go out with my friends. She will move to Izmir when she finds a good job. When the party is over, well clean the house. BEFORE Before I go to Bodrum, Ill book a room. Murat will visit all his relatives before he joins the army. They wont transfer any players before they sign the advertising agreement. AFTER After her sister prepares dinner, theyll invite their neighbours. My father will buy a new car after he saves enough money. What will you do after you finish the French course? AS SOON AS They will go to the beach as soon as they have their breakfast. All the players in the national team will go on holiday as soon as the Europian Championship is over. Dont worry mom. I will phone you as soon as I arrive Paris. UNTIL You can go out. I will wait until she calls. They wont start the match until the rain stops. I wont buy anything new until I pay all my debts. IF 10

If I go home early tonight, I will watch the Olympic Games. Tarik will buy a new TV set if the prices goes down. If you pass the test, what will you do? HAVE YOU NOTICED THE STRUCTURE? when, after, before, as soon as, until, if are followed by SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE. Main clasuses in these sentences are followed by future will. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs. 1) When the manager _____________ ( arrive ), they _______________ ( start ) the meeting. 2) If he _____________ ( reach ) the sales target this year, the company ____________ ( award ) him. 3) We _______________ ( start ) the construction of a shooping center as soon as the government __________( allow ) us to begin. 4) After she __________ ( find ) a good house in Karyaka, she_______________ ( buy ) some new furniture. 5) If Alex _______________ ( feel ) better at the weekend, he _______________ ( play ) in the match against Milan. 6) I will have to finish the reports before the manager _______________ ( call ). 7) She _______________( eat ) anything until the doctor_______________( tells ) her to eat. English exercise "Future after -when?" 1. You'll talk to Julia as soon as she (arrive) . 2. After you (finish) packing up, you will meet all the members of the staff. 3. The tourists will take photos while they (visit) the old town. 4. Will you do something before it (be) too late ? 5. Don't worry, Lisa will buy some food when she (go) shopping. 6. I can't do anything now ! When I (phone) Sue, I'll be able to give a hand. 7. I do hope you will come and see us in Dublin when you (be) in Ireland. 8. Joe says he is going to follow his diet after he (come) back from Greece. 9. He will give you his address only after he (find) somewhere to live. 10. Jill won't speak to him again until he (apologize) . Complete the passage using the correct verb tense. Pay attention to adverb clauses Most people recognize Leonardo da Vinci as the painter of the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper. Yet, Leonardo (be) a master of design, engineering, science, and invention, as well as a master of art. After Leonardo (paint) his most famous works, he (begin) to spend more time on his other dreams. As a military engineer, Leonardo (draw) plans for primitive tanks and airplanes long before anyone (dream, ever) possible. He (credit, also) with having designed the first parachute and having constructed the first elevator. In the sciences, Leonardo (be) equally amazing. He (discover) complex principles of physics nearly a century before Galileo (do) his own work. In anatomy, Leonardo (study) muscle and bone structure to improve his painting, and even after he (become) tired of painting, he (continue) to study the workings of the heart. He (speculate, even) on the circulation of blood a century before William Harvey (prove) it. Leonardo da Vinci (be) so far ahead of his time that not until this century (be) his genius truly evident.

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