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Essaysby Alex Wayman



George Elder

MOTILAL BANARSIDASS Delhi Yaranasi Patnq Madras



Fint Published: I984 Copyrigh t vtoTILAL @ B AN ARS ID As s Head Ofice : Bungalow Road, Delhi l l0 007 B,anches:Chowk, Varanasi221001 Ashok Rajpath, Patna 800 004 6, Appar Swamy Koil Street,Mylapore, Madras 600004 rights reserved. .{.11 No qart of this publication may be reproduced :r ransmitted in any form .oI by any means, withoutihe p;i;; ;ermrssion of Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN :089581-041-7 h-inted in India by Shantilal Jain at Shri Jainendrapress A_45, Naraina, Pha_se-X, New Delhi l l0 028 and published by \arendra PrakashJain, for Motilal Bananidass,delhi l l0 007

TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction,by GeorgeR. Elder Part I. BuddhistPractice 1l l. Buddhaas Savior 29 2. Ancient BuddhistMonasticism andMahiSdsaka69 3. Aspectsof Meditation in the Theravd,da accordingto the Lam Rim 4. The BodhisattvaPractice ChenMo Part II. BuddhistDoctrine 5. The SixteenAspectsof the Four Noble Truths and Their Opposites Metaphor-Simile 6. The Mirror as a Pan-Buddhist J. The BuddhistTheory of Vision Origination-the Indo-Tibetan Tradition 8. Dependent and Insight accordingto Asanga's 9- Nescience Yogdcdrabhumi 10. The Twenty Reifying Views (Sakkdyadillhi) of the I l. Who Understands the Four Alternatives Buddhisttexts ? Dispute in Buddhism 12. The Intermediate-state of Buddhism Part III. InterpretativeStudies Time in Buddhism 269 13. No Time, GreatTime,and Profane 287 14. The Role of Art amongthe BuddhistReligieux 307 15. Secret of the Heart Sutra Part IV. Texts of the Asangaschool 16. The Sacittikd and Acittikd Bhumi, Text and Translation 17. Asanga'sTreatise,the Paramdrtha-gdthd Treatiseon the ThreeInstructionsof 18. Asanga's Buddhism

r17 r29

193 215 225 25t

327 333 353

(vi) Part V. Hindu and BuddhistStudies 19. Two Traditions of India-:Truth and Silence 20. The Hindu-BuddhistRite of Truth-an Interpretation 21. Significance of Dreamsin India and Tibet 22. The Significance of Mantras,from the Vedadown to BuddhistTantric Practice 23. The Goddess Sarasvati-from India to Tibet 24. The Twenty-onePraises of of Tird, a Syncretism Saivism and Buddhism Acknowledgments Index

369 39r 399

4r3 43r
AAI 453 457


Alex Wayman-Professor of Sanskrit in the Department of Middle East Languagesand Cultures and Professor in the Department of Religion at Columbia University-enjoys a world-wide reputation as a truly outstanding scholar in the field of Buddhist Studies. This reputation is founded upon two decadesof teaching and writing, with his recent full-length publication entitled Calming the Mind and Discerning the Real, a translation from the Tibetan of a portion of Tson-kha-pa's expansive Lam rim cherc mo, published in 1978. While Wayman's half a dozen other books have become a standard of quality in this field, it is still a surprisefor colleagues to learn that this scholar has also published more than ninety essays to date. These essays have appeared in what are now generally accessible anthologies of other scholars and in the premier journals of the United States. Many have also been written at the requestof editors in Europe, India, and Japan" Indexes being what they are, and libraries and one's capacity to keep track being limited, a number of these fine short treatments have not yet been sufficiently known. Professor Wayman has already attempted to bridge the gap by publishing sixteen of his essays in the collection, The Buddhist Tantras: Light on Indo-Tibetan Esotericism, 1973. While that volume focuses upon contributions to tantric Buddhism, the present volume makes more readily available to scholars and the intelligent reader wayman's contributions to our understanding of non-tantric Buddhism. The twenty-four essayscollected here focus almost entirely upon Early Buddhism (what the Mahdydnists refer to as Hinaydna) and upon Mahdydna Buddhism in India. Except one, each of these essayshas already been published. Their appearance together here has been advised by Alex Wayman himself; and this has allowed the author of the essays the opportunity to make corrections and to provide additional materials. My own emendations have been in terms of



regularizing punctuation and diacriticals as much as feasible and seeing to it that the work reads more or less as a coherent statement rather than as so many separate papers. But it is also true that the general consistencyof Wayman's translations and his reliance in one article upon positions established in another lend a natural coherence-and, I think, strength-to the book. The method of scholarship found in this volume has been explained by the author in the prefaceto his The B.uddhistTantras' There, he states: "Al1 those works, whether published or in press or preparation, have a common method which is the subordination of personai opinion about the Tantra to authoritative explanations by the proficients of this cult." Accordingly, the reader will find here some of Wayman's views on the nature of non-tantric Indian Buddhism. But mainly he or she will discover the Buddhists' own Yiews on the nature of their religion-and this by way of translations of scripture (fairly literally rendered) illuminated by authoritative commentary. The commentators in this instance are most often Asanga (375-430, A.D.), in Sanskrit, and Tson-kha-pa (1357especiallyhis Yogacdrabhilmi 6m chen mo in Tibetan. The Lam his titg, A.D.), especially by the fact that the Tibetan is attested felicity of this combination While both of these Asanga. from reformer often quotes by religious perto Mahiydnists be ancient scholars are known in scope and encyclopedic suasion, their works mentioned are all phases of virtually on provide a high standard of commentary are also of here collected Buddhism. It follows that the essays a high standard with a minimum of mere speculation and with a ceftain fidelity to the complexity of the materials concerned. Since Buddhism is a rich religion and at times an obscure one' , and perhaps articles,in this the reader will come upon passages work that will seemopaque except to those trained in the issues; but the attentive reader will also find much to inform the intellect and delight the soul. In any case, in the essaysassembled here an extraordinary wealth of information, some of it entirely unexpected,is presentedin a manner that should give it an enduring uuio.. It might be mentioned also that there is actually a variety ,of styles in the collection. Most of the articles appearedin the seventiesbut one as early as 1959 and some as recent as 1980; furthermore, Professor Wayman was writing at different times for different publishers who have had their own purposes.



This bringsus to the questionof the sort 6f readerfor whom this volume is intended. wayman, the ..schorar,s scholar,,, wrote the essays originally for coileagues in the field; and they, of course,remain the primary audience. Graduatestudentsin BuddhistStudies or Indian religions in general will alsofind this work invaluable. But I would like to suggest stronglythat these €ssays be considered asa secondary source-alongsidlr.ripru..r_ within the undergraduate curriculum. From -y o*n experience with college students, I know that the surveys or guoonismnow available areuseful;but I alsoknow that theyprovide information of a kind that theprofessor himserf or herslican only too easily provide in lecture. The undergraduate student is left without a bridge between introductory statementsand the foreign complexities of Buddhist scripture. with thisin mind,these essays have beenarranged asa sortofsurveyof non-tantricIndian Buddhismby way of in-depthdiscussion of its mostimportantissues. Part one' "Buddhist practice," opens ,itt a treatment of "Buddha as savior." It is not immediately apparent that this essayhas to do with the path; but it p.ouio., an initial focus upon the Indian man who fou'ded Buddhism at the end of the sixth century,B.c. while "Buddha,'-.6Jfus Awakened Qng,,_ can be said to be the chief epithet of siddhdrtha Gautama, we learn hereof the many namesgiven this figure in scripture and commentary; and Waymanshowshow the variousnamespoint to a variety of views of Buddha'sactivity within the rerigion. was GautamaBuddha a "savior" simpry because he reveared the truth about reality? or did he,, also in the sense of somehow providing otherswith the power to perceive this truth? In the first instance, disciples would needto^,,out their salvation with diligence; and in the second, they couldrery more upon the "grace" of the Lord. Thus, the proflem of Buddhist practice is engaged..And wayman discusses ..conthe discipre,s version"from an ordinaryperson to special person-one who has developed his native"insight" and beco*, u ..son,, in the f;it of the Buddha. The article that follows, ..Ancient Buddhist Monasticism,"provides at some length a description of the monastic contextin which the process of conversion took jprace: the kinds of ordination, the rures,the confessions-and stages of progress. Scholars in particularwill bepleasedto flnd here a technicaldiscussion of thetranslation of p ia tfuok sa as..Liberation-


Buddhist Insight

or onset.,' But there are in BuddhiSm "Three Trainings" on instructions; and the "morality" emphasized in the essay "meditation of practice The them. of monastic life is only one upon is yet another-indeed, it is a mental training which follows follows there so And the right establishmentof moral behaviour. the informative essay, "Aspects of Meditation in the Theravdda are and Mahisasaka." Since the Theravdda and Mahisd'saka section-"The' this in sects of Early Buddhism, the final essay Bodhisattva Practice According to the Lant Rim chen i'[s"turns our attention to the stage of discipleship called the bodhi' sattva within the MahdYana. third Part two can be looked upon as a presentation of the "Doctrine"' the training-training in f insighf"-5inss it takes up by which must be "discerned" once the mind has been "calmed" and meditatron. This is by far the longest section of the book, it opens with a discussionof "The sixteen Aspects of the Four. Truths Noble Truths and their opposites." The Four Noble first at his Buddha Gautama by taught are said to have been grows doctrine basic the see how to sermon; and it is interesting times the with the tradition to encompass eventually four ..truth,, complete with opposites or o'coverings"which obscure that these truths for ordinary persons. Buddhists ares aying and misperceived ; generally is ordinary rcality, called salnsdra, extrathe perceive not will correctly, one unless one seessaqnsdra to the ordinary reality called nirvdrya. Having been introduced 'owheel" with sixteen aspects religious use of the symbol of the the essay' or spokes, we encounter the symbol of the "mirror" in ..The Mirror as a Pan-Buddhist Metaphor-simile." The the imagimaterials presented are particularly rich, capturing data move the nation u, t.ligiorrs symbols are intended to do; and tantric the through the varied traditions of Buddhism, including short the formr. This is all by way of prepatation, I think, for vision'" but important statement, "The Buddhist Theory of prajfia as of justify translation his to begins Professor wayman ooinsight" (rather than as "wisdom," a translation preferred by but it is ,o*.-; toward the close of the essayon "Meditation;" that translation a of significance the sense really here that we 'oseeing." FOr it is "seeing"-4nd having a nuance Of preserves ^the "eye" for it-which servesas the primary symbol of understanding throughout the history of Buddhism'



While the successful yogin must "see" the Four Noble Truths in their multiple aspects,he must also seeDependent Origination. There follows, then, the long and complex discussion, "DepenPublished only dent Origination-the Indo-Tibetan Tradition." previously the author's of culmination is a this essay recently, published researchon the subject; and the extensive notes provide a sort of sub-text for the body of this essay. Avidya is the first member of this twelve-member formula for conditioned reality, and FrofessorWayman focusesupon it in his article, "Nescience ,and Insight According to Asanga's Yogdcdrabhumi." Actually, we learn that "nescience" is a general translation of avidyd since it might better be rendered "ignorance" as the first member of Dependent Origination so as to preserve an unexin association with pected meaning as a kind of "waywardness'o "fnsight" "feelings," the seventh member of the formula. in any form, and Asanga'slong list of metaopposes"nescienceo' phors for prajfid-including the most telling ones that have to do with "light" -can be found here. But the problem of "nescience"for the ordinary personis a persistentone; and so we read next of "The Twenty Reifying Views''. These must yield place in favour of the Buddhist view called "non-self" which is, in this instance, the view of the five skandhas,each denied in four ways as being "self." As the section comes to a close, we are treated once again to the Buddhist penchant for a four-fold analysis in the essay,"Who Understands the Four Alternatives of the Buddhist Texts?" This is the most philosophical, in some ways the most technical, essayin the volume; it goes directly to problems of logic-and Wayman takes on a number of his colleaguesin debate. The subject matter itself includes such ancient problems as this: Does the Tathdgata exist after death? And so the section closeswith the topic, "The Intermediate-State Dispute in Buddhism." Here, the debate is among Buddhists alone. And the question is whether a person who is not yet Enlightened goes directly to his or her next life upon death, or goes to an "intermediate state," some state in between. I think it is important to seein this essayand elsewhere within the volume that a dispute among Buddhists may exhibit the difference between the Hinayana and Mahayana forms but may just as readily cut acrosssectarianlines. Part three is entitled "Interpretative Studies of Buddhism"

Readers will gain from this section a clear idea of the kinds of materials involved in Buddhist scholarship. "Texts of the Asanga School. and profane Time in Buddhism.uced above." allows categoriesmore usually associatedwith the "history of religions" school to inform our understanding of the Buddhist religion. by the way. And. The short text. I l. this scholar brings to bear upon a famous Mahdydna scripture a more or less yogdcdra point of view in opposition to the usual Buddhist commentary from the point of view of the Madhyamika school. yoga of the Guhyasamdjatantra. "The Sacittikd and Acittika Bhfrmi" was previously published only as edited.6 nuddhist Insight since the author brings to bear upon Buddhist materials in these essavspoints of view which are not in themselvesnecessarily Buddhist. and scholars in particular will gain edited materials for their own work along with a clear sense of wayman's style of translation. Great Time. the text "Asafiga's . in the opening of the essay entitled." provides a change of pace. It is a style of scholarship which wayman also employs in his work." is unique." The "paramdrtha Gatha" text already mentioned is a set of verses with commentary by Asanga which form a portion of "stage" No. and wayman has taken the opportunity to provide the translation here as well. "secret of the Heart. Wayman calls it an "Asian-type commentary composed by a westernsl"-s1d fus is the Westerner. published in 1977. also. Part four. "No Time. The best introduction to these excerpts is actually found in the opening paragraphs of the second essay' "Asanga's Treatise on the Paramdrtha Gatha"-4nd. has informed many of the preceding essays. It contains Nos. This is becauseof the preferenceshown to a presentation in the order of its appearance within the yogdcdrahbilmi itself. It appears again here with corrections. It contains edited sanskrit and translated excerpts from the Yogacarabhumi of Asanga whose commentary.l96l. this material. "Nescience and Insight According to Asanga's Yogdcdrabhilmi " introd. the second. g and 9 of the seventeen bhumis or "stages. "The Role of Art Among the Buddhist Religieux" blends art history with a fair amount of modern aesthetic theory while relying upon positions already established in the essay on "Dependent origination. The first. as already noted." The third.Siltra. Here. was previously published as part of wayman's fuillength Analysis of the SrdvakabhilmiManuscript. finally.

The essays can be looked upon as pairs. we might say. It is entitled. Finally. And the of truth" is shown to be a particular instanceof the power of truth spoken. 11. it is appropriatethat a volumeentitled Buddhist Insiglttshouldend with its attentionupon the Feminine since. The second pair of esSays-"Significance of Dreamsin India and Tibet" along with "Significanceof Hinduism. This materialin the book has not been publishedin someform earlier. The first pair is made of : "Two Traditions of IndiaTruth and Silence" and 'The Hindu-Buddhist Rite of Truthan Interpretation. The Buddhist Tantras: Light on Indo-Tibetan Esot ericism.Introduction Treatiseon the ThreeInstructionsof Buddhism"takesup the set of verses and commentarythat follow the "Paramdrtha Githi" within "stage" No. "The Goddess Sarasvati-from India to Tibet.New York City . Both. Part five extendsour appreciationfor the range of Professor Wayman'swork. especially by way of mantra. "Insight" is sometimes a "Woman. Elder Hunter College. "The Twenty-OnePraises of Tdrd. a Syncretism of Saivismand Buddhism. and the translation essay.they may serveas an encouragement to continue this "survey" of Buddhism by consultingAlex Wayman's other collection of essays. and they articulate the tradition of the muni or "silent sage" as distinct from the tradition of the sagewho 'orite verbalizes his truth. GeorgeR." bringsthe volumeto a closewith a beautiful hymn." Hindu and Buddhist Studies." Wayman's treatment.focusupon important features of Indian religiouslife and provide valuabledetailedclassifications." and its comparative approachshouldgivea certainfeelingfor the characterof Buddhismin India which was always surrounded." tracesthe history of a deity from her form as a river to her many forms within Buddhist meditation. and Buddhism." They move through the Vedas. however. Sincethe last two essays touch upon materialsthat are ambiguously related to both the non-tantric and tantric forms of Buddhism. From the Veda Down to Buddhist Tantric Practice"-are less united in theme.


cal Buddha. ly.. 2nd edn. 2 vols.another coming to the fore after his passingas the disciples yearned for and received a new dispensation.the later Mah6ydnadevelopments. But in anotherbranch of Buddhistliteraturethis doesnot appear to be a problem at all. Tokyo. . and alsoinvolvedeep-seated difference$ in the persons who might be subjectto this salvific activity. editedby Rv6zanun6 sar. and so it is possible to discernsomechanges. our investigationshowsone situation during the time of the histori-. to Mahdydnadevelopments to find convincingexamples. whether the Buddha's salvific operation is consistentwith Buddhist emphasison individual responsibilityand enterprise. and one must pass. in viewpointas time went on.BUDDHA AS SAVIOR The Buddhistteachings about Buddha as a savior go deep into the meaning of Buddhism.crr.Fortunate-. and a later section to terms about the greatness of the Tathagata (a title of the Buddha). it is all at hand-the old Buddhistscriptures. There are also some highly disputed matters. A problem in one extensive corpus of Buddhist to whethersuch an activity as "grace" is accepted_ The old teachingof the Buddharesisted this. RrrnvaNr EprrlIETs oF THE BuooHa The celebrated Buddhist dictionary Mahdvyutpatti devotes its first section to epithets of the Buddha. 1962.r From these two sections I have selected certain names that can be arranged in sets as follows: I Mahavyutpatti.

This is the course I announce: I so mastered it that myself realized directly rvith supernormal faculty the incomparable yoga-way of brahma-conduct (bralmmcaril'ogadha). the memory of previous lives. protector (Sopti. Sugata.World-knower. teacher of gods and men. guide (ndyaka. teachesthe Dhamma. savior (trdyin. HonNnn.12 BuddhistInsight a.many hundred thousands.but the translation theBuddha I. many thousands. that these amount to many hundreds. Theseare both o'clear visions" and supernormal faculties (abhijfifl. the divine eye. Some of those titles are in a scriptural passageof the Pdli canonical collection called Anguttara-nikaya (Book of Threes):2 Here aTathdgata arisesin the world. tdraka). the refuge (iarattd. Coouluswauv and (London. He proclaims thus: "Come ! This is the Path. and having acquired it may abide (therein) !" It is in this way that the Teacher . My rendition "perfect in clear vision and walking" for the is in part verified in the well-known epithet vidydcaranasaivpanna Mahaprajfiaparamitaiastra. rescuer of all (viivamtara). Gotama is my own. c. 43. a Buddha Bhagavat.npanna). incomparable charioteer of personsto be tamed. p. parindyaka. and others coursefor the thusnessgoal. and the ending of the fluxes. charioteer of persons to be tamed (purusa-damyasaratlil). Buddha's double nature: perfect in clear vision and walking Q i dyacar a Uas ar.K. Names indicating the Buddha as refuge and savior: worthy of refuge (iarapya). moreover. an Arahantwho is rightly completely enlightened.Come you also! I\{ay you so coursethat having masteredit you too yourselves may directly realize rvith supernormal faculty the incomparable yoga-way of brahma-conduct. You should know. while the remaining three supernormal faculties of the standard Buddhist zThe passage wascalledto my attentionin A. perfect in clear vision and walking. . Names of Buddha as guide and teacher: teacher(of gods and men) (iastr-devamanwydndm). B. b. which explains the term vidya as possibly the three kinds of visions which the future Buddha had under the tree of enlightenment. caravan leader for the beginners (sdrthavahaadikarmikdndm).1948).namely. netr).

Tome I. The question of why women are not included. hungry ghosts (preta). so that the caravan (sartha) does not lose the Path. which partially overlaps the caravan-leader epithet. while the gods have sharp insight (prajfia). The Buddha with his great benevolence (mahamaitrl). it does not explain.uorrr. 1979). however. is answeredwith the usual Indian remarks that women have detractions-here. deeming it too profound for persons imbued 3Cf.Buddha as Savior 13 list are merely supernormal faculties and not clear visions. Mahaprajfiapdramitdidsta. Tome I (Louvain. Calming the Mind and Discerning the Real (Delhi. 133-135. the Chinese idstra takes the carana part as practices. or have the rank of Brahma. the true dharmas are the merchandise. tr." animals. although women are also installed in the Path. pp." raises the question of why the title is restricted to two of the five (or six) destinies that also count the animals. The Mahaprajfiapdramitaidstra. and so both these can easily attain the Path. great compassion(mahakarurld). 1. pp. or Sakra (: Indra) . It replies that the Buddha frequently saves beings included among men and gods and rarely savesbeings of the "bad destinies. and so were not intended in the title. 5l. pp. sometimes of mixed quality. tr.employs a voice sometimes sweet. It adds that men have weak bonds and can easily gain detachment.and great wisdom (mahajfiana). the Buddha is the charioteer. . whether human or animal. that they cannot become a Cakravartin king. etc. 42-43. Verses set forth that the Buddha's Dharma is the chariot. 4LAMorrE. ftInNNr LauotrE.a) refers to males.28-129. 135-137. when explaining the epithet "teacher of gods and men. and hell beings.s However. while I render it more literally as "walkingo' to indicate the wanderings during which the Buddha taught his Doctrine that was establishedin the clear visions. Wewev. The usual theory of the epithet is that the term "person" (puru. 1944).a The Chinese idstra fortunately also has an entry for the charioteer of persons to be tamed. which. a Mara king.and A.a. the disciples are the horses. sometimesharsh. pp. Tome I.s The "caravan-leader" epithet occurs in the early teaching that the Buddha's becoming completely enlightened did not necessitate a proclamation of the Path. Thus the Majjhima-nikdya has a celebrated passagethat the Buddha at first was not inclined to teach his Doctrine.

edition. I. p. The expression "for the beginners" evidently intends the "novices. 1959).Brahmd sahampati exhorted him to teach." and it is of interest that the early transmissalof Buddhism to China was by merchantsand in merchant communities." which was to be widely used in stories and with varying transcriptions and translation in Central Asia and various Asian Ianguages. would do it by virtue of his benevolence and compassion. 8cf. The 0This directly precedes the Dhammacakkapavattana episode of the Majjhimanikaya.e.. the Bihar. and those who hearkened." but this may also imply that the Buddha has no debt to requiteby walking in the world (cf. "Thesa-paoproblemRe-examined. pp. (Some) will be those who understand (it). the previous epithet. of little or much impurity. i. 59. The scripture continued with the Buddha's surveying the world with his Buddha-eyeand noticing that persons were of all sorts. He decided it would be helpful to preach his excellent Doctrine among men so that the "doors of the Immortal would be opened for them.o' in short that they are being brought to a new . saying among other things: Arise. 335-346. of keen or dull faculty. The Buddhist conquest of china (Leiden. DrcN. 7 See Arssnr E. for the details. 1962. 1958.8 This meaning seemsto agreewith the qualification . CHeNcr FRoM OnorNnRy pnnsoN ro Anye The preceding section has shown that the Buddha's role as savior amounts to revealing the Path. O hero who defeated the troop [of Mara] ! Caravan-leader without a debt."s The verse shows the early occurrence of the epithet "caravanIeader.218-219.'without a debt.82:3.T The term sdrthavdhin also means a "merchant. walk in the world ! May the Bhagavat teach the Doctrine. July-sept. like lotuses of different colors and in different stages of development.side-paths. Vol. Ztinonn. This in effect separated persons into two groups-the ordinary persons who paid no heed to the Buddha's message. And then.pp. . "perfect in clear vision and walking")." Journalofthe American oriental society.t4 Buddhist Insight with lust. and delusion. (: new sets of doctrines ) by the caravan leader who knows the Buddhist route and can avoid the pitfalls and wrong .

who has not come in contact with the noble ones (ariya) or illustrious persons. the path as the path. "Fish rescuen'is a term for installing sentient beings in the Nirvdqa-fruit. p. wrile the one who became a disciple is called the arya. is skilled in the noble doctrinesi he knows. The "fishing hook" is a term for the Tathdgata's generating (in them) the root of virtue (kuiata-muta).67.. 10A. 12D. the arya person. The Pali scripture sarpyuttanikdya describes the ordinary person (p. "fish" is a term for ordinary persons (prthagjana). Analysis of the sravakabhumi Manus*ipt (Berkeley. much emphasis was put on the change from being an "'ordinary person" to being an "drya. puthujjana) as the one who has not heard the Doctrine or been disciplined in it."ll Ananda."'z while the translator of the pali Abhidhamma work eSarpyutta-nikdya. 1961). SeyFonrRuncc. rr rhis scripture.Buddha as Savior 15 ordinary person is called the prthagjana. iii (Khandha-yagga. 42)." and proceeds on the Buddhist rhus the disciple knows the four Noble Truths. the Buddha's disciple. and this ordinary person identifies his self with the five personal aggregates of form and so on. Thus. ordinary persons were called "fish.found in both ribetan and chinese. A recent article about the term gotrabhu has decided that it signifies "(one) having the state of the linee. views illustrious persons. as it truly is. the source as the source. his sansrgyas so lrta. while the dryais the one who "enters the stream. wevuaN. cessation as cessation. The "line" is a term for the "means of conversion. suffering as suffering. or Truths of the Nobles..e According to the teacher Asanga." installed in the Buddha.i-xna-ra.s family. this does not mean that the "ordinary person" was neglected. Da.imnonrtogsdart| lha ska'iphyagtshad. proclaimed by the Buddha in the first sermon. The Pali author Buddhaghosa uses a mixed sanskritPdli term gotrabhilfidqa (knowledge of gotrabhrT) as the basis of the path aiming at Nibbdna. According to a Mah6y6na scripture called Kulagdra-siltra. Tashilunpo collected works.Vol. Setting into Motion of the wheel of Dharma. "pali GottafGotra and the term Gotrabhfrin .was cited in a nativeTibetanwork by Tsor. "Fish(erman)" is a term for the

13B. 197. 1979. the Aksaya' matinirdeia-sfitra. The second. B. WlvlraN. LAw. the change to being an arya is when this native faculty is promoted to hearing scriptures and so on with faith. appearingin "Nescience and Insight accordingto Asanga's Yogacarabhfimi."rs A special kind of drya became the "ascetic son of the Buddha."74 The Pali Saryyutta-nikaya hints at the nature of this change to an drya rvhen it points out that the ordinary person does not hear the Doctrine. pleasant speech (priya-vadita) means sweet and attractive words to persons making requestsand listening to the Dharma. coincides with the first of the six Mahiydna perfections (pdramitd). consistency in advice (samdndrthafi) means. promoting aims (artha-caryd) means fulfilling the aims of oneself and others in strict accordance with hopes. giving (ddna).o' and I will show elservherein this volume that this birth in the Buddhist family as a monk coincided with oneostaking of the vow called "Patimokkhasa\nvara. consisting of hearing.o' which is presumably the three levels of prajfia. "Ancient Buddhist Monasticism.p. This is because in Asanga's Yogdcdrabbumiit is (prajfid) attained taught that persons have a native "insight" through birth. Holland. that whatever the vehicle of teaching that oneself adheres to with the Pali and Buddhist Sanskrit. tr. Hence. 206-207. The third canon and undergo a development in Sanskrit Buddhist literature." This native insight contrasts with the promoted insight called "eye of insight belonging to the Aryas.'o Buddhist Studies in Honour of I. The first one.p. .. Horner (Dordrecht. Designationof Human Types(London. this "giving" means giving any material thing and also giving the Dharma." Studia Missionalia appearsin this volume. 19. pp. 1922). and which he refers to as "eye of insight. Following the description of a Mahayana scripture.This essay 15All the citations from Asanga's Yogacarabhumi are in my essay.16 BuddhistInsight Puggala-pafifiatiunder the title Human Types takes the term to signify "one become of the Ariya family. The fourth one.15 The "ordinary persons" also constitute the field for what are called the "four means of conversion" (samgralnvastu). 14A. 1974). pondering." this volume.C. for example. 28. that are enumerated in the Pd. and cultivation. whereupon it is called "insight consisting of hearing" (irutamayi prajfia).

pp." one such passage appealed to is in the Buddhist classicDhammapada(no. i: l1 li t ! i . ff.verehindered. 75. Arsx WAvuaN. for more material on the four vastus. sanskrit Literature 251-259."r? Asanga does concern himself rvith why personswith the nature of parinirt'apahave "moved it sarytsdra far so long in former times and still have not attained parinir. one may consult HaR Dayar. La theorie du Tathagatagarbha et du gotra (Paris. r8Cf. and he proceeds to explain each of the four. cf. 3) they enteredupon a wrong or perverse corxse. The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhist (Delhi. 2) they had the fault of heedlessness. D. 1975).rutra like some other sources employs the term icchantika for persons who lack the requisite "root of virtue" (kuiata-mula) (cf. Analysis. in common rvith early Buddhism as indicated in the preceding section.rE A problem of this theory that one has become stationed in a species (s.vdqte. gorra) with the inherent nature of parinirvdlta. pp. and another problem is why those stationed in the species seem still so far away from parinirvana. of which I have been preparing a translation. Runcc. one installs in that very vehicle persons who accept the material things and'Dharma of the first means(dana). the previous'ofish" passagefrom the Katragara-sutra) susceptible of forming the basisfor entranceinto the "species. although some Mahdydna currents felt obliged to treat this problem. 7969). Bupnnn as Snvron nNl SnIr-RELTANCE It has been usual in western expositions of Buddhism to bring up the Buddhist stress on "self-reliance. 4) they \.ayamatinirdeSasiitra itself. r6This material comes from the Ak. d. 276).oes not appear concernedwith the problem of whether some persons are incapable of the change into an drya. is whether those who are not stationed in the speciesare incapable of it. s.nd he sets forth four reasons: l) they were born ir1 unfavorable circumstances.l8 Thus Asanga's extensivewritings were aimed at the persons who were converts to the Buddhist position or had entered the religious life. and the Lankavatdra. in Radhakrishnan's translation: "You yourself must strive. 17For the icchantika. thus resident in the speciesof the Buddhist religious goal." a. The l.Bucldha as Savior n attitude that it is meritorious. Asanga. pp. 59-60.

The Dhammapada 20A. It is possible to overly stress this self-reliance. Sasarr. ed. In Tibet. the cardinal Buddhist doctrine of "non-self" had to be learnedfrom another." in GruruN H. p. WayrratN. 175. (But rather) they liberate (the beings from the cyclical flow) by the Teaching (provided the beings meditate on its meaning) of the truth of real nature (or absolute truth)."re Along these lines there is a verse of unknown source which I cited elsewherewith annotational expansion:20 The Munis do not wash away the defilements (of the streams of consciousness of the sentient beings) with water (as though it were a matter of washing away dirt)." And the Tibetan author added:21 In that passage.WavrvrAN. They do not shift to another the (features of) comprehension of reality (as though it were a matter of shifting a tool from the right to the left hand). 21A.. The passageis drawn from the annotational edition of Tson-kha-pa'sLam rim chen mo. (London. And they do not remove the suffering of beings with a hand (as though it were a matter of pulling out a thorn). 1975)pp. 73-74. Thus. as though the Buddhas are only preachers. Hence he listened previously to illustrious friendly guides for the meaning of nonself.A Study of Kleia (Tokyo."Purification of Sin in Buddhism by Vision and Confession. "The one rvho has heard (it) from another. sinceo'self" cannot originate the teachingof non-self. sin). is liberated from old age and death.Rlon.rKRrsHNAN. Those who enter the path and practise meditation are releasedfrom ihe bondage of Mdra (death.p. 1950). This is because all the scriptures begin with "Thus by me it was heard" (evam mayd Srutam).the Teacher clearly explains by personally drawing from his own memory. The words "The one who has heard (it) from another" means that he heard the exposition of nonself from another. the author Tson-kha-pa cited the Tathagata. . But then the important issueis what part of the corpus 1eS.Calming the Mind.18 Buddhist Insight Blessed Ones are (only) preachers. and having done the hearing and pondering. admitting that the disciple did not derive the scripture from himself but from another. in order to reject the adherence to the notion "It came from within" he states "heard it from 2ne[fus1"-of this there is no doubt. 146.

unprofitable questions. is also the dariana. merit and demerit in terms of body. ed.2z This implication of the borrowed lamp is also in the canonical passages. then.I t . p.unwise considerations (e. g. he reaches Nirvana. 29-47. "he who seesthe Dhamma seesme. 3-6). the Buddha as savior is the one who shows or points out the Path. 1952). "Have I been in the past?" and other egoistic questions) (through . z4NvaNarrLoKA. theory of the "Stream-enterer" and stages of the Path. when he listens he understands the natures that are virtuous or sinful: this is his "lamp". the three characteristics (impermanence.' Ceylon. .and non-self). 22F. speech. wiseconsiderations hearkening). 1965). sammd ditthi.first member of the eightfold noble path. usuallv called the Buddha's Teaching. the middle doctrine of Dependent Origination avoiding the extremes of nihilism and eternalism. pp. doctrine of karma and fruit. Uddnavarga (XXII. As to the "right viewso'-in Pdli.saying. but must enter with his body and all its faculties.saqnyutta-nikaya and elsewhere. I t Buddha as Savior 19 must come from others and what part is to be added by oneself. rendering it "right understanding..suffering. This part from others is referred to metaphorically as a "lamp" in the Northern Buddhist expansion of the Dhammapada called. is what one. Udanavarga. affords a glimpse (5. When one enters the path.five bonds (saryyojana).z4 This. sinceit is easyto get the answer that "right views" (samyagdysli). Gotama. Here there is first mention of the person who entering a house enwrapped in darkness does not see objects in it even though he has eyes. The Word of the Buddha ('Island Hermitage. and mind. Finally. It is not necessary to cite a multitude of passages. dariana). 2sCooM. Sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden." has as full a list as could bb expected: the four noble truths. so he is a man who both has eyes and bears a lamp. and he who seesme seesthe Dhamma.qnaswAMy and HonNsR. BpnNsARD. The trouble is that this self-reliance is premature if it is not preceded by a glimpse of the right hall to enter. having hearkened. he cannot do it just with a glimpse. he understands the dharmas. supramundane "right understanding" when conjoined with the Path.Bandl (Gclttingen. Having hearkened. 23.must receive from others. Nyanatiloka."23 Therefore.

and avoid certain novel directions of Mahd. XII to refutation of wrong views. . Jatakamala. For instance.g." Otherwise. Verse I refers to the o'hearer. XVII (The Story of the Jar): "But the speaker of the beneficial words is to be honoured by accepting his words and by putting them into practice (: taking them to heart).20 Buddhist Insight As long as \\'e restrict ourselvesto the. Finally. nor any in the listener. we cannot ascribe to the Buddha's role more than this. And in the Jatakamdld. the Mahaydna-Sutrdlarykara (i.ancient position of Buddhisrn. We should not forget that there is no point to teachingthe "right views" unless there is an appropriate audience. the Buddha had become equipped with multiple bodies. in particular the body with which he appearedon earth was not an ordinary human body but one called a Nirmd4akdya. This body was credited with various supernormal powers. starting with the Abhidharmakoia. Even here more could be said."zr Buroua AND ADHI.lhdna.ydna Buddhism.such as f ound in the early scriptures." This is advice for the -qrateful disciple. there ariseshere the 'mental orientation' (manaskdra). this role of teaching the "right viervs" is by no means negligible if we are to understand this situation of ancient Buddhisrn. The appendix to Viifiaptimdtratdsiddhi summarizes what is attributed to the Buddha by this term. with a frequent verbal form adhitistrhali." The hearer who is upright (like a post) has discrimination (buddlimat : the native insight) and strives. In these passages. adhi. from the 'mental orientation' there arises the knowledge (jfiAna) whose field is the meaning of reality. we notice that he devotes Chap. Now the hearer comes in for some inspection. 16) summarizeshis sequenceof attainment: "Having based himself first on hearing. e. still. is called the o'vessel.passing to Aryadeva's Catultiataka. such considerations rvereto be reevaluatedas we shall seein the next section. and Mahayana-Stitralarytkara passages are selected from among quotations in Tson-kha-pa's Lam rim chen mo. Later. there was rsThe Catuhflataka. and La Vallde Poussin here finds Burnouf's rendition "benediction" excellent in many passages.1HANI In the Mahdydna period.there would be no merit cf the speaker. in my quotation notebooks.

if the there be ed. sturJies in the Lankdvardra-sutra. The Hague. support.. the emanation of the pure Realm of the Dharmakdya.. Intrortuction to the Buddhist Tantric systems (Mot'al Banarsidass.rfil. p.intermediate space. where it is the foundation of the superstructure. Tibetan yoga .ra). Ig7g."t onwrrrct something -'tends'. the term suggests the sustaining or support for the spiritual component. Here we rendered it usually as . un ouj. tr. thernselves render the sanskrit word adhi. had made possiblea contributio'presurnabry by the Buddha to the discipre that extended beyond the old "showing of ilr" Futi . The term in its Tibetan fgrm was frequent in a work wtrictr F.byin rlabs. 1968).2s'ed Mahdyana Buddhism.with its theory of the multipie bodies of the Buddhu. ug. which..2l especiallyan ability to conserve the body. Tome rr ( after the fornl of the Tibetan words. .. saying..iTil" rliIii. D.q.26 suzuki. mtrke it rastfor aeons. now feprinted with a new introduction a. Lessing and I translated into Engrish under the titre utrt.^r-Lre PoussrN. -ii d"not". the part in the . . . 264. anJ ih.s Fundamentals of the nuicthfst Tantras (Mouton.. as 'oenergizer'.zt Dawa-sauDup. suzuxt. Tibetan Yoga and Secret Docltrines.l We read in the book..).al term for the Indian temple. tgZSl. "irlirl...... Dictionary of Hindu Architecture (London'1927)' l pp' l7-1g. and ihe like. studies in the Lankavatdra siltra ( dtid Secret Doctrines (London." It is clear that^th.". may be attained'"2e Here..Delhi. It is somewhat of a jump to pass to the usage by way of the Tibetan translation of the norn as ..'.rbal form . howwer. being themember between :haft and the impries the base orlne corumn. Buddha as Savior any.. . (so) that Setf_ Knowledge.O Thou.furthermorr. vouchsafe me Thy .edeveropment.." z8cf' pnasaNN. the Immutabre state of the Dharma-k aya. y.rempowerr'.blessing. rt shourd be rnentioned that the root_ guru in the Akanistha Heaven is u'derstood i' Mahaydna theology as the sar'bhog a-kitya of the Buddha.r. (antarik.{hana. viifiaptirnatratasidcthi. grub r. the rendition "gift-waves.r* with a rendition . K_u^{aR Acuan"o.2z This rendition is close to the usageas an architectur. in the Akanistha Hea'en.o. EvaNs_WrNTz. The context of the passage. exprains it as the sustainingpower of the original vows. W. zvKe..

and the Si. . and to attribute the intense form of this.a." (v. Akaiagarbha-sutra. "great cotnpassion" (mahakaru7A).P. to the supramundane Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.yalekha passages are selected from among quotations in Tson-kha-pa's Lam rim chen mo.lhana). caused some change in the literature and encouraged the kind of praises and evocation rituals in which the deity is implored to extend this kind of blessing or empowerment (adhislhana).so I should give still another citation with the word adhislharn amuccaya in the senseof a "spiritual foundation. the developed theory that the Buddhas or celestial Bodhisattvas like Avalokitesvara could extend a power to chosen disciples to fortify the latters' limited resources.yalekha (1. the secondhalf of the versesays: "Such is this nature of the great ones -to have no aim of their own-who delight in the single taste of benefit and happiness for the worldlings. he works at the meditation (dhyAna) which realizes the voidness possessedof all the soThe Aryagayaiir." are very numerous in the Mahdyd:naliterature. the practice of the Bodhisattvas has what inception. 101) cornpares this nature of the Candragomin's Si. and has the sentient beings as its spiritual foundation (adhislhdnn)." sincethe Jlkpas cites the Sanskrit of this passage from the Arya-Ratnacu(aparipyccha: "Thus. in my quotation notebooks. and Such passages this sample mereiy suggests how the Mahd:ydna authors were inspired to stress these points with all the beauty of expression they could muster. girding himself with the armor of benevolence (maiti) and having based himself on the spiritual foundation of great compassion (mahakarupadhi. the practice of the Bodhisattvas has great compassion as its inception. So the scripture Aryagayaitrpa is cited: "Maflju5ri.22 Insight Buddhist Now. to extol the possessionof compassion (karulta). has what spiritual foundation? MafljuSri replied: Son-of-the-gods." o'Bythe cognition of sutacalled Akaiagarbhasays: A N{ahdyarra insight (prajnA) all defilementis castout of doors.1'alekha great beings to the sun's impartial radiation and illumination of the worlds.i. By the cognition of means (upaya) all the living beings are given hospitality. The line translated from the s. The theory undoubtedly helped to make the Bodhisattva practice flourish. Minaeff's edition) is: I na sa svarthalt kaicit prakytir iyam iva mahatarp yadete lokanarTt hitasukharasaikantarasikAh l.

This other development. will be clarified in the next section. thinks thus: countless beings I should lead to Nirvana and yet there are none who lead to Nirvana. the great being. -and which was probably the earliest of all thl takes the'iillusionist" position:32 @res.does not lack striving. just when the stage is set for such a magnanimous activity by the Buddha. an illusory man is neither slSdntideva's siksasamLtccaya. The Lord. and d.Buddhaas Savior 23 best aspects.withinthelonger passage of similar sentiments. .ll-13. or who should be led to it." But a scripture called A. seeingthat their nature is illusorv.p. l. The perfection of laisdom in Eight thousand slokas (Calcutta. text.. also a consequence of the theory of multiple bodies. varova (Darbhanga.' Here the Bodhisattva. nor that has led others to it. And yet.oesnot lack mgans. ed. does not lack morality. g-9. pp.Thepait I have translatedis the Lam rim chentno quotation. L. 11.1958). What is the voidness possewed of all the best aspects? The one that does not lack giving. tr.196l). a reaction that also belongs to the Mahiydna was to set in. For such is the true nature of dharmas. Dm rnn Bunone sAvE ANy sprNcs ? Early Buddhism was realistic and so took the position that beings were either "rescued" or "not rescued. Again: subhuti: The form of any illusory man is neither bound nor freed. so that such an enlightened being could be regarded as a . The suchnessof the form of.Chap. How_ ever many beings he may lead to Nirvana.. l45. s2EowaRn coNzr.savior" in terms comprehensible to westerners. yet there is not any being that has been led to Nirvana. does not lack insight. does not lack meditation.lasahasrika Prajfiaparamita that was translated by Edward conze. by p. does not lack forbearance."31 The foregoing and much more that could be cited in amplification should serve to show that in the Mahdydna period the new role attributed to the Buddha by virtue of his various bodies could easily have produced teachingsthat the Buddha exercises a "graee"-1o use the Western religious term.

composer of the Ag{asdhasrika A JapaneseBuddhologist Susumu Yamaguchi (then President of Otani University. Yamaguchi kindly . claimed that the Buddha preached using one word only. and how can he possibly endure the experience of those sufferings (which he is said to undergo) for the sake of beings? Subhuti responded: I do not look for a Bodhisattva who goes on the difficult in the perception of pilgrimage.." He also noted that the Indian Buddhist scholar Bodhiruci.D.l'1 BuddhistInsight bound nor freed. becauseit is isolated. how thei'r does he go on the difffrcult pilgrimage. of those disciples. coming to China in the sixth century A. saying: As I understaud the teaching of the Venerable Subhuti.. a Bodhisattva also is a non-production. Becausein reality i{ is not there aI all. Because one who has generated a perception of difficulties is unable to work the b e i n g s . Even the unknown had to work at it..because difficulties are a feature of the real n'orld. But if a Bodhisattva is a non-production. So Yamaguchi gave lectures about it in Japaneseto show the posiBuddhism. but in reality he said no word through thesedecades. Kyoto) wrestled r. the Buddha's early said to have been the best in "insight" (praifia) disciple S6:riputra.and his lectures were tion of his Shin Sectof Japanese translated into English by Shoko Watanabe.put a hard question to Subhuti. Irr any cASe. He further noted: "The Buddha is commonly said to have been preaching to save mankind during that period.. r v ealof c oun tl e s s in this position (or We see that there is sorne attractiveness non-position) of illusion: it gets rid of the difficulties. a professor at Toyo University. one who courses difficulties is not a Bodhisattva. in a book published in 1958.vithoutdoing anything for the salvation of the human beings during the half century from his attainment of enlightenment at the tirirty-fifth year of age till his entering into Nirvala when he was eighty years old.vith this problem after he read Santideva'sBodhicarydvatdraand concluded that the Buddha was always absorbed in contemplation r. In this first chapter of the celebratedwork. becauseit is unproduced.

Mkhas grub rje's Fundamentals of the Buddhist Tatttras. the Sarybhoga-kayaand the Nirmala-kaya. giving final instructions. it is this very author Santideva-the one 33For the Sambhoga-kdya and Nirmdna-kdya as teachers. however. the Buddha. After all. p. would be the 'oteacher" only metaphorically. cf. . In fact. only the "bodies of form" (sarpbhoga and Nirmd4a) teach. llg. told the gathering that after his passing. the Dharma-kdya does not teach. Dl.the Buddha did preach in words. the other was the preaching Buddha. However. the so-called "dynamic Buddha. the four Pali Nikayas. making no audible words. Thus. Professor Yamaguchi noticed that these tlo forms of Buddha were representedin sculpture. l95g). he taught continuously. amidst the beingswhc live and YaNrlcucHr. while a Bodhisattva. some western expounders of Mahayina Buddhism speak about Prajffaparamita Buddhism as though it were the voidness (iunyata) -which they render as "emptiness"-dsyeid of all the best aspects.namic Buddha and static Buddha(Tokyo. sometimes showing elongated tongue-what he calls the "dynamic Buddha.B' This. because it was understood to be the topic of study.Buddha as Savior 25 I J presentedto the piesent writer on the occa$ionof an early 1960's visit to Kyoto this book entitled Dynamic Buddha and static Buddlta. in the Mahaparinibbdna-suttdntaof the p1tli Dtghanikdya. and the four chinese Agamas.Bb However. one was the meditating Buddha. the Dharma and vinaya which he had taught would be their Teacher.Ba rhus this corpus. Mahd vagga) (Bihar." These two kinds of Buddha reflect the Mahdyana teaching of Buddha bodies: the Dharma-kaya is the "static Buddha". sssusurr. and much of what he taught is preservedin the old Buddhist canon. This rvas eventually personified as the "static Buddha" in Yamaguchi's book.l5_16. contemplating prajfiaparamita. the Dharmavinaya. never explained itself. Mahdydna Buddhism arose to explain it and thus devised two bodies. The Buddha. Chapter One. l95g). the Dharmavinaya (although composed of words) was silent: it never said a word. and the Sapbhoga-kaya and NirrnA4a-kdya the "dynamic Buddha. had engaged in many difficult practices and later uttered difficult doctrines-but this happenedin the real world." In the Tibetan tracirtion. saThe Dighanikaya (2." of course. is a theory that goes back to the early parinirvdpastttra.

popular in Nepal. In Japan the name Amitdbha occurred as Amita or Amida. The Prajfraparamitd scripture As[asdhasrikd is a profound work. The Kyogyishinsho (Tokyo.S. and Mongolia. O charicteer. 1978) Thus the problem of whether the Buddha "saved" any beings becamemore confused rvhen personswriting on the topic did not even knorv the meaning of the main terms. the Kyogyoshinsho. l95g). and bhavanamayi prajiid.istara: "Alas. for the unawaking discriminatiorr of the childish person" (dhik sarathe abuclha bdlajanasya buddhtt. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Reader (Delhi. TnersrrR oF THEsALVrFrc ACTIVITy As though to underline a conclusion that the Buddha's teaching of the Path-valuable as this is-did not constitute "saving" as later followers of this religion would prefer it. man has a native uncultured form of prajiid. there was the Buddha Amitabha or Amitiyus whose o'heaven"is called sukhdvati. and it does not help to understandit to translate the term "prajfiaparamita" as the "perfection of wisdom. Thus. which certainly is not "wisdom. cintdmayt prajiia.26 Buddhistrnsight who composed the Bodhicarydvatdra tlnt inppired Yamaguchi's somewhat sensational book-who also composed the Siksasamuccara citing the Arya-Ratnacu{apariprcchdabout the voidness possessed of all the best aspects. or try to get it to the perfection (paramita) ! So also the future Buddha Gautama is held to have said according to the Mahdydna biography Lalitcn. . Then in Northern India there arose the cult of the goddessTarn (the Savioress).. There were other deities too. p. So Santideva. there arose other deities to do this job. provided the solution to the problem. along with scriptures followed by the chinese and JapaneseBuddhists for many centuries." otherwise why need culture it through the three forms called in Sanskrit irutamayi prajfid. Tibet. 41. sTKosuo Yauauoro.14. we read:Bz Now the Buddha Meditation Samadhi is the truly superb and soFnaNrrru EncERroN." According to the teacher Asanga.if one will read him further. tr. Twenty-one forms of this deity are presented at the close of this volume. In the classic of shin Buddhism.

Buddha as Savior 27 wonderful gate. there are the praises of the white Tara by Dge-'dun-grub (posthumously the First Dalai Lama). Ratnakarasdnti explains the formula as or.with your left hand holding a blue lotus (utpala) and making the gestureof the "giving of protection. becausesuch was his vow. the Lord who mindfully confers long life and knowledge." I bow to Thee. This is so because the vows are different. It savesand benefitsmen. for truly this is the way of the Pure Land School. who protects against all dangers such as lion. knowledge. . the ten-syllabled evocation of the goddess Taru. fire.s8 By the "Tare" incantation he means or.n. including this: I bow to Thee the virtuous Mother of Buddhas of the three ages. I worship Thee who is adorned on the head with Amitayus. with the vow's power.oh how great! The Law of rhusness that is one with reason is one. Turning to the Goddess Tara. Places differ like as the defiled world and the Pure Land. So the historical Buddha Sakyamuni took birth in this defiled world and announced the difficult practice. the locus of all protection. poison. But salvation is one. H. snakes. and merit. and who holds the vesselfull of immortality nectar. she who guides all beings to the great-ecstasy city of liberation by means of eyes borne on the palms of hands and soles of feet that are the four gates of liberation of voidness and so on. but salvation is one. with His name as vowed in the forty-eight vows. elephant. and announced the easy practice. becausesuch was his vow. the seedknowledge made clear at the 38I translated this work in 1970 whilestaying in Dharmsala. our Sakyamuni answered the call and took birth in this defiled world and Amita Buddha appeared in the Pure Land. India. savesall beings. It is easy to practice and easy to attain.n tdre tuttdre ture svdhd. I bow to Thee who confers occult powers as desired like imrnortal life.." Those are verses from Dge-'dun-grub's lovely work. . while the Buddha Amitdbha stayed in the pure Land.. the western paradise. Amita Buddha. simply by (our) reciting such incantations as "Tdre. p.

the fast one. The situation is clear enough. Then "Tare" (o Tdrd. which so often were fashioned with beautiful phraseology. He is always there or far off. asSee Chapter 22. 'oTuttare" (O rescuerfrom suffering). This does not mean that Sakyamuni was forgotrcn in the shuffie. sometimesshadowv or comins back into focus. who rescues speedily.28 Buddhistrnsight end with svdha. "Ture" (o Tur6. It is not necessary to cite more verses. The devoteesexpectedthese deities to supply very human wants and fulfil aspirations.)Be Amitdbha and rdrd were not the only deities appealed to. . There were the Medicine Buddha (Bhaisajya-guru) and the great Bodhisattvas like Avalokitesvara and Mafljusri. who rescuesby bringing to the other side-the paramitd). In return the devoteessupplied all the finances and wherewithal for splendid temples and art in Asia.

In the first part. It is impossible to deal with the manifold aspects in one paper. So the present writer restricts the topic. and to mention that this writer will not shirk the responsibility when such points deservefair appraisal and conclusions. emphasizingthe monastery inhabitants. emphasizing the offences. . In the second part. s.2 ANCIENT BUDDHIST MONASTICISM- IxrRooucrroN There have been many studiesof Buddhist monasticism. to the ancient period. It is well to admit that there are a number of disputed points in regard to the ancient form of Buddhism portrayed in this paper. there is exposition of well-establishedfacts of monastery life with a comparison to the Brahmanical "stages of life." In the third part.oriented both to the ancient forms and to modern features in certain Buddhist countries of Asia and south-east Asia. while stressingthose particular aspectsas appear to be of vital concern in all periods. for Pdli language. the theory of two oral traditionsvinaya and Dharma-is combined with a division into two Prdtimoksa-s to advance a position that various vinaya lineages were in Buddhism from the beginning and that the separationinto Buddhist sects was due to doctrinal and not vinaya disagreements. Many of these studies have been prepared by fine scholars. vinitadeva's commentary on the vinaya is employed to suggest a new rendition for the term.the Japanese photographic reproduction of the pekingTibetan canon. for sanskritlanguage.pTT for pekingTibetanTripitaka. first of all.only some of the pre+Abbreviations: P. JBRS for TheJournalof theBihar Research society. emphasizingthe pratimokqa.

(2) the braltmona. 1967. the extirpation of lust. rules had to be devisedboth for their daily conduct within the monastery and for their encounterswith the lay community. hatred. the teacher of the path (margadeiika). This contains some one hundred fifty rules called 'opoints of instruction" (P. Solre EARLv Rrucrous oF INorA. the one gone forth to the religious life (pravrajita) and the one called "monk" (bhiksu) had to severprevioussocial relationsand enter into a monasterial situa. (3) the chaste person (brahmacdrin). etc." In further detailing. "A Short Account of the Wandering Ascetics (Parivrajakas) in India in the sixth Century. c. and delusion. 196l). I.pp. zArpx WAyuaN. The various prohibitions and other rules are in the code called P. B. B. . who has entered the stream. Prqtimoksa-sutra.C. 103. C.LIII.vati). There are a number of selections from Asanga's Yogdcarabhumi)which appears not to have been utilized by other western specialistsin the topics of this paper. Vrulya BEGTNNINGS At the time of the Buddha (6th .tion living with other novices and monks. with namesthat were sometimesobscure in later times.(4) the monk (bhik-ru). Asanga provides a more detailed breakdown: "There are six kinds of persons.Berkeley. as follows: (l) the ascetic (iramaqta). Asanga gives four kinds of ascetics:a. d. and that the iramaryas were ascetic orders. Analysis of the Sravakabhumi Manuscript (University of California Press.17-26. i-iv. (margajivin). (6) the one gone forth (to the religious life) (prat'rdjita). with both including the wanderers (parivrajaka). the one who lives by the path. b. and who sooner or later would follow four stages of life. 1Cf.. Pdtimokklta-or S." JBRS. the one victorious over the path (ntargajina). it appears that the term brdhmaryastood.(5) the restrainer (. The main classification seemsto be into brdhmalta atd iramaqta.u'ho is the Sugata. the one who insults the path (margadusin).30 BuddhistInsight vious scholarly'findings can be presentecl. Since in the Buddhist religious way.) there were various religious orders.without remainder. Llw. sikhapada. THE TERM pRArruorqe. p. for persons adhering to the Vedic religion.5th centuries.B.c.having achieved.L While these words were not always used with the same meaning. as when seeking alms.

and P. . and all sources agree that when the lerm was translated into Chinese it was always with this distributive meaning of pratt. P. especia. although there are differing interpretations of this distributive meaning . lst . emphasizingpcsitive rules of deportment. The Patimokkha was rehearsed along with scriptures at the bimonthly meetings of the ordained monks in a meeting called in P.a-dharma.. Palnarasi. narnely on full moon and new moon days. s. the l4th day in a lunar fortnight of decreasing phase (: first day of disappearance ..lly to define the nun's conduct toward a monk and her attire. iiksapada) emphasizing prohibitions. Hence. which are roughly the samein various forms of this vinaya (discipiine) work (some only extant in chinese translation) that have been handed down. along with extra rules called P. there was a difficulty in interpreting the s. which differ considerably in number and kind in the various Vinayas. aMy wife (who is Japanese) has read for me the entries on the term in the Buddhist dictionaries by ono. Dictionary of Earty Buddhist Monastic Terms (Bharati Prakashan." The translators either transcribed the term phonetically or else translated it as though it read Pratimoksa. 5th. s. 52-53. and gth are panlarasi. and Hajime Nakamura." . with prati-understoodin the distributive sense ("each one") and mok. 6th.D.the observance of the prohibitions and precepts of the Patimokkha is independent of knowing the derivation of the term. of the moon). of course."a This rendition appearsto agreewith avoiding the prohibited elementsof the list. cdtuddasi.a of course rendered as "liberation. These are the two days. The way it works out according to one explanation is that in the four months of a season. Uposatha ("well-beirg"). and the others. Since in the Buddha's lifetime a nun order was started.t The term "Patiinokkha" has been much discussed. 1975). 4th. "pratimok$a.and its meaning disputed. full moon day. Varanasi. confessingeach one as was com3c. dropping some of the monk rules and adding a further set. the 3rd and 7th meetings are cdtuddasi. 2nd. A. Hakuju ui. IJTASAK. most of the Uposatha meetingswere on a full-moon day.each one. iaik.Ancient Buddhist Monasticism 31 s. when the Buddhist vinayas were translated into chinese principally in the 5th century. selihiya dhamrna. it was necessaryat that early date to make up a separate pdtirnoklcha for the nun. which are traditional days in h-rdiapicked for festivals. pp.

8.p. 1968).73.6 . It is easyto misunderstandthis and think it is a false etymology? and so should be prefixed to the verb. Of course. ed.p. tena vuccati p.circaline 11.s The reason I am led away from the false-etymology theory is my having found in Vinitadeva's commentary on the Mulasarydstivdda Vinayavibltangathe saying." citing Kai on P. 14. the term was uniformly rendered as so sor thar pa. 3. TMore recently.n.pamuklnryxetary kusalanarytdhammanam. 2. when indicated. review.P h . )p sMahavagga (Oldenbergedition). W. . P a r t V ( P . SeeSpeijer: "The upAsara 'pra' has sometimes the power of denoting the beginning of the action. these translators knew cf the gloss (to be explained below) on the term found ia the Vinaya exegesis called Maltdvagga: patimokkham ti adiry eto/. in Indo-IranianJournal. 1975). with identical 5Cf. so sor thar pa |es bya bs ni dafi por thar pa'o. Kyoto. and. Pnrsrsu. W.309. 71. by T. which understands the distributive sense of prati. SrrtJrn. taking pratirnoksa as equivalent to adimoksa ("libei-ation at the beginrring. 6. J. .to Now atimoksa is a pre-Buddhist term found in the Satapatha-Bralmraqta. and since "against liberation" entails a bond. aditas"). gPTT. l. 232. the translators with this persuasion decided on the rendition "obligation" and have been using this regularly.s This rendition appearsto agreewith the obligation of the monks to recite the list at the Uposatha and to abide by the pronouncements within the text. . pati (: S. 10J. Vol.7952 reprint). rnaking amends by S. an interpretation was rnade that the term Patimokkha should be understood with the short a. oe JoNG.32 Buddhist Insight mitted. 2l for the terrn pradyotitalt ("He commencedto shine"). Buddhist Monastic Discipline. Vol. p. mukhar. 19 (1977). I (Nava Nalandd Mahivihdra. 8But this is no excuse for Nathmal Tatia to omit the line from his edition of the Mahavaggain Samkhitta-pi1akam. 304-1-1. A. 127.e This comment. ll. prati) should be taken in the "against" sense. SanskritSyntax (Reprint. 4.Para.S..D. herc pra. arrd that P. Rnys Davros and Wu-rtav Srror (The Pali Text Society. When in the l gth century the Pali scriptures began to be translated into English. is grammatically justified by understanding prdtimoksa : pra I atimolc5a. 122. l.London. p. Cnant. The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary. When the Vinaya was translated into Tibetan starting in the early 9th agreement with the Chinese translations.n etaUt.

Rajava. therefore.ka. Here a Ksatriya king is said to have five salient points whereverhe abides: (1) being wellborn through his father and mother.Ancient BuddhistMonasticism 33 passage in Brhaddraqtyaka-(tpqnisad. larhere still remains the problem of why the words mukha. "in that a monk has morality.. it is the orifice {mukha) and it is the commencement (s.Liberation-Onset.[and so oo.'ra it is the beginning (adD.." which can be rendered more neatly. (2) having bountiful treasuries. there is a canonical passagesuppcrting the above conclusion. (3) mighty through his army. General Introduction. The monk also is said to have five comparable salient points wherever he abides. p. pa-S.l. The author of the Mahavagga may have intended." Since the taking of the pati(seebelow) is likened to an illustrious birth.a to mean 'ocommencement of liberation.gga. (5) abiding where he has conquered. 1976). to have also suggested the "facing" or confrontation as happens in the confessional part of the Patimokkha. vinitadeva's comment-possibly repeated in his vinaya lineage for a thousand yearslz-understands the termpratimok."Thus. decidesthat the compilation of rhe Mulasarvdstivada vinaya dates back to the times of Kani.v we can return tc the Mahavagga gioss (above cited) to render it with fidelity: . As to the first point. dharma). p. lg77). of course.the content would frequently go back to much earlier times." Nor. much like a Dighanikaya passagecited belowl-he has the perfection of birth like the consecratedKsatriya king. Tokyo.. lzRaNrsno GNoLr. A Study of the Vinaya-pitaka (Sankibo_Busshorin. p. xix. dwells restrainedby the Pdtimokkhasamvara.. 419.. the Yassamdisam-sutta. 1970) [in Japanesewith a summary including table of contents in Englishl. pramukha) of the virtuous natures (s.3. pamukha were chosenfor the gloss. This is in the Anguttara-nikaya (Book of Fives). 6. The Gilgit Manuscript of the saighabhedavastu.nvara llReference from BonrrrNcr and Rorn Sanskrit-Wdrterbuch(reprint of Meicho-Fukyti-Kai.q HrRarawa. understood as "especiallyexcellentliberation.As to the 'Pdtimokkha. Hence. " and which was presumably replaced in later Sanskrit wiih the term rnoksa. (4) having a wise minister. while the words can signify in the manner of my rendition.. to wit. points out that Buddhaghosa in his vinaya commentary Kankhavitarani analyzed "Pdtimokkha" into pa+ ita mokkha.'"r4 Furthermore. Tokyo. one says.pra was understood only by its classicaI meaning. Roma. part I (Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo oriente. I3Arn. as will be pointed out later in this essay. this mokkhasar. .

With pure livelihood and morality. iiksapada).riion: why not by virtuous acts of four of speech' and body' of three karma.34 Buddhist Insight birth supportsthe rendition"Liberation-onset. as follows: (Suttavibhanga) 15Cf.holding together. of . or retainer Vinaya).npanna) the monasticfollowers who are sons of the "ascetics Sakyaputtiyd. l p' lii' (London. B.Herightfully (s.e. tr. the Bodhisattva. fearfullyeventheminort}ringstobeavoided. Calcutta. and the Mantra vows' l?Cf. natures seven of possessed states that when a monk is discipline." ." i.heguardstheSensedoors.lG As used solemn the "vow.nik a y a p a s s a g e (I. He is happy' "Patimokkhasamvafa'" This brings up the important expression promise. of ten paths number of the typical a ten."16 T heDigha. and in this 16The term sar.6 2 )th a ts h o u l dnow bementi oned is from the well-known scripture samafifia-phala-sutta: (s. 1'97t)' pp' 128'129' . DpaKKUMAR Blnu. but Vinayavagga) Sevens' of (Book below.nvara). HonNBn.nvarais translated into Tibetan by sdom languagetherearesdomgsumbooksonthe'othreevows.. pravra' when the ascetic(s.timoksa-sar.p. The Aiguttara-'nikq'a (dhamma). q. iramalta) has thus gone forth (s' Pdtimokkhasa{nvara the by jita) he dwells restrained begood of perfection the prd. Buddhist the of he is a vinayadhlra (holder.." a means Here sarytvara but ccnveys the sense of here. takes and learns the "points of instruction" whileaccompaniedbyvirtuousactsofbodyandvirtuous equipped with acts of speech. An analytical Study of the four Nikayas (Rabindra Bharati University.morality(ii|a)perseamounts bad acts of body to the seven abstinences. 1g4g). The Book of Discipline Yo]l.He has views havior and of lawful resort (dcdragocarasar.r. from the three seven also is imnumber the so and four bad acts of speechilT as in the citation variously.e.ui.translator's introduction' pa.thePratimokga.accompaniedbymindfulness and awareness. detailed portu"t for Vinaya theoiy. i.":this onsetis a in the inner precinctsof Buddhism. phrase "while accombecauseu vow is not to be forgotten. were called samaryd Ruddha. I. it does not mean "restraint. The actsof speech"raises panied by virtuous acts of body and virtuous mind."namely. adhering inthe streamof consciousuess. since Buddhism it .r. up makes tirree of mind? This BuddhistVinayacode.

1955 reprint).well-analyzed (suvibhatta)..o' previously. Poona. a comfortable state in the present life. Dictionary. he attains and dwells in the four Jhdnas (the four s. Upasl'. p. we observed that the monk and nun have each a patimokkha list. Bap. while it is not clear how one divides up this passageto get the number seven.AncientBuddhist Monasticism 35 Hc knows what is a transgression (apatti) and knows what is not. and in this life realizes for himself. which is the code recited during the uposatha. this interpretation does not appear to fit in the context referring to a monk.le However. 134-136. Hnarawa. not a particular nun (although a nun can also be a vinayadhara).rn A certain Chinese vinaya commentary has considerable information about these two Patimokkhas. namely. well-determined (suvinicchita) according to scripture and according to anuvyafijana (? commentary)-having trained. the important thing is that the commentarypresumably Buddhaghosa's-cited in Hare's translation (the above is my own). and having extinguished the fluxes. such as the lines. derived from mentals. Therefore. 95. well set-in-motion (suppavatti). The Buddha announced: "The Tathagata cannot recite the Pdtimokkha at the time of the uposatha in a congregation 18E. The Book of sevens. V. . without trouble. 152. The Book of the Gradual sayings (Ariguttara-Nikaya) Vol.2' we learn that the former Buddhas and then Sakyamuni himself recited only the patimokkha of exhortation. n.qr and A. tr. (he attains and dwells) in the liberation of mind (cetas) and liberation of insight (pafifia) which are nonfluxional. 20P. dhyanasof the Realm of Form). accumulate all that is good. IV (London. 1970). 1sCf. M. HARE. two kinds of recitation of pd:timokkha: by exhortation (ovada) and by cornmand (a4q1. then at will. pp. a Chinese version by Saighabhadra of Samantapasadika (Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute.. you shourd know (kho) 'that when both Patimokkhas are well-handed to him in 'extenso. He knows what is a light (lahukfi transgression. trs. easily.says that the expression '"both Fatimokkhas" means "of monk and nun.i-p'o-Sha. he knows what is a grave (garuka) one. p." while the monks (and nuns) only recited the patimokkha of command. we may well presume that "both Pdtimokkhas" refer to an alternate classification. "abstain from all kinds of evil. Shan-Chien-p.

when a seducerof a 2lThree offences of body and four of speech (as the ten paths of karrna Shan-Chien* has it) is not the only classification.36 Insight Buddhist which is not pure. to wit: When a "defeated" person is seatedin that assembly. Then UpAli asked in what circumstances the Liberation-Onset is i. ten such. P'i-P'o-Sha. among others. when talk of whether one has repudiated is not finished.zl while the Buddha will do the exhortation which requires knowing the minds of others. when talk of whether one is "defeated" is not finished. to assistthe Vinaya. for chastising errant persons. for allusion to the Vinaya breakdown of the numbers* . when a personwho has repudiated the instruction is seated in that assembly. to instill faith in those of scarcefaith. when an unordained person is seated in that assembly. iravaka) by the Tathdgata and the Ltberation-Onsetrecited? (Upali is told. the Buddha knew with superhuman vision the minds of the persons assembledfor the Pdtimokkha-recitation. Hence the distinction: the monks will concern themselvesin the Patimokkha of the Uposatha with "moraliry" in the meaning of the sevenabstinences.n-uha). when a eunuch is seated in that assembly. in consideration of ten purposes. pp. recitation of it postponed. and was told there are suspended. to establish the illustrious Dharma. when talk of whether one is a eunuch is not finished.e. Bnpar and Hrnartwa. to prevent the (defiled) fluxes in the future wit:) For the excellenceof for the well-being of the Congrethe Congregation (Sar. to restrain the (defiled) fluxes (asrava) of the present life." For the Buddhas "know with their own minds the minds of their followers and then instructed them. to promote even more those with faith. when talk of whether one is unordained is not finished. gation. cf.'o That is to say. Let us try out the new rendition of the term "Patimokkha" of the scripture "Upili and the Patiin two important passages (from the Anguttara-nikdya. for the comfort of the virtuous monks. Book of Tens): mokkha" In consideration of what purpose were the "points of instruction" prescribed for the disciples (5. 535-536. their fellows by but the monks themselvesare not able to assess this supernormal faculty: they have to rely upon the more obvious acts of body and speechwhich define "morality" for them.

pp. There is little doubt that both kinds of Pdtimokkha. Pncnow and RnulKANrA MmuRA. 15-18. Histoire du bouddhisme indien (Louvain. including No. 181-193. Later. The Earliest Vinayaand the Beginnings of Buddhist Literature (Is. Meanwhile we observethat the circumstancesfor suspensionof the recitation are in terms of acts of body and speech. the receiving of gold and silver. It has been noticed by scholars that each of the main Vinayas of Buddhist sectshad its own Prdtimoksa-sutra. Vinayasof these schools are preserved: Sarvdstivddin. MUlasarvdstivddinin Chineseand Tibetan translations. and Mahasdmghikain Chinesetranslation. for structureand analysis of the Vinayapitaka. Hm.pp. Mahisdsaka.O. 13. English summary.2z This need not be attributed to a single reason. above)." The Second Council. Rajagpha).a-sfrtra-s. The Pratimoksa-sfitra of the Mahasanghikas(Ganganatha Jha ResearchInsti.e. pp. Cf. W. Roma. M. 1958).artwa. Pali school in original Pali.a. The meaning of "defeated" will be explained later.. Fn. involving difficult historical matters of what are called the Buddhist Councils. Cf.AncientBuddhist Monasticism 37 nun is seatedin that company. i.1956). tute. 15-22.. for his conclusions about various Pratimok. a third divisicn called Abhidharma was added-the three called tripi{aka. of exhortation and of command. Allahabad.uwarrNrn. points out. were in existenceat the time of the Buddha. often rendered the "Three Baskets.Dharmaguptaka. I-2. According to Buddhist traditions.showing their almost complete agreement. . when talk of whether one is a nun-seducer is not finished. rehearsed the Stlra division according to Ananda's mernory and the Vinaya division according to Updli's memory. 1956). even leaving out the set of Saiksa (precept) rules. held in the year after the Buddha's passing. It is generally conceded now 22AsE. A Study (n. concerned the errant Vajjian monks at VaiSali who were committing some or all of ten prohibited things. the First Council at Rajagaha (S. pp.except for the Saikladharmas. as was mentioned previously. although the now extant forms of the Pdtimokkha (the "command" kind) in the senseof a text may not be exactly the original one that the monks recited in the Buddha's time.for concordancetables of severalPratimok5a-siltra. ErrcNuB LAuorrr. The fact of different Vinayas has in the past been deemed intimately bound up with the division of the Buddhists into different sects.E. held under the sponsorship of king KalaSoka about 110 years after the Buddha. Cf. 10.

that of the Vinaya-dharas and the Dharma-dharas.qNtcs J." T'oungPao. holds that the errant monks were ejectedfrom the Sdr. Origins:The "MahdsSryghika Beginnings of Buddhist Historyof Religionst6:3. rather than the independent Uposatha by a separate well-established Buddhist sect. While discussing individually the commission of the ten prohibited things.2s This appears to have been a defiant act on the part of the errant monks.withinthe same 'No. to hold separate Uposatha?' 24As one Tibetan source. 8): "'Is it allowable. where Dharma really means the stttra class.ngha meeting and does not rnention the outcome. it is not allowable. tr.ngha. our previous findings suggest that Demi6ville has been on the right track in stressing two oral traditions. Hence. 238)to fix theschism at year116afterBuddha and dueto a Vinayaquarrel."' boundary. by FrnorNaNo and Arpx WayuaN(Mouton. the Mahisar. Mkhas grub rje's Fundamentals of the Buddhist Tantras. cf. 250-257. J.zaThe "five thesesof Mah6deya"26 downgrading the "Arhat.p. . "A propos du Concile de Vai6ali.nghika group of monks were not themselvesguilty of the ten prohibited things. by RuysDavrosandOronNnrRG.Feb. Narrtrn and Cnanus S. tr. for a number of Bhikkhus who dwellwithin the same circuit. 2. 1968).ngha (congregation of monks) divided into the Mahdsdryghika and Sthavira. pp. the authors included in the list two items suggestinga rival Uposatha. could well be the causeof doctrinal splits in Buddhism but hardly capable of generating another Vinaya. PnrersH. cf.38 BuddhistInsight that while earlier (or at this time or later)'the Buddhist Sdr. z6Cf." about 137 years after the Buddha. D. first gathered by Ananda. 20. Sectarianism. Sir." pp. 25Fora comparison cf. their p. 1977.B. Sacred Books of theEast. the Milasarvdstivdda Vinaya account. as we know from the Tibetan tradition which has only this Vinaya. However.63-67. 410 Lord.26 Combining 23For the first item. Cullavagga.But the exposition paperdoesnot allow me to of the present accept the conclusions of these writersin their attempt(cf. of differenttextual traditionsof the fivetheses. LEsslNc The Hague. XII (Oldenberg edition) devoted to this Council of Vai6dli. Paul Drrrarsirlr. Y ol. The Cullavagga accovnt stops with saying the ten disputed points were brought up at a duly organized Sdr. the existence of multiple Vinayas in connection with sectarian splits has been a mystery that attracted various scholarly researchesand speculations. But that the division was over the errant monks and so is placeable at this time is not necessarily the implication of the Pdli Vinaya text called Cullavaggq in its Chap. (for XII.

pp.. descended from Katyayana. Apabhrar. LtN Lt-KouaNo. Such is the implication of an alternate tradition that not much credence was perhaps hitherto given by reason of obviously faulty features. . per se. above). 194-228. cf.As we shall see. that the Scripture was recited in four different languages.t-2.nSa. with perhaps the Magadha type taken as the basis. Paris. zaCf. Later King ASoka sponsored a council in which the scriptures were collected and an attempt made to homogerrze them. 1949). the sectarian divisions cannot be properly attributed to these dialect differences. L'Aide-Mdmoire de la Vraie Loi (Adrien-Maisonneuve. and the Sthavira.pp. dharma).Prakrit. and pp. BuddhistHybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary : Vol. 260-261. Even son the seemingly arbitrary associations of this tradition are suggestive.on the important distinction dhammadhara and vinayadhara. Durrn Early Monastic Buddhism. descended from the son Rdrhula.this difference. and retainers of the vinaya. and from the homogenization resulted the sacerdotal language of Pali. p. 24.Ancient Buddhist Monasticism 39 this with the thesis of two Pd:timokkhas. and PaiSdcika.67-69. This is what the above-mentioned tradition calls Prakrit.2s According to Edgerton. 27As one Tibetan source. a distinct possibility of some of the divergent Vinaya traditions having been in Buddhism from the beginning emerges. the Sar.n6a.nmatiya. using PaiSici. or Vol. 1978). using Sanskrit. Mkhas grub rje's Fundamentals (n. descendedfrom Upali. using Prakrit. 40. descended from Mahdki6yapa. but his sourcesmake somewhat different correlationsbetweenschools and languages. one the Buddha's exhortations and the other the instruction of morality preserved in the Vinaya recited in the Uposatha. and vinaya) are frequent in the accounts of the Council of VaiSali. Delhi.meaning the same: dharma:siltra.INEoceRtoN. namely. accounting for four basic divisions-Mfllasarvastivddin. 1951. the Mahisdmghika. zeFnaurr. Sanskrit.2ethe Buddha had allowed and perhaps urged the monk-teachers to preach the scriptures in their own dialects so as to bring the Buddhist teachings to the widest audience. I: Grammar (Motilal Banarsidass. does not matter much: the main thing is that such correlationsare made at all. agreeingwith N. pp. for a lengthy discussionof these matters. retainers of the dhomma (5. At about this time. n. using Apabhrar. claimed to descend from Katyayana. 254.z1 Of course. mentioning that the compounds dharma-vinaya and siltra-vinaya(of course.

In any case. MauRrce WlNrrRNrrz. For the other two. 89.the partial truth of this tradition cannot account for the doctrinal divisions among the Buddhists: it rather points. This suggestsa confused association of names and is hardly identifiable l.40 Buddhist Insight perhaps later. A History of Indian Literature. But it appears now that the attempt to create a Middle Indic canon in a Prakrit form or the Sanskrit canon of the scriptures was done either with an exemption or a compromise that it would not extend to the Vinaya. cf. and this is the language of both the Sarvdstivddin and Milasarvastivddin. the disciplinary code. 1955).nghika. uses a kind of language that Edgerton calls "Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit" and includes in the earliest form of this mixed language. the great Vinaya-dhara of early Buddhism. II: BuddhistLiteratureand Jaina Literature(English (MLBD is not how the word ApabhrarySa ("fallen-off language") is used nowadays. the canon was also rendered into Sanskrit. arANoni BAnE. those of the Dharmaguptaka and the Mahi(asaka. is attributed a dialect called PaiSdciso and said to descend from Upali. After careful considerationof the various factors. and this lends credenceto the position Bareau has argued at length. first take the Mah6sdr. preservedunder the title Mahdvastu.p. attributing the initial split to Mahadeya'sfive theses.s. Th. but conceivably it applies to the languageof the Mahdvastu. Hence.said to have used Apabhrarysa and to have descended from MahakaSyapa. supposedlydescended from the son an independent matter from muitiple Vinayas. which were of doctrinal nature. to suit what is probably a complicated situation. This alternate traciition is obviously too neat. It is of interest that the Vinaya of the Lokcttaravadin sect of the Mahdsdryghika. and it is dubious that Updli.Paris. translation) The 30Fcr locales of this dialect. the Sammatiya. he .vith the remaining extant Vinayr. 1980). by decidingin favor of the datecircal3T after Buddha for the schism. rvould be more associatedwith a tradition leading to these vinayas than to the others. It appears then that the division into Buddhist sects. said in some accountsto have amoun. the various forms of the Pratimoksa-siltra.tedto eighteen.efrectively separates the consideration from the Council of VaiSali. to a diversity of Vinaya lineages. (Presses Les premiers conciles bouclclhiclues Universisitaires CeFrance. with its fourfold description.Tltelast one mentioned.Vol. albeit

over the five theses about the Arhat. 67. This is becausethe obviously great challenge to the sdr. In the light of the preceding-in order to rationalize the Buddhist vinaya history about the eighteen schools.. That is why legen. in the first half of tlre 4th cent. Frauwallner's conclusion about the old Skandhakatext (which besides the details of monastic life contains all the legends.therefore.AncientBuddhistMonasticism 4l fact of having a slightly different vinaya-different not by reason of the basic monk and nun prohibitions. when we come to the Mahdvastu (as a sub-sectvinaya of the Mahdsiryghika). B. the organizers of the second Council would be responsiblefor settling the form of the Skandhaka. then at Rajagpha. but this text Mahdvastu is assembledperhaps five hundred y.nghika and the Sthavira-we have simply to assume that the monks at vaisali in a legal Uposatha rehearsed the vinaya legends. The Earliest Vinaya(n.c. long after all the old Buddhist councils.LNER. theselineagescould continue.t. However.. For the early period there is no evidence of this at all. but by extra precepts and varying amplitude of associatedlegends and later of Jdtakas (previous-birth stories of the Buddha)-cannot be judged the sourceof sectariansplits along doctrinal lines unlessthesedoctrinal divisions had somehow invaded one or more of the vinayas.ngha by the errant monks of vai6ili forced a stock-taking of legends.urc after Buddha. including biography of the Buddha) that "rt must have been composed shortly before or after the second councilo'. if not at vaisdli. 109). especially the initial break that was between the groups called the Mahds6r. that the schismbetweenthe Mahasdmghikaand the Sthavira rook praceat pdtaliputra.i.e. And when the news reached Rdjagpha. in vinayas other than the Theravada (cescendedfrom the Sthavira) might conceivably be different for having been accepted from Buddhist beginnings. p. or for having been added centuries later. we do see some doctrinal intrusion. that the King of Magadha vainly atlempied to arbitrate the dispute. s2FRauwar. capitalof Magadha. not in the spirit of rivalry with vaisali but becauseit seemeda good thing to do.among other things. this promptld similar rehearsals of legends. If some years concludes(p. the early Mahdydna Buddhist theory of ten Bodhisattva stages. . for example.Js contained. and so on. above). if it is true that some other vinaya lineages were present in Buddhism from the beginning. should be accepted.22.

In this light. Mechanism. even for the meaning. July 1961. from the other sect. i. Buddhist onemay referto' of Indianand Chinese "Indian and Ancient ChineseBuddhisme:Institutions ANoni BAnEAu. Viharas in Ancient India (Indian Publicationsn Calcutta. III: 4. non-self. to Rosrnr J. Analogous to Jisa. July 1961. they could then begin to call themselvesthe Mahisiryghika (the great clergy).42 Buddhist Insight later there should be a divisive quarrel over the status of the' Arhat (per the five points of Mahddeva). 427' In India the Buddhist monastery was usually called a vihdra.. However. while some doctrines-namely. Vinitadeva's commentary on its Vinayavibhanga -which some scholars think arose many centuries after the Theravdda-while specialists in the Vinaya preserved in the Pali language were unable to come up with such an explanation.pp.. those found in the Pali canon of the four Nikdyas-are clearly earlier than others. simply becauseit was a different sect and therefore had differing ability to draw upon the old legends. pp. dependent origination. from the beginning there had to be dwellings set aside for such persons.III: 4. the quarrel about the Arhat had profound implications for the theory of the Buddhist path and was later to inaugurate the great movement called Mahdyina Buddhism. ing."in ibId. it is uncertain to state such "earlier" or "later" in terms of Vinaya legends.of the term Pitimokkha. and the monks who acceptedthe five points could claim that there were more monks of this persuasionthan on the other side.and in the case of Himalayan area and Mongolian 'oBuddhistMonastic Economy: the Jisa institutions. Such sectariandifferences would eventually bring some differences in the associatedlegends of the school." Comparative Studies in Society and Hfstory. BaSee Drpar Kuuan BlnUA. 443-451. But this rvas not becausetheir Vinaya was different in the essentials from the Vinaya of the Sthavira. Mrusn. either supported by the community of lay followers or else self-supporting.r. impermanence. I resorted to the Vinaya tradition of the M[lasarvastivada. As an indication of this.e. .sawhich can also 33Inthe case institutions. say some of those found in Mahdydna siltra. 1969). Tsn MoNAsTERYeNn PsnsoNs IN IT Since the monk and nun had to leave home and to give up layman's money transactions. II. nor did they differ in the suffermain points of Buddhist doctrine. and so on.

and (mundane) ideas (sarr.a) by their practices. and whateverutensils rnay be in point. attachment (sanga). A Record of the Buddhist Religiort by l-Tsing (Munshi' ram Manoharlal.medicaments.238-5-7. p. They bring the conditions of things useful for living. With precepts only a. . 597.L'Inde Classique. Buddhist Meditation and the Middle View. One is shown sympathy by them. seats. referring to the teacher converting people to the Buddhist position and what the lay follower does in return:ag What is dissemination of the preserved doctrines? That very person who has fully comprehended the Illustrious Doctrine informs people that there is good fortune and power in the direct perception of the Illustrious Doctrine.44 BuddhistInsight outer respect to secular authority. What is corresponding sympathy from others? "Others" means donors and patrons. But by the seventh century.she has fully comprehended it and which are in conformity with it. alms. l-36. 7953). he follows it in teaching and follows it in introducing (people). 98. elaboration (prapafica). Calning the Mind and Discerning the Real. Hanoi. their adornments to tire Buddhist structurescalled stupa. al-oursRrNou. so do the laity by their contributions of living materials for the monks. oo'Render Unto Caesar'in Eariy ChineseBuddhism: Hui Yiian's Treatise on the Exemption of the Buddhist Clergy from the Requirementsof Civil Etiquette. tr. 1979).aa Asanga tells how to differentiate the layman and the one gone into the religious life in terms of prevalent defilement:a5 Reflections (vikalpa).Vol.Taxarusu." LiebenthalFestschrift(Santiniketan. LsoN HunvITz.8. Delhi. Just as rnonks gain rnerit (pu4t1. 7966). as follows: religious garb. Orient. 34. et al.Delhi.jfia) are four kinds of a1Cf. 45PTT. from the Lam rim chenmo of Tson-kha-pa (Motilal Banarsidass. San-eha) and plant the virtuous roots (kuiala' mula) for appropriate results in future lives.. 1957). prasada) in the three Jewels (Buddha. a2J. we turn to the teacher Asanga. they gain trusting faith (5. For some generalities about the tay follower and the one in the monastic life. in the Parydya-sarygrahagi. pp.Tome II (EcoleFrancaise d'Extr€me. and the like.India. Dharma. 111. a3ArEx WAymAN.p. bedding. from Asanga's Sravakabhumi. admission to the priesthood was by public registration.

pabbajjQ ordination of the male novice (Srama4era). that in regard to forms to be perceived by the eye. for the identifications eighteen of "monk. and he conferred the "full ordination" (P. f. The householders have attachment from living amidst (mundane) sensory objects.a7 (3) the idea of antidote to the sickness that is continually in f ood. (4) the idea when in seclusion. the other two are on the side of the householder (grltastha). Asanga reveals the mind of the rnonk.AncientBuddhistMonasticism 45 defilements. 178-183. Those gone-forth have reflections from recalling experience of (mundane) sensory objects. so am not 'good-looking. HonNax.TheBookof Discipline. ShanChien-P'i-P' p." For extended explanations of theeighteen. But as Buddhism spread to other parts of India. pp.g. and (mundane) ideas resulting from adherence to attachment's and perhaps the first of the nuns (bhiksuni). the upasika. upasampada)of the monks (bhik. the updsaka. (5) the idea when lying down.Vol. 111. in the Vinaya-sarytgraha4i. who ordinarily started out as a Buddhist layman -male. 225-1-2. that one has stretched out his hands and feet like the deer of the hermitage. 42. and postulants (iikgamdnd). the sounds to be perceived by the ear. Twenty-two points were stated in the sutra. cf. Asanga may perhaps speak more for himself than for the generality of monk and nun. e. Bapar and Hrnarawn. In the beginning the Buddha conferred the "going forth" (p..perhaps the first female novice (iramaperika). . or female. Vol. 4?Asanga's list is somervhat larger(his source unknown)than that oi the Pali Vinaya. his fixed ideas in five situations:a6 (1) the idea when entering a city that one is enteringa prison. I. The former two are on the side of the one in the religious life (pravrajita). "f have abandoned the home attire and adopted one of bad color. continually having the idea of the monk. There are of course a wide diversity of such persons."' and so on. one is blind and deaf and dumb. (2) when in the monastery. it became necessary for qualified monks to be permitted to conduct these two kinds e6PTT. and elaboration from that swaying addiction.

Upasampadajfiaptih. l96t). the main disputes between Buddhist sects in later times were over doctrinal rather than Vinaya matters. what is called the Svam upasampadd. June 1954." But once the ordination processwas turned over to the senior The next one. 135.52This formal ordination is called.4s Perhaps this shift coincided with the event mentioned in this paper above when the Buddha stopped participating in the Uposatha. Since this might have led to a large number of unwarranted ordinations by a person seekingto build up a power center." JBRS. and appearing before the Buddha thrice uttered.Vol. cf. I take my refuge in the Dhamma. done by the candidate himself. there were different forms of ordination. Accordingly. and the monk marks-namely.C. later called the Pafrcavargenaganena upasampadd. and so. cit..ngha. srThis story is part of the introduction to "The First Sermon" in both the Mahdvastu and Lalitavistara. etc.0o The first. P. B. XL. who first adopted the marks of a monk. SrMap. O bhikgu!" forto the candidate for ordination. was the ordination of the 'ofortunate band of five" in the episode of Sarnath. a more elaborate procedure was These wise rules helped to ensure the integrity of the Sdr. . Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Reader(MLBD Delhi. asMnoaN MonaN STNGH. 4eMaoaN MonaN STNGH. FnaNxrn EocsntoN. pp. VI (K.eNMonaN SrNcH.-46 BuddhistInsight of ordination. "Life in the Buddhist Monastery during the 6th Century B. 2. involving a formal act of the Sd:mgha. I take my refuge in the Sangha. and yellow monk garb-appeared upon them in a miraculous manner. p. and they becamethe first disciples. Jfiapticaturthakarma upasampadd. 134-135. The ones conferred by the Buddha himself were the most simple. P.. ibid. shaven head. JrNaNaNoa. apparently.pp. 2.20.op. p.. Jayaswal ResearchInstitute. 50For the following names of various upasampadd. cf. it was prescribed that only a bhiksu of ten years standing and of proven learning couid confer the full ordination. Patna. A third forrn is mula. 136-137.ed.pp. when seeingthe Buddha coming from afar their own resolution was broken. Tlbetan Sanskrit Works Series.. and there arose the distinction of two kinds of Pdtimokkha. Natti catutthakamma upasampadd and S. is the Ehi Bliksukaya upasampada.the "Come. mainly in terms of complexity. 1978). by and large.. the shaven head. begging bowl. "I take my refuge in the Buddha. Introduction. Pt. addressed the Saraqtdgamanaupasampadd.

r85. even with the background of auspicious dreams. upasampadd. cf. the way.' concerns the "seeker" of the truth. when ordination becarne formalized." ed. has a rower limit at l55aand cases where a boysswas ordained. pp. this increased the period between p. s6MaoaN MonaN while in the beginning the Buddha admitted virtually everybody into the order..r.Central Asia Number. p.ngha act. etc. i.ngha. Atrlhavdcika uposampada. In Buddhist countries orphans frequently entered the Sdr. X & XI (. BuddhistHybrid sanskrit Reader pp. p. 54MADAN MonLN Srucn. P.LAuorrr. but becauseof certain differencesfrom the monk ordination. This is known as the Kdkuttepaka pravrajyd. p.-had to be enforced. pp. Dictionary. cit. Arsx wavMAN. 5zcf.26-33. sarvdstivdda Literature (calcutta. for hisedited text from the Mahavastu. Up.1966-68. 135. cit.. 55For example. the rather primitive article. It appears that the more the 53Cf. 58cf. Histoire du bouddhisme indien.qsl. where Buddhism establisheditself with the sdrygha. who finally decides to enter the did widows the nun order. No. the novice and the fully ordained. it was given a different name.s? The ancient story "conversion of Sdriputra and Maud. p.s6but this has perhaps not been standard during the many centuries and various countries. 137. EocsRroN. op. Banerjeg.e. it appears that all nun ordinations-with the'possible exception of the Buddha's aunt. There are various well acknowledged reasons for entering the Buddhist order. .ss There was much emphasis on seniority of "bhiksubecoming. 25-29. K.. A period of five years has been mentioned. soon exclusions of certain types-criminal element. 50. with introductory notes about the versions of the story. galyayana. op. the first Buddhist nun-took place through a formal Sdr. r9s7). (the ordination of thosewho scare away crows). There are stories about devout parents urging their sons to enter this religious life. mentions that Kumarajiva (350-409)was ordained at the age of six (356).AncientBuddhistMonasticism 47 As the nun order started later in the Buddha's pilgrimage.o' with respectful devotion extended to the senior monks. by A. 179-180. Nanan). Anukul c. "The parents of Buddhist Monks." Bharati (BanarasHindu University). Pabbajja and P. The age of entering the religious life in different countries.

Bombay. cloth.RY. vol. It has been proposed that the P.which is sometimescalled the Bhiksu A$rama. V. 138.personswith contagiousdiseases such as deafness (not affiictions. Pabbajja (the "going-forth") or the ordination as a novice somewhat resemblestheVanaprastha stage. which is essential to the theory of the four stages. to repay a debt to the forefathers by procreating progeny. becausethey have loosened their soctal duties. to be roughly equivalent to the Vinaprastha (forest-hermit) in the third stage. 1956." . also in the Brahmanic system.q. pp.toRAGADKAR. feasts. pp.S (Buddha Jayanti special Issue.62 This bears some resemblance o'Some Aspects of Buddhism as Gleaned 5eCf. This process appears to have been completed during the patronage of the celebrated King A5oka. p. Hence. while the fullordination (P.5e For obvious were were reasons. Dictionary. 62Cf. and to take the fully-ordained monk and nun. is a sequence for the first two stages. in consideration that the ascetic orders did not recognizethe requirement to be a householder. 135-136.the lad left home to take up the Vedic study with a preceptor who would give him a second birth (make him dviia). Indeed. op..IBR. . There followed two stagesof homelessness. G. cf. Upasampadd) is equivalent to attaining the Sannyasa.Jnl. cit. Two).60 the person to hear allowing the It seemsuseful to compare the two ordinations of the Buddhist system with the Brahmanic "stages of life. 60For a longer list. stays at one place during the rains. and staff: sleepson the ground. to the Buddhist families. p.the comparison must be done in a different way. 1959). RaogAKRISHNA CsoUogl.01 However. with the sky for roof. 109-113. (JrAsa'r. water pot of wood or earth. sensory persons with severe precepts). the nearest equivalent is to take the Buddhist novice as equivalent to the brahmacdrin student in the first stage. followed by the householder. olMaoaN MonaN StNcn. avoids theatre.48 BuddhistInsight imperial patfonage enjoyed by Buddhism. the more it excluded persons-such as desertersfrom the army. rest of the year travels continuously. i." As well known this of the celibate student. The equivalent to the sannydsa stage can be noticed in the description of this stagein the New Upaniqads: he only needs strip of. sons lacking the permission of their parents-so as not to offend the civil and military authority.the Vdnaprastha and the Sannyasa.Neo-Upanishadic Philosophy (Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. through ASokan Inscriptions. 426. K.e.

serving this master who will eventuaily introduce him to an appropriate meeting of the sar. 44-45. pp. However.i & ii. the continuance of this Vinaya tradition in Tibet where it. (upacrrrydya). s. 6cCf. purpose of ordination as a bhiksu.vo-week retreats by the monks (iryfra). we note agreement between the Theravd. he . whereasin the Buddhist case the asceticpractices and retreats could take place when the person was relatively young and in full possessionof his strength and sensoryfaculties. Latir the biographt 63Dr' DBv Rar cuawaNA. founder of rhe Gerugpa sect. Calnting the Mind. saddhiviharika. thirteen in number (infra). Dictionar!.. The lama Don-grub Rin-chen becamehis 'princ ipar. XLIV. and the ti. pts.da and the Mfllasarvdstivdda use of the P' upajjhdy4. March-June. In both cases. monk to act as his upajjhaya refers both to a person ordaining a novice and to a person looking after a disciple (p." Vol.the usage of the term can be seen in the biography of rson-kha-pa ltisl-t+t9).. the Buddha. after complete disengagement from social duties.went forth. in the Brahmanic theory. Upasltx. updcthydya.63 Turning to ordination practices themserves. th.. for example. ' An important differenceto add to the above is that in the case of the sannydsinthere was an automatic extinction of his propertyrights.civil death" at ordination.65 "In his seventh year. ori.'t tn the Mfilasarvdstivdda practice. sardhavihdrin). charged with admitting the candidate to the religiou. or if he experienceda change of heart about this kind of life. to the religious life. 65Wayuau. . Glon-nu Byan-chub became his 'instructor' (acdrya). sannyasastage was in the declining period of life.competent. s.r. "rBR^t. This is becausetrre Buddhist monk could return to the social group if he found the monastic life too hard. tgSg. pp. 16. But the Buddhist monk or nun did not undergo a .s ltlinjunction that a person should seek out a .was the only Yinaya. 22_23.AncientBuddhistMonasticism 49 ascetic practices called the dhutagupa (qualities of a purified man).pp."The vinayapitaka andAncie't Indian Jurisprudence. and" was given the name Blo-bzan Grags-pa'i-dpal. He took the vow of novice (iramanera).ngha r* .n." Notice that a superior called upddhydya and an underling called dcdrya both playeo a paft in-fulfiiling the candidate's "going forth" as a novice. 19. and there was no extinction of his property rights in the meantime.

a kind of religious head. a1d with assent. sexual unlawful stealing. living beings. Some monks require the applicant to be able to tell from a shadow the time of the day. the and refuge in the Buddha. the Dharma. namely mkhan po. Of give up. For the vow of the novice. whereupon the sd. the applicant again goes through the set formulas as above of refuge anO ttooice's vow.frk. After that. beard shaved. or ior. ialtonuiasaka).ngha. if he ordination. happening to be the abbct of another monastery.q. pleasurable witnessing from desisting adds cants. and intoxiactivity. Thus.r he had previously agreed to desist these.Tib' mkhan po). Ias kyi slob dpon. who was his "confidant" (Tib. a ptearranged monk asks on his behalf if he can be gralted the responds-he can be. was regularly used ior the head of a monastery. gsan ste ston pa. he is furnished applicant takes his the upddhy'dya robes. three is said this those of one "gone forth"-and 'oFine!" The applicant is then upddhydyc says something like. the followilg comes from the M[lasarvastivida practice:66After the applicant (already a tay Buddhist) before the assembled Sd:mghahas expressed a desire to obtain the "going forth" ordination from an upadhydya. pp' 109-113' . a monastery abbot in spiritual descent from Sakyawho introduced the third Milasarvdstidribhadra (1127-1225). vida ordination lineage to Tibet.NsRlsB. s. 2) one. accepting and a householder that he is giving up his marks of The times.ngha out an upadhydya. natnely. things beautifying of use from entertainments. Then in front of the announces Sdr. who was his "counselor" (Tib. He now like unguents.and after and get hair his to arrangesfor the Derson with bowl and yellow the upadhl'aya by bathing. who seeks applicant the is pure. 66B.r. s. The Tibetal equivalent to upadhydya.50 BuddhistInsight mentions the persons who directed Tson-kha-pa's full ordination as a bhik5u: 1) one who was his "principal" @pAdhyAya. Now the "instructor" (acarya) makes the novice state in his presencethe ten dpada) which are the ten things he will points of instruction (. the term upddhydyc was used for the principal at the novice vow and at the monk vow and could be iwo different persons.go vow. from killing layman's Buddhist the during from five lying.3) a third one. Sarvdstivada Literature. karma-acdrya). turned over to another monk who inquires of the upadhydya if he has ascertained the applicant's purity.

aflicted with various illnesses. The candidate is moved to the side. Sarvdstivdda Literature. a king's soldier.rmq of the rahonuiasaka bhiksu apparerftly meaning his questions to the candidate.ngha.a practice0z: The novice having attained an age. and the two go through a robe conflerment ceremony with formulas repeated thrice. Then comes exhibition of the bcwl. The karmakdraka bhikpu now asks the rahonusdsaka bhiksu if he is willing to make the confidential inquiries to the candidate with the named upadhyaya. taking meals at wrong times. and accepting gold and silver. Three times the candidate states the proper use of the bowl. the upadhyay. of which the minimum is stated as "twenty" (as before.a provides the candidate with three robes either already made up. pp.ionuiasaka bhik. "Fine!" For the vow of the monk.u (previously called the karmq-dcarya) and the rahonusdkato conduct their proper rcles in the ceremony and asks some other monks to participate.upon getting the assent of the ral. but in view of the assembled Sar. or with cloth for the same.ngha. nun-seducer. and so on (in fact.u be permitted to make his confidential inquiries to the candidate. starting with "Are you a man?" "Do you possessthe male organ?" "Are you at least 20 years of age?" "Are your three robes and bowl complete ?" and going down to questions of whether he is a thief. The information is given tbat at least five vinayadharas (retainers of the vinaya code) had to participate in the upasanpadd ardination. The dcdrya says something like. The candidate makes his salutations. Assenting. upon his sitting down-that the rahonuiasaka bhik. . indebted to someone. three times implores him to act as the upddhydya fcr his full-ordination. There foliows the jfrapti-kq.u the karmakaraka bhiksu makes a muktikajfiapti-apparently meaning his motion to the assembledSdr. and with inevitable exceptions).AncientBuddhist Monasticism 5l using high and big beds. then squatting in front of the upadhydya. asks the upddhyaya for an alms-bowl and religious robes. He also asks the karmakdraka bhik. and afterwards the upadhydyaconfers the bowl. out of ear-shct of the Sdingha (hence as the "confidant") on various private matters. the following also comes from Mfrlasarvdstivdd. standing wirh folded hands. oTBeNBnlrs. 114-141. presumably l5+5.

about robes. has completed 20 years of age. and that if it be the Sdmgha'sconvenienceand approval. He is told about i. The newly ordained bhikgu is made to measure the shadow and then is informed about the parts of the day and night and about the seasons.u does his karnn of three times declaring that the candidate is a man rvith male organ. food. after being saluted by the candrdate who sits down in front of him. then confer the upasompada ordination on the given let the Sdr.52 BuddhistInsight the entire list. The kqrmakaraka bhiksu. etc. etc..ngha candidate rvith the named upadhyaya. He is . andthat he is willing to answer any question.. He is told about the four gross falls. the formula of asking for the upasampadd ordination with the named upddhydya." The candidate is now brought before the monks and salutes them.ngha has granted the upasampadaordination on the candidate with such and such name. reviling others even when reviled. for which he would be ousted from the Sd:rygha. aftet being questioned. "If he is perfectly pure. He is told about the moral rules of the Prdtimoksa and his expected service from this day onward to the upadhyaya. which if in any case is not answered properly would drop him from consideration as a monk). This completes the ful[ordination of the candidate as a monk (bhiksu). He is then told about monastery life. The rahonuidsaka bhiksu moving within ear-shot of the assembled monks declares that the candidate. then let him come. their brotherly conduct. After this. has all the robes and begging borvl. and asked if he is willing to live this way. namely. and those against speak up. the karmakdraka bldk. The karmakardka bhiksu (in his role of "counselor") then directs the novice on what he should say. andthat all in favor should remain silent. and he informs the candidate to stay there until called and not to be shy his answer to any of the about revealing to the assembledSdr. who has the named upadhyaya.ngha questions. The assembled monks say. it must be concluded that the Sdr. This ends the formal cererirony of ordination. of not the four rules about ascetics. who is as a father to a son. tells the candidate to give answers to the questions without shynessand then goes through the samelist that the rahonuidsaka bhikgu had asked in confidence. and is pure concerning the restrictions. speaks of himself as free from all restrictions (to his full ordination). After the third time.e. he declaresthat since the Sapgha has remained silent (if that was the case).

RorRlcH.?' There is a modern publication on the morning and evening chanting in Thai Buddhism. sarvdstivdda Trrhe Pali chantingscripturewith rhai & EnglishTranslation.70-129. For ordination ceremonies of countries other than India. As to the newly-ordained monk's learning about parts of the day and the seasons. "La communaut6 desmoines bouddhistes.full ordination" in the Milasarvastivdda vinaya. meeting with other monks to recite the . Akademie-Verlag. sarvdstivdda Literature. T'warpora RAHuLA. impurity of the body.compares all the vastu-s of the various vinayas. dependent origination.For more information. Berlin.pp. Hence. ordination as a monk was independent of doctrinal affiliations.then to the hall for their breakfast. and Asanga. Gunasena & Co. as this paper has already set forth. Karmavdcanri (sanskrittexte aus den Turfanfunden.?1 The vinayas set forth extensively the main observances in topics frequently called vastu. etc. the first book is the pravrajyavastu. and death.sBaNpnJBr. there is description about the daily life of the monks in ancient ceylon that they arose before sunrise and contemplated the Buddha.Lovingkindness scripture" (Metta-sutta).. 10l-246. The BrueAnnars. sweeping. s. For example.. P.kya.AncientBuddhistMonasticism 53 told to study the Buddhist doctrines of the personal aggregates. Recherches sur Ie Bouddhisme (pais. 296-315.this is apparently a brief reference to in. 34-3s. the Mllasarvastivdda vinaya is called vinayavastu. forming him of daily and seasonal observances. . 173-174. both Nagdrjuna.zz In this vinaya. p.1g94).1956). 142. pp. The Earliest l/inaya.dressing according to the rules. founder of the Madhyamika sect of Buddhism. cf. loving kindness. then proceeded to their ablutions. This book goes also into the . pp. eeGsoncn N. received their . There have been doubtlessmany differencesin daily observances in Buddhist monasteries in different countries and centuries.FnauwaLLNER. 72Thefollowing material on the vinayavastuis summarized from Banerjee. 1956). MrNavBnr. pp. founder of the yogdcara sect. kammavdcd.. J.partone (Delhi. from which previous material on the ordination of novices and monks was drawn. r97g). History of Buddhism in ceylon (M.D. T962." pp. The above rituals of "going forth" (pravrajya) and "full ordination" (upasampad6) are called p. According to the Tibetan history text The BIue Annals. HsnnnnrHAnm. karmavd.Ge Hence.

The second book. gives the disciplinary actions for various serious offences. on suspension (utksepaniya) of a monk. the Popdhavastu concerns the Prdtimoksa recitation which has been already mentioned by the name P. on distribution of robes at the end of the rainy season and laymen's gifts-are mainly on the food and clothing needs and the rules for special cases. in this Vinayathe Pravdra4dvastu is the third vastu. Uposatha (S. and finally Sar. and the eighth. on the materials and preparation of monk robes. the Varqdvastu.-and the Pravdranavastu. Pap{ulohitakavastu. The concluding parts in this Vinaya are the fifteenth. the duties of monks undergoing light punishment (parivdsa). Upavasatha). the sixth. formation of the nun order and settlement of disputes among the monks. from birth to leaving home for the religious life. on footwear. KoSdmbakavastu.though it should logically be the fourthone. who became the Buddha. Adhikara4avastu. the eleventh. on food and medicaments. Uposatha). concerns limitations of monks to perform suspension.on construction of monastery buildings and furnishing them.lificationsof the monks chiefly engagedin the ordination rites and the reasonsfor asking the various questions of the candidate for bhik.the thirteenth.54 BuddhistInsight qua.Ts The fifth one.concerning the conduct of monks during the rains-their restriction to one residence.nghabhedakavastu. The ninth. goes into particular casesof punishment for specific offences. Civaravastu. of the Buddhist monasteries. This Vinaya then reverses of two books. the twelfth. the Karmavastu. Posadhasthdpanavastu.establishing the impurity that would exclude a monk from participation in the Upavasatha (P. or elseto be renderedoostrands that were shaken off.the seventh. etc.u. Pdrivisikavastu. . which should be concerned with splits in the monk community but in fact in this Vinaya goes in to the legendary origin of the Sakya race and the life of Gautama. Then. Sayanisanavastu. inlaw code augurates chapters showing the internal ecclesiastical tenth. Kafhinavastu. As to the thirteen "qualities of a purified man" (dhutagu4a). Pudgalavastu. Bhaipajyavastu." they consti73That is. the sixteenth. More details will the proper order follow in this paper. the fourteenth. the Carmavastu. to confess any offences committed during the three-month retreat of the rains in a l-day ceremony concluding this retreat.

5. B. to be satisfied with whatever is received in one's single bowl (pattapiryQilcangam).sanikangam). Early Monastic Buddhism (Calcutta. p. live in an open space (except when raining) (abbhokasikangant). Vol. NITINAKsHADurr. a practitioner would adopt a certain one of these ascetic practices. to dwell in a forest. Asanga explains that these practices are meant to purify the mind and make it fit fordwelling in chastity (brahmacarya).12. pp. 75Wa. to take rest at night only by sitting (nesajjikangam). 82. on the Fourth Defeat.13. 1960). pp. to refuse any food after finishing one's meal (khalupacchabhatti' kangam). for the theory that Devadatta's attempt to force certain rigorous practiceson the Slmgha as a whole-an attempt opposed by the Buddha-attained some in time in terms of adoption by various monks. 142.AncientBuddhistMonasticism 55 tute a movement to adopt more ascetic practices than monastery life was prone to. to dwell at the base of a tree (that is not prohibited for the purpose) (rukkamulikangam). 6. to live in a cemetery (sosanikangam). from which the following thirteen dhutarigaare summaized. to sit down for eating only once a day no matter what (eka. Needless to say. 153-154.4.Analysis of the Srdvakabhumi. to wear robes made of refuse rags (parysukulikafigam). 2.74 In the Visuddhimagga the thirteen (called here dlrutanga) are: l. Shan-Chien-Pi'-P'o-Sha. 76Cf.p. 3. 7.. f. to usewhateverbed or seatis offered. 9. in consideration that the Middle Path of the Buddha avoided the extremes of mortification of flesh and indulgence in desires but also that the Buddha was called "great ascetic" (mahalrama7a).it appearsthat the monks dwelling in the usual monastery setting had an opporfunity to practice more toward santddhi during the three-month retreat of the rains when they did not go begging. 155. f. There are indications that they may have had to get along with less food than at other times.75 Besides. HonNan. although measureof success the list was not itself ever incorporated in the Vinaya.vvnN. to have not more than three robes (tecivarikangam). to not miss any housein the regular rounds when begging (sapaddnacdrikangam).?6 Indeed. TTBapatand Hmartwa. . it is said:1l "If during the three months of summer-retreat.without adversecomment (yathasanthatikangam).11. which normally meant a renunciation of certain privileges accorded to the monks in monastery life. away from the city (arafifii' kangam).. to eat only food collected by begging (pirtdapdtikangam). The Book of Discipline. a ?aCf.

perhaps for some time with no more food intake than some ascetics were reported to have taken in those days-a handful of beans every third day. we should nct leave this topic of Buddhist monasterial life rvith the impression ihat it just amounted to a big problem of persons adjusting to this sort of life. Basnau. L. A. as the writer has observed some Tibetan monks doing the same in present times. 50. 1951). except for one bringing food-to enter a samddhi for examining the past on a certain matter. taking a modest nourishment while meditating at the base of the Bodhi Tree. This may be clarified by a cursory comparison of the Brahmin with the Bhiksu and by an ancient quarrel. ?eB. the Tathdgata cioesnot observe the Great Pavarand. Shan-Chien-P'i-P'o-Sha.56 Buddhist Insight Iarge number of monks who had started practising samadhi have not finished their job. others committing offencesto be censured or deservingejection from the Sarygha. p. 434. some obeying injunctions. History and Doctrines of the Aitvikas Company. The Buddha was also mentioned as going into retreats for specifiedpurposes: once in a solitary place for a half-month.zeIt appears that the two-week retreat was a favorite of rnonks.?8 at another time for a retreat of three months-apparently to set an example." This indicates that rvhen the Buddha decided on the middle path he accepteda certain pcrtion of the Brahmanical "stages of life. It is rvell knorvn that rvhen Gautama left home to seek the religious life he undertook an asceticdisciplineespecially by the River Nairaiijand for six At the end of that time he decidedthat this coursedid not lead to the highest goal (the Dharma transcendingman's) and he undertook a middle path between mortification of the flesh and indulgence in sensory desires.. So also the Hindu Laws of Manu (lI. as alluded to above. London." and while continuing to uphold the ascetic ideal renounced its more extreme form. etc. he would accomplish all (human) aims rvithout reducing his body through t-oge. for this practice. 290. T8Bapar and Hnlrtw4 Shan-Chien-P'i-P'o-Sha. 100) state: "Keeping the village of the senses in subjection and controlling the mind.qpar and Hmarawt. for concluding the retreat during the rainy season." By "Pavarani" is meant the one-day ceremony. (Luzac & . 80cfl. for coming to a conclusior on some troublesome point of doctrine. p.

pp.amounting. starting at eight years and taking the vedic course. dwell in the forn Dhyanas of the Realm of Form and then in the liberation of mind and of insight.solitude. Pratimoksa). And so the quarrel is over how to attain all (human) aims. It was claimed that the ascetic in the Buddhist order would proceed to oomoderationin food. and the Buddhist monastic followers became "ascetics who are sons of the Buddha. which was precisely enjoined upon the entrants to Buddhist monasterial life. the lad went forth to the preceptor. . In the description of "practice of staying awake" Asanga states that when one has 81Cf. However." o'practice of staying awake. 2.right dwelling in Thus.WayuaN. conduct with awareness. as the first part of this article has cited from the Anguttaranikaya (Book of Sevens). and have the full realization in this life. 31-38. becametwice-born. while the Buddhist monasterial novice was supposed also to restrain his morality and then his sense organs. would become a Brahmin priest in his village at the same age (twenty) that the Buddhist vinaya gives for "fulr ordination" as a monk (bhiksu). in monasterial language. Then a Brahmin lad. restraint of morality. while the Brahmin proceededto the next stage of life. as set forth at length in Asanga. elimination of hindrances.Calming the Mind.Ancient Buddhist Monasticism 57 what he accepted in common with the Brahmanical course became called in Buddhist terminology "instruction of morality" (adhisila-iiksd). attempting. restraint of adherence to the Patimokkha (s. But then the Buddhist system went on to claim something over and beyond the Brahmanical procedure for attaining the (human) aims.for twelve years.s Srdvakabhumi. the Buddhist monk continued his celibate ways. Chap." and so surmount the Realm of Desire. the householder who raises a family. It is easierto compare the two systemsin terms of a sequence from AsangaosSravakabhutni: going forth." The Brahmanical youth restrained his morality in the code called 'brahmacarya and was supposed to restrain his senseorgans in the manner set forth in the Laws of Manu. in the Brahmanical system. practice of staying awake (in the former and latter part of night). This Brahmin lad for the normal period of twelve years had been adhering to a standard of continence called braltmacarya. moderation in food.

" Consistent with my findings. Notice that Asanga claims something for this phase that was not claimed for the restraint of morality or for the restraint of senseorgans. It is not the business of the present writer to take sides on this great cleavage between the two systems. except to observe the foregoing as essential for understanding the great movement of Buddhist monasticism. In short the Buddha's rejection of the extreme of mortiflcation of the flesh should be viewed as a rejection of asceticpractices that are not preceded by a previous moral training involving a continuous discrimination of things to be rejected and things to be accepted (especially by the senses). a purification of the mind from obscur-' ing natures. That is not to denigrate those previous observancesand behavior restrictions as trivial. Vasubandhu's Abhidharmakoia (IY. Of couise. 16) states: "Ths Prdtimokqa path-of-act is the pair. doubtless helped to preserve Hinduism through the many centuries. as a preparation for entering into samadhi. indeed. And the Buddhist rejection of the Brahmanical "stages of life" is an attitude that if one waits until the last period of life before one is an ascetic. the training of the Brahmin youth for a number of years with the brahmacarya code. And Vasubandhu comments in part: "Priti- . at the outset" (adye viifiapty-aviifiapti prdtimoksakriydpathal). AND PENANCE TgB orrBNcEs. it should be recalled that this paper already establishedthe meaning of the term as "Liberation-onset. Prdtimokqa). and also during the last rvatch of the night after resting in the middle watch of the night. ru. he goes on to purify his mind from obscuring natures by walking and sitting during the day and during the first watch of the night. candor (vtifiapti) and reticence (avijfiapti). there is not much that this ascetictsmwould accomplish in the senseclaimed for the asceticismthat follows directly upon the restraint of senseorgans.58 Buddhist Insight: moderation in food in the manner set forth. namely. The non-return to society of the Buddhist monk in the sense of raising a family (except for the person leaving the monkhood) meant a more fragile base in society for the Buddhist monastery. followed by the stage of householder. Buddhism puts great stock on this prior base of morality for proceeding to meditation. coNFESSIoN. Since the offences are listed in the Pdtimokkha (S.

. 1978. verse 16. He had to reconstructa number of lacunae with the. No.p.Vol. 61 "candor (aijfrapti) is virtue".Ancient Buddhist Monasticism 59 moksa is the candor and reticence at the commencement. of the person taking the vow (saynvara)" (saqnvara-samdddnasya prathame vijfiapty-avijfiapti prdtimokga ity ucyate).1975). . Pn. 3.No. p. 62 "reticence (auijfiapti) is immoral. reliance 85ANurur. 122. 95. capable of answering the difficult questions of the disciples. 20b-5. help of the Tibetan. on the spiritualguide(kalya4amitra).while his mind.Yol.q. No." The' Buddhist JournalofthelnternationalAssoctationof Studies. p. ed."83.87 which might signify the 150-odd 82P. 1. A Record. 10. mentionsthat reconstructed passages have beenput in bracketsin his text. 87PTT.. "Path of-act" apparently refers to the confessional. 1954). of Lam rim chenmo. P. "The Mahisdmghikaand the Tathigatagarbha. The Pratimoksa-siltrq. cited: No.XVII.. seTashilunpo ed. "hundred The sharp nails" are presumably the "one hundred kermoso' of the work Millasaruastiuddanikayaikaiatakarman. Vinitadeva explains the "hundred sharp nails" as the "points of instruction" (iikpapada).noHaN. briefly alluded to by I-Tsing but not listed by him. CnaNona BnNeRlnn. in the case of verse 16. the "difficultresponse mouth" means the spiritual guide's speech endowment (uacasd'bhyupetary) of Mahayana-Sutralarytkdra. 83A.207. and apparently all the main monastery rites starting with ordination as a novice.a-sfitra (Mulasarvdstivada)(Calcutta. of the Mfilasarvdstivdda Vinaya is cited in Tson-kha-pa's Lam rim chen mo as illustrative of the Instruction of Morality (adhiiilaiiksA) for the monks:8a This Pritimoksa (Liberation-Onset) is like the bridle of a hundred sharp nails on the difficult-response mouth of the horse-like mind driven by incessant effort. sectionon the topic. However. Patna. Prdtimok. verse(extant Sanskrit)plus the Tibetan translation to arrive at the translation" given. Jayaswal Research Institute. 60 "virtue causedby a vow increases". an introductory. his reconstruction and so I have used the rest of the does not appear to have been successful.279-3-2. p..82 These terms are in the Mahdsdmghika listed tenets I have elsewhere.yr\aAN.85 According to the context of this verse's citation. is spurred on. (K. W.86 The teacher who has gone through these "karmas" is said to have' these as a bridle on his mouth. like a horse. 1. Abhidharmakoiabhalyam of Vasubandhu p. ed. tr. fol. s6Tararusu.

8e Thesefour. Thus the first one. p. sexual intercourse. Vol. 4) pretending to superhuman powers. p." it has been wrongly suggested as relevant that the monk upon entering the Order had renounced any claim to private property.of any sort.which) does not belong to the monk for such a purpose sincehe is supposedto be celibate. esp. viii. or else two days each at full andnew.o' The Prdtimoksa as a morality (iila) beyond the five layman's vows is called "morality of a day and night. which is the fast (upaudsa) accompanied by the eightfold mor ality (as!Ang ai tla).NaNDA. n. introduction. 3) murder." since during the Poqadha (P. but it could be cut short to the minimum of the four "defeats" (pdrdjika) alone." Oriens Extremus. requiring crops of same.pp.q. or commending it or abetting it. Le TraitddelaGrande Vertude Sagesse.9:1. Newyork.the "eightfoldmorality. elSo HonNnn. for a summaryof the story and implication for the 'oupward" progressof the Buddhist monk. are the worst offences. 1.el Rather. precedingconclusion. The Book of Discipline.JN. Uposatha) there is no eating atter noon for a day and a night. wayman.whichmay amountto threedaysat full moonandthree days at newmoon. above. The second ssCf. e0cf. 1969). with awarenessthat it does not belong to oneself. 24-29. Dpv Rar Cg. the extended treatment in Bapnr and Hnlx swa. I.1962.e2 Indeed. xxi. who (or even. "stealing. where-portraying the fall from a superhuman state of the first eon men-sexual intercourse went along rvith eating of coarsemorsel food.. m€ans taking a sexualpartner. This essaycan be found also in A. Cf.eo As to the secondone. leading to their theft and mortal blows on that account. all the "defeats" have features of "theft". 825-832.60 Buddhist Insight prohibitions of the Prdtimoksa-siitra or might conceivably refer to the "one hundred karmos. AbhisamdcarikalBhik. Anx WAvuaw.employing the. requiring immediate expulsion from the Simgha: l) sexualintercourse."and information abouta six days'fast. cit. 2) theft of a valuable.TomeII (Louvain. Jayaswal Researchlnstitute. Patna. sometimes metaphorical.88 The recitation of the Prdtimoksa is ordinarily in full. .pp. plus two "eighth" days. op.Shan-Chien-p'iP'o-Sha.Introduction.7949). "Buddhist Genesis and the Tantric Tradition. 63. mentioned first in the list.IBRS article by Dn. pp 1. ed. Errsrwn Lauorrl. e2Cf.uprakir{rakal (K. 8eB. P.27-131.nNANA.973). The Buddhist Tantas (samuel weiser.. the four 'odefeats" are related to the Buddhist Genesisstory. for this fast.

was viewed with particular horror. but which doubtless did not encouragethem to become nuns:eb ssCf." the above four in common with the monk.defeats. either concretely or in metaphorical senses. 7) becoming the follower of a monk who has been suspended. medicine. especially of material. where besides the canonical story about Mahapajdpati's acceptanceof the eight dharmas. perhaps this attitude is behind the Mahi. murder. Introduction. esFor the eight guru-dharma.ii) the big thief monk who pretendshe learned the Dhamma (s. pp. Dharma) from himself (through his powers of realization) and not from someone else. which the Buddha enjoined upon the women who would enter the order. pp. valuable objects. considering that women are also capable of attaining Arhatship.there is the account that women have eight qualities who after death_ . Jayaswal Research rnstitute. iv) the big thief who secretly takes and gives gifts of monastery property in order to get favors and support of certain householder.ea Besides. praising himself as the really pure man. The preceding shows that thievery.u4i-vinaya (K. Patna. The association of the number eight with women appears an establishedmatter in the Pdli Anguttara-nikaya (Book of Eights). means taking or promoting the taking of a life. a nun had to accept the eight guru-dltarma. 335.ydna Buddhist emphasis oo o'giving" (ddna) as the first perfection (pdramita). and four additional ones: 5) enjoying the contact of a male person between the collar-bone and knee. cf. The third. III. which belongs to another and has irreplaceable preciousness.The fourth one of pretense to realizations and powers in its explanation has five explicit thieves:e3 i) the big thief in the story about the "defeat": monks living on the bank of the River vaggumuda near vesali (S. ff. Dictionary. eaCf. 6) concealing the "d. xxix-xxxii.efeat" offence of another nun. iii) the big thief evilminded monk who condemns those monks who are following the path and progressing in meditation.Bapar and Hrnarlw. v) the big thief who acts as though the monastery property belongs to hirn and freely takes it and uses it or gives it away. vaisali) getting by false pretensionsfood. for an extended discussion of thefivebig thieves. p. Bhik.. Shan-Chien-p'i-p'o-Sha. even ahead of "morality" (irla).q.AncientBuddhistMonasticism 6l one is theft per se. 8) possessing any of eight sexual dispositions. 1970). 158. p. and other valuables. Gusrav Rorn. The Pdtimokkha of the nan (bhikkhuni) has eight .Upasl'x. chap.

122. vi) every half month the nuns should desire the coming of the monks on Uposatha day. "arises from the Sar. 313-4. iii) nuns may not addressmonks regarding the true and the false. the term Sanghddisesa contrast with the Parajika ("defeat"). (would be) becausethere is a common means of purification.nghafor a serious offence and where there is no such means. she should bow her head. e6For a discussionof the title."e6 i.' Then for the monks comes a section of thirteen Sanghddisesa offences. cf. SdryghdvaSesa ("remains in the 'Sdrygha"). pp. and "'without a remainder' (would be) becausethere is 'with a remainder' no common (shared) means of purification.As to the list. f. for instruction. entirely within the purview of the Sangha-seems confirmed by Vinitadeva's commentary on the Vinayavibhanga.a nun guilty of a grave offence must apply to the Order of nuns for the severe penance of isolati on (mdnatva) for half a month and certification of rehabilitation from both the Orders. ii) being a virgin of eight'een years she requests the Orders of monks and nuns for two years' training at the end of which she may be fully ordained. and earlier the 'oGreat Chapter" has a passago that a woman enslaves a man in eight ways. "entailed by the Sdr. xxix-xxxii. Introduction. Vol."e? seemsto have been adopted to Hence. a monk may address nuns regarding the true but not the false. viii) upon the conclusion of the rainy seasonthe nuns should desire to invite each other before both the Orders (to be open about what transpired during the rainy season).ngha" (dge dan 'brel 'dun las rnampar ldan par ba). Then come offences relating to construction of morrastic dwellings. . and remaining with (sesa) the Sangha. gzPTT. 'dun 'dun Ia rag dge lus pa).ngha"(dge 'gyur).ngha" (Tib. iv) the nuns must wait until the monks have been supplied with food. namely. Thus Vinitadeva: "depends on the Sar.Yol.62 BuddhistInsight i) no matter how old the nun. vii) the nuns may not spend the rainy seasonat a place devoid of a the feet of a monk.e.and lodging before being themselves supplied. even one ordained that day. where there is a means of purification within the Sdr. The Book of Discipline. bedstead. with the S. One of the traditional explanations for the titlewhereby it is rendered "beginning with (Adi). FIoRNER. false are reborn as lovely fairids. v) . the first five relate to sexual indiscretions short of sexual intercourse.p.

pp. Some of these are heretic views on matters of morality. taking its cue from the basic Next come the two aniyata-dhammesor Indeterminate Offences about the associationof a monk with a woman. Introduction. There was a light punishment of living apart called parivdsa and a severe penance of isolation called manatta (5. xxxi.2l3-2I4. consisting of at least twenty persons. both requiring the sanction of the Sangha in the beginning and end. 470-47I. 100{Jp4s411.etc. f. By "end" is meant that one becomes ready for restitution (abbhdna) by the official act of the The Theravdda Vinaya now presents thirty Nissaggiyapicittiyas.AncientBuddhistMonastioism 63 accusations. Introduction. such as declaring permissible acts that are permissible. 121-122. 15I. and vice versa..1o1 Various Vinayas differ considerably in the material presented on each of these sins. offences especially about the religious garb-its measurements. and polluting the faith of a devout family. xxxiii-xxxv. Vol. with a hundred sixty-six of the nun in the Bhikkhuni-Pdtimokkha. manatva). renewals. 33 in one list on "taking food successively" is quite short.2-3-3. 1.p. 10296p41 and Hrnarltwt. concealing a serious offence of another monk. The nun had'some more possible offences. For example. 31. Sanghidisesa. Shan-Chien-P'i-P'o-Sha. B. as well as money transaciions with laymen. Shan-Chien-P'i-P'o-Sha. pp. Shan-Chien-p'iP'o-Sha. pp.lrer and Hmarawn. abetting schisms in the Sangha. Dictionary. . and Vinitadeva's commentary. and the begging bowl. The Patidesaniya are a group of offences to be confessedin a ssThis summary pp. p.. p. Pdcittiya No. Sanskrit uses the term pdtayantika) of the monk in the Bhikkhu-Pdtimokkha. especially a reliable female layman (upasika). l0lUpAsAK. where the gravity of the offence (whether o'defeat". of the list is based on Upasak. loaPTT.lm These are followed by ninety-two infractions (pacittiya. Dictionary. are among the miscellaneousoffences. Violations of the prohibition on monks to view entertainments.103of which there is nothing corresponding in the other account of this offence. or the lesserfault called Pacittiya) is determined by a reliable witness.launches into a lengthy description of drawing the "Wheel of Life" (wellknown from its Chinese and Tibetan forms). 123. seBaparand Hrurrwd.102 In the Mtlasarvastivada Vinaya this is Pdtayantika No. Dictionary.

I confessit. xxxv. to have offensive relations with nuns. 4. creating incidents. a grave thing.. 7.los The Dharmagupta school is quite different here. samefor monk and nun : l-2. unbecoming. 9. has a good summary. l5l." as follows: 1. 107 upASAK.etc. in thistranslation from the Tibetan I have given only the main list with meagerexpansionfor some items. 222-5-5to p. and refersto the lengthl. description in Cullavagga. on proper dress. which ought to be confessecl. Dictionary. n'ith 24 rules dealing with the stilpa}os The final entries in the pdtimokkha have to do with settling of disputes. 105{Jp454K.' 2. 108PT"I'. 104!4p41 and HrurAwA. 3-26 on how to enter a village. p. p. Dictionary. lust.64 BuddhistInsight manner prescribed by the text: "r have fallen into a blameworthy matter. 3. e. and pp. the four defeats. 8 . Dictionary. 5. or opportunities. which taken care of in time. trading or trafficking in merchandise and precious things like gold and silver. . can ayert a "defeat. 240-241.pp. acting in such a way among raity as to causethose without faith not to get faith and for those with faith to lose it. 27-56 on taking meals. hurting othersby calumny. 57-72on preaching of the Dhamma. town. 223-224. 436. causing injury to othersby requiringthem to carry excessive loads. pp. etc.four related to monks and eight to nuns. 6. etc.etc. 111. interruptingthe progress to "heaven" (sugat) by breaking the concordin the Sangha. in vinaya-samgrahani. Saiksa) is precepts. or house. p. 1068A'4T and HrnarawA. The Ther avada Yinal'a has 75 such rules.73-75 concerning toiiets.1oa The group of sekkiya (S. Upasak.'" They are the offences of requesting food from impoverished persons. vol. 4g7_4gg. non-contentment with lack of things one might want more of.loT Asanga. p. leading to sexualdischarges and to erotic advances. But the beginner can have them in a pre-defeat form. says:108"one may understand all transgressions(dpatti) to be established by the fifteen wickednesses (dugkyta).g. Introduction.223-4-3.

13. 14. . what is done through many defilementsis a middline transgression. 12.g.g.. is a great (transgiession). for the great one. e. middling. there are also the minor. and not to rely upon what one should rely upon. the pratimoksa. He classifies by their nature (svarupa) ecclesiasticar offenc es (apatti)as minor.nghdvasesa are grave (s. garukdpatti). classified by the number of monks required for the case. classified by intention. not eliminating what is to be eliminated. e. the middle.on not . no number given. to tell what should be kept secret.ros '0ePTT.saying. middling transgressions require ten. where the Defeats are the great transgressions. and the Dusklta is a light one. not venerating what one should.minor transgressions require one to five.224-l-6 vol. or thirty.does in a medium way. the foregoing and the following from the vinaya section of his great work should be taken as consistent with that vinaya. hatred.g. properly examined clerical garb. 11. 15. not to tell theneophytes about the transgressions(apatti) that concern them. and great. and the great transgression. is a small (transgression). p. Asanga was pteviously mentioned to have been ordained in the MDlasarvastivada vinaya. the infractions (Patayantika) and the pratidesaniya are middling. or twenty.g. and any other the minor transgression. e. is a medium one. t o r ely upon w h a t o n e s h o u l d n o t re ry u pon a. whatever one does in a small way when enwrapped by lust. "Don't tell me!. and delusion.and what is done through (deliberate)disrespect ii a great transgression. and eliminating what should not be eliminated. Classified by agency. and not dwelling where one should dwell.nghdvasesa the middling kind. does in a great way. to express the superior dltarma (uttaradharma)to one not ordained. and venerating what one should not venerate. 117.AncientBuddhist Monasticism 65 10. interrupting the way of the ascetic(or novice) by refusing precepts. dwelling where one should not dwell. p. classified by points (of instruction). guruka. and 1o concealwhat should be told. therefore. he . He gives another classification where the Defeats and the Sdr.rhave taken fromTibetan themain detailsof Asanga's remarks. the sdr. what is done through ignoranceand heedlessness is a minor to 224-3-2. venerate.

in offenceswere never a. l-15. lla{1py WAyMAN. SamghdvaSesa." Thus I-Tsing writes: "While thus confessing one's own faults and desiring one to be purified.e. (Sacred Books of the "t tld*P#kmra Oxford. not expulsion. pp. trs. after a threefold proclamation. the minor transgressions. p. \1. 282-286.l1a East. Buddhismin Translations(Harvard Unipp. WAnREN. lloRHYs Devlos and should be observedthat certa.For variousfeatures versityPress. tr."rra ElsewhereI cited sourcesfor the Mahdyina equivalent to this confession "face to face. Dickson (lournal of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1875) who was allowed to witness a Patimokkha in Ceylon and said.llQ The confessingof sins one by one was a traditional explanation in Asia for the translation of the term prdtimok. is involved in facing the Thirty-five Buddhas of Confession and in other forms of "facing" under specified 114ul.rqgsQrgces. i. 243. p. this is probably the situation referred to in the often-cited report of a J. F..iika)as a mandatory expulsion from the Order. and penance. p. This is a procedure wider than the confessionof minor infractions. We have seenthe four Defeats (para."lrr The settlement of sins susceptible of being handled The in this manner is referred to in Pdli as palififiatakararya. The grave sins that could be handled by required suspensiort the Sdmgha. in whispers. 4 (Uposatha Ceremony and Patimokkha). see the Mahavagga(Ruvs Dlvros and OrorunrRc. 1I 27. 112{Jp4s66.lr2 monk admits the offence before the assembledSangha or before a monk. 3. among other things: "After we were seatedthe priests retired two and two together. 111f46ar<gsu.also referred to as "pacifying" the sin.q.). According to the Pd:li Vinaya text Mahdragga: "If a Bhikkhu. each pair knelt down face to face and made confession of their faults. 89. tantamount to a calming of the mind. Dictionary.a by "liberation one by one." pointing out that this abatement of sin. of this confessional. If one restricts the consideration to these minor ones. 113Cf. A Record. "Purification of Sin in Buddhism by Vision .1947). he commits an intentional falsehood.66 Buddhist Insight Turning to the confessional. To confess sins all at once is not permitted in the Vinaya.dmittedto be atoned for by confessingthem. does not confess an existing offence which he remembers.HeNny Ctanxe. one to another. 1881). and called S.could be atoned for by confessing. Any others. one hopes the sins are expiated being confessed by one. XIII. 130. 405-408.

Tokyo.Full of shame. Dtctionary.' The vinaya-master says: .iS meant the ascetics(p. during the period of penance. 142-144 and pp. in addition to the six nights of "Manatta.pp.. 116cf. then the beneficentdeities would certainly first come to know it. l7l.nghddisesaor S. 183-184.." The sar.nghdvasesa. sesarr (shimizukobundo Ltd. by GsNruN H. how is the state of your mind? Did you attain samadhi or not?. pp. one who commits an offence cannot conceal it... like a patient with sores upon his eyes.Samaqs. from one to seven days you must worship Buddhas. he replies: 'No samddhi. S. failure to confess it in the appro_ priate circumstances. The nuns were treated differently: whether or not a nun concealsthe offence. The stringency of the limitations on the monk during this penance period is supposedto sufficefor the expiatiol. and especially the name of the Great compassionate Bodhisattuu Atasugarbha. .equal to the time he concealed the original grave offence.parivasa'. samz(tq. and you must wash your body and burn severalkinds of incense. he tries to conceal himself. p. irama4a).iinners this Bodhisattva in all kinds of shapes appears in their dreams or in samddhi.If the vinaya-master goes to his place and asks him: . 11514p41and HrnarAwn. etc. she only undergoes a Mdnatta of a fortnight. Also in the case of the more grave offencescalled p. .Good friend.. it is necessary to approach immediately another monk to inform him of the offence ano make arrangement for expiation.e. if the monk is guirty even of minor infractions. in the period of Mahdyina Buddhism. Sdr.nghadecides on the limitations of his movements. He is "sitting on thorns." and the text continues: .'" 115 By ."A study of Kreia. ed.Mdnatta' in upasak. out of compassion with.. in which case the offending monk need only observe the six nights of "Man atta. 64-66. the entries 'parivdsa (I)' and .. If at the time when one commits the offencefor the flrst time.acts as a hindrance to his success in medi_ tation... it is held that concealment. i.Ancient Buddhist Monasticism 67 However. as cited: . Shan_Chien_p. So also the Samansand Brdhmans who can know the minds of others.i_p'o_Sha. and with the cintamaryi seal stamps their arms. 1975)." But concealment of the offenceentails a period of penancecalled . sar. there is a rite of ripentance associated with worship of the Bodhisattva Akasagarbha. thus removing the marks of fession.In this world.rre Again.

"Purification of Sin in Buddhism by Vision and Confession. 70-71. After havingobtainedthis sign they must return to the congregation of the monks and explain tlie commandments as before. 1931). W."117 117$/avM4rr. on Vlsssn's translation from the Kwan Kokuzd Bosatsu Kyd inhis The BodhisattvaAkasagarbha(Kokazo) in china and Japan (Amsterdam." pp. citing M. .68 Buddhist Insight crime.

a frequenter of solitary abodes (sufifidgdra).D. Akankheyy asutta (Digha-Nikdya." he should be one who fulfills the moral rules (sila). Thus meditation has a paramount role in Buddhism for indicating man's own ability to attain to truth. and insight. Probably the most famous commentator of this tradition is Buddhaghosa whose fifth century A. Theravdda is the well-known Buddhism still prevalent in various south-east Asian countries such as Ceylon. 33) All Buddhist sects granted that the truths of Buddhism were discovered by the Buddha in the course of his meditations. liked by them. that of morality forming the basis for the other two: mental training aimed at samddhi. leading to the seeing of things as they really are with full comprehension of Buddhist truth or the discerning of reality. Burma.3 ASPECTSOF MEDITATION IN THE THERAVADA AND MAHISASAKA ' INTRoDUcrroN Monks. of those sects. if a monk should wish: "May I be agreeable to my fellows in the pure life. whose meditation (jhdna) is uninterrupted. revered and respected. and Thailand. who is endowed with discerning (vipassand). Bareau has observed . work the Visuddhimagga is arranged in three parts in accordance with the Buddhist categories of three instructions. especially beneath the Bodhi-tree at Gayd in India. who is intent on calming the mind (cetosamatha) within. I.

q. pp.2 Asanga did not organize his enby the three instructions."6 using the important passagesthen available and bringing in non-Buddhist movements of the Indian tradition. .a Tome III. 1961).s Western writers have various interpretations on behalf of their expectedreaders. For o'Yoga Techniques in example. sBuoon. a6rtgNNe LAMotrE. lANonr BAnrau. (Saigon. 375-430). Le Traite de Ia Grande Vertu de Sagesse de Nagarjuna (Mahaprajfiaparamitaiastra). rather than of what is going on. Anap u nasati (M indful nessof Breathi ng) (Bangkok. Vajirafra4a's Buddlist may be signalled as representativeof the Theravd'da Meditatio. mental training and insight that properly cover the topic of Buddhist meditation. cyclopedic work the Yogdcarablrumi but he cherishedthese instructions in voluminous writing that could easily be put under the headingsof those three. and the inevitable controversies. 2Arsx WAyvtAN. ValnaNANa MagATHERA. 1209-1309. It is the last two instructions.Tome II (Louvain. A fine example is Buddhadasa'sAndpanasati. BHrxrHv. Le Trait|. pp.70 Buddhist Insight a that rernainedin India that the sectcomparable to the Theravdd was called the Mahi5dsaka. the prcmised fruits. although necessarily stressing the mental training. there is Eliade's chapter on Buddhism. Tome III (Louvain. 25-29. reTr). 1949).loAs. the various techniquesand meditation topics. especially pp. especially when taking into account the full regims. 34. Whcn present-day Buddhist monks write on Buddhist meditation the treatment amounts to an exposition of how to do it. Of the extensivecoverageson the textual.v. du Petit Vdhicule bouddhiques p.q. Yoga: Immortality and Freedon (New York. 1970). and this paper must deal with the two topics. 1013-43.l and I observed that its later form (the Later Mahi5asaka)had as its most famous son the Buddhist teacher Asanga (c. 1958). especially pp.rus in the Pdli language and for the Indian schools which exegesis wrote in Sanskrit the extensivetreatment preservedin Chinese and now renderedinto French by l-amotte." The literature about Buddhist meditation became quite extensive. oMncrl 162-99. and a section in Tome II. rather than interpretive level. called "calming the mind.q. 1962). Analysis of the Sravakabhumi Manusuipt (Berkeley. 3PlR. Buddhist Meditation in Theory and Practice (Colombo.Les sectes 1955).nsna. Erlaou.

1972.'1is restricted to the second instruction. . since many other persons-for example. IV.Aspects in theTheravada of Meditation andMahiSisaka 1l An essay by Cousins. "Buddhist Jhdna.pp. And again. one must take the entire drill. exemplifying morality as the base for meditation. 2 1973." sDaNrtt GotrMeN."8 uses Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimaggaas a Buddhist textual base to make contact with the "altered states of consciousness" terminology of modern Psychology. 115-31. "BuddhistJhdna:Its natureand attainment according to IIl. it is no use to stay awake ?L. The restrictions on mental and physical acts are ritualistic in the sensethat the usual random movements are being cut down. "The Buddha on Meditation and States of Consciousness". l. S. CousrNS. The present article seeksa middle ground: to convey only in summary fashion what is actually done in this classicalform of Buddhist meditation in order that there be room to deal with certain matters of considerable contemporary interest. It is also well to mention that most of the Western works that deal with Buddhist meditation as a major topic have treated rather well the general practices enjoined upon all applicants. such as whether the meditation brings the yogin to a break with human reason and whether it results in faculties which a person did not have in the beginning. ever attentive to avoid faults of performance. along with unremitting practice. Even so. for example. with some modern observations from Southern Buddhist countries. the meditation practice is a comprehensible human pursuit. Religion thePalisources. These works are frequently less useful for defining the specific practices which differ for various beginners and for the various degreesof advancement of a given meditator. calming the mind. Another essay. by Goleman. and the various restrictions on daily activities. athletes--have to follow special regimes with carefulness of diet and sleeping habits. These three Western approaches are similar in not purporting to guide anyone in meditation: they are attempts to grapple with certain technical features of the system which most interest the respective authors. "The Buddha on Medit&tion. such as 'ovirtuous the seeking out of a spiritual guide (the kalya1ta-mitrar friend"). Musicians too must seek out good teachers and spend years of perhaps daily practice.'. pp. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. l-44.

to intellectuality and agitation." Here. Sanskrit: S. However." and insteadof "agitation" render vitakka as ..."10 Thesedispositionsare assessed mainly by a person's movements. ll0. . in terms of their . to hate. Analysis.72 Buddhist Insight in the former and latter parts of night for meclitating. individuality is real in the deed... I have elsewhere given Asanga's solution. vajirafrdna.'inquiry and investigation. hatred. in his manner of walking..p.discrimination.): sBuddhist Meditation..' (carita).hencedefiledby lust. 13Wayuau. (uitarkavicafa)( is especially Hegelwho insisted that character is revealed by movement. My suggestionof "conjecture" (or "specuration") is based on the availabreevidence that the term (in Sanskritvitorka)is an abbreviation for . Buddhaghosa's lineage (pali: p. tabulates the respective meditative objects. J.p. the old passageswere sketchy about treating personality differences.1lThe spiritual guide. nAmong Westernthinkers. Bl'LrE.12 following Buddhaghosa' which it should be of interest to compare in part w. The visuddhimagga is content to assign a few meditation objects to certain persons. p. rHE . to faith. on the contrary. 10It is difficult to assign a good rendition for vitakka. rzBuddhistMeditation. rev.disposition.. pp. to delusion. 349: "The true being of a man is. vajiraffd4a translates :e "disposed to lust. and lying down (frequently called the four postures)..DEVICES" The specific practices especially relate to different types of persons. ed.and it is rikely that the guru lent guidance that was not always spelled out in the texts.conjecture. 1949). 9g. cf.his act. "progress in theRealm of Form") ofthe type in the Realm of Desire. sitting. The post-canonicalPali Abhidhamma exegesis compiled a treatise on different classifications of persons (the puggalapafifiatti). having determined by such signs the predominant disposition of the candidate. standing. B. instead of "intellectuality" I render buddhi as . if one is not also to practice moderation irr food MtntrlrloN pARTIcuLARLy oBJECTS. six in number. 86-7.and delusion.. Hege|s phertomenotogy of Mind (London. then steers him to an appropriate meditative object.

Whichever meditative object on which the yogin has upsurge of rapturels Faith (P." In short. (love. so do applied thoughtsthat are due to facile conjecturing. tft. dosa.and pride. and so the meditative object is indeterminate. S. Love (maitri) Dethis Origination in pendence of osmrti) Conjecture (P. asubha.etc. equanimrty) Mindfulness of bodies Asanga (Mahi5asaka) Revolting objects -- (blue. 1956). Asarigarefersto "mixed character"by the terminology "addiction of equal parts" meaning that each of the faulty dispositionsis of insufficientstrength to predominateover the others. dve. are commonly referred to by a word pratipakta. Bnxrnu ftANauorr. Discrimination (buddhi't BhadantacariyaRuddhaghosa (colombo. including. hatred. the -rOiiuti* oU:. vitakka. aiubha).New York.a) ditto Delusion (moha) IJ Appropriate meditative objects Buddhaghosa (Theravida) Revolting objects (P. p.rth predominanceof lust. etc." And just as delusionvacillatesowing to sgperficiality.yellow. vitarka)ra Pride (mana) ditto (idarncondition pratyayata-pratityasamutpdda) Mindfulness while breathingin and out Analysisof the elements (dhatuprabheda) Mixed character (sabbocarita\ Six totalities (five elements plus light). along with other translators. Four totalities and white).-vihdras joy. S. S. p. dndpdnasati. 103.) Mindfulness of death.ilni ." rsThisis a teaching from Asanga's Sravakabhumi. Calmingthe Mind and Discerningthe Real (columbia Uuiversity. delusion.rtr fo. as cited jnmy manuscript translation from Tibetan. The path of purffication(visuddhimagga) by .but to whichl now apply the standard lexical entry of "opponent" or 'oadversary.I used to render as "antidote". In Asanga's school. Four formless realms Six Recollections (Buddha. S. for the pairing of moha and vitakka. the meditation on love is not an antidote for racf. which. saddha) . conjecture.compafour Brahmi.Aspects of Meditation in the Theravdda and MahiSdsaka Candidate's disposition Lust (raga) ditto Hatred (P. 1978). sympathetic Mindfulness while breathing in and out (P.

prajiia). HARn.rnrn Wl. Vol. The practicewas to contemplatethe entire world by this "totality" or "device. ff. 351-53. but an adversary meant to supplant hatred in the mind. the sameset would not. which setsforth then ten "totalities" as one of the meditation techniquestaught by the Buddha.. all blue. etc. because accordingto this theory the seconctinstruction.. yellow. from the consciousfield. it is necessary supplant the iratred.e. E. 7. . Buddhism in Translations (Cambridge. lII. that is required for removrng the tracesdeep down in the to mind. the four elements..nRrN.17Such a totality seemsto be illustrated by the Fire Sermon: "All things.a. pointing to a large log of wood. red. 240-41. Indexes Pdli Text Society. beautiful." and "faith. The Book oJ'the Gradual Sayings (London. earth. blue. pp. vijfrana). 54 (Lonclon. r8Cf. aims to remove the visible tops (the rnanifestation in the conscious mind). while it rs the third instruction. because "hatred" has a meciitative object meant to supplant i1. 1952). However. HnNny Cr. lTAccording to the brief Buddhist scripture "The log of wood" in Aiguttara-Nikaya (The Book of Sixes). the Pali term ka.. because all those elements are in the log of wood. M. Mass. 1947). The main ca. air. O mo n k s . It is also necessary to speak about the "totalities" (P. 1904). space and perception (S. i s o n fi re ." and "discrimination".74 Buddhist Insight hatred. translation of "The Fire-Sermon" from the Maha- . . and it occurs tlice in the Digha-i. That is so. kasipa. the monk Sariputta (S. pafifia. tr. S. Samyutta-Nilca)." far in excessof what one would expect from the scriptural sources which are quite meagre. of insight (P.nonical sourceis the Maha-Sakuladdy. water.lG The standard ten are the four colors. that when someone has learned to control his miiid he can be convinced (P. calming the mind by way of success with a meditative object. or ugly. or water.aII.i-sutta of Majjhimn-Nika1." The Visucldhimagga has a lengthy treatment of these "devices.. while "faith" and "discrimination" have meditative objects meant to promote them. as in Buddhaghosa's include "hAtred. in list. fire. adhimucceyya) that the log is earth." i. Sariputra) explained to a group of monks. S. and wind. and white. which is rich in material on meditation. all earth. T he ey e. krtsna) frequently referred to as "devices. O monks. are on fi re. The list is also explainedin the Anguttara-I{ikayat'Book of Tens. Asanga'sschool. etc. Therefore.. fire.likdya as a mere list.silradoes not occur at all in the Saryyutta-Ir{ikaya. But before thesetracescan be extirpated. Vol. pp." r4 l6Per ClnottNp Rnvs DAvtos.

tsBuddhist Meditation.. Realm of Form. Woodward. The Kasinas are said to be stilt used in Burma. "But why was this method taught? Because it led to the produrction of jhdna. CoNsraNr LouNSBERy. The Expositor.F.2g"We have read of the great lay-mystic. RhysDavids writes. as in Buddhaghosa's tradition and as exposed in the foregoing tabulation for to be a corruption personsof hatred and of mixed character. Thus. ll3.I (London." But this use of the "devices" to induce Jhana. Buddhist Meditation in the Southern School (New York. P. solitary place." 22P. V. so he declares. As an example. BAnAt.22 (Buddhaghosa) in sayinga beginnershould not practiseon natural sheetsof water Such aS ponds. Pe Maung Tinn tr. pp. xii. to F. . Manual of a Mystic (London. Bapat writes re"He (Upatissa) also agreeswith B. p.and MahiSisaka in theTheravdda of Meditation Aspects 75 generous treatment appeqrsexplainedby VajiraBuddhaghosa's nlentioning that ffana1ein agreement with the Visuddhimagga.. L.neither too dark nor having too much light. and Formless Realm). 21So also in Buddhaghosa's Abhidhamma commentary called Atthasalini. (Poona. 43-44. lakes. p. Asanga explaiirsin his exegesis vagga of the Pili Vinaya. but should practise on water i1 a bowl or basin. Vimuttimagga and Visuddhimagga: A Comparative Study Preface. p. in reference to the kasi4a.seems of the of Buddhist practice. Jacob Boehme. for the equivalent Sfrtra translated from the Saryyutta-Nikay a. RlHura. rivers. Dhydna)." C. ocean. garding the water device. zofiaNnrtaort.248. behold the inward properties of all things in nature opened to him.A.21 By this is meant the Jhiina-s of the Realm of Form among the three Buddhist realms (Realm of Desire. 2sCaRotrNe Ruvs-Davros. and WupoI-l. cf. 1936). 24G. 1972 reprint). The Path. 95-97. 1958 reprint).' By certain similar devices (kasiAa) the Indian sought to obtain similar results systematically. which CanortNr Rnvs Dlvms edited and revised. 1916). accidentally falling into self-hypnosis by gazing at a surface of shining pewter.Yol. 1937). What the Buddha Taught (Bedford. Thereupon. placed in a quiet." Lounsbery points to their 'olt will readily be seen that auto-suggestion played an danger:24 important part in this practice. which has been almost abandoned in Ceylon since the death of a famous Guru three hundred years ago. p. 139. pp.he seems .zo the "devices" were employed as a means of induciqg Jhdna (S.

Satan and Mara (Leiden.which are of course the divisions of the Realm of Fonn.p. This is technicalbut irnportant: it shows the Buddhaghosa'sexposition of these 'odeviiJes" permits them to be used by persorls who have not surmounted the Realm of Desire. The Manual of a MysticzT seems to agree because it precedes the use of the "devices'o by accomplishment of the "mindfulness while breathing in and out" meditation that takes the meditator out of the Realm of Desire into the Realm of Form."28 There is also no mention of these devices in mv 2sPhotographic editionof the Tibetan (PTT). the cadaver in decomposition. and then the subsequent chapter devoted to the "devices" constantly mentions the Jhdnas.pp. Six "The Deeds of Mira. Manual. and its 'oacts of Mira. 26l-auorre . with its five hindrances(infra). the basesof Totality must begin with the Dhydnas where the Liberations begin. with its lust. The danger probably amounts just as a strenuousphysical to somethingtoo strong for the psyche. 67 tr.althoughhe cloes havematerial on these in the Sarnahitabhumi of his Yogacarubhumi.i. 111. 28Seein this connection.III." pp. 2TWooowaRD. 1975). p. Le Traitd26makes the same point." Since the Liberations begin in the Realm of Form.e. and are practiced in the First and the Second Dhydna. 11-1-1. and for these persons such "devices" carry some danger. especially Chap.Vol. mentioning that the first two Liberations and the first four Masteriesare contemplationsof revolting objects. . The Liberations are classifiedby liberation from the hindrance of the knowable.77-99. 10-5-7 canons to p. and therefore cannot serve to induce Jhdna (Dhyana). Bovo. ThereasonwhyAsanga does not employ the kasi4as in his Sravakabhumi(Stageof the Disciple). and delusion. meant for thosewho have surmounted the Realm of Desire. hatred. they liberate the mind of irdvakas and pratyekabuddhas from whatever hindrance of the knowable. seemsto be that the main task of teachingBudrlhist meditation is to get the disciple over the great hurdle of the Realm of Desire. Le Traitd. 1289. exerciseis dangerousif not worked up to by the gradual strengthening of the muscles. becauseusing the devicesfor the very purpose of that surmounting .76 Buddhist Insight Samdhitabhfimi:2s "The bases of Mastery and the bases of Totality are the path of purilying the suggested by Lounsbery. Jaues W.

p.Aspects of Meditation in theTheravdda and MahiSisaka 77 manllscript translation from Tson-kha-pa'g large treatment of "Calming the Mind. which also are involved with the Formless Realnr. Among those. p. The one attained from birth is as follows: -the subsequent attainment from birth after the former recourseto the cultivation. y'i. and the basesof Totality. the yogin may transcendthe Realm of Desire in which humanit. Thus Asanga statesin the exegesis of his Srdvakablturniin the Viniicayasarpgrahaqt.mantras. 47-2. the basesof reason of a peculiar constitution can transcendthe Realm of Desire without the regular courseof training. 30. in the Chinesecanon. However. Tibetan Vol.' is plunged. the one arising from praxis is as follows:-the fruit of the cultivation by ordinary persons ( lay a eurse. has long been recognized. and Bodhisattvas. Magical power also belongsto flying creatures[e. and which is called "magical power. .ianu). 15).or to inducedeath or a comatosestate.PTT. ll1. 683c-8."2e Presumablythis is also the reason for the silenceon the topic in the Sarytyutta-Iiikayaof the Pali canon. referred to above kha-pa (1357-t4t9).259a-1. and when he has advancedto the Realm of Forn:r. Taisho. Vidyadhara-s]incorporated in the same categories[the 1wo Realms] and to certain disembodied men (preta)." 2eThis is a portion of the encyclopedic work Lam rim chenmo by Tson(n. and herbs [respectively]. like the fiegendary]King Md:ndhdtr's.he can resort to various kinds of meditative objects and "devices" that would be contraindicated for him while he is still a tyro. But that some persons. with the equivalent the Peking canon(PTT) ff. soThis passage is found in the Tibetancanon. ff. he has new preceptsto observe. especiallywith the Liberatiorrs. There is also the power of gems. those in training (iaik.DergeTanjur. The theory is that by calming the mind.a). on the part of those born in the Realm of Form. is defective at follows: to create a hypnotic fascination. the attainment through the porverof merit by the deities and certain men who range in the Realm of Desire.g. for example. a slave of ordinary human nabits and appetites. When the yogin advancesto the Realm of Form. born in this world. statement Vol. of the Yogdcarabhumi:3o The domain of magical power either arises from praxis (prayoga) or is attained from birth. those beyond training (aiaiksa).Vol.Sems tsam.

1l. 7.but have not approached(the spiritual guides). as follorvs.sarnbhara).'s A srnrcH oF MEDTTATTvE scHool.e. restraint of sense organs(indriya-sarTtvara). (d) Further information on the Form and FormlessRealms.5.8.4.what are their conditions (pratyaya) for parinirvdna? He said: There are two conditons. . conduct with awareness (sarypr ajanaclvi hari t a). What is the chief condition? He said.3.12.Buddhist Insight pRocRESS rN AsaNca. if personshave the element of parinirvdna.practice of staying awake (jagarik dnuyoga). where he sets forth:31 Among those. These are ltos. 7-10 "restraint of sense organs" through "conduct with awareness. virtuous craving fcr the doctrine (kuialo dlnrmacchandal. arnounting to thirteen conditions.2. the discourseof others domi'and the inner nated by the Illustrious Doctrirrc (saclcllmruna) rnethodical rnental orientation (yoniio manaskdra). Here I shall construct an abbreviated accourrtof meditative progress according to Asanga's Yogacarabhumi. What is the subordinatecondition? He said: There are numerous suborclinate conditicns.achievementof others (parasampat.l. 59-60. (b) Progress in the Realm of Form. one chief and twelve subordinate.four of the subordinateconditions are especially pointed out in this literature as constituting the "equipment" for both calming and discerning. (c) Frogressin the Folmless Realm. slWavnalN. for both the secondand third instructions. going forth (pravrqiya). some of them will come into our subsequentdiscussions. i. 6.t). In Asanga's schocl. Besides.\. 9. restraint of morality (Sila-sarTtvara). moderation in food (bhojanemdtrajiiata)."Asto the favorable placeto perform the meditations. There are these parts: (a) Trying to get beyond the Realm of Desire. and. (a) Trying to get beyoncl the Realm of Desire. personalachievement (dtmasantpat). What are the two? Chief (pradhana)and subordinate (hma). pp. right dwelling in samddhi (samadhisaryniiraya). as detailed in his Sravalcabhumi.. There is no rooln to dilate upon each of those conditions.there is what is callecllhe "equipment" (. 13. I 0. solitude (prdvivekya). Analysis. lack defective(organs). elimination of hindrances (nivarana-viiuddhi).as follcrvs.

Vol. p. resting in the middle part." lust' and The yogin.Aspects of Mcditation in the Theravdda and Mahi6dsaka 79 the Sutralarnkdra(XIII. apprehensionof the meditative object is not vivid. ed. and how to avoid the faults of meditation. 7) givesthe main list:32 "The place u'here 'good access. 33PTT. see Glusnppl Tucct. following the in Prajfiaparamitdbhdvanopadeia. Of the main faults. 114." s o i l . Thereafter. 1958). the two most troublesome success ones are the scattering(auddltatya) or fading (laya) of the medita: tive object. saThe Bhavanakrama citations are drawn from my manuscript translation of Tsori-kha-pa's "Calming the Mind" (n. 'mental wandering and regret' is a hindrance to calming. The Bhavandkrama1 states:34 and becausethe When. then he should dispel the fading by the contempiation of the idea of light and by a rnental orientation toward a gladdening entity. such as impermanence. Part II (Roma. and sleepiness'and 'ill-will' are hindrancesto both. 'torpor 'setlsuous 'doubl' arehindrances to disceming. Thereupon.''good the wise man accomplisheshas the merits and' good usage' . torpor and whicli are in the standard listing: sensuous regret. His spiritual guide had previously advisedhim on a meditative object. 2 "The Contents of the First Bhavanakrama. ill-rvill. Chap.. having restrained his senses. overcome by torpor and sleepiness. For KamalaSila's Bhavandkrama I. 86. until solne measure of appears.being aware of his with folded conduct. without thinking about it or using discursive thought toward it.s3 his Sdnti states five hindrances. and doubt. F{e is supposed to stick with this rneditative object. again.' set t lem ent . from the samework: When he noticeshis rnind scatteredfrom time to time through remembranceof former laughter and delight. one's mind fades. Minor Buddhist Texts. meciitates legs in the former and latter parts of night. in a place suitable for meditation. 1907). then he pacifies the scatteringthrough a mental orientation to a sober (mentally aroused)topic. the merits of the Bucldha. 235-3. he should apprehendthat samemeditative object more firmly." . he should s2SvrvaIN Ldvt. Asanga: Mahayana'Sutralarykara (Paris. ' ' go o d The theory of overcoming the tremendouspower of the realm of desire is especiallyin terms of the five hindrances (nivararya) lust. 15. Or. Ratnakaraand rnental wandering sleepiness. "Here of the Chap.and so on. above).' ' g o o d c o n i p a n i o n s h i p. p. 8: Saryulhinirntocuna-sutra.

) there is no lack of thinking-volition that approachesright doctrine in the realm of craving.. why so? According to the Rlumi-vastu (part of the yogiicdrabhilnti):86 why is it that only it is called oostage of equipoise. for an eraborate discussion of the meditatii'e "rapture" (5. how is one to know if he is surmounting the Realm of Desire. there are nine stagesof thought tlratiorr (cittasthiti) from the initial fastening of the mincl to a m:'ditation object to the point where the mind. 120-22. . dhyana). B). There are instructions going lvith each one of the nine stages. the highest rapture.ancl a serviceabilitv 36As cited in "Calming the Mind.rrclrnsto the .ti. "Buddhist Jhana.Cf. BltdrcncTl. . 3.vishes. one notices repose of rnind rorvardthat meditativeobject. especiallyshovrn by a serviceabilitl' of bociy-an animation and lightness. priti) by its plii form ptti.' of ir th e mi n d . and finally has a natural concentration (samadhi) in an automiitic manner with lack of effort ( The reply is that it is also necessary to have what rs called the cathartic (prairabdhi).it does not necessarily constitute a surmounting of the Realm of Desire to arrive at a stage of equipoise(somapatti)in the Realm of Form. 9). "Real Buddhist meditation begins with experiencing the four psychic states called jhanas (cf.thenone should abide (in that state) for as long as he r.s5 But even if one gets to the ninth stage. ssrherefore one must now correct Erraor. Also.80 tsuddhist Insight make an atteinpt to engage that samemeditativeobiect without ins t is at i. after learning to avcid the various rnajor faults. 35As ertensively setforth in "Calming the Mind".{cc. is made to flow one-pointedly (stagerro. lstill." pp. then one should relax the effort and be equable.. But then. . r69. and pleasure. rama 11states : At the rirnethere is no fading or scattering." since one may not have attained the Jhana states even when having achieved one-pointedness of mind by elimination of faults of meditation." while any single area (of mind) belonging to the realm of craving is not? As follows-That samadhiis accomplishedwith lack of regret.irdvakabltu.if gaining this effortlessone-pointedness of mind does not shou. the one that rangesin craving is not that way. yoga. the cathartic. Cousr\s. p. Skr.

some measure of the cathartic continuesin his body and mind. without deliberating it at all.a0 The calming already delineated means seThe followingcitations from the Sravakabhumi areall translated in the contextof the manuscript "Calmingthe Mind". any contamination (dauglhulya) theTheravdda and Mahi6dsaka Aspects of Meditation 8l of mind that prevails without hindrance upon the meditative object by an exchange(parivftti) of mental-concomitant natures. as its opponent [or. And this has a portent. And this cathartic is a kind of wind.pp. Dilowa Gegen Hutukhtu. The late Mongolian Lama. when one has emerged (from that samddhi) and is occupied with his (ordinary) mind. According to Buddhist traditions. coursing. than the mind contamination in the category of defilementsthat interrupt the joy of elimination. This in short is the success object. is (itself) elirninated. the appearanceof a weight on the head. No sooner does this occur. and concordant with the production of the of their cathartic of body.points out that all pilaka et les Vinayapilakaanciens five Buddhist traditions that he examined agree that the four Dhydnas . The mental orientationos marks and signs consistenttherewith should be understood as pure. By ree-son of body disappears. the serviceability of mind and the cathartic of mind arise. Recherches sur Ia biographie du Buddha dans les Sufta(Paris. as though it were a radiance.ermore. once told me that if one does the procedure correctly. the whole body is filled with its opponent. supplantor]. 69-71. the cathartic of body. the great elements (mahabhuta). and this is not a sign of harm. 1963). without discursivethought. urged by the wind. there occurs a portent (pfirvanimitta) of that. and. it takes about six months to get to this attainment" called the calming of mind (cetoflamatha) in the meditative within. course in the body. a0ANon6 BAREAU. as the Sravakabhumi states:3e A short time before the obvious cathartic of mind and body and the single area of mind become easy to discern. (b) Progressin the Reaim of Form. And the sarnewol'k states: Furth. to become a Buddha one must pass through the four Dhydnas of this realm. according to the Sravakabhumi: As a result of its production.

a3By Asanga's school. and four in the Formless Realm). "Buddhist through the various statesof Now. I mean especially the treatment in his SqmAhitubhumi and Srdvakabhumi (Fourth Yogasthdna). both being portions of his great Yogacarabhumi.inment of a realm giveshim the good fortune of possiblebirth among the gods of that realm.was divided into parts. 42For the Pdli terms. Anapanasati. (summit except for the bltavdgra of existence). 468-69. if he combinescalming with discerning (the union of the two) he can attain liberation from the bondage of cyclical flow. 121-3. p. pp. 1973). and then d. p.. it is taught." I now render the four statementsfrom the old Buddhist canon.82 Buddhist Insight the yogin has atta. two called in Sanskrit the "threshold" (sdmantaka) and "main part" (maula or rnauli). Sravakabhumi of Acarya Asariga (Patna. 118 and note. with a ninth one sometimes added for the "summit of existence. and Asangaincludesthem under "right dwelling in samddhi. PTT." p. and in Pnli the "access" (upucdra) In such a division the term and "full concentration" (appana). cf. 110. Vol." The four suchtwo-part staresof the Realm of Forrn are usually referred to as the four Dhydnas (in Sanskrit) or four Jhanas (in Pali). "Right dwelling in samddlti" (I) : Separatedfi'omdcsires(kama). each one of those states.inodthe threshold of the First Dhyana. separated from sinfiil and unvirtuous natures. he can procced further through the varior-rs Realm of Form and the FornrlessRealm. . and Karunesha Shukla. but in post-canonicaltirnes. The value anyway of proceedingto a higher state. 37. Jha*) a*Jhe preparatory sets forth his reservations aboutthe historicity of the tradition.a2 "attainment" (samapatti)-which I frequently render as "equipoise"-stands for the "main parl" of "full concentration. presumably to resolveconflicts of scriptural passages. is that the yogin's atta. 4lAsanga's Sravakabltfimi. Buddhaddsa. even without the wherewithal of liberation lrom saqnsdra. It should be noticed that the basic staternentsfor each state were established in the ancient Buddhist canon. along with commentsfrom Asanga'sschool. with inquiry phase for the great enlightenment. Cousins.At that divisions of the time. suppose the yogin proceeds the Realm of Fonn and the FormlessRealm. even up to the surnmit of existenceand still not be liberated from the cyclical flolv (sarysara)." and there are ei-qht of these(four in the Realnl of Form.

p. has in the Second Jhina sunk to rest.fi11o which is vtithout inquir. 109."ca for which the Japanese trarrslation notes that seven days is the limit for maintaining strength while refraining from morsel food. Vol. Caroline Rhys Davids. he dwells in the rapture (priti) and pleasure (sukha) arising from the separation.p. 4oSnurua. 144. 1900). troubling says:aB the ceto [the mind].amanah saptardtriqnaivasdni. through continuitl. futindful and aware he experiencespleasure by way of body. Also. "Right dwelling in samddhi" (III): He dwells with equanimity after losing the feeling of rapture.from sanfidhi. as waves rendering water turbid.278-1. following the Theravada.Aspects in theTheravada of Meditation and MahiSdsaka 83 (vitarka) and investigation (vicdra). "The discursiveintellection of the First Jhana. F. note. 451-6. yavad akaik. 4ePTT. Vol. and the mental orientation is "without interruptions" by avoiding the faults of inquiry and investigation.v or investigation. Asanga explains "he dwells" as "up to endeavoring to reach seven days and seven nights.a1 "Right dwelling in samqdhi" (II): Through allaying inquirlt and investigation. 109. Here. Rnvs DAvIos. " inward serenityo'as mi ndfulness (smr t i). Sravakabhumi. 48Canornqr A. Now the meditation object is steady. through inward serenity. the chosen meditative object is unsteady (vyagra). just as the one to whom the nobles referred. of tlnught. the body has an outer light like that of a flame.Vol." He accomplishesand dwells in the Third Dhydna which is without rapture.and wltich has rapture and pleasure arising . 7. p. a'Kokuyaku Daizdkyd. awareness(sarpp and equanimity (upeksd). A Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics (London. In the SamahitabhumiAsanga states that in the First Dhydna the body has an outer light like a gem. 451." The Samdhitabhumi explains the r ajanya). 46. p. he accomplisltes and dwells in the SecondDh1. haviTtgattained the First Dhydna . Sravakabhumi. p. In the Sravakabhilmi. "Equable and mindful he dwells in pleasure.

Vasubairdhu.p.priti). pp. 117-18.55 so also rvhenthe Dhyana is shakenby its excellent pleasure. the 'oearth-touching gesture" would go r. This would accord rvith the general Iirdian theory that it is precisely rvhennatural forcesare inimical that the soiritual victory is possible (thus during the stressof the full-rnoon.2. "studies in Yama and Mh."s3 Besides. 55cf. Z9S-318.84 tsuddhist Insight The Srdvakabhunti explainsthe words "he experieri. earth shook ar the future Buddha's tcuch.body of mind. p.5lAlso. etc. Asa. an incidentwhich long ago I attempted to interpret. Abhidhctrmakoia. improperly separates vedita from sukharyt.III. "climactic Times in Indian Mythology ancl Rerigion. Winter 1965..278-3. 53The reference is of courseto the celebrated incident in the Buddha'slife of the "Assault of Mdra. by sayii-rg in the sameplacothat love (maitrt) best accomplishes the pleasureof the Third Dhyana.). According to the samdlitabhtuni. Vol.p.6aAnd in the legend. L'Abhidharmakoiade vasritandlzr.t the future Buddha defeatedthe "son-of-the-gods" Mara by the samatlhi of love (mairri) during the celebratedassaultcf Mara." History of Religions Vol. per "studies in Yama and Mdra.p.. The "nobles" a.. Arrx wAyrrrl." Indo-Iranian Journal.b2 In case." op.arndcihi(va.ra. through former elinination of pain and vanishing of 60Rfipakayena manaltkdyenaveditasukharpca prasrabdhisukhar\pratisamvedayate. 52ArBx wnylaaN. srdvakabhumi. Vol. "Right dwelling in santddhi" (IV): Tlrough elirnination of pleasure. No. says this Dhyana is "shaken by its excellent pleasurs.iropamasamddlti). pp. VIII.1925).ces pleasure by way of body": "with the body of form anc!the body of rlind he experiences the pleasureof feelings which is tl-replcasure of the cathartic. 109.N. tha. while his left hand indicatedby the "equipoisegesture"(sarncipatti-mudrtl) his n-reditative attainment.209. namely.116.ngamay have hinted at what his brother vasubandhu rvasto rnention in a comment on a Mahdyina scripture. Chap. 51PTT.453-9.rethe Buddhasand their disciples. .." when the Buddha appealed to the "authority'.viththe "bocly of form" while the "gesture of samapatti" would go with the .the clin'ractic of sundown."5o Here he avoids the fault of rapture (.. this is the bestplacefor the santrTcihiof knovrledge and vision (jiianaderiana) and the Diamond -like. 1959. cit.shukla. 4. No. or "measure"(prama4a)of earth by touching it with his right hand.outs or La vanfn PoussrN. 2. Septidme et huitidmechapitres (Paris. Eal.

Sravakabhumi. II.Sravakabhfimi. while the Bihar Society's manuscript which he used (l3A-7. according to the Abhidltarmakoia and Le Trait6. VIII.aniryjyaryt santi. verified by the Tibetan. the First Dhyiina eliminated dissatisfaction. Furthermore.n. 58SHUKLA. For these considerations.voDhyanas are realized by the body."being free from all shaking. Dhyana. p.last line) reads: sarvveftiitapagatatn. Accorcling to the Sravakabhumi. Vol. YoL 147. 454. seSo reads the Tibetan: PTT. Sthirarnati. p. have a singlearea of thought. 454. it should be recognizedthat "pleasure" (suklta) has both corporeal and mental varieties. p. Formerly.III. 1289. Ssurra.thate.while "rapture" (priti) is only mental.6o It will be observedthat the four Dhydnas divide into two groups al'e realized by the mind. the SecondDhydna eliminated pain.18-19): cittaryt. becausethat all four of the Dhyd:nas 56Cf.58and consciousness (citta) remainsunshaken. 110.." 6ol-auottp. especially the revolting object.subcommentaryon Abhidharmakoio. oll-euorrr. sarvaiijitayatenat. But then he gives a wrong reading. Also. while the last t.Chap. 265-2.6\go together by their associationwith the first two Liberations and first four basesof Mastery-in which associationtheir meditation object is the visible form of the realm of desire. the first two Dhydnas. and included in the Sanskrit as properly edited at this point by Shukla (p. 1031. this Fourth Dhydna has eliminated the pleasure that characterized the Third Dhyana. since the first two Dhyd. and are respectively shaken or unshaken by pleasure. p.. the Third Dhydna eliminated satisfuction.catis-factiort. .16. and of trvo. p. accordingto both the Theravada and MahiSdsaka. g'yo ba thams cad dan bral bas na. he abides in the purification of equanimity and mindftilness free from both pleasure and pain..57 Besidesit says in by avoidthe Sravakabhilmi:the Fourth Dhyana is accornplished ing the fault of inhalation and exhalation. p. 5?PTT. disagrees.presenting an Abhidharma tradition that both pain and dissatisfactionceassin the First Dhydna. 119-l-4. Le Traitd. Le Le Traitb agreesthat it is citta which is unshaken.rlas the meditative object is respectivelyunsteady and steady.Aspects in theTheravada of Meditation and MahiSdsaka 85 havfutg attained the Fourth satisfaction and dis.sG However. 454-8-11..withthewordserns(consciousness).

Jhdna)here. (c) Progress in the FormlessRealm. pTT. it should be mentioned that each of the four Dhyarrasis divided into three degreescorresponding with the gods of the realni being ordered into three groups. Thus. edition in Tibetan canon.. accomplishesand dwelis in the baseof infinite space (atcaianantyayatanam upasampaciya vihar. ff. 109. 64WavuaN.os To avoid thc attachment to one of the Dhydnas as "Nirvarla. ff. p'269-5.d7e" (anganirvdna). and when one pays no attention to ideas of diversity (ndnatva-sarnjfin). Asangadefines the term dhyana in the samahitabhumi (prr. the statesare explainedby these passages found in the Srayakabhtini:65 (l) He (the Lord) said: When one has transcended in every way the ideas of form (rupasaryjiia-). Finally. p. and is thus motivated to emergefrom one plane and go to the next one.6.abides. are added to make the total of seventeen levelsin the Realm of Form. Vol. The highest one.a/i). sravakabhumi.' or .when one has trapscendedin every way the idea of form. 455. Now.6a Besides. Bihar Society'smanuscript of the Sravakabhumit3B-7. to which the five pure abodes. 269-5-8. my Inrroduction. . there are twelve such divisrons in the basic four Dhydnas.lledAkaniqtha. 63PTT.1):"Sincethereistherightdirected thinking whichpurifies consciouspursuant ness to the (instruction of) mentaltraining(adhicitta).62Besides(Samdhitablumi)." Cf.' usedin the traditionalstatements of the four Dhyanas. 270-1. ll0. yellow. red 62This is thetraditional implication of theexpression "dwells.86 Buddhist Insight is the meaning of "Dhyana" (P. because it eliminatesonly the sideof defilement and Iacks the side of certainty." five in number. For the yogin prcceeding in the FormlessRealm..the Buddhist theory of the reahns placesat the top of the Fourth Dhyd:na what are called the "pure abodes.. one perceivesspaceas infinite. thereis the term 'dhyana'. ca. wherr the ideas of impediment (pratighasaryjfiO have abated. vol. Vol.ff. is wherc certain Buddhist traditions say Sakyamuni was enlightened.p.pp. Analysis. '." because there would be conviction of spacewhen the ideas of color-blue. 1191-6. to p. each of the four Dhydnas is "one's partial nin. 126-29. More technically." in Asanga's school one contemplates the lower planesas 'ocoarse" and the higher onesas "subtle" or "calm". 109. each with their own gods. he said. pp. 65SHUKLA.

and not from perceptio finding such an object-support. 66Since "form" (rupa)covelsboth "shape" (sarpsthdna) in the FormlessRealm colors also disappear. vehicles. As to and "Color" (varpa). not operate." becausewhen they have abated. He said.oc and when one is freed from ald transsaid. . etc. The Samdhitaone'Spossessions the best compassion(lcarulta)would be in the that adds bhunti6? to free the sentient base of infinite space. ideas concerned with accumulation (aupacayikd saryifrd). from the base of infinite perception by search(3) One emerges ing whether there is another object-support (alambana) different n (viifiana). P.gardens and glades. The samdhitabhilmi$s adds that this is the outer limit for those with non-fluxional mind (anasrava-citta)and that it is the best place for those with equaninrty (upekpa). adornments. "when one pays no attentiol to ideas of drversity. "when the ideas of imcends the clinging to weariness. drink. 6epTT.andMahisdsaka in thoTheravida of Meditation Aspects 87 and white-disappear.vol. is no other object-support. 67PTT. Frequently repeating the conviction of that idea one transcends the threshold of nothing-at-all. because So on.r. is convinced about only the idea of nothing-at-all (akificana-sarfifid). Observethat thesecolors in the sameorder are the traditional mention of the four color kasilta-s. clothes. The Santdhitabhumios here one can pathetic joy (mudila) would be in this base. 30. Being convinced ihut th. one is freed from the numerous and diverseideasof hindrafice (avaranasaanjiia)that are assembled by colors. accomplishesand dwells in the main part of the nothing-at-all base (atcificanydyutana) transcendsthe baseof infinite perception with its threshold and basic part. have attained.278-3-8to 278-3-1. 109.ylidnanantydya' tana) by that very perceptionthat was convinced of the space with adds that the best symthe infinite aspeat.whether with form or formless.Ftre pediment have abated.armies.Taisho Vol.' and in every sense. Vol. Vol.It is worthwhileto give the chinese reference. 278-3-8. have syrnpatheticjoY with them. 109. and and perceivewhateverbeingsare happy.such as ideas of food. mountains. (2) One gets to the infinity of perception base (r. (4) Then he emerges from the base of nothing-at-a11." becausewhen one does not have them. 338b-27. 109. p. 278-3-368PTT. since compassionseeks beingsfrom their manifold sufferings.

Sravakabhumi. there is no lack of an idea (nasarfifia).so turns away from the idea of the base of nothing-at-all and transcends it. 134-8.ll.but he does mention this. what others call the "ninth samdpatti". Asanga does not identify the cessaticnequipoisehere with the item in other texts of "cessation of feelings and ideas" (satyjfiaveditunirodha).while the noble ones wish for the quiescentabode and so emergefrcm the base of neither idea nor no-idea. 119-5-7-8. and Fornrless-as though these were successively layered upwards-does not appraise them rightly. 458.4b: I tatra dhyanasamapattikale adhorasatalapraveSavat 6ka6ot/ klyasar. ." (d) Further information on the Fonl arrd Formless Realms. Being convinced that it is a base (ayatana) one accomplishesand dwells in the base of neither idea nor no-idea \naivasary{fia-ndsaryjiidyatana).88 Buddhist Insight the idea of the base of nothing-at-a. 110. in the Sqmdhitabhunil as the eighth I-iberation.vhose object-support (alarnbana)is imageless (animitta). Therefore. CompareSrturt"a. one proceeds in a subtle manner in an idea r. with the statementof the ancient scripture: "having directly realized with the body the cessation of feelingsand ideas.Asanga mentiorrs that the ordinary person (prthagjana) has the "equipoise without idea" (asarfifii-samapatti) in this base. Asanga has a remarkable statement in the Srarakabhunii about the respective appearance of the body in the reakn of form in comparison with the formless realm:?0 Among (those states). One is not really going anywhere. to reach the cessationequip oise (nirodhasamapatti)-and those who reach it are the Arhats. Realm of Form.p. thereis no idea (naivasarpjfia)(of the baseof nothing-at-all).Vol. the appearance shown by the body at the time of equipoise in the Dhyinas is like entenng subterranean chambers and at the time of equipoise in the formless realms is like rising to the sky.he drvellstherein. Tibetan at /.nprakhydnalingam / arupyasamdpattikdle patanavat possesses the idea of coarseness(auddrika-surltjfiin)and the idea of (eventual) trouble (ddinava-saryfifiin). But also. This suggests that the usual Western manner of listing the clivisions of the Realm of Desire. Therefcre.because calming of the mind is an inward process.and still the yogin's body (if orie has ToBihar Manuscript.16-18. PTT.

7. is saidthat the threewhichAsanga mentioned are in commonbetweenthe . pp. he accomplishes it and dwells in it. 2. p. H a v i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d 4 . Buddhaon Meditation. where it Septidme. As to the bases of rotality (krtsnayatana). 2. pp. 74PTT. he seesexterior forms.The the difficultyof accepting Goleman. chap. and bases of Mastery.30-31. etc. This is the first Liberation.p. and g. This is the fourth through eighth Liberations. This is the third Liberation. 5. he seesform. he accomplishes the merits of " samadhi purifying others" (ara4d-samadhi). 4.Aspects of Meditation in theTheravada andMahiSasaka 89 the "eye" to seeit) exhibits those various features("like a gefll.c.zr The theory of the yogin's attainments in the Realm of Form and FormlessRealm is further clarified by ancient Buddhist scriptural passages about the Liberations. For how is oneto knowwhichstatetheyoginis in. "knowledge of aspirations" (praaticthi-jfiana). z5cf. Vol. 276-2-5 ff. 8. 3. the basc cf neither idea ncr nc-idea. he accomplishesthe noble magical power of coming and going. 73PTT. up through the white totality (eight in all) he aoccmplishesthe ncbre magical power (aryiTddhi)of magical manifestation and transmutation of substance.special E knowledg es" (p r at isatpvi C).6. and the four ."Table1. What are the five?l. th e base of i nfi ni te space. Asanga summarizes them in the exegesis of his Samdhitabhilmi:1a The cultivation by the yogin of the ten basesof rotality performs five deeds.zz Asanga summarizes the Liberations (vimoksa) at the beginning of the Saniahitablurni:?g l.rrfnPoussrN. 6.. l2gl. 3.y. Le Traitd. he dwells therein. the baseof nothingat-all. basesof rotality.xxxlv.La v. ff. Having the idea (sa. 111. 5.III.jiiin) that he is formless personall. unless one has the "eye" for it? 72For theliterature." "like & flarne"). By the earth totality. on his imputed physiological differences of these states. pp. Having form. the baseofinfiniteperception. g5 ff. 7. Having directly realized with the body the Liberation. This is the second Liberation. see Lauorrr . ff. By the base of perception totality. L'Abhidharmakoia. 10-5-3 Vol.7 zrrhis shows o. having directly realized with the body the cessationof feelings and ideas. By the base of space totality. 109.

I know them. zoPTT. 267.' zsThis seems to be involved in a disputed point among the Buddhist sects aS Bareau. he seesexternal forms. etc. which the Andhaka and the Sammatiya sects concurred in. feelingsand ideas. 109. by th e s u p re me c om pr is ed The traditional Buddhist statement of the first base of Mastery (abhibhval. the base of infinite perception.TT "f was born in the Reahn of mental orientation toward forms. "Il y a riiparaga dans Ie seul. denotation (nirukti).90 lnsight tsuddhist 4.but am not free from the craving toward fortns (of the Realn of Form). external solaily. There are some problems about dovetailing the three lists.16 houses. Vol. in contrast with Asanga's assignment of them to the Formless Realm. and eloquence (pratibhana). large forms. etc." one has the statement of the secondbaseof Mastery. the praqidhi-ifiana is a type of knowledge of the future. of cessation the Liberation which is the s ta ti o n . Substitutingthe expression"large" for "small. Upon accomplishing the base of perception totality. and white. According to the Samahita' small forms are sentient beings. I see them'" This is the first baseof MasterY. and the four "special knowledges" ale of entities (artha). he accomplishesthe Liberation in the base of nottring-at-ail and the Liberation irr the base of neither idea nor no-idea. he sees respectively)."2e This Liberation is correlated with the first two basesof Mastery. Of these terrns. p.-tmi." meaning that craving for forms is restricted to the Realm of Form. p. the first Liberation has the According to the Santdhitabhumi. rupadhatu. 7?PTT. red. "Having the idea that he is formlcss personally" for "having the idea of form personaliy" one has the third and fourth bases of N{astery. Desire and achievedfreedom of craving toward desires.276-4-7. Buddha and the aryas. He has this idea: "Mastering those fornts..but here associated with the Fourth Dhydna. and the Theravida rejected. as small. mastering them. he is equipoised in 5. For the fiith through eighth bases of Mastery. summarizes. tetnples. Les sectes p. scriptural elements (dharma). of good and bad color. 276-2-2. Substituting in the first two statements. the rvith "Having the idea that he is formless perstatemetrtbe-sins forms as blue" (or yellow.Vol. . 109. On the basisof that ana) reads: Having the iclea of form personallY.

tr find here a support (against Asanga. But there was a controversy over placing the third it would be natural to conncct it with the Third Dhydna whose deities are called the "pleasant' ' (p. since both the Third and Fourth Dhyanas are directly realized by the body.and so this Liberation belongsto the Fourth Dhydna (at the top of which the Buddha is reputed to have attained Parinibbdna). Asangaso raisesthe question of where it is to be located." In the light of my previous discussion (based on Asanga's and Vasubandhu's Mahiyana works). thus. Furthermore. 276-3-4. tl'lesecondLiberaticn hasthe idea. stBuddhist Meditqtion. but Asanga states:?e "Among them. 109. vol. S. But this solution has the demerit of allotting no Liberation to the Fourth Dhyana. ff. and"associatesit with the purification of equanimity and mindfulness. iubha) deities. On the other hand. "I was born in the Realm of Desire and am free from the craving toward forms. It seerns that a solution which woultj zesamdhitabhfimi. etc. sosamahitabhilmi. PTT. 32c) gives the Abhidharma tradition that the Ttrild Dhylna is shakenby its excellentpleasurean<lhenceis not a place of Liberation.eThird Dhyana. 276-5-5. the second group of four totalities. but have not reahzedthe formless equipoise. vol.p.'sand vasubandhu's Abhidharrna-type comments) for associating the third Liberation with the Third Dhydna. involved with the third Liberation.Aspects of Meditation in the Theravdda and MahiSdsaka 9l Then. 481. the color ones." Now "fornl" (rupa) in Buddhism is the four elementsand their derivatives. However. Vajirapoints out that the ccmmentary on the Mahd-parinibbanafrana81 sutta mentions that the Buddha's skillfulness in the particular basesof Mastery that deal with the fcur color-kasina objecls "was the basis of his fearlessness even at the sight of Mara." This Liberation is correlated with the next two basesof Mastery. the formal ones (rupin) are totality equipoises of the lower Realm of Form. The correlation with the bases of Totality is more controversial. it is certain that Asanga associatesthe first four Totalities (earth.) with the first two Dhydnas.p. subba. Vasubandhu (Abhibharmalcoia. and so placesit in the Fourth Dhyina. 109. associatingthe Buddha's defeat of the "son-of-the-gods" Mara with th. p. YIII. PTT. agree with the fifth through eighth bases of Mastery. The Maha-Parinibbdna-sutta described this third Liberation as "pleasant" (subha). .

7-8. to both the Third and Fourth Dhydnas. do the three kinds of sequentially cease?" And he answers: tions' (sarytskara) There is both practice (carya) and station (uilwra). The three. there is also discourse.fasc. Arnong these. 281-1-4 sgThe portion of this sfitrathat is relevant here is included in the fragment published by Alfonsa Ferrari in 1944 in Atti Reale Della Accademia D'Italia. . Then there would be Liberations corresponclingto all the four Dhyanas as well as to all the formless states. the passage is in the text. SAMT. He raises the question. 13. and subsequent tions") ceasesuccessivelY. 109. The manner of ceasing is clear from the traditional 82PTT. Asanga's Samahitabhumi. r. At the time one enterprises stations. Tlrc Artlnviniicaya' sfitra and its Commentary (Nibanrlhana) (Petna.vol.p. at the time one is involved with practice. There is no doubt that Asanga here refers to the three kinds of "motivation" which the Arthauiniicaya-sutra8r assigns to the second member of Dependent Origination (pratityasamutpada). ceaseduring the succession of "stations" (uihdra).becausethat is the verbal motivati on (uaksaryskara) which is the act of the First Dhyina.serie Settima. and the equivalent bases basesof Mastery associatecl of Totality.INI. speech. InN. "If the thought (citta) and mentals (caitasikadharma)of the one in equipoise He raises the 'motivahas the cessationequipoise.and mind. 'perception' (uiifiana) and body?" would he avoid a separation of And he answers: There is no absence of "store-consciousness"(alayauijfiana) controlled by the seedof evolving perception (prattrttiuiifiana) in his non-altering formal senseorgans-because this is the true nature of the coming event. Another correlation with the Form and Formless Realms.92 Buddhist Insight allorv the greatestcompatibility with all the foregoing positions. which therefore begin with the Second Dhyana. I97I). that is apparently independent of the Liberations along with their in basesof Mastery and Totality.vithits prcrnotiolal yoga of four witn colors. Roma. concernsa remarkable passage one "When question. pp. since one is equipoisedin the Second Dhydna they (the three "motivastations in succession. is to allot the third Liberation. Vol. V. of body.

65.85"In primitive Buddhist ti jfianavada the notion of alayavijfiana is foreshadowed in the conception of citta:wteno:uiiifiana (synonyms in Pali literature) as origin. . source. of a deluded thought (mu/ha). then "flew" to the meeting. Moreover. Thus. LsssrNc and Anx WAyMAN. Kubjita's ear organ did not alter. that at the time of convoking the second Buddhist council the Arhat Kubjita. Ferdinand D.86 The tabulation will sholv the foregoing correlations. So Falk is right in saying. when "motivation of mind" ceases. by virtue of his magical power (rddhi). Le Traitd. 1299. 86For the story. o. p. The story continues that Kubjita.saBut this third kind of cessationof "motivation" does not constitute a radical separation from ordinary consciousness according to Asanga. see for example. 1968). The Fourth Dhydna eliminates the fault of inhalation and exhalation. 8aAccording to the ArthaviniScaya-sutra. Mkhas grub rje's Fundamentals of the Buddhist Tantras (The Hague." By mentioning the 'onon-alteringformal senseorgans" Asanga alludes to a celebrated Buddhist legend. being in the cessationequipoise. SsMnnvra FALr.have mqnas as chief. 1)." She refers to Dhammapada1. and yet when he emerged from his cessation equipoise. a deua informed him of the circumstances. so must cease the volition (cetana) of an impassioned thought (rakta). and essenceof all the dhammas (Dhp. including: "The natures (dhatnma.did not hear the gong. p. when feelings and ideas cease. so "motivation of body" (kaya-sarytskara) ceases.and so "motivation of mind" (manaft-sarytskdra) ceases.Aspects of Meditation in the Theravdda and MahiSAsaka 93 Buddhist statements of the realms. 85. Asanga's equivalent to the "deue" is the yogin's own o'store consciousness" (dlayauijfidna) controlled by the seed of evolving perception-a seed which holds futurity. which only in the caseof the Third Dhyana has a contribution of my o w n. dharma) are preceded by manas. 1943). S.III. the summit of existence (bhouagra)eliminates feelingsand ideas. and so "motivation of speech" ceases. LAuorrr. of a hating thought (dvista). Natna-rupa and Dharma-rupa (University of Calcutta. the tradition has it that also all thoughts (citta) and mentals (caitasika-dharma) cease. Finally.the Second Dhydna eliminates the fault of inquiry (uitarka) and investigation (uicdra) that was present in the First Dhyana. are made of manas.

a). but not over the third which is too far to j. 4. FORMLESS REALM 7 6 5 4 Baseof neitheridea nor no-idea:seventhLiberation.3-4 . 353-60. especially Fascicule: Chi-Ch6otsush6.109.c e s s a t i o n )of "nrotiuaiion of body" Third Liberation. 5 .to Base of nothing-at-all. for erample. Cf. Quatrieme . basesof Totality 5 . white 2 c ) lThird Dhydna: Sshakenby pleasure Dhyana: SecondLiberation. VIHARA 8 (samapatti) .6 . )steady:cessation [. (2) leaping over the second one in order. p. REALM OF FORM 3 3 Fourth Dhyana: ."G".8 . bases of Mastery 5-8. F First Dhyana: j meditativ-eobject basesof Mastery. perceptionTotality.BuddhistInsight Eigfri**.Jacques Vol.rmp. to Base of infinite space. I of "motivation of 3.e. b l t r e . y e l l o w . earth.5. etc. First directly to Third Dhyana. wind h speech" First Liberation. pp. 358. 1-2 Caryd samdpatti unsteady I Asanga's Samahitabhumi presents three degrees of passing through these equipoises:87(l) passing through them without power to come and go. fire. First Dhydna up to Summit of Existence.275-4. r e d . with magic Baseof infinite space:fourth I-iberation. :SSecond meditativeobject basesof Mastery. for a yogin who is not pure. E u n s h a k e nb y p l e a s u r e . (3) entering any s7PTT. and in reverseorder in comparable manner-for a yogin who is pure. 8.t"ti"*t fttl ara) of eqr-ripoise (bhavagra) OF EXISTENCE SUMMIT (freqtrently called the "ninth santapatti") of "motivation of mind": Cessation of ideasand feelings:cessation eighth Liberation. water.-c Bases of Totality. and in reverseorder. Totality. p. May's entry"Choj6" in Hdbdgirin. Base of infinite perception:fifth Liberation. with the four specialknowledges. 7 . 2. the best place for those with equanim*y (upek. i. Base of nothing-at-all:sixth Liberation.

Thus Sutralarykara. presents methodical mental orientations in terms of deliberating. LBssrNc and WAyuAN.whereas the training in concentration of the mind aims at a one-pointednessleaving no room in the mind atthat time for a defilement. as was cited. investigating the object. calming minor. so much stressed in the writings of Asanga's school (the later Mahisasaka) is also what the Theravdda says. p. discerning is major. 8: One should know his path of calming and the concise statement of the doctrines.Aspects in theTheravida of Meditation andMahiSisaka 95 of them from any other one as wished. because.88 THs INSTRUCTToN oF INSTcHT The instruction of insight-the third of the three instructionsis frequently set forth by the term "discerning" (uipasyana). and the like. Thus the Yogdcdra sub-commentator Sthiramati states in his commentary on the SutralarTtkara(XVIII. As was indicated previously.8th. for Tathdgatas and Bodhisattvas who have passedthe second incalculable aeon (explained in the Prajffdparamitd tradition as the last three But. The path of discerning. 9th. 21. He means. 341 .isecalled the instruction of insight. Mkhas grub rje's. while in the Fourth Dhydna there is the pairwise-union (yuganaddha)of calming and discerning. the path of discerning. observingimpermanence. while calming the mind was already set forth as necessary to attain the threshold of the First Dhydna.which gradually perfects insight (prajmA). ssBuddhist Meditation. This position. and 10th of the Bodhisattva path). one should knolv his path of discerning-the deliberation of the meaningsof that (concise statement).) 88Cf.XIY. starting from the main paft Qnauli) of the First Dhydna. one does not continue through the various stations depicted above by calming alone. 65-67) that in the first three Dhyanas. p. meant to eliminate the deep-seated traces (anuSaya)of defllements. It is not necessary to have precededthis path of discerningwith calming of the type associated with the cathartic and rapture. "(Still. Thus the Visuddhimagga includes under this instruction such matters as understanding the personal aggregates to be void of self or of what belongs to self.

standingfirm on th'eground. 103. the pratyekabuddha." It ri.96 Buddhist Insight there is no lack of thinking-volition that approachesright doctrine in the realm of craving. Buddhadasaeo cites the Visuddhimagga." What is taught is that it is necessary to calm the mind in order to transcendthe Realm of Desire. In th e same rvay. cravi ng b 1 ' l u s t. PTT. Andpanasati.. e3l-auorrr. iit is pr ec e d e d of insight ." In a separate essay. el"Nescience and Insight according to Asanga's YogacarabhzTni.a n d d e l u s i onand hurts theeye t t " ' t .or consisting of hearing (Srutamayi). "The Along these lines. and also of the heretics. and claims that Prajiidpdramitd (the Perfection of Insight) encompasses all the insights. Besides. Le Traitd.elI have cited Asanga's explanation of the scriptural "eye of insight" as the native insight (sahaja prajfia)." of kinds The teacherAtiSa. mentions the three in this rvay:e2 "What is insight? As follows:-native (sahaja). consisting of pondering (cintamayi)..' wise man.there are numerous references in Buddhist texts to three "insight." And he well explains. p. working diligently. 39-4-1. This is an immature form of insight which has to be developedinto true and genuine insight (uipassandpafifid).II.D. s m o k e i s preceded by the elem entof f lr e a n d h u rts th e e 1 ' e . soBuddhadasa. 1066 ff... and. takes up the edgedweapon in his hands. or consisting of intense contemplation (bhauanamayi). Vol. He defines the term buddhi as standing for any native insight capable of differentiating (alternatives). p. and have mentioned his later explanation that the native insight is attained through birth. 21.and the Buddha. sharpensit on the stone. szBodhimorgapradipa-pafiijka-nama. 'wise "The man' is anyone with inborn insight (sahajata-pafifia) or what is nowadays called intelligence. . discussing the prajfia of the irdualra.h a tre d . succeeds in clearing away the thick jungle." Le Trait6e3 has a different way of referring to kinds of insight.A.. who was very influential in Tibet starting with his arrival in 1042. p.ould be hard to find a more perfect agreement beru'eenthe Theravdda (as in Buddhaddsa) and the MahiSdsaka (as in Asanga). and that he contrasts the promoted insight possessed by the learned man (paqfita) with the native insight possessed by the intelligent man (uijiia)." published in this volume.. Earlier in his great rvork he shorvshorv the eye of insight is assailedin the Realm of D e s i re : " F o r e ra mp l e .

whose Pdli form is in the sarpyutta-Nikdyas+and which the teacher Asanga citesfrom the Sanskritcanon:eb As the tortoise in its own shell withdrarvs its limbs.v-ogin's radical separationfrom mankind.I. special saSaryyutta-Nikaya. proceed to Parinirvapa. Granted that there are Buddhist scriptural passages suggesting the .. 110. it is clear that the process of promoting this insight through the path of discerningis a matter of trading certain defiled concomitants. 16-4. this "store consciousness" continuesand from it there issuesforth at a later time the host of mental natures. 9 (in the India Devandgari edition): kummo va angdni sake kapdle samoda-ham bhikkhu manovitakke anissito aiiffam ahethayano. this is necessary becauseof the undoubted differencein degreeand usage of this faculty in different persons. Thus.Aspects of Meditation in the Theravdda andMahisasaka 97 f'herefore. namely. that even if the yogin manages to attain the "summit of existence" called equipoise-cessation.for other better concomitants. Such is this verse. fbr. he may gain supernormal powers. vol. so may the monk (withdraw) his mind's (outgoing) conjectures.then Le Traitd should not have taken the position that Prajfrdpdramita encompasses all insights. hatred. even Prajffaparamita cannot be something to acquire as entirely new. in the category of lust. parinibbuto nupavadeyya kaflci escintdntayibhilmi. suiting prajfia in a more splendidfashion. Asanga makes the same point with his "store-consciousness" theory. and delusion. p. it is taught. it is not the position of theseschoolsthat in developing a faculty called "insight" (prajiia) the yogin has acquiredsomething he did not have before. 5. while thesetexts speakof different kinds of prajfrii. It cannot have been the intention of quite properly mentioning the "prajfid of the irduaka (disciple)" that the Buddha's prajfraparamitd excludes and is radically different from that irduaka-prajiia. The technicalword for this trading is pariurtti ("exchange"). p. be . not harming another. Rather. Asanga explains that this monk is progressing along the seven stations (vihara) which begin with the Second Dhydna. Along the way. denouncing no one. PTT. if this were the case.resortless. Asanga would naturally citing the verse from the Sarpyuktagarna.

" Accordingly. even if it is difficult or impossible for him to communicate his visions and meditative success. the yogin should be able to return to society and communicate on mundane matters. and so on. as it was previously cited. Indeed. . But no matter what the meditative attainment. "When one has emerged (from that samadhi) and is occupied with his (ordinary) mind .98 Buddhist Insight knowledges. the only way the yogin could lose the insight of ordinary men is to lose insight itself. some measure of the cathartic continues in his body and mind.

What these books really contain-their wealth of quotations. and particularly in Buddhism of the Tibetan form. If the reader will bear this in mind. it will avoid-on account of brevity-those extended explanations which often confusethe issue. It will present this remarkable point of view of Buddhism that was preservedand embellishedin its Tibetan form and do it with sufficient technical material that the reader can know what the person enrolled in this way of life is actually doing to promote that flne-sounding Compassion. some scholarly books with no solicitude about boring the reader. On the other hand. as though they are simply high-soundingwords as "compassion.It is of course easyfor such teachings to take on a sentimental tone.their listsof subdivisions. their occasionaldisputesover points. he will begin to appreciate. and no way of getting to the inside of the subjectdissectit as a corpse in a mortuary. even without a knowledge of the . might be difficult for the Westerner to appreciate but which were once burning issues. have undoubtedly encounteredthe great stressthat this Buddhism lays on Compassionfor the sentientbeings." This may very well have been the case in the past because the usual presenter of such thoughts has sought to spare the Western reader from what he believed would be boring to him.4 THE BODHISATTVA PRACTICE ACCORDING TO THE LAM RIM CHEN MO Westernreadersinterestedin Buddhism of the Great Vehicleform. At the same time. The present essay seeks a middle ground between those extremes.

and when one has it he is called "son of the Buddha. Whoever. 5. and averting himself from sinful actions. The emphasison practice is at the very beginning of Tson-khapa'ssection. rvhat is actually in the Tibetan books. despite the title of a useful book by Har Dayal.f inis hedhis g re a t c o m p e n d i u mo f B u d d h i sm.there is no difference between the Lesser vehicle (Hinay6na) or Great vehicle (Mahaydna).the Lom ri nt the stages chenmo. although l i te ra tu re . he is known as the inferior person. Whoever. . A. Tson-kha-pa explainsthe mental training (blo sbyon) for each of those three persons. he is known as the mediocre person.D.D se c t . AtiSa set forth three religiousdegrees of personsin the verses 3-5: 3. not of animals who only work for themselves. This u'ork elaboratelypresents in extensive of the path to enlightenment amplificationof Ati6a's indicationsin the latter's brief work "A Lamp on the Path to Enlightenment" (byafi chublam gyi sgron ma).We learn that to servethe aim of others is a possibility of the human condition.A.In the sectionfor the superiorperson-the bodhisattua-it becomes clear that the path here is especially a practice rather than a doctrine. In the caseof the Bodhisattva. pursues only his own quiescence. by whatever means. turning his back on the pleasuresof phenomenal existence. becauseas far as Insight (ies rab) is concerned. the chief Meaus is the Thoughtof Enlightenment(byan chtibsems). They are distinguishedby practice. o nly by a s am pleo f a n e n o rm o u s ( 13 5 7 -1 4 1 9 . The Bodhisattua Doctrine in Buddhist Sanskrit Literature (London.D. Whoever.The Bodhisattva is not distinguished from the Srdvaka (auditor). 4. through the sufferingbelongingto his own stream of u n d e r o f th e Ti betanGel ugpa T s on.k ha.). He is the great Indian pandit who came to Tibet in 1042. in 1402." The person who would enter this path must generate the Thought of Enlightenment with its double goal-enlightenment .1 00 Buddhist Insight Tibetan lan-uuage.thepracticeis calied Means (thabs). pursues only his own aim in just the pleasuresof this world.A. completely desiresthe right cessationof all the suffering of others-that person is superior. or the Pratyekabuddha(one enlightened forhimself). by viewpoint. This Thought is the door to the Great vehicle. 1932). In this work.

4.And he should have one or other power to generatethat Thought : 1. seekingout high-minded personsand listening to the Law. his own power. it must be taken ritually. "Therefore in all his births he loses not the Thought of Enlightenment. Given that the person has such reasonsand is endowed with such a power.from seeingas "mothsl"-ssysn in all. A. whereby he generatesthe Thought through the mere hearing in the present life of praisesof the Buddha and which was handed down from AtiSa.taken in hand by spiritual guides (dge bies). be compassionate toward living beings." Therefore. love.. First of all. that Thought.e. Even in dreams he has this Thought: much more if he be awake. in the course of which he has for a long time been following a path of Tson-kha-pa presentstwo alternate methods of such a religious exercise. another's power. 3. and the other found in the texts by Santideva (i. whereby he craves it by way of another's power. that aspiration.from love. or 4. from altruistic aspiration. compassion. from recollection of kindness. In ordei to generate it as a vow.2. it could easily be dispersed. gratitude. then he is given a religious exercise to further put his rnind in the right frarne for generating the Thought of Enlightenment. certain preliminaries are required.isattvas by reason of having formerly cultivated the Great vehicle. have zest for austerities.Siksasarnuccq)q and Bodhicaryduatara. The candidate reflects that in the inflnite past and in the infinite future. 2. The seven are as follows: perfectedBuddhahood arisesfrom the Thought of Enlightenment. the person must have the right circumstances of life. 3. the polver of a (deep-seated)cause. whereby he craves the perfect Enlightenment through his own force (of character). ColrpessroN ASnN ExencrsEoF Mrr. he should be in this family (rig.that is to say. Atiia's precepts of "Seuen cqusesand efficts". his . from compassion. recollection of kindness. not cohere in the stream of consciousness in the senseof the citation.s).in Tibetan Bslab btus and Spyod iiu7. from gratitude. all the . the power of praxis. Now it appearsto have been the experienceof the Indian rnastersthat if one simply went through the laid-down procedure of generatingthe Thought of Enlightenment.TheBodhisattva Practice According to theLam Rim chenMo 101 for oneself and benefit for others. which are called the four reasons:1.

In this way he brings on the BoundlessState of Love. 1. Every sentient being has sometime or other served as one's own "mother.vlll. Hence. When the latter can be seenthis w&Y. This recollection arouses gratitude. 120) What is meant is that the usual condition of holding oneself as . called "altruistic aspiration. He dwells on his mother's kindnessin taking care of all his needswhen he was completely helpless. As applied to all the sentient beings. he recognizesas his "mother" also his father and friends. the next stage. The intenserealization of suffering by einpathy ri'ith the loved objects-the "mother"-produces Compassion. The candidate reflects on the seventh stage as perfect Enlightenment-the final fruition of the sequence. he proceedsto the still more advanced task of recognizing as his 'omother" all his enemies. one enters the BoundiessState of Compassion. gratitude arouses love. Precepts based on SAntideua's the benefit of changingplaceswith another: Whoever desiresto speedily rescue oneself and others too. The next stage is reflection on the Thought of Enlightenment itself as having the two aims of Enlightenmentfor oneself and Deliverancefor others. Firstonereflects on B. Having gotten into that frame of mind. the meditator then reflects on their manifold sufferin-es in their subjection to transmigration.102 Insight Buddhist uncountable rebirths are possiblethrough a mother's loving care.Having this compassionthrough realizing the sufferingsof these sentient beings. texts.the meditator then aspiresto free them from sufferingand to bring them happiness-as one wishesto do this for one's mother. When he is able to regard the latter the sameway as he thinks of his friends." expanding his meditations into the boundlessstate. and through her passesbeyond all bounds of love for all the sentientbeings. the meditator first seesvividly his own mother. He then proceedsto the more advanced task of recognizingas his "mother" the neutral persons." which expands into the third BoundlessState of Sympathetic Joy with all the happiness accruing to those sentient beings." Thus. Should practice what is the highest secret-changing places between himself and another' $pyod lljug. he recognizesall the living beings of the ten directions as his "mother. Having come to see all these sentient beings as one's "mother" in the Boundless State of Love.

"This is mine" and "That is his" much the same way as the colors green and yellow are distinct. Rather it is the interchangeof feelings. Now.taking on another's suffering. becausethe suffering of the aged does no harm to the youth. Not becauseof our own is that bank the other one." An objection is raised that the old man and the youth have a single stream of consciousness. one should not confuse this procedure with the thought. while in contrast one cannot say the . (a) One has the thought. in relation to what would there be the other (where the "other" is ourself)? (b) One has the thought. installing in him one's bliss. "His suffering does no harm to the Lam Rim ChenMo According Practice The Bodhisattva 103 dear must give way to holding others as dear. And if one manages that conversion. although we ooourbody. who are "different" from us. The answer given is that we did something analogous when we descendedto rebirth in a habitation formed from materials of the father and mother." and so on. why try to dispel it?" One counteracts that by contemplating in such a caseone should make no provision for old age. Now. the steps of cultivating the interchange between oneselfand another.and the foot and hand are in the same set. and by contemplating that in such a case one should not bother to use a hand to relieve a foot from something distressing." Having come to see the benefit.This changeof heart comes causedispleasure about through cultivating this view of personality interchange. the Thought of Enlightenment would be firmed. The relation-oneself-and-another-ness-like this side and the further bank (of a river) is in falsehood.then even that person who'had been considered just by one's worst enemy and who caused disagreeablefeelings hearing his name-becomes converted into a friend who would by his mere absence. becauseit is ooanother. he then speak of proceeds to 2. "f am seeing through his eyes. for. with relation to what is there a "this side" ? Ego is not proved by our own. There are two hindrancesto this interchange. and so it is questionable that anything like our own mentality could be generated therein. One counteracts that with a contemplation given in Bslqb btus (final verse section): Through the repeated cultivation of the samenessof oneself and another. somebody challenges this procedure on the grounds that another's body is certainly not our body.

Here a distinction is introduced that the Thought has two degrees: Precisely the distinction that is made between the one who desiresto go and the one who is on the way.. The answer points out that the stream of consciousness is momentary and the set is subject to reformations. These eyes. (S p y o d U u g.to4 Buddhist Insight same of oneself and another. then reflects in the proper manner in one or other of the two religious exercises presented above. that it coheres in the stream of consciousness in all circumstances.e. Indeed.I shall become a Buddha for the sake of the living beings. the basic method of cultivation.henceforth you must not plan. and then the practice of the perfections(par rol tu phyin pa) beginning with Giving. (Spyod l. O mind.ancl then the practice of the Perfections takes on an addecl significance. and possessed of one or more of tire powers.viththe necessary reasons.a rvide . I. that I belong to the other. V III.which are theirs. It will be noticed that the foregoing religious exerciseseach have somethingin common with Aspiration can attend to 3. must no longer see my aim: These hands.. And exceptfor the aim of all the sentientcreatures. 137-138).jug. The Aspiration Thought is understood as the aspiration of thinking. Make sure.16) The verse refers to the Aspiration Thought (smon serns) and the Entrance Thought (hjus sems). which belong to another. i. respectively. The Entrance Thought means that one is holding that Thought as a vow (sdontpa). Having in that way eliminated the wrong approaches." or such a formula. he is norv preparedto generatethe Thought of Enlightenment. so also all the other organs of action. Just that distinction is to be understood respectivelyamong the two. Thus it is a similar situation and one could just as well posit oneselfand another self in the caseof the youth and the old man. must not work my aim. . TsB TsoucHT or ExucHTENMENT AND THE BonslsarrvR Pa'tr Assuming that the person r.

vby reflecting on its benefits and greatness. up to reachingthe precinctsof Enligirtenment. and the self-existenceof conteinplation. In the casewhere it is not possibleto find a good guru or preceptor.shall encourage the discouraged. by reciting the following thrice: All the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas dwelling in the ten directions. go through the rites of bowing and offerings. a good guru is preferable-as explainedby Atisa: "The guru is known as 'good' who is skilled in the procedure of the vow. In the salneway. pray take cognizanceof me ! I. himself is one who adheres to the vow.The Bodhisattva PracticeAccordingto the Lam Rim Chen Mo 105 latitude of eventsand objects is acknowledgedas possibly serving the purpose of inspiring the Aspiration Thought. the candidatetakes the rite of seizing the Thought. and by means of that root of virtue consisting of'what has been done by ffie. pray take cognizance of me ! Preceptor. the Thought of Enlightenment as the Entrance Thought is a true conversion of the mind. consistingin the self-existence of Giving to others.becausethe Thought of Enlightenment is the seed of all the Buddha natures. However." Tson-kha-pasetsforth the elaborateceremony of Refuge formula and the like. Tson-kha-pa continueswith the care the person should take so that the vow is not broken. obviously intended to make the occasionmemorable. also holding from this time on. and who possesses the forbearance and compassion to impart the vow. an adjustment is made so the person can take it by himself. At the appropriate point. named so-and-so.shall savethe unsaved. and of sympatheticjoy with what is done. what has been granted to do. Just as the former Tathagata-Arhat-samyaksambuddhas and the great Bodhisattvasdwelling on the great earth were made to generatetheir heart into the Incomparable Right-perfected Enlightenment. the self-existence of Morality. f. and there is a procedureof broadening the base of the vo\.shall rescuethe unrescuedbeings. he has to imagine the Buddha dwelling in front. and for taking it. he must omit the entreaty of the preceptor. . have the root of virtue of this and other lives. shall generate my Thought to the Incornparable Right-perfected Great Enlightenment. named so-and-so. and when taking refuge and making the above statement. In fact. shall bring to Nirvana those who have not attained complete Nirvala.

he has taken care of the first two steps in bringing the "omniscient knowledge" to full expression. because Buddhism of the Great Vehicle is aimed toward the "Nirvapa of no-fixed-abode. (4) Perfection of Striving (brtson ltgrus). as well as accomplishedby the portion of Insight with the collection of knowledge (ye Seskyi tshogs). it is necessary to consider some fundamental principles. This Means must be combined with Insight. Compassion provides Buddha's the to lent in the phenomenalworld. And this Means consists of the first five Perfections.106 Insight Buddhist In order to appreciate how the Bodhisattva-as he is called by reasonof having that vow-is to proceedthereafter. The Means the foregoing that the person desirfulfilment." as Tson-kha-pa explains: is the Nirvdla what is to be accomplishedby the Mahd:ydnists in phenoabode fixed no involves This of no-fixed-abode. rvhich are (1) Perfection of Giving (sb1. its as cause. of Forbearance(bzocl (5) Perfection of Meditation (bsam gtan). called the Means. path profound the by (hkhor ba). Tson-kha-pa from the "Revelation-Enlightenquotes a most important passage ment of Vairocana" (rnam snnn mnon byan).and then to take the Thought of Enlightenment asavow. for a root. (6) Perfection of Insight (ies rab).(2) Perfecrionof Morality (tshul khrims). the expression"omniscient knowledge" is equivaIn that passage. The Means must be combined with Insight. . The Thought root a this Insight with this Insight with a motive.ittpa). He has left to take the third step. has the Thought of Enlightenment ' and has the Means for a finalitY. We have seen in ing to embark on this Bodhisattva path had to arouse compassion. also known as the "Great Sun S[tra": ! The omniscientknowledge has Compassion Master of Secrets for a motive. (3) Perfection pa). the vow provides of Enlightenment provides this Insight with a finality. Insight (ies rab). which is the sixth Perfection. accomplished life menal (zab mohi lam) along with the steps of the path based on supreme (Truth) (don dam pa) withthe Insight that fully understandsreality. accomplished by the ample path (rgya che bali lam) along with the steps of the path based on Conventional Truth (kun rdzob kyi bdenpa) with the Insight that knows the phenomenal side (ii sfied pa). Therefore. And it involves no-fixed-abode in quiescent nirua4ta.

to show in various The Lam rim chen mo cites numerous passages For example. The Voidness (ston pa fiid) furnished with the best of all aspects is called the picture. With the end of the seventh stage. that the blessedBuddhas make for him. rdo rje sems dpai).just as the king who is governed by ministers performs all the acts of a king. very well. And they speak thus to him. This is the supreme forbearance for understanding the Buddha natures. "Very well. Son of the Family. a providing of the knowledge of the Tathdgata [an epithet of the Buddhal." his Insight is his Mother. and so on each stagethe "picture" is different. therefore. This requirement to practice all the Perfections simultaneously is essentialto the theory of ten Bodhisattva stages. it is not the same as Buddhahood. Again from the "Questions of KdSyapa" (ltod srun gls 2us pa): "Ka6yapa. likewise the Insight of the Bodhisattva which is governed by the Means performs all the Acts of the Buddha. Morality Forbearance. for example. Therefore Tson-kha-pa cites the "Slttra of Ten Stages" (sa bcu pa) about the Eighth Stage called "Motionless" (mi sYo ba): O Prince! You should know concerning the Bodhisattva who has entered this Motionless Bodhisattva Stage. where it is seen that they are the Mother and Father of the hierophant (uairasattua. all the Perfections are necessary.because a mysterious change occurs upon entrance into the Eighth theLam Rim ChenMo Practice According TheBodhisattva 107 as well as accomplished by the portion of Means with the collection of merit (bsodnams kyi tshogs)." Tl-re point of this last citation is that there is no picture if a portion is omitted. to combine ways the necessity (dpal po): "Perfection of dan mchog from the Sru-Paramddya This is Father. on each successive stage all the Perfectionsare present but with one or more predominant. who dwells there adding to the power of his former aspiration. And great as this new situation may appear.however. and the rest. For this purpose. It is the Thought of Enlightenment which is moving upward through these ten stages. in that current at the mouth of natures. thus. But you . Insight and Means." And in the (Ittaratantra (rgyud bla ma): "The painters who are its aspects are Giving. conventionaldescriptionsalso conclude. Skill in the Means happens to occur in the last chapter of that work.

for also all the srdvakas and Pratyekabuddhas reach this True Nature devoid of discursivethought!" This is the teachingthat in the ascentof the Thought of Enlightenment. The foregoing shows that the six perfections are the chief kind of Bodhisattva instruction. Morality. They can also be grouped under the Three Instructions of Buddhism: Giving. one comprehendsreality. Morality. and promote the f. in this sense: the voidness of all natures. Son of the Family. apply yourself to the quest for perfection of the Buddha natures! Begin your striving ! "Furthermore. and so he is reminded of his former aspiration and instructed that he must begin all over again in this new manner of existence. the Four confidences.fth perfection. And whether tathagatas arise or do not arise. for which a further stage. if one cultivates clear vision (lhag mtlroiy with them as basis. the non-straying meditation. Forbearance. remember your former aspiration-the inconceivablemouth of knowledge and achieving the aim of sentientbeings! "Also. thatour perfection of Buddha natures consisting of the Ten powers. the nonapprehension of all natures. But the Bodhisatt'a should not think he has reachedthe highest realm.108 Buddhist Insight should know. The first four perfections (Giving.called the Eleventh. son of the Family. you should know. that this is the True Nature of all natures. and striving) can be considered as accessories to samadhi (tin ne lldzin) because they are different forms of nonswerving. Forbearance are grouped under the Instruction of Morality. this True Nature abides. Insight is included in the Instruction of Insight. But the Tathagatas cannot be determined by this alone. The students of the Lam rim chen mo are expectedto know that the Bodhisattva reachesthe end of his careeras a Bodhisattva in the Tenth stage when he is tantamount to a Buddha. and Striving is included under all three Instructions. son of the Family.which happens to be also the quiescentnirt'aua for those rvho reach that niruaua. and so forth-that is not in you ! So. but is not a comprete Buddha. hence. this Realm of Natures abides. . is allotted. the Bodhisattvareaches a decisive point in his career when he attains the True Nature of all natures. Meditation is included in the Instruction of Mind Training. and continue onrvard.

and my mind is intent on Nirvapa. Morality is adopted. when there is Giving that is unattached becauseit does not look to possession. he has Forbearance toward harm. lI): Nirvdpa is the renunciation of everything. l. having such marvellous reflections-pursuant to the complete Buddha's mode of being-arise again and again. MlruRrNG THE Bunonn Nl. The six Perfectionsmature the Buddha natures 1'or himself. Giving.jug (Iil. they are considered successively more subtle since each later one is found harder to enter and to perform in than the earlier one. and what are called the four persuasions mature the stream of consciousness of others. I have no pride of "mine" with respect to it. When one enterprises day and night with Striving. There are varieties in the essentialnature of Giving: (a) giving of the BuddhistLaw (dharma). It was primary that the Bodhisattva has two aims. If I must renounce everything. call great being. there is ability to go ahead with Striving that has scarce occasion to turn back. It is also taught that the six Perfectionsare successively higher or loftier. a few points only: It is said in the Spyod l. outstanding among enlightenment beings (bodhisattuA. when there is Forbearance unwearied toward austerity. when the mind is stabilized. That one. whoever he be. Besides. one for himself and one for others. there arisesthe deep concentration (or Meditation) that easily serves a virtuous meditative object of mind. when one has Morality well restrained from evil conduct.teachingthe sublime Doctrine without .ruRrs noR ONEsBtn l. best it be given to the sentient beings! And it is said in the Phar phyin bsdus pa (paramita-sen1dsa. the Buddhas (sansrgyas) who are the inconceivable beings (bsamgyis mi khyab). it rightly understands (with Insight) the way things are.The BodhisattvaPractice According to the Lam Rim Chen Mo 109 Reasons are advanced for the traditional order of the perfections.byan chub sensdpak).llB-12): This thing is only yours (plural). From the extensivematerial on this subject.

that transfers the merit of the perfected Bodhisattva. and the receiver. and the Bodhisattva ri'ho has enteredthe religious life does the giving of the Law. for the samework (II. the Giving of the Law. Without it. he has the Morality of restraint against the mental orientation of the Sravaka and Pratyekabuddha. Morality is the abstinent thought that averts the mind frorn anything involving harin to another. fierce animals. the gift.there is the Perfection of Morality.the household or layman Bodhisattva does the giving of material things. and the elements. that I may not kill any? When the abstinent thought is achieved. either concretely or imaginatively. In illustration of how the Bodhisattva practices all six Perfections simultaneously with Giving predominant. l) s ay s : The person whose interest has been aroused to make beings delighted by the Complete Buddha's jewel of Morality. he has both the Forbearance with conviction of the Law of the Omniscient One and the Forbearance of mistreatment by another. Should first of all purify his own Morality. to other sentient beings. Morality makes the rest work.and three of mind. three of body. Morality. 1 1 )s a y s : How lead away all fishesand so on. the Great Commentary on the "Perfection of Insight in Eight Thousand lJnits" explains: At the time he practices. The Spyod kjue ( V . one's own aim as well as that of others is out of reach. In what procedure for another's sake is he capable? . four of speech. and he has the Insight which knows in the manner ofan illusion all three. Speakinggenerally. Generally in Buddhism this abstinent thought refers to abstinence from the ten evil acts. 48) says: The person who falls from Morality is impotent even in what benefits himself. for Morality instills the power of effectiveness.110 Insight Buddhist error. The Phar phyin bsdus pa (I I . the giver. say. (b) giving of security against fear of men. he has the Striving purposive to promote ever higher that very (Giving). he has the Meditation of one-pointed mind not mixed with the Lower Vehicle. (c) giving of material things. 2.

This is the forbearance of not retaliating in any of suffering in one'S caseof another's harm-doing. it is especiallyimproper for one ' matter' of others to relax his care in this There are three kinds of Morality: the morality of restraints. "The fault of anger hems in the good things of the world like a dam. But when angry thought is slain. in a sinlessmanner. but with the leather of a shoe. the Bodhisattva reflects that brutish beings are uncountable-he could never succeedin killing them all. Buddhist the regulations of the layman and adding until those of the monk and nun are included' The morality of gathering virtuous natures means paying attention to all virtues associatedwith the six Perfections. all enemiesare slain ! There is not enough leather to cover the earth. But it is different with the suffering that accomplishes the great aim. 3. the aim of sentient the of those from starting order. the acceptance and the unshakableconviction while own stream of consciousness. The Bodhisattva reflects that in pursuit of worldly desires he was tortured in hell and yet accomplished no worthy aim of himself or others. thinking with certainty about the Dharma' In the first aspect of Forbearance.the for morality of gathering virtuous natures. Forbearunce. pleasantstateof mind. The morality of acting for the aim of sentient beings means paying attention to the aims of the various kinds of sentient beings. suffering arising from the place where one is . sooner or later. no regretsat the time of death. So the Bodhisattva notes the benefit of Forbearance: few enemies . It is ecstatic suffering that dispels the suffering o'From what source of the whole world. and certainty of joining the gods in heaven after his death. and guarding and enhancing those already developed. Then the question arises 'Ihere are eight such arises the suffering one should accept?" bases. earth is spanned! So the Spyod kiuS. The second aspect of Forbearance-the acceptanceof suffering in himself-is in fact a solution of the problem posed by the first Noble Truth of Buddhism: "There is Suffering-a Noble truth. developing those not yet developed. the 1ry4fs1s"-Phar phyin the Lam Rim chen Mo According Practice TheBodhisattva II1 pursuing the aim Therefore.for example. the morality of acting all covers restraints of morality The beings. few discords. and pursuing those aims. Anger is looked upon as a flash of fire that destroys all the accumulated Perfections of Giving and Morality.

the Dharma. He cares not how long it might take. Rightly-consummated Enlightenment. Armored striving means the striving which is carefully guarded to apply tor. namely the six perfections. joy (dlin ba) and giving up (dor ba).jus (vII.byai sa) declares that Striving achieves the Incomparable. The spyod {.what is Striving? \-irtuous perseverance. or arising while one is engagedin religious exercises. 24) says: '. a nd s o on. there are favorable circumstancesfor Striving. Having donned such armor. the Samgha).'. By reason of compassion for tire sentient beings he does not desire to become a Buddha in a short time (whirL in fact would cause it to take a long time). and the striving which performs the aim of sentient beings. 1. this presentsthe Bodhisattva in heroic form. or arising from tire perishablenatures of the rvorld. and he can practicethe kind of striving r. The third aspect of Forbearanceamounting to conviction is erplainedas eightfold.'ard Enlightenment (one's own aim). that is. So the Bodhisattuq-bhumi (. For example. because it is natural that personsdo not rvant to give up an activity that gives joy to them-so also rvith Striving. "There is nothing at all that cannot be reached by the forivard step unacquainted with rveariness. Longing ({tctun pa) is said to form the basis for Striving. ensuresthat Striving will not swerve from the goal. especially conviction (mos pa). but is confident of the ultimate result. of personalityand of natures.when the field of conviction is the pure-mindedtrust tov. Furthermore. he can practice the kind of striving that amassesvirtuous natures in himself.112 Budclhist Insight practicin-qthe pure life." The sutrularytkara Qndo scleli rsyin) proclaims striving to be chief among the host of virtues because based thereon one subsequentryattains that host. which is the root of all virtuous natures. steadfastness supports striving during the term of the Striving. and in this caselonging is identified with conviction in the La\/. the striving that amasses virtuous natures. the power of giving . Again. And the Phar phyin bsduspa says.vhen the field is realizablein the senseof two kinds of selflessness.or r. steadfastness (brtan pa).vhich performs the airn of the different classes of sentientbeings.'.'ardthe Three Jewels(the Buddha. Joy should be presentfrom the beginning of the Striving. striuing. Three varieties are set forth: the armored striving. a nd s o on.

to accomplish both. and liberation. which are inner science(Buddhism). elimination of discursivethinking. Meditation. supramundane. Insight. one must hold on to Insight. with devotion from the outset. good settlement. and so on. good usage). and the liberations. As to varieties in terms of its essential nature. elimination of multiple activities. in particular. in fact. The Bodhisattva having himself mastered Meditation. the Great Mother. certain "equipment" or accessories are specifiedto serveas a foundation for the speedyand pleasant accomplishmentof Calming." Insight has three sources:insight consisting of hearing. such as the supernormal faculties. medicine. These are (from the Calming sectionof the Lam rim chenmo): residence in a favorable place (good access. Purity of the category of Calming. (future) purpose. logic. It is the great science-the sourceof (present) nature. Moreover. The essential nature of Meditation is the virtuous one-pointedmind fixed without straying away from the meditative object. seeing the disadvantages in craving. contentment. meagre desire. whereupon the Striving can resumeto reach higher than before. skill in the five sciences.The Bodhisattva PracticeAccordingto the Lam Rim Chen Mo 113 up temporarily stops the Striving for a needed rest. hence.good soil. purity of morality. 5. then installs another in it: this is the Giving of Meditation. and residence 6. It was already mentioned that possession of the first four Perfections (Giving. noteworthy qualitiessharedwith the Sravakas. it is mundane. and the arts. Nagirjuna (klu sgrub) says: "Insight is the root of all this visible and invisible merit. good companionship. and Striving) enables the Bodhisattva easily to master Meditation. grammar. hence. in a favorable place are the chief ones. Tson-kha-pa devotes a rvhole rnajor section of the Lam rim chen mo entitled Calming (2i gnas) for the means of engaging in the cultivation of Meditation. Forbearance. Morality. one must hold on to Insight. such as buying and selling. It also has varieties in terms of its results: the Cathartic of body and mind in the one who is stabilized. The essentialnature of Insight is the analysis of the nature of an examinedentity. in the category of Clear Vision. Tson-kha-pa devotesa separatelarge section of the Lam rim chen mo entitled Clear Vision (lhag mthon)for the means of engagingin its generation. the style of thinking of the Mddhyamika School (dbu ma pa). ofcraving. and accomplishing the eleven aims serving the sentient beings. insight .

. already discussed.but also as the first thing for the Bodhisattva to do in regard to introducing a change for the better in another's stream of consciousness. They are (1) giving. 81'the secondone. The first ponders in a general way the meaning of reality of selflessness and ponders by way of direct realization. It says in the "Questions of Ndraya\a" (sred med kyi bus ius pa): "Thus. The third knows the sinless way of accomplishing the present and later purpose of sentient beings.psychologically preparedto listento the Lau'.(2) fine." Also. not only as the first of the six Perfections. MnruRrNG THESrnnnu op CoNscrousNESS op OrnsRs There are four methods of persuasion (bsdu balti dnos po) which mature all the sentient beings. the subject becomes a fit vessel. By the third one. and the last three involve dharma (chos). That is why Tsonkha-pa devotessuch a long section to the Perfection of Giving. there are three kinds of Insight:Insight that understands the Supreme (don dam). By the fourth one. I have given only in brief measure what Tson-kha-pa has explained in great detail and extensivelywith numerous citations of texts to clarify each point as he goes along. Sons of the Family. For him devoid of defilement. and that understands what will servethe purpose of sentient beings. However. bdud) does not appear. and insight consisting of cultivation. By the first one. pleasantspeech. Also. The second is the Insight skilled in the five sciences. he is made to exercise in accordance with the Teaching. Some idea of the main points in Tson-kha-pa'streatmentof the Bodhisattva practice is presentedhere. faith is aroused in him ton ard the Lari' that is taught. that understands the Conventional (kun rdzob). he is led to continue training his mind accordingly. That stressesthe importance of the Perfection of Giving.ll4 Buddhist Insight consisting of pondering. the tempter (. (3) acts in accordance:(4) oneself serving as an example. equal to the Perfection of Giving.Mdra. Insight comes to the one who hears. the first one involves material things. Defilement ceasesin the one with Insight.


Bangkok. VII.E. . verse 13. the Setting into Motion of the Wheel of the Dharma. tr. sDnaNIr YurHo. 19. zCoNrnnFRaNxrn EocrnroN. A number of illustrations of theseDharmacakra are collectedby Dhanit Yupho in a Bangkok publication.s The sixteenaspectsare treated in the Northern Abhidharma. namely in the Mahdvastuversion. after stating the four Noble Truths.2The sixteenaspectswere possibly representedby the aniconic symbol of the wheel of 16 spokes. triple turning of the wheel in the secondpart. Among the illustrations. L'Abhidharmakosa de vasubandhu. 30.introductory Haven. p. 2511. as observedin vasubandhu's Abhidharmakoia. the thirty-twospoked one..1953). B.. four main ones and twelve intermediate spokes. note aboutthe two originalpartsof the Dharmacakrapravartana-sfitra.5 THE SIXTEEN ASPECTS OF THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS AND THEIR OPPOSITES The sixteen aspects of the four Noble Truths are not canonical and are not found in the Abhidhamma of Southern Buddhism. the sixteen aspectsof the four Noble Truths. adds a triple turning of the wheel with twelve aspects. 1968). third edition. the twelve-spoked wheel presumably or possibly synibolizes the twelve-membered dependent origination (pratitya-samritpada). Thailand. which. Chap.(Paris. the Buddha himself with thirty-two characteristics.note. Dharmacakraor The wheel of the Law (The Fine Arts Department.This is the tripariuartaqn duddaidkaram of the Mahauastu. Septidme.the sixteenspoked one. BuddhistHybrid Sanskrit Reader(New p. 1925).l They are a specification resulting from the version of the First Sermon of Buddhism. 17. where a number of theories are prelcoNpsnLoursnr La varrfB Poussrx. and p.

p. 30-39. by virtue of non-deceptionregarding the chief aim. discerning the truth (satya). ?CoNrsn Alsx Wavu aN.e. verse 218 (Sastri's ed. where he presentsa list of sixteen that are the oppositesor adversaries of the sixteenaspects. Septidme. 1961). For the comparable Abhidharmakoia theory.Asanga discusses bhumi. 1973). and means the one by Manorathanandin. op.? This agreeswith the Abhidharmakoia. p. Sravakabhumi.agreeing in large part with one of the theoriesin the Abhidharmakoia$. Svdrthdnumdna chapter. collected works (Tashilunpo edition). p. 470. confer La Vallde Poussin. 6TsoN-rna-ra. 130-131. Pha. Tshad ma'i brjed byan chenno (Rgyal-tshab-rje's notes on Tson-kha-pa's lectures). Calming the Mind and Discerning the Real (New York. lecturesby Tson-kha-pa on Buddhist logic.118 Buddhist Insight the l6 aspectsin his . K. edited independently by Raniero Gnoli and by o'vytti" Dalsukhbhai Malvaniya."lo The autocommentary on al-aVarrir PousstN. i. after calming the mind (iamatha). Asanga's school contemplatesthe sixteenaspects in the category of uipaiyana (discerning).4 Besides. where the sixteen aspects are named.. cit.. Analysis of the Sravakabhumi Manusurpr (Berkeley. 39.Septidme. p. . it is curious that some obscurity should still remain after their explanations. In short. in particular. pp.However. op. the earliest specificationof the sixteen aspectsis in the Northern Abhidharma schools. Vol. for the exposition.8 since the term prajfrd is frequently equated with uipaiyands.cit. SuurrA..lyMAN. 13b. rolheyopadeyatottvasya sopayasya prasiddhitah I pradhanarthavisarTuadad anumanarp paratra va ll By "auto-commentary" is meant Dhannakirti's Svarthanumana-pariccheda. ed. tr. if the list of terms originated in these Abhidharma schools. and following. there is inference (anumdna)in terms of the beyond. 8La Valmn PoussrN." which was appealed to by Samghabhadra to demonstrate that the a s p e c t sa r e i n d e e d s i x t e e n .. op.. f.s I have found the list in a native Tibetan text. Septidme. which identifies the list with prajfid ("insight"). 1978). 28. pp. Tson-kha-pa in those lectures refers to Dharmakirti's Pramdnaudrttika. examination of the Noble Truth of Suffering with the kind of discerning (vipaiyana) called "special knowledge" (pratisaqnvid) of the characteristics (lak.irduakasented. but verse 2I7 in the autocommentary and Tibetan version): "So as to determine the reality of rejecting and accepting together with the means. (Patna. sThe lengthy treatment begins with Lokottaramdrga and then the exposition of the vipari4ama kind of impermanence (anityata). Vaibhdsika and Sautrdntika. cit.atta). eCoNrrn Arex W.38 referred to simply as the "fourth explanation.

. in a variety of texts as mentioned above. 8): Adinavo narp nirodho. "Trouble and fruit are suffering. Nirvarla. 12Atleastthis is the case in Tibetan to my obsinceaccording tradition. 1971172). nissaraHardy's edition. p. and this is reasonable. Uspasak." gratification is the source. logicalsowrote comon Buddhist the chiefTibetancommentators servation or Asanga's AbhidharmaVasubandhu's Abhidharmakoia on either mentaries samuccaya. We should note that not only does the Southern Abhibut dharma textual tradition not use the sixteen-term system. Dictiotnry of Early Buddhist Monastic Terms (Varanasi.l2 The Abhisamaydlaqnkdrasummary of the Prajfiaparamitd includes the sixteenaspectsof the four Truths as a concentration in the path of the Srdvaka (as does Asanga)." Acta Orientalia. upayo a4atti ca maggo. namely. S. "The Doctrine of Prajfrd-pdramiti as exposed in the Abhisamayalarykara of Maifieya. p. Yol.since Buddhist logic has an Abhidharma base. Japan. The beyond means theparolc.exit is cessation. namely in the block of versesin Miyasaka's edition 146-283. the Netti-pakara4a (translated under the title The Guide) applies six terms to the four Noble Truths (E. Tson -kha-pa takesfor granted that his audience knows the sixteen terms and their opposites that are referred to in the Pramdnasiddhi chapter of Pramdnaudrttika.Vrtti clarifiesthat the rejectingis of sufferingand the sourceof suffering. 152. there is a question of how viable a classificationit is. 1975).assado sarnudayo. OsBnrvrtrLER.e. appears opposed to employing this organizational rrThisis theeditionpublished in ActaIndologica II (Naritasan Shinshoji. phalafi ce dukkhary.13 While the list of sixteenwas included.ra of Harivarman. and a feature of this path is the identification of Nirvdqa with the Truth of Cessation (nirodha-satya). C. or generallyalluded to. the chief aim. and the . "means" and "command" might be equivalent to the two kinds of cf. to what extent such terms help to explain this cardinal teaching of Buddhism-the four Noble Truths.that the accept(what ing is of cessationand the path. completely devoted to also the SatyasiddhiSdstra the four truths. pp. by exhortation(ovada)and by command@ryA).TheSixteen Aspects of theFourNobleTruthsandTheirOpposites 119 this mentions the four Noble is beyond sight).11 But Tson -khapa expands to sixteen terms using Abhidharma-type vocabulary. 18-19. i. and chapter 2 above. which therefore has to be inferred. Here. means and commandare the path. XI (1932). laThe well-known Pili exegeticalwork. lsCoNrnn E. Pdtimokkha.

(2) destruction (uinaia). nonindependence. 1962). (6) fetters and bondage (san_t.mainly becausethe terms are so celebrated in Buddhist texts.vs: (Noble Truth of Suffering.) mdrgah. Leaving out the "voidness" (iunya) term. and has translated it into English (Baroda.) nirodhah. (Noble Truth of Cessation. namely. (Noble Truth prabhaualt. separation. of the sixteenaspects. of the sixteenseparately. (5) true nature (dltannatcl). and non-s elf (anatntan). closeness. 7975). nyayait. nairyd4tikah.16 Asanga in the section mentioned writes mostly about this set. anityam. Tibetan Tanjur) 15N. namely. The voidnessaspectis exarnined by one aspect.ta). of Source. He states that the aspectof impermanenceis examined by five of these ten aspects. destruction. (4) closeness (samnihita). under Ti-lakkhana. iantah.ojanabandhana). namely. niltsqranah.of the disagreeable. For canonical references. The Arthouiniicaya-likd (author unknown. loNvaNrurorn Buddhist Dictionary (colombo. Part I.samvoga). and of no security. BuddhistDictionary.l2o BuddhistInsight terminology. 1978). no-apprehension (of a certain object). andtmakam. prat))q)a/2. (8) no securiry(ayogak-reffia).pratipattiit. The aspect of pain is examined by three aspects. aspect of (1) transformation (uiparindma). Chapter 3. one may consult Nyanatiloka. . above.the easiestare the four of the set going with the Truth of Suffering. l l901205) gives the individual terms as follor. the other three are the well-knorvn set of three characteristics (lak.ana) which all constructedthings (sarytskara) have: impermanence (anitya) pain (dui'kha). (3) separation(t'i. 1950).)samudayaiL. disagreeable (9) non-apprehension (anupolanfiha). namely. (10) non-independence (asudtantrya). and true nature. of fetters and bondage.17 He introduces a group of ten aspects (akara) for treating the Truth of Suffering.hetulr. Atvaswaul SasrRr has reconstructed from Chinese to Sanskrit of the Satyasidhiiastra (Baroda. The late Edward Conze gave his views on the three. iunyam. rTSeethe referencesin notes 5 and 7. (155-6). pranitait. (7) the (ani. calling them 'omarks" in his Buddhist Thought in India ( To arrive at a conclusion about these matters. it will be necessary to treat each.) dulikham.using the above works. (Noble Truth of Path. namely. of transformation. The Buddhist dictionary Mahduyutpatti (nos. The aspect of non-self is examined by one aspcct.

Here there is a difficulty shared with the Arthauiniicaya-lika. becauseit perishes in each instant. edition of Peking leArvasw.l..ur p.21 that the covering of impermanence is permanence. 354. expectsto find. as cited above." Presumably the adversity is the senseof "voidness" that it is here the absence of the thing one hunts and looks for. It is void. Pramarya-siddlti chapter.TheSixteen Aspects of the Four NobleTruthsandTheir Opposites l2l briefly explains the four in a description of the satnskdrapersonal aggregate(sk andha) :r8 It is impermanent. "taking hold (of an object). but !1e Harivarman stresses under the third one. The various explanations in the Abhidharmokoiq seem not to take account of a requirement to show some adversityfor the terms listed undertheTruthofSuffering. It is non-selfbecause (suabhaua)of self imagined those are not the self-existence by the heretics. becausepossessing the nature (dharma) of birth. Tanjur(PTT). Asanga was apparently appreciative of this point. and so on.o(aSakaran dropya. becausethose saqnskdras precisely the self imagined by the heretics. the covering he gives for voidness (iunya) is with a term gcang. 162-1. to interpret the term "void" as denying a self should make one wonder why the term "non-self" is included as a separateaspect. SlstRr.Satyasiddhisaslra. and in particular the term I render "voidness. verse 27I : . Sanskrit. of non-self is self-is simple enough. It is painful. 20The 'coverings' are indicated by the word aropya in Pramdqtavdrttika. above.2. of pain is pleasure. One should also notice that Harivarman's work attributes the list to an unnamed siltra passage: *dharma anityd dullkhdlr iunyd andtmdnalzpratityasamutpannd. that in the list of four terms including both void (sunya) and non-self (andtmaka)." but includes this passage and its discussion not under the first Truth. old are not age. since for him the voidness aspectis examinedjust by the aspectof non-apprehensionwithout further qualifying the non-apprehension. 2lSee the reference in note 6. which I correct to bcang.Vol. However. leaving one lsPhoto p. . that of Suffering. Passing to the coverings or adversaries20 of these four aspects in Tson-kha-pa's list." This agrees with Asanga's "non-apprehension" for voidness in the present context. that of Cessation pursuant to this passage the voidnessof dharmas. but also insists on voidness of self. . 145.

pleasurable. 111. of course comprehended by ordinary persons. tr. Asanga's "non-independence" for non-self does indeed take account of the adversativeintention. it is the misery experiencedand acknowledged in the world. The Arthauiniicaya-tikd (Tibetan Tanjur)26 describes this kind of dulLkhafdconsistently with a detailed list that shows it covers the pains people can do something about. as well as those recognized to be outside bf one's control. op. "All sarpskdras(constructions) are impermanent. So t a-1. 18.{ ikdya. to be the five personality aggregates (skandha) or to be On the other hand. op. the saqnskara said to be impermanent means all of the 'constructed natures' (sarysk r ta-dhar ma). p. In support of his placement. Septidme. 358-359.4. p. Asanga (Viniicayasaqngrahanton Cintdmayi bhumi)25identifies the three with the three standard kinds of feelings.2a Before leaving the Truth of Suffering. It might be for the reason which Vasubandhu gives as one tradition:22 akdmqkdrituad iti "because there is no performance of what one wishes. cf .209-2.23 all dharmas are non-self." Observe that this set has an entry "Nirvdqa" in place of the term "void" of the other list. pp. since the pair "pain and pleasure" (dukkha and sukha) are among the eight worldly dharmas.. cit.lZ2 BuddhistInsight in a kind of despair. Satyasiddhiiastra. alI sarpskdras (motivations) are suffering. Part IV (Saldyat ana-Vagga):/ yom par e sukhato Sarytyut 'happiness' that AhuI tad ariyd ahu dukkhato I "What others call 22La Vallis PoussrN. The first dultkhatd is the misery of suffering(dultkha). there is the set called the four "aphorisms of the Dharma". Mahdydna-Sutrdlarykdra.3. because when saryskara is identified with suffering (dullkha) it is variously said 'with flux' (sasrava)..PTT. zaSee N.and as the painful kind of feeling. The second dukkhatd is the misery of change (uiparipdma). Yogacarabhumi. it is well to mention even if briefly the theory of three kinds of dultkhqfa (misery). 28-3." Harivarman's placement of the list under the Truth of Cessation of course avoids the implication of adversativesense that placement under Truth of Suffering entails.cit. Nirvdqa is calm (idnta). above. and that Harivarman practically equatesvoidness(iunyata) with Nirvana. 32. Eng. and as the pleasurable kind of feeling. and commentary. .and neither painful nor pleasurable. 26See n. 80.. Vol. 25Asanga. p. 23I translate the word sarytskara differently in the first two aphorisms. SVIII. it is not recognized as misery by ordinary persons.painful. ArylswaN{t SlstRr.

it is also not recognizedas misery by ordinary persons." However. above. 2eSee n.493.ryaya dhetutalj. the unclean as clean.p. 5. cit. Here there are the aspects cause (hetu). 28See n. and sometimesin a metaphorical way. read instead.TheSixteen Aspects of theFour NobleTruthsandTheirOpposites 123 the noble ones call'suffering. 28-3. The third dultkhatais the misery of motivations (sarTtskdra). in the ancient use of this word. vagga. 16. 25. and has a metaphysical side that is comprehensible to the drya. would entirely defeat any communication of metaphorical nuance. And to leave the term untranslated. as has been recommended by at least one modern author...i.e. the flve grasping aggregatesare suffering. and as the feeling that is neither painful nor pleasurable. above. the painful as pleasurable. p. of Bhikkhu J. It is clear that the duhkha of the flrst Noble Truth has a wider scope than the ordinary person can understand. Asanga explains:28 "It was in connectionwith the misery of motivations that the Lord said: 'In short.4. and condition (pratyaya). the present translator translatesthe term in those two ways to accord with the various contexts in which the term is found.zo 2zlntheedition Nikaya. regarding the impermanent as permanent. The trouble with the AbhidharmakoSaexplanations in the main is that they define these terms as various kinds of causes without thereby showing their natures as causes for suffering."By cause (hetu) dukkhqk. but cause for suffering.."".production (prabhaua). 116. As we pass to the remaining three Truths." He also mentions that this misery is evidencedby the four waywardnesses (uiparydsa). Kashyap. The second set going with "Noble Truth of Source (of Suffering)" has the requirement of providing cause or causes for the suffering without constituting suffering.op.and death.. sometimesin concrete sensesto apply to old age. Asanga is quite superior here becausehe facesup to the necessity that they not only be causes.epakatvdd . tr. and finally. it turns out that the coveringsin the list of sixteen adversariesbecome of greater importance.' What is the misery of motivations? These and those bodies with motivations generated by karma and defilement (kleia) arising. sickness. The Saryyutta Saliyatanap.emafor hetu. where Shukla wrongly editsdukkhak. Some persons accordingly challengedthe translation of duhklta as "suffering" or "pain. source (samudaya)..4. that this misery is the trace (anuSaya) of nescience(auidya). the non-self as self.

which finalizes after the casting. 123. f. and casts gestation and suffering.-f suffEilng members of Dependent Origination. or positing only a single cause.Septidme.nth_flo!ice utrt.'Uiitry-"r 'sirTrlu-fiR6?i@f!_m." positing the unaffiliated as the cause.' 32Seen.. positing that there is no causeof suffering amounts to the position of the ancient materialisticCdrvakas.of conditiot(pratyaya) is-birth UAfi). Asanga here says it is the cause of "indulgence" (upadana). p. hence embryonic life. that of the members of dependent origination.6. happening to be in agreement with the Pratiyasamutpada commentary. might be equivalent to the fourth account in the Abhidharmakoiass mentioning at this place a Lord (ISvara). lag tfrrougn-c*.. 38.124 Buddhist Insight One of the many explanationshe furnishes. that i4-!hiq in tt sqlUlion. ssl-e VaLLJe PoussrN.szThus. sincethe Lord csuld be considered unaffiliated to the effect. The fourth aspect. lgnlga"ld age. 13b-6 to l4a-1.isespeciallyinteresting since it relates these terms to Buddhist Dependent Origination pratitya-samutpdda)."The otherthreeaspects . p. sarpskara-s an<lbhava are 'birfh' (jtiti) is counted as a and the rest are sufferrng (duhkha).3l -Tsofr&ha-pits list of coverings or adversaries of these four seemsto amount to non-Buddhist positions. 9th member.Oir u r. avidya. 110. !t{o!icethAt .ttg ttrlnd. BoSincethere is further confusion in Shukla's edition (p. sTDasabhumikaiisutra is cited in Sdntideva's Siktasarnuccoya (Vaidya ed._q"d 4:. The aspect of "production" is gestation (bhaua).anse it c_ounts 1 - "r. heading the flve members which bring about new destiny. which casts suffering. Hence. . lOth member. a\rd death. cit.8th member of Dependent Origination. Vol. sickness. which Buddhism always denounced.the position called ahetuka ("having no cause"). 493) at this point. The aspect of "source" is indulgence (upadana). and pradhdna as the are also explained as sources for suffering.5.21-22).ri"e. 6. op. PTT. t{t7d. prior to the manifestation of suffering.@ mika tradition of the Pratitya-samutpdda com@ theryfopllo t iqgquiur.30 This particular solution takes the aspect of "cause" tc be craving (tfsUa). which which holds holds the the seed seedof flltglqlqgqriitgald future sufferi iis the cqqdi--. 126--5-4. For the aspectof "source._qt"krrg. I have consulted the Tibetan translation. for the aspect of "cause. thg__l_1!h \ member." from his list. 'suffering. p. 'action' (karma)'. above. or pradhdna. and upadana are defilement (kleSa). member.s. rtg-l4e@u=atolgne l:U:" .

Dasgupta. exit (niltsarana).'. A History of Indian phitosophy (cambridge. 1940). for the aspectof"calm. calm (ianta). 58. is the same as given in the Abhidharmakoia. p.nkhyacalled parindma. 35Seeno. "way of deliverance." the covering is the positing that there is no final path of liberation. path (marga). 6." positing that none can put a final end to suffering. f. the excellent (praqtita). positing that the insight comprehending non-self is not a path of liberations. For the fourth aspect of "condition.nkhya pect of "production. in which the effect is pre-existent in the cause. accomplishment (pratipotti).would be a Vaiplava theory according to S. principle (nyaya). . for the aspect." positing a temporary liberation and that there is no final liberation.asnamely. and for the fourth set. For the asSar. positing that there is a higher liberation than stopping suffering. When coming to the treatment of the third set under "Noble Truth of Cessation (of Suffering)" and of the fourth set under "Noble Truth of Path (leading to the Cessation). for the third set.The SixteenAspectsof the Four Noble Truths and Their Opposites t25 prakrti could be considereda single cause.3awhile the Abhidharmakoia here mentions the evolutionary theory of the Sdr.'principle" (: method). l4a-1 to l4a-4. for the aspect of . "the best"). III. saSuRpNonANArH DAscurra. Let us pass first to the coveringsin Tson -kha-pa's list. above. for the aspect of "exit. way of deliverance (nairyapika). Vol." positing (suffering)as createdby the evolution of the Sabdabrahman. for the aspect of "the excellent" (usually explained as anuttare. For the aspect of o'cessation. positing the situation of the object-scopehaving gone astray. for the aspect of o'accomplishment." positing (suffering) as created by a former lSvarabuddhi (cognition of a Lord)." the covering is the positing by one gone astraythat thereis no liberation. The adversary views do help to bring out the meaning of the aspect terms for these two sets." positing that there is a special liberation attended with flux of uncalmed defilements. cessation (nirodha). The "coverings" in Tson-kha-pa's list for the third and fourth sets amount to a paraphrase of the fourth Abhidharmakoia explanation. For the aspectof "path." Asanga contents himself with a few neutral remarks for his possiblereluctance to enter into the controversiesinvolved in a longer treatment.

Examining the statementsof Tson-kha-pa's adversaries for the four of this path group in comparison with the four of the cessationset. namely. that the aspect of accomplishment (pratipatti) leads to the aspect of the excellent (pranita). that the aspect 'o*ay of deliverance" (nairydqika) leads to the aspect "exit" (nihsarana). that the instruction of morality is the accomplishment that leads to the excellent. namely. finally. 13a-5. Such a correlation would leave the main terms s6TsoN-rna-y4 brjed byan. states: "The acarya (i.. that the instruction of mind training is the principle or method that leads to calm. and the others to be ancillary. while the covering of "path" is the claim that there is no final path of liberation. Following this suggestion.e. thesecategoriesare basic for much of his writing. Even though Asanga does not organize his Yogacdrabhumialong the specific lines of the well-known three instructions (adhiiik.ifiA)is the way of deliverance that leadsto the "exit" or "escape" from phenomenal life.126 BuddhistInsight Now. I may propose that the aspect of path (marga) leads to the aspect of cessation (nirodha). constituting the Arhat ideal of early Buddhisms6.which is consistent with ancient Buddhism's great stress on morality and extolling of its merit. f. 6. since samadhiis the standard procedure for calming the mind. which may provide an opening for relating the three instructions. then. n. that the instruction of insight (pra. By this I mean to call attention to the covering of "cessation" claiming that there is in fact no liberation. frequently listed under the three instructions which form the organization of Buddhaghosa's visuddhimagga. the eightfold members. the Instruction of Mental Training of samddhi. that the aspectof principle (: method) (nyAyQ leads to the aspect of calm (ianta). These seeming affiliations of statement gave me the idea that the two setsof four terms might be correlated in their given order. Then the way of relating the three instructions follows readily. Dharmakirti)." . while the covering of "way of deliverance" is the claim that one cannot put a final end to suffering. above. These three are the Instruction of Morality. a suggestive parallel emerges. and the Instruction of Insight.took the prajiia that comprehends non-self to be the chief (thing) of the path to liberation from phenomenal life. a striking feature of the aspects given under "Noble Truth of Path" is that they are not obviously related to the usual statementof the Path. forthe aspect of "exit" claiming that there is no final path of liberation..a).

Thus.lhitantrvapa)had come to the fore.The Sixteen Aspectsof the Four Noble Truths and Their Opposites 127 of "cessation" and "path" as headingsunderwhich are ranged the respe ctive three aspectsthat go with the three instructions. when a Nirvala of no fixed abode (aprati. a Noble Truth. is to take the four Noble Truths as objects. 22-23. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrlt Reader (n. Besides."t2 This promptly (dultkhanirodhagamini raisesa question:If cessation is to be realizeddirectly. or uncomfortable with.. Thus. The investigation attests to the teaching of the four Noble Truths as basic to the earliest Buddhism and to later disputesof what to placeunder each of the four.then how could this cessation be equated to Nirvdrla. does appear to bring out important featuresof the four Truths. while another was either oblivious of.""The Cessationof Sufferingis to be realizeddirectly (sakgatkartavyah). and to make salient certain striking differencesof the traditions.r). above). 37So in the Lalitavistara. . one strong current of interpretation took the sixteenaspectsas a guide. This is consistent with the early tradition that takes "cessation" as equal to Nirvdfa.s'das pa). And we note that Dharmakirti is writing in the mature Mahdydna Buddhism period. Thus. the statement is made : "Suffering.e. if Nirvala be taken in Dharmakirti's senseas something to be inferred rather than seenin direct vision? The resolution here would be to take Nirvd4a in such usagenot to be identified with cessation(nirodlta).This is becausethe thrust of these Abhidharma-type explanations of the four Noble Truths is that liberation amounts to the cessationof suffering (dulpkha). in various versions. a consideration of the sixteen aspectsof the four Noble Truths. and their sixteen"coveringso' or adversaries. as though before the eyes.saksdt. and with the Tibetan translation of this term as "beyond suffering" (myangan la. as presented in Edgerton. the neat list." "The Path leading to the Cessationof Suffering is to be cultivated pratipad bhavayitavyd).a feature of the first sermon. pp. "The Source of Suffering is to be eliminated (prahatavyal. 2." Again. Setting into Motion the Wheel of Dharma.i. is to be fully known (parijfieyam).

others. the importance of the mirror metaphor was enhanced when Buddhism spread from its native India to various Asian countries.BUDDHIST METAPHOR-SIMILE INrRooucrroN The extensive literature of Buddhism contains works of sharply contrasting spirit: some are dry metaphysical treatises. written centuries apart. If one passesfrom one work to another collecting material on a given topic. and Asian rP. If other scholars-except for a sinologist like Demi6villel-have not deemed this study important. and there are a host of ritualistic works. o'Lemiroir spirituel. together so many passages Even so. . they can be excusedon the grounds that it looked like just one of many loose ends. even on how to conjure rain.947): Sinologica ll2-37. But the authenticity of the mirror metaphor rests-I believe-on the easewith which one can go from one work to another. it is as though-here a metaphor-Buddhist religion and philosophy were an enormous tangle of string. and we should happen to notice among the innumerable loose ends a certain one to pull and thereby begin to resolve the entire tangle. In the end I shall expressa reservation about bringing in one article." | (1. China was fond of mirror symbolism. Indeed. inspired sermons. while paying attention to this with an overall senseof metaphor and assemblingthese passages relevance. it is easy to amassnumerous undigested passages. DrurfvrllE.6 THE MIRROR AS A PAN.

Second." AsiatischeStudien25 (1971): 353-63. reconstructs in part: tadoghasthdniyam adanavijfianary. Speaking nrost briefly. First.s The material has so increasedthat it is a matter of selection to present the main ideasin a single essay. eventually led to the highly evolved philosophical position of Asanga and his school called the Yogdcdra.iiidna) of this systern-is compared to this mirror (adaria) and also to a swift current of water (ogha). and the meaning here is succinctly shown in the brief tantric ritual. the rise of the Prajffdpdramitd literature as interpreted by the teacher Nagirjuna avoids the metaphorical mirror and employs the mirror simile for such illustrative purposesas the theory of dharntas(natures.and so on. 3A. WavlaAN." It is also necessaryto establish the character of the mirror metaphor. the ancient use of a mirror for and in stories predictivepurposes. Lrvorrs. as knorvn in the Pdli scriptures called Jatakas. aE. there are three parts. Third.4 The swift water zA.ed -one on the mirror of ladies(which included a divination section)2 and one on the mirror-like knowledge of Mahdyina Buddhism. and then in Buddhist tantric ritual to the washing of the mirror while a deity was reflected therein. and yet the mirror surface is not changed thereby. TrirpSikaadarSasthaniyam . initiation of the mirror. which becomesdirtied as a mirror collects dust. The appropriating consciousness (ddana-u ij fidna)-pr actically equivalent to t he store-consciousness (alaya-ui. It is of interest that Sthiramati. two images." Mahfil 7 (Fall-Winter 197 l) : 209-13. WaylrAN. develops into the representationof mirrors in Buddhist art and eventually into remarkable forms of mirror divination in the Buddhist Tantras. The Sarydhinirmocana-sutra-which is the basic scripture of the Mahayana Buddhist Yogdcdra school-mentions in its chapter 5 that when conditions are present a clear mirror will reflect one image. "A Jotting on the Mirror: Thoseof Ladies.r30 Buddhist Insight forms of shamanismemphasizethe mirror. as when it figures on the chestof the Tibetan oracle or is placed on high in the Japanese Shinto worship hall. two articlesdealing with the subject So far I have only publish. the early Buddhist use of the mirror as a metaphor of the mind. "The Mirror-like Knowledgein MahayanaBuddhistLiterature. features). in his edition and translation of the Tibetan Sarydhinirmocana Sutra (Louvain and Paris. And there is an appendix on the problem of where to include the "prajiin--mirror. 1935).

Tire MnrApHoRrcAr MrnRoR AND rHE YocAcAnR Scnoor Asariga. ivhile another Ch'an school. and "entrapment" (paryauasthdna). Elsewherehe explains that the wishlessgate is the opponent of bhrisya. Of course.and the application of both of them helps the reader to avoid the concretization of either metaphor. A. The Tibetan Tripitaka.s Besides. The argument was transferredto china. where one branch of the ch'an school. the application of this rnetaphor to the mind suggests that it will entertain an image for which there is a model somewhere. while the Mddhyamika is lesslikely to use it and. he may thereby be judging that this metaphor and the mirror one are incompatible. following the Lankquatora-slttra. usesthe samemetaphor-simile in any way except for the mind. the two metaphors are inconsistent. the mirror as a metaphor of the mind irnplies alateral extension.Tre \{irror as a Pan-Buddhist Metaphor-Simile l3l current as a metaphor of the mind implies a progression. a mirror (adaria). turning to the Prajiiaparamita scriptural position. in both Eastern and western thought. it is signiflcant that the Yogdcara school prefers the mirror as a metaphor-simileof the mind. of Tibetan canon (prr). The three such faults are "unrnethodical mental orientation" (ayoniio mqnqsikdra). In this light. the placeof ambrosia (amrta-dhdtu):theseare the wishless (apraqihita).'otracas" (anuiaya). That is. ll0:239-3. sviniScayasarygraha\i.photographic ed. 33.vhen it does. lg5s-61). 1925). applied the mirror metaphor to the mind. and signless(animitta) gates.extending forward and backward but not laterally-that is.[n contrast. rvho heads the Yogacdra school. . a temporal successiveness. and a pond (hrada) with the three faults that stir up consciousness.p. has merely tacloghasthaniyant iilayavijii1narT.ed.Atfirst consideration.and this is the dualistic position. a spacialsimultaneity. by only mentioning the swift current of water. Peking ed.he mentions in the same place the three gateways to liberation. attributes to a sutra or . irTlike context.!ras presumablyin the olcl Buddhist canon(the four Agamas in the northern Buddhist version) the rnetaphoricalidentification of a beggingbowl (patra). Sylvair-r t-6vi (Paris. r. (Tokyo and Kyoto. rejected this metaphor for the mind. voidness (iunyata).

132 Buddhist Insight wish for gestationor becoming(bhaua)." But while in this context the siltra used the pond metaphor. The Mahavastu. minus its craving. At least one of the sutras which Asangahad in mind would be the Sanskrit equivalent of the Pdli Anguttara-I'{ikdya [Book of Ones]. p. volume 1. esee FnaNxrrN EocBRToN.6Taking into consideration Asanga's further explanations of what he means by "traces" and "entrapment. This same section concludes and continues into the next section with the sentence: "Monks. "very dusty. but defiled with adventitious defilements. lll:ll4-4.the voidnessone. section 5. of defilement (kteia)." the dust collects on the dharma-eye-also called the knowledge-eyedirected toward dharmas. the begging bowl. is the signlessgate. 1953). JonEs.. the Buddha saw with a Buddha's eye sentient beings hardly dusty and sentient beings very dusty. J..Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Reader (New Haven.e Another reason for the ascendancyof the rnirror metaphor over the other two (the begging bowl and the pond)) is the association 6lbid. this mind fcitta] is luminous. devoid of entrapment. the mirror was later employed in this metaphorical role for the mind that is intrinsically pure but covered by defilements.and so on." it is reasonablyclear that in his symbolism. While the lotus comparison would favor the pond. .p. and the pond. the mirror with its traceserasedis the voidnessgate.trans. stream. Conn. of signs. is the wishless gate. 1956).T and he compared them to lotuses in different stagesof growth from the bottom fo the pool to the surface where they were not adhered to by the muddy water. A possible reason for the growing importance of the mirror metaphor may come from the early account of Brahma's urging the Buddha to teach.s According to the celebrated account called the o'conversion of Sariputra and Maudgalydyana.Vol. whether of pond. III (London. where the turbid pool of water stands for the turbid mind (duila-citta). ?See J. and chapter7. As recorded in the Sarpyutta-Nikdya." This passageis undoubtedly the reason for the thesis pushed by the Mahdsdnghika school: "The mind is intrinsically pure." of the word here translated n.29. his observation of the relative dustinessof the sentient being would favor the mirror metaphor.372. ocean.. and the signlessone. for a discussion sThis is not to deny the importance in Buddhism of water symbolism..

Indeed. in his commentary thereonn clarifies that one obtains the o'mirror-like knowledge" through (alayavijfiana) revolution of the "store-consciousness" basis.' and temporal statesof past. this knowledge is achievedthrough 'orevolutionof the store-consciousness basis.201. "The Mirror-like Knowledge. Lalrorrr [Louvain. I ( R o m e . rlSee the Lankdvatdra references in G. . Minor Buddhist Texts. pt. present. The objective domain lui.1 9 5 6 ) p . Still another factor favoring the mirror metaphor was the Mahdydna Buddhist theory of five kinds of knowledge or wisdom as the content of enlightenment. lg3gl. I have devoted an article to rejecting the common attribution to l0Asanga in his Mahayanasarpgraha (trans. while Vasubandhu.where the Bodhisattva lives in a "body made of mind" which is like a current of dreams.TheMirror asa Pan-Buddhist Metaphor-Simile 133 n'ith the voidnessgate to liberation.and future (there) come together individually. . even if these scriptures themselvesdrd not feature the mirror metaphor in this manner (the pure and defiled mind). the growing importance of the mirror metaphor would be fost'eredby the Prajfrdparamitd scriptures. and future. 12WAYMAN. present. It seemsthat both the metaphorical swift stream and metaphorical mirror are combined in this particular explanation of the mirrorlike knowledge. 278-79) merelystates that the set of four knowledges beginning with "mirror-like knowledgeo'are obtainedthroughtherevolutionof the aggregate of perceptions (vijfrana-skandha).11 Among the most revealing passageswhich I collected on this subject is one in Abhaydkaragupta's M unimatdl aynk dr a :r2 " The mirror-like knowledge is where consciousness of the infinite three realms and the 'other one'-all the finest atoms of substance-come together individually. and all sensory objects.In 1970I had a helpful suggestionabout this passage from the lama Gonsar Rimpoche of Dharmasala.ayal which is distant and (called) the 'other one. pp."10 According to the Lankduatdra-sutra this occurs in the Eighth Bodhisattva Stage." p." In Asanga's school. Turning to the philosophical position of the Yogdcara school. just as a reflected image appears vividly in a mirror. and to display simultaneously both the subjective states of past. Tucci.E. n. 358.which emphasizedthe realization of voidness. of which the flrst one is the "mirror-like knowledge." This brings out the senseof the metaphorical mirror's ability to reflect all things without itself being changed.

in the exegesis of his Bodhisottuablwmi. Sarytdhinirmocana Sutra. ."rs Later. constitute metaphoric languageappropriate to understanding the dependency characteristic of the Yogacara s ) ' s t em ."l6 Therefore. and the imaginary (parikalpita). This passagedoes not constitute an idealistic denial of an external object. a reflectedimage.the moon in the waters. Moreover.Asanga intends his likening of the "store-consciousnsss" and "evolving perceptions" to a body of water and waves. a hallucination.there is the mirror sirhile of the Saindhinirrnocena's Maitreya chapter. an echo. pp. WaylrAN.the dependency (paratantra).to wit: "like an illusion. a dream.and manas. 111:75-4. PTT. the dependency character." The Journal of the Interrntional Association of Buddhist Studies. The trvo are like a body of water and the waves are like a mirror and a reflectedimage. etc. rnind-based perception. and under the rubric "thorough knowledge of. Viniicayasamgraha4i. 15AsA\-cA. the (five) eye. 2. 16lbid. r3A. 111:16-1.ra Here the scripture alludes to the situation of samadhiwhen the perceiving mind (the reflecting mirror) that dwells upon a rneditative object (the model) is not different from that model anci so the latter is called "representation-only" (uijfiapti-matra). In that way." he places the similes of natures (dharma) that happen to be repeated again and again in the Prajfiaparamitascriptures. l. The latter is sevenfold. No. "Yogdcdra and the Buddhist Logicians. pp. Vol. perceptions. this establishmentof supreme method establishesthe place and the placed.134 B uddhi st Insi ght the Yogacara school of the unqualified denial of an external object. there are two uijfianas. Asanga the three charactersor naturcs (suabhaua) discusses the of Yog[cara school-the perf-ect(parini5panna). but rather a disinterestin externals. 65-78. Asanga writes in his Yogdcarabhumi: "In short. the storeconsciousness is the place and evolving perceptionis placed. which deniesa differencebetrveen the image in the mirror and the model of the image. lll-arvtorrr . becausethe yogin has retreated frorn manifold senseobjects and dwells only on the meditative object in his mind. Among these.or to a mirror and a reflectedimage.t:t In this case.. 19j9. 'store-consciousness' falayauijfiana) and 'evolving perceptions' fpraurttiuijiiana]. a magical materialization.

p. of contemplating the reflectedimage of the Lord ( == the icon) while washingthe mirror.n. Despite its "mind-only" passages. prr. we observea greater interest in describing external objects than is noticed in Asanga'sschool.D. if he can provide it. 1907). Syr. 1968). ed. Along the same lines the Mahayana-SutrdlarTtkdra is cited: 'oAs in a broken water-pot the reflection of the moon cannot be seen. of course. such personsas the assistantto the offering or other personsmake the seal (mudra) of "washing the body. l8see F.. reflects with error the external world. enjoined by the tantric work vairam'ala. 210..varN LEvr (paris. on the other side. Now the mirror simileis employed in the problems of identity and otherness. 9:16.2r Thereupon he reflectsthe image in a mirror. zovajramald (an explanatory tantra of the Guhyasamaja). The foregoing directly leads to the tantric ritual of rnirror washing preservedin Tibetan Buddhisrn.and of error and nonerror.l? Then there is the theory of the mind as a two-sided mirrorwhich the Buddhist tantra tradition has in common with Kashmir Saivism.. Mkhas grub rje's Fundamentals of the BuddhlstTantras(The Hague. wAyuAN. and the superior discriminating mind (buddhi). trans. the buddhi side of the mirror can represent the Buddha becauseit is devoid of competing irnages. and gives an actual bath to the the sameway to those that are evil the Buddha does not manifest himself. 3:223-2.. that is.20 For the rite in brief.image. is washing the mind so it can properly reflect the divine world in the form of a deity's body. The meaning. If he cannot provide it. form a level surface with the backs of their hands. on one side. p. the phenomenal mind (ntanas). LrssrNc and A. .l8 In this case..The\lirror asa Pan-Buddhist Metaphor-Simile 135 Passing to the numerous mirror sirniles of the Lahkat. 2llrssrNc and wavuAN. trans.the philosophical position of the Lankduatdra-sutra is shown by its mirror passages as only somewhat idealistic. lgl. so that the tops of the thumbs and the index fingers touch each rTTo establish this conclusion would requireconsiderable discussionbeyondthe scopeof the present article-includingthe comparison of the Sanskritand Tibetan versions for certain important passages. This is consistentwith the practice."ls In the languageof the two-sidedmirror. reflects errorlessly because it is devoid of images. rsMahayana-SutAlarykara.atdrasutra. Mkhas-grub-rje says. Mkhasgrub rje's Fundamentals.

1959).while reciting. . tutor to H. is that the water for washing the icon is always perfumed water. 23F. OM SARVADEVATA ACIN TYA-AM RTA SVAHA (Orn. as preparation for the attain'gifts of grace' (siddhi) and final beatitude. explained that in the beginning they draw a square on the mirror to represent the bathing room." ment of B. D. and mystical union with the deity. both ritualistic and ethical.which stressvoidness of dhqrmqs and give similes for it in lists. for example. Lessing. like a city of gandharuAS".H. published only one article on the subject.D. LESSING. 75: t35-4.ur-vidhi-nama. Or the five drops stand for the guru. the Buddhas. illumination. a mirage. also. He offers abath. the tutelary deity. removing sins. Ndgdrjuna. The Madhyamika follows the Praifidpdra' mitd scriptures. the inconceivableambro sia of all the gods. in his Madhyamakakdrikd. the Dalai Lama.136 BuddhistInsight other. 159-71. svaha).as Gonsar Rimpoche of Upper Dharmsala (India) told me. a dream. the Bodhisattvas. becauseall Buddhas are included in one or another of those five. Arya-maftjuiri-namasaqngiti-cak. "resembling a mirage" and "like a phantom man and 2zMawruSnIMITRA. conferring gifts. "Structure and Meaning of the Rite Called the Bath of the Buddha according to Tibetan and Chinese Sources". he says: "An originally simple devotional act is interpreted symbolically as (a) purificatory. like a dream. a city of gandharuas. has "like an illusion.22 The reason. (b) mystical. PTT. however. and the Protectors of the Faith. The rite in more developed form has been studied extensively by the late F. TsB MnRoR SIMILE AND rHn MAoHYAMIKA ScHoor The mirror simile is rare in Mddhyamika works but found in important contexts. The flve perfumed drops are in each corner of the square and one in the middle. Geshe Rabten. in Studia Serica Bernhard Karlgren Dedicata (Copenhagen. who. and (c) consecratory. pp. A text by MafrjuSrimitra mentions five perfume drops on the mirror. communicating the three-fold gift of purification.2s In his summary. both temporal and spiritual. all dharmasare like an illusion . They signify the five Buddha families.

Metaphor-Simile TheMirror asa Pan-Buddhist 137 like a reflectionlpratibimbel. Le Traitd de la GrandeVertu de Sagesse I:357-90. The Arya SattstambhaSutrq states:26o'Now."like a reflection" may mean as in a mirror. the facial reflection seen a clean mirror.. Still. ed. 103:270-3..and while the reflected image is in the mirror there is no transfer (to that place). chapAs I underter l1 (as availablein Lamotte's French translation).25 stand the matter. a mirage. and these ten similes." but by and large these scriptures preferred to use the language "like an illusion. comes in Along the same lines. For and fruit on account of the suffi. in his .1950).1967). in IndiaandChina Wis. Madhyamika zsdusNur L. in the same way. Sanskrit Library. or the manner in which the fruit is ensured for the karma as cause. including the mirror one."" Ndgd:rjuna states in his Pratityasamutpddahrdaya-uydkarayta: 2aThese in his Early by the lateRichardH. there is recognition of karma of causeand condition. Robinson werecollected similes (Madison. no dharma transfers from this world to the other world.p. I am loathe to agree with the Chinese tradition that attributes the immensely inr ajfidpdr amitdi dst r a to Ndgdrjuna. (Louvain. ." Nagdrjuna. 2?PTT. AryaswAMr Sutra (Madras: Adyar Snsrnr. the longer lists are found in the later and larger Mahdyina scriptures."z+ Of these. the birth manifestation. Arya Satistambha text. 1944). If for no other would normally include the "reflected image. but the face does not transfer into the mirror. 26N. as in the two largest Praifidpdramitd scriptures. adream..ialistambha-kdrika.nrraottr. sequence from the previous casting. or as the one moon reflects in many waters. fluential M ahdp The mirror simile is of course more important when a whole sentenceor developed idea turns upon it than when it is simply one member in a stereotypedlist. The first case concerns one of the most argued points of early Buddhism-the question of what transfers from life to life. There is recognition of the face on account of the sufficiencyof causeand condition. Whenever a list in a Mahayana scripture was long enough (as though aiming at completeness).writes: "Just as in a well-polished mirror the reflected image of the face is seen. irrespective of the agent and deed which are mutually without discursive thought. 16." fn fimethe list grew to ten. are the occasion for lengthy commentary in the Mahdprajfidpdramitdidstra.ciency is in example.

1 38 Insi ght B uddhi st "Just as in the case of a flame from a flante. 7 (Tokyo. the reflectedimage in a mirror from a face. a sprout from a seed.p. It does not occur to a reflected image fpratibhasa] that "the support-object which produces the reflectedimage is close to me. but the stage of the disciple lirritakul and the stage of the self-enlightenedone fpratyelcais far from me. 841. But perhaps the most important use of the mirror similein later Madhyamika cornmentary. an impression from a seal. especially Candrakirtl's Madhyamalcduatdra. a fire from a burning crystal. ed.. 26) 7to lt is also this way. In the same way.. because the reflected image has no discursivethought.. as in the A5lasdhasrikd praj fidpdramitd (chap. it does not as a reflectedimage. 2eBnrrruu ." because the reflected imagehas no discursivethought. trans. AbhisamayalarykcTraloka Prajiiaparamifivyakb. possibleto associate with the previousones this passage It seerns about no transit of the personal aggregates. 1935)." For what reason? Lord.103:271-4. 30U.suddltimagga." For rvhat reason? Lord. so also in the case of reconnection [pratisarytdhilof the personal aggregates fskandha]. Woctnau.a (Commentary) on Aslasahasrika-Prajfiaparamita): The ll'ork of Haribhadra. NANAvtott. is its use to illustrate that the self has no character of its own.2s Buddhaghosa has a consistent remark in his Vi. because bucidha) the Perfection of Insight has no discursivethought. The Path of Purification (Visuddhimagga) (Colombo. That is. In this connection. but those that do not approach in the mirror or in the bowl of water are far from me. for example. "Back occur to the new personal aggregates there are the old personal aggregates. 1956). it does not occur to a Bodhisattva great being who is coursing in the Perfection of Insight that "the incomparable complete enlightenmentis close to me. fasc. the Ratnaklta scripture PitdputrazsPTT.Lord.2e The Prajfraparamitascriptural passages stressthat the reflected inrage has no discursive thought (uikalpa). p. Lord. 639.the wise person will understand that there is no transfer. at leastnot about the old personal aggregates.aperson is not taught to understand that the one is differentfrom the other..

l:378.ts3"The reflection in the mirror is not produced by the mirror fadaria]." a terminology that is fiequent in Buddhist rvorks. sa P a n . transfers from lif'e to life. b u t t h e T i b e t a n q u o t a t i o n s o f i t a r e i n v e r s e .but in reality it is nothing at all. it is well to summarize those Madhyamika usesof the rnirror simile. sslamotte.ruabhtiua).T h e M i r r o r a . Le Trcrite. 32As cited in candrakirti's commentary on the Madhyamaka-karika (chap. l96l). 1 7 . nor by the holder of the mirror (adariadhara). becauseof its nonself th. Before proceeding furiher.ivithout recollrseto the personal aggregates. I'here is an assist to the Buddhist dependent-origination theory. Likelvise. It is used to illustrate the all-important Bucldhist theory of nonself. understand these ' rlharmas.B L r d d h i s tV l e t a p h o r .' The passage llteans tli. nor by the face lualctraf. both of personality (pudgala)and of natures (dharma). Also Nirgarjuna statesin the Ratnduali:22 With recourse to a rnirror.devoid of self-existence (. Now we can evaluatea passage in the Mahaprajiidparamitdiastre's explanation of the mirror sirnile. the noble Ananda gained the dharma-eye. and to Nagdrjuna's Madhyamaka-karika 1. In the same way.\antdgomaIMeeting of father and son] ilro\/ides a lnuch-cited pa. Without recourseto a nrirror. 1 3 9 .tsage:3r "In the way that an inragc void of self-existence is seen in a very clean mirror. onc does not speak of a self. where the way of talking is traced back to the Selasutta of the Saryyutta-rtikdya. the idea of self faharytkdra] is conceived. w. and himself repeatedly spoke the same to the monks. l8). nor by itself srAs cited in Santideva's Siksasamuccaya. . p. if anything. Having learned the nreaning this rvay. one sees ttrereflected imageof one's face" but in reality this (reflection)is nothing at all. 6. p .S i m i l e 139 .1 8 . See this chapter in translation. this simile shows the rneaning of "no discursive thought. Vaidya ed.eory. one does not see the reflected irnageof one'sface.of wirat. /\nd sincs the face in the mirror has no opinions about tite person lool<ing in the mirror. J.1.i t i s i n p r o s e . with the natures so arising doing so lvithout self-existence. ( natures (dharma) arise dependently. so Drurna. 1949). cinq chapirres de la Prasannapada (Paris. It heips to explain the thorny problem in Buddhisin. de Jong. with recoursc to the personal aggregates. like the reflection of one's face.

If it existedeternally. and so on-are required. According to Candrakirti's Prasannapadd (on chap. agent.That very thing which arisesin dependenceyou affirm as void. from another. from both (itself and another). we would have expectedhim to explain: If what you call a reflection existed without causesand conditions.there would be no deed. ed. if the author of the Mahaprajfidpdramitdidstra had been Nagdrjuna. p. it would be produced even in the absence of the mirror and the face. There is no entity self-dependent.q Vanfs PoussrN. face. although admittedly this is merely negative evidencefor denying the Indian authorship of this famous work of Chinese Buddhism. 1903-13)."Les quatre odes de Nagdrju na.140 Buddhist Insieht of causesand condifsuatalt]. Moreover. l). it would not be an "effect."36 This is a remarkablepieceof circular reasoning. Commentatre BibliothecaBuddhica. But you teach that it arisesin dependence.19-20)the Sanskrit for the first one in candrakfuti's Prasannapadaand for the second one in B odhi cary avat ar apafiji k a. Such is your incomparable lion's roar." In the explanation there." Musdon 3l-32 (1913): 13-14. oe L. This is a use of the mirror simile not met with hitherto. or L. or way of effecting. by both.but it does not exist in the absence tions fhetupratyayaf."se Besides. or by chance. there are the mirror verses of ChineseCh'an Buddhism. at the time of the Fifth Patriarch the head monk Shen-hsiu wrote a verseto establishhis credentials: 3aL. as the legend claims. solamotte.. If one is lacking. chapter 8. the remainder cannot produce the reflection in the mirror.cites for theseverses(Lokattta-staya. Le Traitd.q Varrie PousslN. or by chance. there would be neither effect nor instrument. ." Therefore. 12. by another. Prasannapada de Candraktrti. it would exist eternally. especially verse 4: "If there were no cause [hetu]. 35L.Nagdrjuna says in the Lokdtttastaua:s5 "The sophists claim that suffering is done by oneself. According to the legend. in such a case. On the surface the passage seemsto be the way Ndgdrjuna writes in his Madhyamakakdrika 1. the reason is found in Ndgdrjuna's own Madltyamaka-kdrikd." But the author of the Chinese work goes on to say about the reflection in the mirror: "If it existedwithout causesand conditions. all the factorsmirror. 4 (SaintPetersburg." and therefore would not be a "reflection" of something. 1: "There is no entity anywhere that arisesfrom itself.I :378.vol.

Esotericism Tantras:Light on Indo-Tibetan . (the disciple) should look upon all dharmas as reflected images. a boy (Hui-neng) who in the legend becamethe Sixth Patriarch wrote his verse: Bodhi originally has no tree. Notice even that the mirror has no stand. Buddha nature is always clean and pure. by Yampolsky. where the mind is intrinsically pure but coveredwith adventitious defilements. The mirror also has no stand. 130. withsTTranslation by P. with the bttddhi-side capable of reflecting errorlessly becauseit has no image in it. he (the guru) shows a mirror incanted with an AH. in particular in the Mirror Initiation of the Akpobhya Guhyasamaja-tantratradition. recalling the argument in the Prajfidpdramitdidstra that if the holder of the mirror is missing. But also in the Tunhuang version it is consistentwith the theory of the two-sided mirror. This is an extract from a commentary by the Tibetan author Tson-kha-pa:sg Having had his eye opened in that manner. Where is there room for dust?38 This is the switch to the Prajfrdparamiti language. Yampolsky. and recites: All dltarmqs are like reflected images. ssTranslation p. The mind is like a clear mirror. here the 66dss["-4 view favoring the metaphorical mirror as the mind. seThe in A.sT l4l We observe at once that this is the tradition going back to early Buddhism.pp.Wayman. then there is no reflection in the mirror. B. At all times we must strive to polish it. clear and pure. 1967). The Platform SutraoftheSixthPatriarch (New York. fullerform of thisbriefritualis translated The Buddhist (New York. 1. The Mddhyamika employment of the mirror simile is continued in tantric ritual. p.32. So (the disciple) may accomplish this.but here we notice that the former theory of the deity appearing in the pure mind-the metaphorical mirror-is also involved. 68-70. a metaphor pushed by the Lankduatdra school. And must not let the dust collect. However. 1973).The Mirror asa Pan-Buddhist Metaphor-simile The body is the Bodhi tree.

Just like vajrasattvaon a mirror that is clear.w i th no more soj ourns i n hell. I discussed a passage found in the Pali scriptLrre Parinibbuna-silftct. "The Mirror-like p. ruin-f have enteredthe strearl.s heart is like a reflectedimase in a rnirror.I have alluded to the use of a girl for mirror divination according to the writings of Naropa connectedwith the Krilacakra cult. 42R.ose verses enjoin (the <lisciple) to understandin generalthat all "-fherefore. not liable to purgatory..q." C. In my previousstudy on mirrors of ladies.p. Noiv that you have so understood the dltarmasas without intrinsic nature and lvithout location. Knowledge. without turbulence. auetya-prasoda).az In old Buddhist literaturethe divining personcould be referredto as "mirror-face". themselves abide in the heart o1'thee. 41WayuaN. It also clearly sl-lorvs holv Buddhisrntakes prestigior-is or irnposing symbolsof secular life and transformsthcur into religioussymbols. 359.111r.vvnN.ormincomparably tlie aim of sentientbeings so they may be born as sonsof the protectors ! Tsori-kh.2ll-lZ. may you perf.uni. karnia]. lny son. oracles andDemons of Tibet (The Nneesrv-woJKowrrz. Tss PnporcrrvE MrRRon In my article on the rnirror-likeknorvledge. no m or e a n i m a l b i rth .evil destiny.a-pa goes on to explain: "Tl^. Buclclhist Insight out turbulence:ungraspable. truly arisen from causoand action lhetu and. "A Jottingon the Mirror." also rhe Buddhas. and in particular that the Vajrasattva dlvelling in one. no more disaster.' possessed of rvliich zr noble disciple p lanningu' oilld p re d i c tfo r s e l l ' o r s e l v e s'. inexpressible. . t956). in this u'orld I u ill reveal the rcirresentation of the lalv called 'mirror of the l. proceeding towards enlightenment. assured. Ananda. 4oW.rersal lords.142 '. srojkowitz shorvs that in Tibet a boy wasutilizedfor the purpose.n o mo rere a l mo f the hungryghosts..s are like a reflected image.' " The mirror of the law is explainedin that pali context as the four kinds of "faith with understanding" (auecca-pasdda. The passagescarcelydisguises what must have beena current practicein India of using mirrors for divination. pure.'. s.

" The hint is in tire line.lndia pp. 18. 1957).a8Then horv is one to avoid seeing one's face in the mirror? This is of courseeasierwith the Asian mirrors that are somewhat duller than our modern ones. trans. 4?Kosuo Yauauoro.(Bornbay. Religions7 (August 1967):9. Presumably one must void his olvu face. "The Mirror-like Knowledge. the story is part of the Bhaigajya-vastu 45U."43 "Story of King Adar6amukha.T. 120-28.vhich"dirty" the mirror' And when the face is no longer reflected. Dutt. which has a Sanskritcounterpart. The Kyogyoshinsho (Tokyo. See chapter2l. aaSee 1947). 1958). "Self-born. TsucHtol." But the realizationthat the usual face is not the true one does not in itself remove the false face. This magical use of the mirror agreeswith the description of the mirror-like knowledge as being free from configuration (dkara) and so able to reflect all forms. 1936).. J. This was alluded to in the Mahiyana Nirvaqa Sutra as cited in The Kyogyoshinsho:47 "O Great King! This is like a ntan who takes up a ntirror and seesin it his orvn self. asSee "significance of Dreams in India and Tibet. to eliminate the face from the mirror requires that a person appreciatethe value of so doing."aa This also appearsto be the "Just as meaning of the verse in the Sacldharntapun/ Mirror as a Pan-Buddhist Metaphor-Simile 143 In Pili there is a Jataka (previous-birthstory of tfte Buddha).Just theseare seen on his body."p. and then the mirror will be ciear to reflect other images which the hierophant will then interpret." This points to tfie denial of ordinary that one'sown in variouspassages the stress vision and agrees.'45 an irlage on the surfaceof a mirror. verse62.vith that lnirrored face is face must disappearfrom the rnirror." The disappearance of the face is irnplied by the terrninology of the void mirror. 1:l l4-15. WocnraRl and C. chap. of the Mtrlasarvastivdda-Vinaya. p.a6 Now.he sees the forms on his pure body." History of A. GilgitManuscripts(Srinagar. THonaas... so also the world is one SeeS no other beings. 46WnyuaN. he seesno other beings.3. Wavtt^nw. ed. while the wise u'ill see through and knou' this is not so. because the projection of phenornenalillusions r. The ignorant r. Self-born.vill think this is the true face. Saddharmapu?Sariku-sutrant (Tokyo. . 153. FnauctsandE."so also the world is seenon ilis body. JatakaTales. where N. it becomesitself the reflector. eds. "Story of King Mirror-Face. 356. How43H.

century.2. According as he manages not to be attached. The face of the reflected image looks hither." Tun-huang. for example. thinking it to be void. which will be referred to below as the "karma-mirror. vol. the manifestation of lust. Denying a person that way. he has become free from attachment by gazing at the reflected image in a mirror. sUudgment in TheAncient scenes with largekarma-minors are depicted (Kyoto: Hozokan. the appearance of the reflected image is his own mind. for the mirror and lamp reveal former karmic deeds for (final) judgmenl. his own face looks thither."sz This might be the same passage alternately trans4gPTT. BuddhistArts in CentralAsia ond Tun-Huang pl. He contemplates the color of his mind. 87:162. the yogin divests the objective mirror of the false face and replacesit with the colors of his mind. According introduction in a monograph to the English of the Shih-Wang-Sh€ngthereinby YushoTokushi. The disappearance of the face is also an omen of actual death according to the Sambarodaya-tantra.212. 504.' depicted in judgment scenesin Asian art. s2CnaRrEs p." So this voiding of the false face is a kind of symbolic death. and the appearanceof body to be his own mind. TheSurarigama Sfrtra(London.51 Charles Luk translatesin theSurangama Siltra: "The two habits from karma and disputation end in the exposure (of sins). 1962). In this process of transferring the mirror to his own face which is genuine. the genuine face is (also) void of entity. not beconfused with the composition andshould a nativeChinese is probably . They belongto the late T'ang.19of theSambarodaya-tantra. A and B. chap. 50PTT. The constructed colored features of the face are void of entity. Then he gazes at his reflected image in the mirror in front. p.1966). tenth of Thousand-Buddhas.s0 The visions which can then appear on the mirror of the mind are properly on what is ' called the "karma-mirror. Body and mind are like reflected images. This work Lvx. 182. Becausethere is no disagreement of mindfulness. the practice may be what is shown in Maitripada's Mahdmudrdsiddhdntopadei a : as First one worships the tutelary deity and goes through the sevenfold rite.144 Insight Buddhist ever."PaintedManuscripts these arepart of the pictures of theten kingsfoundat the Caves Ts'i-Ching. He contemplateshis mind to be a reflected image.

it is not impossible that these representations are of the shaman in his mystic flights. the jewel of a fire. reprint ed.2|2. called "mothers of worldly existence'. water. but later on in Buddhism the gandharua became the being in ttre intermediate state (antardbhaua) between death and rebirth.(Tib. sasgrub thabs kun btus (Dehra Dun.2 . and the notched board of the Maras. A. vol.7952). gg. in the veda the gandharua was a musician in the intermediate space. .ba one mirror in art representationsthat is difficult to explain is that depicted as held by the dancing musicians in paradise.3 2 6 .v. "A Jotting on the Mirror. thumb.lines 3-4. 55R.the mirror of karma and. which twice has the expression dddsa-pafihaan (questions put to the mirror). which E."az Surartgamasamadhisutra of Indian origin. for representationsof which one may consult Stein's work. 42 above). 53Asa Columbia University student. ed. More particularly about the predictive mirror itself. srid pa. 623. sun. from the same Silrafigamatext in the chinese Buddhist canon.N6ro-pdextends the items that can servethe samepurpose: "the entranceof the prognostic is said to be in the unreal mirror.7 5 .vol. 19. who in his frenzy can give prophecy." p. and in their left hands hold a pair of dice."ss The karma-mirror is mentioned in a native Tibetan sddhana of Yama (lord of the dead) where four fearful goddesses.le.. sword. (London. the Taisho Tripitaka.The Mirror as a Pan-BuddhistMetaphor-simile 145 lated: "There is a mirror reflecting a glaring.'56 Here. 3 3 6 Now. Also. Recherchessur I'dpopdeet le barde au Tibet (paris. (then) to ask guestions. moon. see Nebesky-Wojkowitz (n. If the beings depicted in those representations can be construed as gandharuas.. lamp. p 56See s.Shinjo Kawasakihastranslated forme. Ta (9)." so "having brought the deity down into the mirror. Rhys Davids and william stede.i ma mo) each hold the karma-mirror in their right hands along with the sack of diseases. sruN. Lamotte has translated under the title La concentration de la Marche Hdroique (Brussels1965). otaretua means "having brought down. lgsg). reveal the stored karmaandmake various affairs experienced. Also. pp. g4-g5. p p . which was decreed by the karma-mirror.the suggestionis that the mirror reflects the being's future destiny.l . "eddsa" jn The pali rext society's pali-English Dictionary. fol. 3 4 9 . 144a. pot. p. 3 7 2 . In the daytime it is not able to store the image . 1970).cand. T. on which the commentary states: "adase devatan otaretvd pafiha-pucchenan. the theory that the prognostic descendsinto the divinatory mirror is already in the Pdli scriptwe Digha-nikaya l. the destructive ball of thread. 6?Ascited in wavuaN.

146 BuddhistInsight Besides. 15.this is an extensionof the two-sidedmirror with manas reflecting the phenomenal world and buddhi as the upper or inward side that displays such knowledges as the supernormal faculties.60 Presumably this heart mirror is intended in a work on the Buddhist goddess Ndro-pdkini in which I found mention of a red twosided mirror rvhich has the capacity to display brightly all the chiliocosm. 58Tson-xna-pA's commentary called "Sbas pa'i don kun gsal ba.called (dkinis. 66.fols." PTT. (3) like a banner and like a javelin with a closedmouth (double) mirror. reprinted. The questionsare put to mirrors. In this chapter there is difficult mystical language associated with the q uaira along with a mirror. 6zln Tibetan: mda' dar me lori. 1970. A divination mirror is especially indicated in Tibetan iconography by accompanying arrow and silk streamer. no. 1969).61 Of course.vol. 40b-41a. 60Conversation with Gonsar Rimpoche. seTheCollected Ll/orksof Bu-ston. There are three mentioned: (1) in its own house. 157: 49-50.62 For Tt* word "thumb" refers to the thumbnail. a mirror is regularly placed in the position of the heart. The Tibetan author Bu-ston also has a phrase.I have studied chapter 23 of the Laghu-tantra of Saryvara. the inner forms such as the "beautiful form" (one of the six allotments of the Lord. 61TheDpal nd-ro mkha' spyod dbari mo'i lam rim pa gfiis kyi zab khrid ji ltar nospa'i zin bris iin tu gsanba gnasmkha''gro'i sfrinbcud(paper).58 As to where in the body itself would be located a divination mirror."mirror and mirror-like in the heart. Sometimes the syllable HR is put on the mirror-the syllable itself probably an abbreviation of hrdaya (heart). which are apparently one's own consciousness. according to advice "t "yt" given me in Calcuttain 1970. in Dharmasala."5e I have been told that the Tibetan oraclesalways wear a mirror on their chest to show their ability to capture any desired information. becauseon one side are the five "strands of desire" (the senseobjects) and on the other side. Bhagavat). . (New Delhi: International Academy of Indian Culture. along with Tson-kha-pa's commentary. there is a suggestionthat it is in the heart. and that when deities are shown by their apparel only. (2) like a sword along with a mirror. becausethe native Tibetan deity Zhang Blon has a mirror for his heart.

ereis the suggestionthat when a deity does hold a mirror there is a divination cult associated with that deity. He setsfour silver mirrors in the four directions of the TAM syllable.63 The chief tantric deitiesdo not cafiy a mirror. that from it rays emanate which perform the GsArnxaNoRaDavro-Nen and L. it may be useful to give an actual ritual which concerns evocation of the white Tard to obtain an omen. Reciting A-NU-TA-RA he imagines it [i. Hence. 132: "in one hand she held a bow. the goddessof the Tibetan epic Gesar of Ling.. one has generatedhimself into the momentary reproduction of the White Tara. In illustration. which I now translate from a native Tibetan sadhana:65 Homage to the gurus." oaAccording to the Kilacakra maodalain B. Bhattacharyya. He imagines a white TAM on the center of the opened lotus of his heart. In that state. Three times he prays that the omen may arise in immediacy.ed.e.pannayogdvali cf Mahapapdita Abhaydkaragupta(Baroda. Sa'i-ll1a-rno brtan-ma. tlr. Ga (3). tsSgrubthabskun btus vol. . After those theoretical considerations.rallymaking propheciesto the hero Gesar. West. South. 1949). The superhuman Lfe of Gesarof Ling (New York. As to the precept of having an omen arise in irnmediacy: Previously one has well performed in one session therealizationin contemplation of one's tutelary deity. the Tibetan Earth Goddess. fols. Ni. and from that syllable ablazing light which completelyfills the empty interior of his body. 1934). in the other a mirror. With rays emanated from that TA\4 he invites Tari from the Akanirtha heaven and he reabsorbs them.p. and North.lrrla yoNGonN. has such a divination mirror in her right hand. 438-39.6a But we have previously observedin a commentary by Ndrcpa that the Kalacakra has precisely such a divination subcult. its four syllables]like a reflectedimage in the sequence of the four mirrors of East. Then he imagines that whatever be his own aim is a white TAM. and in his retinue Amitdbha holds a mirror in one of his left hands.. This is presumably also the meaningof the mirror held by Manene. who was continr.TheMirror asa Pan-Buddhist Metaphor-Simile 147 example. the deity Kalacakra is depictedas holding a mirror among the objectsheld by four white hands among his left hands..

. After all. no. Notes on theThanksgivingOffering. Combining this with our previous indications. in their natural habitat these metaphors occur in a spread-out. CoNcruorNc Rnuanrs After the foregoing sampling of the numerous mirror passagesof Buddhist literature. because-I may venture to suggest-the mirror is a static image. occasional manner. It perhaps violates their metaphorical integrity to bunch them. Then he goes into deep sleep with the resting posture of the lion [i. for which a mirror fails. Even so. these mirror studies are not the most fascinating of study topics. D. each of whom would prefer the other to have stayed in his own book ! 'oMiscellaneous 68See F. It is plain that the above rite is tantamount to a yoga state of dream. .sincethe diviner has voided the phenomenal dream of his face in the mirror. he imaginesthat he swallowsthis TAM and that it is absorbed into the TAM of his heart. in which the four silver mirrors become the basis of the prophetic vision.. And there are sounds to hear. (Later) he prepares a thanksgiving offering66 to the venerableGoddess. and in particular perform all of one's own aim. 1 (1956):58-71. and so revelatory of Buddhist attitudes or instructive on how the educated Buddhist would structure his argumentson crucial issuesof his religion and associated philosophies with a metaphor-simile."Central 2. ayoga state of dreamless sleep. and imagines that then the rays of this TAM becomelike a meteor which penetrates the middle of his forehead.e. or omen. the rite should be preceded by a kind of symbolic death. and imagines that his desired thing doubtlessarisesas a dream.such a study as I have made tends to place the mirror metaphor in a tiresome role. AsiaticJournal .148 Insight Buddhist aim of all beings of the kingdom. on his right sidel. Lamaist Notes. jostling their relatives. Besides. I. I suppose it would not be possible to find another Buddhist metaphor-simileso enduring throughthe vicissitudes of religious history. With fierce craving of imploring the siddhi [rnagical successl. Lpsstuc.

the Bodhisattva of the Tenth Bodlrisattva Stagel who have the mind of enlightenment [bodhicittal free from proliferating imagination [prapafica] and have gained the immaculate mirror of prajfrdfrom their own two collections [of merit and knowledge]. the 1968 one was published by Hong Kong University Press.The \4irrorasa Pan-Buddhist Metaphor-simile ApprNorx Tirn PnnrNA-MnnoR : DoESrr HAVE AN INDTAN OnrcrN walter Liebenthal rendered great serviceto students of Chinese Buddhism and Buddhism generally by his translation. candrakirti employs the mirror simile in the senseof simultaneous appearanceof all parts. and it does not reveal itself concretely to the ordinary persons [prthagjana] attended with proliferating imagination. the equivalent language is the mirror wherein the reflections of all forms are seen simultaneously (yugapat) and free from discursive thought (uikalpa). as well as to show the appearanceof a divine body. 6sThe Lankdvatdra Sutra. 1956).67 Seng-chao was a youthful discipleof the famous Kumarajiva in A.D. In Tson-kha-pa's commentary (the part on the Tenth Stage of the Bodhisattva) the commentarial sentence is as follows.chao Lun: The Treatises of sengchao. It is usually taken for granted that there is non-Buddhist influence on seng-chao. and years later.6s rhis Lsnkduqtdra passagealso speaksof the Niqyanda-Buddha associatedwith the Akaniqtha mansion. The Book of chao. first published in 1948. 68TsoN-rura-pA's commentary called "Dgons pa rab gsal.' pTT. by his revision of the same. 401. can this mysteriousprajfid-mirror be traced to Indian Buddhism? Near the end of his Madhyamakduatdrq. Earlier in his Madhyamakiiuatdrq (self-commentary.Gs "This Sarpbhogakaya revealsitself only to the attainers of the state [i.) candra67The 1948 publication was Monograph 13 of Monumentd serica (Catholic University of Peking). 55. ed. Bunyiu Nanjio (Kyoto. which is obviously this scripture's equivalent to the sambhogak[ya of other texts.e. to show the nature of enlightenment.. His wonderful work has many obscure statements about prajfia and some in particular about prajfid as a dark mirror.published in 1968. 1g." Passing to the Lankduatdra-sutra. .. 154: 105-4.

that the terminology "dark mirror of praifra" originated in China. TrIn particular. 54): "A perfect void where (and decays)such is." Again (p. for lack of Indian Buddhist texts using this terminology. although we are reminded of the mirror-face of the Pdli Jdtakas. author Klkai seems On the other hand. except for the word "dark" applied to the mirror. Gu4abhadra translated the Lankavatara into Chinese some years after Seng-chao's passing.the transcendent nothing grows realm as it shows in the dark mirror of Prajfla. . and would have consulted eagerly.7l But as a disciple of Kumdrajiva. Seng-chao's "perfect void" and "without cognition" afe the equivalent for the statementsin those other works "boclhicitta free from proliferating imagination" and "free 'fhe closest an Indian work comes from discursive thought. although these particular works were not available to Seng-chao. and Seng-chao should have had a number of other Buddhist works already translated accessible into his language. 174-75) speaks of purifying the face of proiiid from nescience(auidya).it may bepresumed that Tson-kha-fibetan Buddhism pa's term "projfid-mirror" derives from earlier that was influenced in this matter by ChineseBuddhism. the celebrateo Japanese not to have received or adopted this dark mirror terminology. for passage Lam ?0According in Tson-kha-pa's to the citationof Candrakirti's rim chen mo. Seng-chaoshould have had accessto.70 Now Seng-chao writes (Chao-lun. New York. the encyclopedic Buddhist work. these statements agree perfectly with the fbregoing materials from the Mddhyamika tradition of Candrakirti and the Tibetan commentary by Tson-kha-pa. 67): "Prajfla reflects what is totally concealed. Yet does so rvithout cognition. namely in the vipasyana (discerning the real) section in my MS translation ./tsOa Insight Buddhist \-/' kirti (on 6. the Mahaprajridpdramitdidstra. Calming the Mind and Discerning the Real (Columbia University. That is. and with the Yogdcdra tradition of the Lankduatdra-sutra. therefore." (prainapdramita) a mirror is Insight of Perfection this calling to perhaps Candrakifii's praifia-face. which Kumdrajiva is credited with having rendered into Chinese. perchance. (1978)." Indeed. while the state to which this terminology applies may have already been described in the Buddhist literature of Indian origin that was available to Seng-chao.p. It does seem.

s.The Mirror as a Pan-Buddhist Metaphor-simile rsl he writes in the safite context of the Buddha's enlightenment wisdom: "Just as all the forms are reflectedin a clean mirror on a high stand. What Buddha does not possess such a clean mirror?"?2 ?zH.Inagaki. so it is with the Tathagata's Mind-mirror." Asia Major n. ."Kukai's Sokushin-Jobutsu-Gi (Principle of Attaining Buddhahood with the PresentBody). 17 (1971-72):215. being sereneand shining on all without perversion or mistake. The clean mirror of Mind hangs high on the top of Dharmadhatu.

jfidnadariana). Sanskrit jfidna and caksus). 'If Iwere both to conceive(mystic)manifestations andto see .Skt. it is possible to present here the main ideas by means of trenchant passages chosen from a wide variety of sources. when being a bodhisattuaI was not completely enlightened. a series of experiences occurred beginning traditionally with the expressions o'knowledge arose. The stress begins with the first sermon of Buddhism. while the present essayis relatively brief. vision arose" eali fidrya and cakkhu. before my awakening. fidqtadassana. I. "setting into Motion the wheel of the Law". The same point is made in other sermons with the expression 'oknowledge and vision" (p. Monks. THE Elnly THEony op Vlsrox aNo CoNsrsrENT Trxrs It is well known that every version of the first sermon. "At Gaya"): 'oMonks. is among the most important topics of Buddhist thought from its inception to the present. A most important passage occrurs in the Ahguttara-Nikdya (Book of Eights.7 THE BUDDHIST THEORY OF VISION The Buddhist treatment of vision. whether meant concretely or metaphorically. it occurred to me. I conceived (mystic) manifestations (obhdsa)but did not see(mystic) forms (rupa). especiallyin terms of eyes. has the Buddha's explanation that when he oriented his mind to each of the four Noble Truths.

The supernormalfaculties of both the memory of former lives and the (knowledge of) passin g away and rebirth purifies the actions of mind". for example in the Bodhisattua-pitraka. .1 9 4 8 ) p .. and he r.the fifth is categorized by vision (dariana). jvi. 3998). CoouaRASwAMy and I. iii. 120. part of the Ratnakflta collection:z lANaNoa K. The emphasison vision was continued in other kinds of terminology: "he who seesthe Dhamma sees me. f. Mil. where (Derge ed. in that caseknowledge and vision would be better purified in me'. The passage furthermore groups this ability with the memory of past lives. Mdo ltgrel.9l. The supernormalfacultiesof both divine hearing and knowing the make-up of others' minds purifies the actions of speech. Leiden.It. diuya-caksus) and so constitutesthe categoryof "vision". the knowledge of passing away and rebirth. l77a-6. suggesting that this memory is an inward-directedknowledgewhile the divine eyeis an associated faculty that is directedoutwards in the lnanner of an eye. p. l97l). B. (/mnon par 6es pa rnams lasbii ni sespas rab tuphye bairo/Lna pa ni mthon bas rab tu phye baho / rdzuhphrul rhnon par sespa gcig gis ni / lus kyi las yons su dag go / lhahi rna ba dah/ pha rol gyi sems ses pahi mnon par Ses pa gfriskyis ninag gi las yons sir dag go/ snon gyi gnas rjes su dran pa dan/ hehi hpho dan/ skye ba mnon par Sespa giiis kyis ni yid kyi las yons su dag go /).23. Gotama The Buddha ( L o n d o n . 73). 23." It is quite clear that "knorvledge" is going with the conception (saiirid) of manifestations and that "vision" is going with the seeingof forms. The copulative interpretation of the cornpoundiidnadassana is continued down the centuries to the commentary Arya-Daiabhftmiuydkhydna. 19-5.) we read: "Four of the supernormalfaculties (abhiiiid) are categafizedby knowledge (jfidna). HonNrn.r The Mahayana equivalent to this is found in many places. ff. namely that the fifth supernormalfaculty. . Vol.attributed to vasubandhu in the Tibetan canon (Tohoku Cat.vho sees me seesthe Dhamma" (S.. Historia Religionum yol. zThe passage occursin Tibetan in Photo ed.154 BuddhistInsight (mystic) forms. The one supernormalfaculty of magical ability Qddhi) purifies the actions of body.and I have included the translation in my "Buddhism". This interesting passage agreeswith rvhat is well established. is otherwisecalled the "divine eye" (dibba-cakkhu. 2 Brill. No.

"before the eyes") according to the ancient Buddhist prescription.the third Noble Truth.and the eyeof insight (paiiiiacakkhu). by the o'eye" of insight (pafifid.TheBuddhist Theory of Vision 155 Whatever is the meaning of Dependent Origination. Having collecteda number of passages on the group of five. The two the original three (marytsa-. and insight (paiind).and it is seen. Falk has discussed these eyes in terms of the bodies rvhich they respectivelysee. whoever seesDependent Origination. FAtr.seesrightly.1.the one who sees in the manner of Signlessand Non-apprehension. of Cessation (nirodha). Nama-Rupa and Dharma-Rupa (University of Calcutta.whatever is the meaning of Dharma. and prajfra-cak. sees the Tathdgata. 114-115. and accordingly fully understandingin the senseof Thusness. the divine eye sees the manomayakdya ("body made of mind"). is the rneaning of Tathagata.prajfia). and the eye of insight "sees" Nirvdla. I have noticed that some lists have the "eye of knowledge" (jfiana-caksus) as a substitutionfor the "eye of clharnma. whoever seesDharma.pp. olndrabhUti's commentary on the SrFSarppulatilaka-tantra. The eye of flesh sees the Journal of the American Oriental Society. 89. niruanain its oldest sense is attained when it is seen. meditatiot (samddhi). must be realized directly (sdkgdt. is the meaning of Dharn-ra. that are added are the eye of dharma and the Buddha eye. seesDharma. The same doctrine about Nirvaqa being of utmost imporiance for understanding Nagarjuna's position is held lI."s In fact. the divine eye(dibbacakkhu). Derge Tanjur.accordingto the suggestion of our next section. Therefore. TsB TuRan Eyss AND rHE Frve Eyrs The three eyesare well-known in Pdli literature as the eye of flesh (marysacakkhu). Besides. 4Manyra. What is that 'oscarcely anything"? It is the Signlessand the Non-apprehension. seeing that way. . Vol.a The five eyesare an expansion in Mahdydna Sanskrit works of diuya-. She understandsfrom her study of Pali literature that theseeyes constitute the successive spheresor fruits of the Buddhist ascension treated in the three instructions. thesebooks took s"Contributions to the Mddhyamikaschool of Buddhism". 1943). Thus.still one seesscarcely anything. respectivelyof morality (sila). Also.

there being no personality (in view).defining them as follows: "He has the 'eye of insight' toward the object which is the selflessness of person and nature (pudgala-and dharma-nairdtmya).' and .'eye of Buddha'. both seeing forms in past and future: (1) that born of past action (karma). Ma.)also sets asidethesethree eyes.. Sesphyin. divine eye. . tr) states: "The three eyes are .ayamatinirdeia-sutra (Derge Tanjur. Ga. Mdo lrgrel. 6I have included this summary in my "Buddhism".seeingthem in the absolute sense (paramdrthatas). 3817. Ci. knowledge eye. (b) The divine eye is of two kinds. the eye of the gods.' (f spyan gsum ni chos kyi spyan dan/ 6esrab kyi spyan dah / sans rgyas kyi spyan no/). and which seesthe sentient beingspassing away from here and going to various destinies in accordance with past actions. and (2) that born of contemplation (bhauand) in the samddhi of a yogin. 75b-6. and eye of Buddha. The 'eye of dharma' is toward the realm of dharma alone in the conventional sensewhen there is the appearanceonly of dharmawhile personality (pudgala) is void. The omniscience concerningall forms of the knowable is calledthe'eye of Buddha'. Historia Religionum. states the five eyes as eye of flesh.ff.Derge Tanjur.156 Buddhist Insight the "eye of insight" and added the "eye of dharma" and "Buddha eye" to make a Mahiydna set of three eyes. A complete explanation of the five eyes from the yogdcdra standpoint is in Sthiramati's commentary on the Mahdydnasutrdlarykdra (Bodhipakqya chapter) from which the essentials are given here:6 (a) The eye of flesh seesforms in present time. thus omitting the eye of dharma and having in its place the knowledge eye. Thus vasubandhu's commentary on the Ak. (d) The eye of dharma understands without impediment all Rgyud lrgrel.eye of dharma. Kamalasila's commentary on the vojracchedikd (Tohoku No.25la-2. Vol. eye of insight. l5b-6. (c) The eye of insight is the non-discursive knowledge which understands the individual and the general characteristic of the dharmas." (lean zag dan chos la bdag med pahi yul la ni Sesrab kyi spyan mnaho/kun rdzob tu chos tsam du snan ba iid de gan zag ni ma yin na zes gan zag sroir ste/ chos tsam gyi yul la chos kyi spyan no / sesbya thams cad rnam pa thams cad du mkhyen pa ni sans rgyas kyi spyan Lesbya ste/).' 'eye of insight. ff.

ff. f. Yol.The BuddhistTheory of Vision 157 the scripture. those dharmas arise void of self-existence (suabhdua). 23b-1. rvhile the "eye of insight" ranges in all forms. "All visible forms" includes (cf. Abhidharma-koia. whether with or rvithout flux. 56b-7. namely visible and invisible. Since Mahdydna scriptures insist that in the absolute sense the natures (dharma) neither arise nor pass away. . ordinarily visible only to beings of the same class. On the other hand. Since they "arise" a prophecy can be made for them. (e) The eye of a Buddha understands all dharmas. Zi. understandsthe stream of consciousness of persons in the senseof discriminating whether it is an ordinary person. basing his Gultyasomdja-tantra remarks also on Asanga's Yogacdrabhilmi. and so the eye of insight is not prophetic.presumably becausethose beings also have a "visible form" of a sort. f.explains that with the "divine eye" one sees the six classesof "passion gods" in the ?These remarksabout prophecystem from the Pitaputrasamdgama-sfitra (chapter on the Tutita gods). Vol. Tson-kha-pa. ff. saryd-iiidna). in his Yogdcdrabhumi-uiniicayasanxgrahant (Derge Tanjur. Furthermore. or a Bodhisattva and if so then on which of the ten Bodhisattva Stages.. and realizes directly every knowable field. turn out to be concerned with dharma or dharmas.). III. Cha. the eyesof insight atd dharma can be grouped together as constituting two levels of "discriminative knowledge" (pratyaueknamely in the absolute and in the conventional sense.? Asanga. It can be observedin Sthiramati's treatment that all three of the eyes which have been grouped above as a Mahayana set. whether obstructing or non-obstructing. rro prophecy can be made for them.) compares the "divine eye" with the "eye of insight" and explains that the "divine eye" seesall visible forms (nidariana-rupa). in his Don gsal commentary on the (Lhasa ed. l4a-b) the forms of beings in the intermediate state (antardbhaua).or one of the eight classes of disciples(on the four paths or in the fruits of the four paths). asreadin the Tibetan version. whether constructed or unconstructed. understands the state of Arhat ensuing from the "diamond-like samddhi" and the freedom frorn fluxes of the Tathdgatas. and seeing the dharmas in the conventional sense(sarpurtitas). those scripturesassertthat in a conventional sense. Sems tsam.

This eyeof a Buddha is mentionedin a famous passage in the saryyuttaIt{"includingthe sixteenhells.) setsforth three manomaya-lrdya: (l) the mental body rvith stabilization in the pleasure of samddhi (samddhisukhasamdpatti-manomaya).y'a. III:2 (1959). This particular manomaya appearc to be the first of the Lankduqtdra-siltra set. understandingBrahma's entreaty. Follorving up the previous remark by tralk that the divine eye seesthe nnttoma.this would be the manoma))a-kayawhich is seen by the divine eye.f. The second is prevarent on the Eighth or Superior Stage of the Bodhisattva. The commentary by Jfrdnavajra shovrs that the first of these. it is worthwhile to inquire what would be this manomayql(71y. rlr. (2) the mental body which completelycomprehends the intrinsicn ature of the dharmas (dharmasuabhduduabodha-manomaya) . p. which the meditating monk draws from his own body with identical form. 440.vol.4ac-41a. does not involve transmutation of the basis (dirayapardurtti) of the eightfold set of perceptions (uijiiana). It would be the one treated by Paravahera vajirafld4a as the one of the Digha Nikaya i.andall other beingsin the "realm of desire. p.a-kayawould involve the Buddha eye. 77. and Gandharva. (3) the mental body which performs the instigations natural to its class (nikdvasahajasarytskdrakriya-manomaya). with a body comparable to that (of the Buddhas) one proceedsto all the Buddha Realms. and. beginning. The third manoma). 1962). In the Abhidharma-koia. IncloIranian Journal. "Then the Exalted one.qvanpnn varmaiiiANA ManATHERA. among the three given a prominent place in the Lariliduottirq-st1tra.rn. Since the second manoma))a-kaya of the Lankduatdra-stTtracomprehends the intrinsic nature of the dltarmas. Buddhist Meditation (Colombo. in Theory and Practice . l19: The sanskrit text (136-7. I (the Brahma suttas). the being of antardbhaua is called manomaya.sambhauei. I have sumrnarized this S[tra's treatment of that kind of body in rny "studies in yama and Mara". prevalent up through the Seventh Bodhisattva stage.this would include both the "eye of insight" and the "eye of dharma" as metaphoricaleyes.@ Buddhist Insight "realm of desire" (kama-dhdtu).8 of his compassion sP.

If one becomesbright. this "eye of insight" is said to look upon the voidness. 55. Tson-kha-pa makes reference to the same point in his commentary on Candrakirti's Madhyamakduattira. (lmie sman bskus pas mig gsal du 1:gro yi/mig bdon pa min pa blin du ston frid mthon batri mig sman bskus pasI blolii rnig sal du hgro ba gyi/ye Seskyi mig fdon pa min par Sesna / l. when one applies the eye ointment for seeingvoidness and the eye of discrimination (buddhi) is not nullified.this "eye of knowledge" is the 'oeye of dharma". Photo ed. in the Japairo' oBy esephoto edition of the Tibetan canon. wllen I rvasreading'fibetan literature at th. Vol.eUniversity of California I asked tlie Mongolian Lama named Dilou.Buddha'sEye over toward all sentientbeings. Vol. . the eye (itself) is not nullified.which in the oldest senseis the voidness of self and of what belongs to self.what eye or eyesare employed by the celestial Bodliisattva Avalokite5varawhen hc surveys the beings in the six destinies(gali)? Sorneyears ago. dharma. As previously mentioned.. knor.rledge understandsthat (i.looked dor. it is not nullified when the "eye of insight" is operating.a Gegen Flutukhtu if AvalokiteSvaralooked at the world rvith the "eye of knowledge. (he realizes that) not rightly applied is the disparaging viewpoint that there is no knowledge (jiiana) in drya-sanfipatti". and Buddha rab dan chos dan sansrgyas kyi spyan eyes".. insight. divine. the world.e.(l1a dan lha dan Ses gyis gzigs pa rnams kyis so/).rphags pahi rnffam gzag tu ye Sesmed ces pahi skur l:debs kyi lta bden pa mi gos so/). In the M6dhyamika school." This shows that the original conception of a "Buddha's eye" is the eyewith which a tsuddhalooks at the lvorld aiter his attainment of CornpieteEnlightenrnent.vs the implication of the foregoing remark).238-2: "When one applies eyeointment to the eye and the eye becomesbright. In the sameway. 238-1: gazes'means.. by the fleshly." FIe replied that Avalokite6vara and every Buddha sees with all five eyes. For example. the eye of knov. p. p. There is a textual confirmation of this remark in Abhayakaragupta's Sarltpula-tilakq commentary called Amndya+naiijari..The Buddhist Theorv of Vision 159 with a. Then the question arisesof whcther one seeswith only one eye at a time or can seesimultaneo::slylvith more than one of those eyes.

so may the Buddhas dispel your fllm of ignorance. Emeneau on hissixtieth birthdav year). ff): (The guru) placesin a gold or silver vesselthe golden eyeointment consisting of butter and honey.. I have also noticed a number of ritual passages about "eye ointment"in the Amoghapdiakalpardjd (No. While the disciple imagines on his eyes the syllable PRAM. f. Vol. Tson-kha-pa. Ca. reprinted here. (the guru) applies (the eye ointment) with a probe (ialdkd). The rite of eye ointment is presented in his snags rim chen mo (Peking block print. in his Dban don ("Meaning of Initiation").ajya-rdja) with his probe removed the worldly film.'oJust as the King of Healing (bhai.OTn. radiating light. There are other tantric rituals about the eyes which involve imagining the syllables MA changing into a sun in the right eye and T. Studies in Indian (Volume presented Linguistics to Prof. For example.Remove the film that is on the diamond eye! Hril. the generous king received his eyesback through the rite of truth.anavajra's Karunodaya-ndma-bhduandjapauidhi (No. I 630 in Tohoku cat. pp. 365-369. my son!'.) e"TheHindu-Buddhist Rite of Truth-An Interpretation". even when interrupted by mountains. 2524 in Cat.M. .45a-2. 686 in the Tohoku catalog).A changing into a nroon in the left eye.) and in Jf. B.r".) And he repeatsthe verse of the vairocqndbhisarybodhi-tantra. writes: ooBy the rite of eye ointment one dispels the obscuration of the nesciencefilm over the eye of discrirnination and generatesthe supernormal power of the 'divine eye'. and aHO in between the two. Lhasa collectedworks. Poona. All around for a hundred yojanas.e Arya-Sura's formulation of the tale in the Jataka-mald has this verse in the words of Indra: And there will arise an unhindered power of your two eyesto see. 278b-3. 1968. reciting OM VAJRANETRA APAHARA PATALAM HRIH (. such a ritual occurs in Kukuri-p a' s M ahdmdydsddhanama qt (al aui dhi (No. f." (/mig sman gyi cho gas blo yi mig ma rig pahi lin tog gis bsgrib pa bsal nas lhahi mig gi mnon Sesskyed pa danfi.160 Buddhist Insight IU. THs Eyss rN BuDDHrsr CULT AND IcoNocRApHy In the celebrated story of King Sibi.

According to the Bhqdrakalpita-sutra.rpi. . Vol. Abhayakaraguptaquotesthe scriptural passage:"O Mafrju5ri.r0 The urltd-koia in this senseof an eye is presurnably equivalent to the "third eye" depicted frequently on tantric deitiesin Asian art. illuminating all the worlds.TheBuddhist Theory of Vision 161 Concerning the "diamond eye" (uajranetra) the tantric Candracalled Pradikirti in his commentary on the Guhyasantdja-tantra podyotana (Derge Tanjur. cit.268-3) and hereidentifies (No..e. the usnisa and the urnd-koia as well as the remaining thirty-two (laksarya) function as a sort of eye. Rgyud hgrel. and that is the hog gsal bas rnam par dag pas gzigs pa gan yin de ni rdo rje spyan teD.sraddltabatadhqna-siltra in Mahdyana literature cat. Ha.aotthe crown of his head. The same again in his Muniauthor quotes the last portion of this passage it as matdlarykdra(Photo ed. In the Amndya-mafijari(op. especiallyTibetan. the Tathdgata seeswith the u. 10Ascited by Hjam dbyans bzad pabi rdo rje inhis Mthak dpyod of Chapter 8 of the Abhisamayqlarnkara(Tibetan text). That relatesto numerous passages narrating that from the Buddha's ugqti. 101 . p. of Mahdvajradhara) seesby means of a perfectly pure 'diarnond eye'.seesthe sentient beings passing away and beigg reborn. 55..a.the light emanatingfrom theu$nisa is the fruit of the "perfecti on of insight" (pr ajiidpdr arnitd). Vol. 201 in theTohoku coming from tl'te. he sees with the urpa-koia.answeringto the characteristics description of the "diamond eye"." (/dehi spyan ni bright light. p.). likewise. 245-2). also proceedingto a good destiny or a bad destiny. by means of the six supernormal faculties which see everywhere. Likewise. 94a-I) writes: "His eye (i. in regard to that. or from the urryd-koia it the middle of his forehead there arose streamsof light. and the like.' so also with each characteristic". the Tathagata. Hence.

becausethe Brhadaranyaka-Upani.ADITION INrnooucrroN In the Mahd-niddna-suttantaof the Digha-Nikdya. the "dim Windows of the Soul . since there are two distinct and contrasting interpretations of the series. without concern for particular persons. The Buddha announcedthat it both looks deep and is deep. This signalsthe difficulties which authors of the past and present have experienced with the Buddhist formula." and since both interpretations are required for understanding the formula. not thro'. The first. The second..2) says.8 DEPENDENT ORIGINATION_: THE INDO-TIBETAN TR. attempts to develop the Buddhist Doctrine. In order to demonstratethis incontiand karma in successive ." As William Blake puts it. leads you to Believea Lie When you seewith. "The gods love that which is hinted at darkly. In this casethe Buddha was on the side of the gods.. the Buddha reproved Ananda for saying that while Dependent Origination looks deep it is clear to him. This essay claims that Dependent Origination could not become clear in such a way. and hate that which is uttered directly. showsthe role of defilement lives. recognizing individuals. as one might see a book. 2. and the second "lives of a person. the Eye"-because Dependent Origination not quite "is" and not quite "isn't".the first one which I label "discovery and seeing". They considered Dependent Origination as something before their eyes to see in clear (IY.

4Asarigaexpoundstwo kinds of nescience (avidya)in the part of his Yogdphoto edition of the Tibetan Japanese carabhumicalled Viniicaya-sarpgrahaltt. p. craving (ty.pp. J.ti"i"g. S[gtonr_Iida. 445-457. six sensebases(saddyatanq). where nescience is labelled as a defilement. name-and-form (namarilpa).164 BLrddhist Insight nuance of mv previous published materialsl on the subject.n Two KrNns nd. Thdorie des douze causes I.qyarILLEKE. . for a number of views from Buddhist tex-tg. 4. Knrru. 10. birth (jAD. Jay.for a Pali specialist's evaluationof the theories. and suffering (du/tkha). and whenever I is absent. 1963). and for the Tibetan part especiallyrely on the Dependent Origination section of Tson-kha-pa's Latn rim chen mo. B is absent" (imasmiryt asati idary na hoti). for someof the older Europeantheories. 3Cf. nescience (auidyd). pp. N. Eowrno J. motivations (sorpskdra). Thought with reprints).8.ll. old age and death (jardmarana). Early Buddhist Tlrcory. 449. I mention here A.l The standard sequence of twelve such conditions in Sanskrit and my English translation is this: l. 12.B is present" (imasmtryt sati idary hoti).. indulgence (updddna). VarrBn PousslN.2. perception (uijfidna).^DENr The essentialpoint of dependent (pratitya) origination (samutpada) is the requirementof a condition (pratyaya)for somethingto arise.esp. 1913). 3. of Knowledge (London. gestation (bhaua). for a still valuablesurveyof the scholastic theoriesof the causal chain. thearticles referred to below in notes 38or 46. zAmongthe many treatments. 7.I stumbled upon a possibility of trvo kinds by finding in Asanga's Yogdcdrabhilmithat there is a nescience"unmixed with defilement" and in another placethat Dependent origination can be classifiedin terms of defilem ent (klesa). sense contact (sparia). it would lead me too far afield to deal with the rnultitudeof theories advancedby sympathetic authors or to counter the hostile criticism that the Buddhist forrnula does not make sense.karma. Early Buddhist Theorl. anclfor a numberof lTFLq. T'. 105-109. B. K. oRrcrNarroN ":".qrlrrrrr. 5.a Evenrcf.and51.andthework in Note 37. for the basic statements and canonicalreferences:'owhenever A is present. feelings (uedcmd). in a mi-meggl4phed paper-eqtitlg{ "r6f. the causation chapter. The History of Buddhist (1933.-couiu-u's wheel of causation--an lnterpretationof the dvadaffiffi9d3. Buddhist Philosophy in India and ceylon(India reprint). Tnovrls.2 I shall report the Indian tradition through the well-known Phli or Sanskrit works. f.rqd). 6.

for the volume Bucldhiststudies in I{onour of the venerablewalpola sri Rahula (Gorclon Frazer. 154-255. The last two l{oble Truths of Cessationand path are associated with the second kind of Dependent origination concerned with lives of individuals including the specializedones who follow the Path. 2s. 1966. presentingthe twelve membersin reverseorder: "with the condition of birth. which they seemnot to have taken. wisc.40: "The one who seesDependent origination. I took the first kind as discovered by Gautama Buddha and as unconcerned with particular beings. of ribetan canon. later I cite various passages.1. seeingit one way does not prevent anyonefrom seeingit another way.p. The second kind is applied to lives of an individual rvhosekarma is differentiated or unshared.220-223. to point out that Nagdrjuna's association of voidness (iilnyata) with Dependent origination makes it possible to see Dependent origination as any one of the four Noble Truths. Nov. 101. xxlv of which is availablein a draft translarion into Engtishby Ryushin Uryuzu. vol. sAmong the commentaries that do not face up to the issue is Canrlrakirti. xxIV of which is tra'slated into Frenchby Jacques prajfitrpraclipa.) and as any other one of the four Truths. l9g0). ii.for a seminarin Madhyamika philosophy.Nescience and Insight According to Asahga's Yogacdrabhumi".5 SinceDependent origination is not areal thing. May (Paris. Hence I offer this explanationin terms of the present article: The first two Noble Truths of suffering and source are associatedwith the first kind of Dependent origination that dealswith beingsas a whole and not with particular ones.s Madhyamaka-kdrilcdxxrv. pp. o monks. As to the "seeing" itself.pp. I. Abhayakaragupta'sMunimatalarnkaraphoto ed. precisely (eua ca) as cessation and path. The First Kind o.. My division also follows the implications of Ndgdrjuna..Vol. with the canon.e. 28-1-5.London. This essay is published in this volume.The Dependent Origination Indo-Tibetan Tradition 165 tually. there is old age and death.ff.Bhavaviveka's the chap. seestltis (idam) precisely (caiua) as suffering and the Source. 11. i._." This verse afforded the commentators a splendid opportunity. and n. . 110. locally distributedin Madison. esp.s Prasannapada. Sarpyutta-Nikaya.f DependentOriginatiort There is a celebrated account in Pdli. the chap. 7959).. I gatheredmaterialsfrom many placesof his Yogaccirabhumi and organizedthem in e papcr . one can seeit as the "tree of suflerin g" (infra. cf.

p. B1'halphala Deities. he taught it... the TarhagataffiiisTics(/akio." And finally. "Did I live in the past?" and so on.." anp_ "Lord. . This the Tathagata has discovered. having rightly understoodit. whereupon it became the Dharma.t Here.Whoever." Since DeiF-dent @nadffi.le of dhammc. sees the ciltantnta. he teachesit.gata is made in the Mahiyina scripture "Meeting of Father and Son" (Pitdputrasamdgama-sutra). doesnot let his mind run to past tirne." there is also the pithy utterance. one understands the . is 'riue - Tnusnesil Dharmadhatu.4.. Thiorie de-sdoy4s ggU-es. it teaches: " saysin the Vakkali-sutta. The important feature of this passageis that the discovery and concordant teaching of DependentOrigination is not concernedwith whether Tathagatas arise or r. chapter on "Instruction of the ff. Satistambasutra in La llarlir PoussrN.. 23.. thinking. or an essentialor salient part thereof. there is birth. so it is the Buddhist Doctrine." And then.ii. the continuance of dhamma. by understanding De* pendent Origination. "Whoever sees Dependent Origination. . As to the meaning of such expressions as "continuance of dhamnta.existedin the past. 70 : yo.J-f-t[ aM ed with whether lathagata$ ari$_q." The foregoing suggeststhat the Buddha's discovery of Dependent aCf.Vakkali'seesthecl|nmn."6 There is nothing mysterious about this: Once the Tathagata had discovered Dependent Origination. etc. the Arya disciple. 181-1. End fbhnafroli). But also the Sar.120. the having of this for condition.nq!." p. there remains this realm (dhatu).it fdlffisTbqill-rg not coniernedwith whether dhqmm-(singll-lar orQlilral) ariles olnot.vhether sentient beingsarise. . Att dharmus are also bhutakoli. This must be the Dharma among the Three Jewels." "ru.. blt<jglel4lrliurs:ffi@g! to'a-Eor^o.n po{yari. Yol. wtrite (Majjffia-Nikaya. l9[ITs in a discourse by Sariputrg/ inlhe Pali Gml attributed to Buddha \/ TPhotoedition of Tibetan Canon.nyutta-Nikaya. sees the Dharma. A similar identificationof dharma (the Sanskrit equivalent to the Pali dhamma) with the Tathd.and having discoveredit and fully understood it.SeeSme..@. this he fully understands. "Whether Tathagatas arise or do not arise. all dharmas are the Tathagata.166 Insight Buddhist condition of gestation.the rule of dhamma. Therefore. will exist in the future. O monks. I. after a discussion of Dependent Origination.

gives (i. 2) which has no mention of such matters as karma and transmigration.ideas. sensecontacts. Nidana Book. pleasantgukha). the discourse to Kaccdyana (S3nqyotlu{ikayg=iii. it avoids any direct implications of defilement (kleiq).etc. ii. In particular. It is usual to have three kinds..I will teach you. painful (duhkha).of which "feelings" and "ideas" are the first two. Note4. ordinary ones like love and hate or supernal ones like Buddha natures. Again. He expressly the failure of attentionto the Truth of mentions Sufferilg. Along the same lines. or of particular dharmas.Dependent Origination-TheIndo-Tibetan Tradition 167 Origination involved no perceptual reach of particular sentient beings. volitions.e. followed by "motivations" and "perceptions"." hence also avoids such formulations as "The Tathd. It is usual to have.not mixedwith HereAsanga two kindsof "unmixed nescience" "the confusion defilement). and neither prinful nor pleasant. the detailingof feelings as born from the six sense basesis not standard." To further clarify this kind of Dependent Origination. as does the SAlistambasiltra." or "He is unhappy. underthe heading of the "unmixednescience. this Sutta has for 'oname"the five items. leaving out "perceptions". the four "formless" aggregates. Asanga also denies that ignorance of the four Truths is defiled since it does not involve waywardnessof thought (citta-uiparydsa).lo Listen to sThis passage is in the Yogacarabhumi in thesame referred to above. sThat is. of not comprehending" conand the "undefiled fusion". by explaining nescienceas ignorance of any of the four Noble Truths. I shall translate below a Pdli Sutta (Sapyutta-Nikdya. "name" includesonly the three middle aggregates.he said: "Monks. 10Itis of interestthat the Buddha'sanalysis setsforth the last two members. feelings. . ordinary or advanced. I will analyzeDependentOrigination. such formulations as "He is happy. the ignorance of the four Truths is tantamount to not knowing Dependent Origination. More rarely. show that the middle doctrine or path of Dependent Origination avoids the attributions of'"The world exists" or "The world does not exist." and gives the term cittaviparyasa. such as its detailing of o'name" in o'name-andform" and of the member "feelings. as in the Dependent Origination section of Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga.134-135)andNdgdrjun4usi6T-I[-#-$ c@anskrit namercatvay@trffi uiinyamatca- kdrikd.gataexists" or "The Tathigata does not exist. and mental orientations.8 Rather."e When the Buddha was dwelling at Sdvatthi." or again. The early nature of this Pdli scripture is also confirmed by certain nonstandard listings.

( .\ gences: indulgence in desires (kdma). indulgence in (fruitless) rules and vows (S. wrinkled skin. prabheda). there is name-and-form. is old age and death? Whatever. there is feeling. laying down of corpse. of this and that passing away. With the condition of name-and-form. falling apart. The Lord spoke as follows: "Monks. grief. monks. monks. there is perception. With the condition of gestation. the appointed time. With the condition of sense contact.the begetting. With the condition of perception. o'And what. organs. With the condition of birth. separation or disappearance. What. monks. collapseof personal aggregates. group. whiteness of hair. orient your mind well. with the condition of nescience. monks. that is called old age and death.there is indulgence. With the condition of motivation. and the remaining ten members by varieties (5. appear tcgether. dissatisfaction. paryaya). is gestation? There are three gestations:i' gestationin the realm of desire.gestationin the reaim of forpn{ gestationin the formless reahn. indulgence in (false) views (drsti). This is called gestation. "And what.r68 BuddhistInsight it. spent sense sentient being. there is craving. there is gestation. perturbation. this is called birth.there is sensecontact. of this and that sentient being. "And what. is indulgence? There are four indul.of this and that sentient being. With the condition of craving. in this and that. and old age and death. is birth-process. by sets of terms that are near-synonyms (5. acquisition of sense manifestation of personality aggregates. lamentation. Such is the source of this entire mass of suffering.there is six sense the condition of six sensebases. With the condition of indulgence. Such is this old age and this death. decrepitude. definition and differentiation. severance of life faculty. this is called old age. is birth? Whatever. suffering. in this and that group. the entrance (into life). and I will explain" "Agreed !" those monks responded to the Lord. o'And what. birth. . in this and that group. then old age and death. affiiction faculties. there is birth. of life force. is aging. this is called death. With the condition of feeling. With bases. there is motivation. is ever.death falling or which is concretedeath.

monks. ignorance of the Cessation of Suffering. for sounds. with the condition of motivations. nose-contact. "And what. monks. monks. S. is name-and-lorm? Feelings (5. This is called perception. motivation of speech.. is six sense bases?The eye-base. This is called six sensebases. monks. indulgence in the self-theory (S.. monks. sparia). body-contact. With the cessation . is perception? There are six partite perceptions: perception with eye. manasikdra)-this is called name.feeling born of tongue-contact.Dependent Origination-The Indo-TibetanTradition 169 iilaurata). But with the utter dispassion and cessationof nescience. is motivation? There are three motivations: rnotivation of body. The four great elements and the forms derived from the four great elements-this is called form.vith tongue. dtmauada). "And what.. perception with body. is feeling? There are six partite feelings: feeling born from eye-contact. perception with nose. monks. This is called feeling. is sensecontact? There are six partite sensecontacts: eye-contact.lbr odors. mind-contact. for tangibles. motivation ceases. (and so on down to). "And what. nose-base. motivation ot nrind. monks. "And what. perception r. rnental orientations (S. pcrception with rnind. Suchis the sourceof this entire mass of suffering.mind-base.monks.there is perception. This is called motivation. is nescience? Whatever ignorance (S. saryfiiia). This is called indulgence. 'oThus.perturbation. monks. cetand). "And what. with the condition of nescience. "And what. for mental objects (dhamma. sense contacts (S. is craving? There are six partite cravings: craving for forrns. "And what. ignorance of the Path leading to the Cessationof Suffering-this is called nescience.body-base.eavcontact. tongue-base. feeling born of mind-contact.tonguecontact. ideas (S. "And what. dharma).. there is motivation. feeling born of body-contact. feeling born of nose-contact. This is called craving. for tastes. feeling born from ear-contact. ear-base. Such is this name and this form that it is called name-and-form. This is called sense contact. ajiidna) of Suffering.. ignorance of the Source of Suffering.volitions (S. uedand). oerception rvith ear.

p. af.170 Insight Buddhist . GaouN M. 1966).L attaetion (kar5a4a).. a confrontation (abhimukhya). I shall translate below from Sanskrit a passageof the @lhyantauibhdga along with Vasubandhu'scomment.a quickening (ropaqa). (MadhyantauibhagaI.ssage is therefore concerned with the past. 35.e. some Pali specialists hold that this is what the Buddhist formula amounts to. Early Buddhist Theory.. a sorrowing (dwltkhana).2 The SecondKind of DependentOrigination But also. Suchis the cessation oithis entife massof sufferins. 1.D. Nacao. i. l2Jayartnnrcn. a conducting (nayana). Madhyantavibhaga-bhasya (Tokyo. To further clarify this kind of Dependent Origination.. present.lz Now rebirth is necessarily the rebirth of a particular being. and the comment brings in the "habitenergy of karma. a bondage (nibandhana). 1964y. A.perof motivation. perceptionceases turbation.or that dharmasarise.arisesdependently.. A study on the Ratnagotravibhaga ( Defilem'enffi p6minenlly sufgested by the verb kliiyate ("is tormented or defiled"). Indeed.p. p. This kind of Dependent Origination has been popularized in the West by reproductions of the "Wheel of Life" especiallyfrom its Tibetan version. 450raCf." This pa. Jayatilleke asserts that the formula expiains rebirth and karma anilifie-arising gf suffering while avoiding the extremes of atman-eternalism and nihilism of Materialism. a circumscribing (sarpparigraha). there must be a usage of DependentOrigination to cover the arising of particular beings or natures. a finishing (pura7a). to the birthplace. (and so on down to). The glossfor "perception" (uijnana)rendersit "a conducting" (nayana). Therefore. from its inception Buddhism never denied that a Tathagata arises. for the information thzt a chapter of the Mahayana scripture Avatarpsaka with title Tathagatotpattisarytbhavanirdeia ("Dealing with the Arising of the Tathagata") was translatedinto chinese as an independent S[tra in the 3rd century. . and so this is the secondkind of Dependent Origination as applied to lives of a particular being. 10) 11And see Jrcroo TATASAKT.and future life of some person or being: The world is tormented by a covering (chadana).l1 It was claimed that anything that arises.Zl.. an experience (upabhoga). For example. a trisection (triparicclteda).

by gestation'splacing-in-front for yielcling the maturation in reexistence of the kqrma previouslyenacted..e.feelings. l.e. ii. a confrontation.e..e.9. the forrnula becaml the Buddiist Dharma or Doctrine.. a bondage. the Buddha discoveredthe formula of Dependentorisinatio'.e. i... I)rscovnny AND SnuNc I' short. by name-and-form's embodiment (atmabhaua). that agreewith the occurrenceof perception. g. a trisection. by birth and by old age and death. by the craving for re-existence(punarbhaua) cast by karma. by motivation's depositing in perception (uijiiana) of the habit-energy (udsand) of karma. by perception's reachingof the birthplacer 4.e.ll-12. an experience. Arsx wrvuAN.i. by 1..a covering.i. an attraction. There are two parts to it: "the dhartnaspossessed of cause'. i. from "craving'. 181. by indulgences in desires. i. by sensecontact.e.. Analysis of the sravakabhumi Manuscript (Berkeley.2. etc.a quickening. i. 63): "If perceptionwould not descend into the mother's womb. "The suffering possessedof cause" is the last five members. This formulation can be traced back to the Mahd-niddnasuttanta of the Digha-Nikaya.e. by nescience's hind.a conducting. . down through "old age and death"-[e1e the creatures are caught by cravinglrn According to the suggestionsof the pdli scripture and later the lacf.i. i. The later disciple can repeat the process_ discover the formula in the reverse order (12--_l) and see the Dharma in the direct order (l-12).. Discoueryby the Buddha Asanga alludes to this first kind of Dependent origination in his Paramdrthagatha along with his own commentary. would name-and-form become consolidated in the womb?" And Ananda replied that it would not. frorn 'onescience" down through .. and when he ta*ght it. II.'-here the creatures are caught by delusion. i. 7. 6. II. 1 9 6 l )p.eringof the view of how things really arc. . i. a sorrowing.e. where the Buddha asks Ananda (Digha.. among those.. 3.e.are the first seven members. i. a circumscribing. 10.Dependent origination-TheIndo-Tibetan Tradition l7l (vasubandhu's cornment:) The world is tormented (or defiled)..e. a finishing. 5. by feeling.. by six sensebases.

and this requires a craving. As its condition he assigned "perceptions" (uijfidna). he concluded it was "name-and-form" (ndma-rupa)-an important term of the old Indian Brahmanas and Upaniqads. And birth requires a gestation (or a pregnancy). since o'craving" along with the bondage confirmed by indulgence establishesman's free will by permitting a new bondage and so a new karma ("gestation"). found "desire" (kdma) as the first-born and as the bond of the existent in the non-existent. But Gautama did not stop there. Gautama. He thought: What is the condition for the arising of craving? And concluded: It is feelings. Here the cause is specified as "craving"-trsttd in Sanskrit. once suffering has become the regular thing one can get rid of it only by the cessation of "nescienca". it requires birth.g of cause. And this requires sensscontact. and the Truth of the Cause of Suffering. and so on). Searchingfor the condition enabling the six sensebasesto arise. twelve sensebases(: "six sense bases" multiplied . But this accords with human experiencegonerally: the broken leg is not healed simply by eliminating the cause of the broken leg.172 Buddhist Insight Lalitauistara. and this requires the six sense bases. "motivation" (sarTtskara). wlten Gautama was meditating beneath the tree of enlightenmenthe thought: There is this oid age and death and the massof other suffering. re-discoveredthe finding of the Vedic seer who. the five outer ones and the mind (manas) as the sixth. Thus. What is its condition for arising?Indeed.and for this. grasping." This ties in these Buddhist members with tbe Abhidharma theory of "all dharmas" (skandha) (:'onameas included in the flve personal aggregates and-lbrm"). and could be said to connect the existent habit with the non-existent future. "nescience" (auidyd). Asanga's statementhelps with this group becausehe refers to these seven possessed members as "the dhanna. and for this. It is a curious feature of Dependent Origination that while "craving" is the source or cause of suffering. or tanhd in Pali. Even so. According to the Pdli scripture. the Third Noble Truth of Cessation is applied to nescience in order to undo the whole seriesthat Ieads to the mass of suffering. working backwards. and this requires an indulgence (the taking of it. searching with his intelligence (manipa) for the original principle. Gautama stressed it somewhat differently: It is the first two Noble Truths: the Truth of Suffering. the Vedic account is apparently continued in Buddhist dogmatics by the karma theory.

the Buddhist works do not refer to the pre-Buddhist religion (the Veda and ancillary works). nescience ) Naturally. hence they are sketchy and probably incomplete as regardsthe "discovery" of the series.2.L.or the old bondage. This essay is includedin this volume. old age and death j 1 1 . craving ) f 7. p. Of course. Horner eds. and eightecn realms (dhAtu) (: "contact. 348-350. 7." also a dharma as a personal aggregate. Member No. gestation I f. feelings I 6. name-and-form J I Cause of Suffering Dharmas 3. the later writers could fill in. Sanskrit left over to culminate the deterministic series. 4-6. the sense bases. "The Intermediate-State in Buddhism". 230. 1-3 are the "cause" of the dlrurmas. Dispute Buddhist in Honourof LB." the six objects. Seeing by the Disciple Since to see Dependent Origination in this senseof "seeing" is tantamount to seeingDharma. A Manualof Abhidhantma. Cousins Studies et al. for thecomprisal of "all" (sabbc) in the personal aggregates. the six sense organs. The following tabulation of the discovery order includes the subdivisions accordingto Asanga'sschool: 12.15 Since the dharmas are included by membersNos. (Dordrecht. with the usualtranslations followed by moderntranslators from Pali.Bx WlvuAN. ." curiously match tl-Le cosmic development of the Brhaddra4yaka-Upanisadla II. In a partiai unravelling of this discovery.(Kandy. and the six perceptionsbased thereon). six sense bases f 4. starting with "nescience. 1968). as evidencedin the 15Cf. sensccontact i 5. pp. NAnlon. motivations I Cause of Dharmas l.Dependent Origination-The Indo-Tibetan Tradition 173 for personal and objective bases). it follows that membersNos. the "all" is the abbreviation for 'oall dhamma" in sarvadharmdl4. perception I 2. I have already observed that the first four members. "feelings.b i r t h Suffering J 10. This expansion was conservative at the sutra level. and the elements. indulgence F 8.1974).

Mahayana-s[ttrasarhgraha.'.L. preservedin the Tibetan Tanjur. pp.-samutpada-vyakhya of vasubandhu'.two versions of the Salistambasutra and two versions of the Pratityasamutpada 1930.174 t. Ndgdrjuna briefly expands upon those seven verses in his Pratityasamutpddahrdayavyakhyana. prese nts someSanskritfragments of vasubandhu's ccmments on membersl.but whereTibetan continues . when one 'osees" Dependent origination. and in the Tibetan Tanjur this is followed by Gu4amati's still larger commentary..asantutpdda-typescriptures available in Sanskrit. is the concrete'oseeing"as done with eyesight. indulgence. . After detailing various superlativebenefits. And just precedingthose two works in the Tanjur is his Arya-Salistambaka-karika.second division devoted to analysis of sense bases (dvatana).rz lzlldgdrjuna's works on the subject are just as brief. ff. and 10. BuddhistInsight I sg.Journal of the Royal Asiatic society Jury. 'A Fragment from the pratityo.the foregoing leavesopen the question of whether the "seeing" of d/zarma ot dharmas. or is away of speakingtantamount to "understanding" or is something else again. 7. xxvl of his Madhyamaka-karika. namely. nescience.'o Frowever. The teacher Asanga has a section about this in his encyclopedic work Yogdcdrabhilmi.le These Abhidharma works inevitably introduce differentiateddoctrines of Buddhism beyond the primitive Dharma alluded to in the phrase o'whoever sees Dependent origination. 122-14. gestation. vol. he devotes twelveverses to the topic as chap. lsl-a Varre'p Pousstrq presents the Tibetan version with a French translation of Ndgarjuna's Pratityasamutpadahrdayakarikain Thdorie des douze caLrses. feelings. Besides. craving. The equivalent chinese is in Taishd vol. p. ff. Part I (Darbhange. leGrussppBTuccr.8. has a rather large commentary on pratit).called the 'own-nature of a man' " prior to the question"what is trutho' the Chinese text has a seriesof severalwords beginningwith . whose early years were devoted to the Abhidharma. f. III. p. 924-c-2. z0Photo edition of Tibetan There are two kinds of seeing dharmas: seeing constructed natures (sarltskrta-dharma)and seeing unconstructed natures lTTheseare now conveniently collected in p. such as calming the mind. Asanga explains what is entailed by "seeing" a clhar. vasubandhu. Tibetan and chinese agree on the term "name-and-form" (nama-rupa). 175-3-g.lg6l).veralprafit).18 The Abhidharma schools of course rlilated the mernbers. vaidya. in the portion called vastusamgraha4i.asamutpdda. 611-623. 30.. to be gained by seeing crharmas. sees the Dharnta.pp.

Also. Any monk who.. Among thern.Nirvd4a is calm . and methodically coursesin dharma(s). called the'oown-natureof a man" ('i'manu. And thinking that according as there is impermanence. so there is suffering. (and so on. as previously) "His measureof life amounts to this." .. Whatis truth? Conventional truth (satlturti-satya) and supreine truth (paramartha-satya). down to. "I see unconstructed naturss. he is worthy of being called one who seesconstructednatures.. down to) . as previously ) there is liberation.. his name is called this. (and so on. engages his mind with the view that all the personal aggregates (skondha)are exhausted. Also. rightly knows the conventional truth as conventional truth and the absolute truth as absolute should know that there are three kinds of persons who see dharmas: (1) the one who engagesdlnrmas consistent with dharmqs of the ordinary person." he is worthy of being called one who seesunconstructed natures. What is supreme truth? Attaching to that place of truth that it is impermanent." . (3) the one beyond training whose fluxes are exhausted. the thesis. in regard to a place of conventional or absolute truth. 10-l IAB):zt "Having seen zlThe1-1/2 verses aretranslated from theTibetan version in theDarjeeling publication.Dependent Origination-The Indo-TibetanTradition r75 (asorytskrta-dharma).. "f perceivedharmas with the mind"... down to. (and so on. and taking recourseto that skili. a. the attribution.. Besides. Nigdrjuna's equivalent statement for seeing "unconstructed natures" is in his Yuktisastrikd (k. or a person. is conventional truth. as previously) it arises in dependence. and accordingly sees the points of instruction." Anything involving the idea of it.imQ regarding that place of tr uth that it is a self. What is a place of truth? name-and-form.. What is conventional truth? Any idea (sary. a living being.Four Minor Madhyamaka Texts in TibetanTranslation Also . he rightly knows it as it is. and rightly knows as it is the truth (thereof).What is seeingunconstructed natures? Any monk who attaches to a place of truth with skill in the two kinds of truth.tya-suarupa). (2) the one who is skilled in and heedful to equipoisehis mind. the attribution. (and so on.sentient being. the thesis "f seeforms witlr the eye. down to. seeingconstructed natures (is as follows:) Just as there is here some place of tn-rth. "Accordingly... and has the thought.

r \ lahay dna s c ri p tu re .in the course of explaining the jfiana-dariana.-.. .. whatever is the meaning of Dharma. because it is without discursivethought" (mthon ba ni mig gi rnam par Sespa dan mtshuns par ldan pa ste/ rnam par mi rtog pa phyir ro). 274-2-1. Yol.:. agree that the "seeing" is not the ordinary concrete o'seeing. is the meaning of Tathagata. u'hich is rvell known to signify in Buddhisttexts"this life". However. is the meaning of Dharma.still one seesscarcelyanything. Ndgirjuna.chapteron "Inconceivabilityof the Tathagata. rvhoeversees Dharma.::r3. comments on the word dariana ("vision"): "vision bears comparison with eyeperception (cakSur-vijffdna). whoever seesDependent Origination. Ndgarjunaimpliesthe seeing (which amountsto not seeing of the unconstructed dharmaNirvana." Thus. these works persist in using a word meaning "seeing. this Yukti.i. . 19): "There is no difference between Nirvala and Sams6ra. cit.. there is no difference between Sanrsdra and Nirvd4a." :sPhoto edition of ribetan Tanjur.'rou. condition of 'nescience' there is no apprehenli.22 and the requirement is i. seesDharma.2t sive thou_sbt In the terminology of "eyes" it is exI h. the one who seesin the manner of the Signlessand the Non-Apprehension seesrightly.176 Buddhist Insight (: clear vision) rvhat has arisen with the with right knov.ountthecontext in which iscitedin Abhydkaragupta's tl-ris . photo edition . op. . What is that "scarcely anything"? It is the Signless and the Non-Apprehension."it may be concluded that he intended a doublemeaning for the term. seesthe Tathagata. Yol.ff.'ledge 'motivation']. 220-2-2. seeingthat way. 147. Therefore.*"*k". so dr. since he associated it with the precedingverse which employs the verbal form "having seen. That very thing is \u.astilca passage helps explain Ndgdrjuna's famous verse in the Nirvdqa chapter of the Madhyanmka-karika(xxv.2 s | t\' \\-hatever is the meaning of Dependent Origination. But sincethis is the Nirvdna of this rery life.. Also.''f Tibetan Tanjur. and accordingly fully understanding in the senseof Thusness. sion at all ol either arising or passingaway.tadharma also means "the dharma that is seen." p. p. and in the Bodhisattuapilalca. I Those passagesby Asanga. 19-5-2.e." But also. p. 23. ' . ::Nigir'juna apparentlyusedin the original Sanskritthe term drstadharma." or "the visible dhorma.:: ' -." Sthiramati ri'ould erplain: because it is without discur(rtirt'ikalpa).s tiris life (:the dltarruaseen).\[urtitttcttdlan*ara. :rSthiramati's Abhidharmakoiabhasyalika-tatvartha-nama." Here is a version from the Bodhisattuapilaka. :e-ki't)'a).commentaryon Samipatti chapterof the Abhidlnrntakoia.

p. . Only this heap of suffering. down to) sarvdnyekacittasamaSritani/. &Id t" Asanga pffits'out that tlie "seeing" differs according to the person who "sges.. "Having denied an eternal self as the creator. 97.1. The Bodhisattva 25Ll VarrfB PoussIN.all those. The S[tra states that the tree develops devoid of a creator. DaSabhumika' p.. this tree of suffering develops. so Tson-kha-pa says.and the bhilmi theory of Mahdydna Buddhism includes that consideration in ttie Perfection of lnsight (ptygimdpdramita) -predominate in the Sixlh !tag6 @humi).T2. This occurs to him: These three realms are this mindonly. a feeler (kdraka-uedaka). devoid of a creator.. Tson-kha-pa'sdiscussion Vol. The presentationhere is based on Tson-kha-pa's citation and discussion of the passagein his Tibetan commentary on Candrakirti's Madhyamokduqtdra:26 (The Bodhisattva on the Sixth Stage) reflects on Dependent Origination (pratnyasamutpdda) in the forward direction (and so on down to:) Thus he thinks. (the Bodhisattva) understands that the creator is just the conventional (sarpurti) mind-only. p. 48 and p. Furthermore.6-10: (evap hi bodhisattvo) SvarondmdMahaydnasutrarn.zs In agreement. is in Photo edition of Tibetancanons. whatever those twelve members of generation. as Asanga mentioned in the previous citation. activities are known.1 evam ayaln kevalo (and so on. ed.infact dependon a singlecitta(ekacitta). the thesis. the conventional mind has the idea of it. 154.However here it is the catrses. there also activities are not perceptively reached in the absolute sense. extravolumes. 7l-4 to 72. Buddhaghosa's Visuddhinxaggaplaces the consithe Insiruction of lnsight {eration of nep@-in @amiiA). In the Sfltra itself this passage is embeddedin a long exposition of Dependent Origination..Dependent Tradition Indo-Tibetan Origination-The 177 pressly stated to be the o'eyeof insight" in the SAtistambasfitra. 26Thepassage cited is in Sanskrit original in J. while explained by the Tathdgata in multiple aspect (prabhedaias). This occurs to him: Becauseof the clinging to a creator.49:' RYUKO KoNo6.Thdoriedesdouze p. 'nulomikdrar. 98. Buddha using the prajffa-eye that is mentioned. Rahder." The manner in which a person may'osee" Dependent Origination is set forth in the Sixth Stage of the Daiabhumika-sutra.the attribution." Or. ed.n pratityasamutpadampratyavekqate1. wherever there is no creator.13 and p. Daiabhumi' sfrtra et Bodhisattvabhumi.

) "are not perceptively reached in the absolute sense" (i. In their absence.. which is done by 'onescience". in the absenceof "nescience".Nigdrjun a's Sunyaffisaptati (k. "activities" (: . Thdorie des clouzecauses. Besides.and the Bodhisattvais the third kind and calledthe superior person.are known. he is known as the middling person.e. "perception" does not perceivethem). v.there is no possibility of the nescience born from the four wayward. neither self nor non-self. then there are not the waywardnesses.). 28La Vatl-p'r PousstN p. but still has not eliminated the undeflled nescience. Then.raptrikd verse is to deny any apprehension of the arising or passing away of that "motivation.Indeed. .. turning his back on the pleasuresof phenomenalexistence. so that finally.. by "perceptions. Tson-kha-pa placeshis Dependentorigination sectionin the portion of his Lam rim chen mo devotedto the training of the middling person. and likewise the remaining members.When there is neither permanence nor impermanence.178 Budclhist Insighr is said to reflect: "becauseof the clinging to a creator'. which he does not name. to show how the seriesis eliminated." This is the second kind of person. as delusivelyheld by the conventionalmind). o'there also activities"( : those "motivations'. 27The two verses are translated from the Tibetanversionin Four Minor Madhyamaka Texts in Tibetan Translation (op cit. neither pleasure nor pain." to wit. and averting himself from sinful actions..the attribution of a Bodhisattva meditation in the Daiabhumikasfttraseemsto be simply due to this text being a Mahdyina scripturethat expoundsthe stages of the Bodhisattva. note. the meditation on it does not seemto require a Bodhisattva. There is the striking conclusion that when the Bodhisattva meditatesin the manner prescribedby the Daiabhumika-siltrahe eliminates the defiled nesciencethat heads the second kind of Dependent origination." the third member--thus inaugurating the Dependent origination in the forward direction. In its absence. pursuesonly his own quiescence. wherefor he is still a Bodhisattva2s and not a Buddha. the Sfrtra says: "wherever there is no creator (i.accordingto the description in Ati6a Bodhipatha-pradtpa: "whoever." whereupon the Dharma seenis Nirvd4a. But as far as the expositionof DependentOrigination is concerned.. the meditationon the twelve causesis reservedto Pratyekabuddhas.nesses (uiparyastz).motivations do not occur. neither purity nor impurity. accordingto certainsoLlrces. 9-10) states:22 . Nag6rjuna's way of statingthe same point in that Yukti.motivations") . mentions that ." This agrees with Asanga's distinction of "nescience" as defiled (through wayrvardness) and undefiled. "perception" does not arise.e.

The metaphoric language agrees with the distinction of two kinds of Dependent origination.'ofeelings. which must refer to a group karma.. 2. Z7b-4. "six sensebases.Sna-tshogs. "cont aet. 5.emphasizes the objeciive form to the neglectof the subjectmind. This lotus symbolismis applied to kqrma: and we must observe that in the Daiabhumika-sutra as in Ndgdrjuna's Dependent origination commentary. According to the Arthauiniicayalikdzs rhe first seven members of Dependent origination show the development of the tree: 1.. .must be associated with the flrst kind of Depend_ ent origination that is not concernedwith particular beings and specializedkarma. the two karmas are members No. Vol.when grasping the whole series with a singre thought (citta). because the lotus symbolism. "motivations" is the field.skdra) and No. It is the second kind of Dependent originatiorr whose karma would have t/ii metaphor of the ." characteristic flowers blooming. f. applying as it doesto sharedkarma and to the process of enlightenment. the SDtra referenceto the development as the "tree of suffering".. 3.Dependent Origination-The Indo-Tibetan Tradition 179 According to Tson-kha-pa's indications. the seed." the leaves and twigs. Tson-kha-pa employs the metaphor of the "variegated eye of a peacock'stail'. 6.Tson-kha-pa maintains in the same place that all the diverserealms (the bhdjana-loka)of the sentientbeingsare formed by the shared (sadhdrana) karma accumulated by the minditself. thus he is awakening from the dream of defileclnescience." characteristic fruit matured." the sprout. and the metaphorof "variegated petals and colors of lotuses" fb" the shared karma of sentient beings. In agreementwith Asanga's attribution to the last five members of the role. . which generates the variegated receptacle realms. f. (mecakain sanskrit) for the unsharcdkarma.sufferzgrhepassage is takenfrom the Arthaviniicayalika (authorunknown)in DergeTaqjur.velve members seriatum emphasizesthe subjectmind to the neglectof the objectiveform. the Bodhisattva on the Sixth stage when reviervingthe tr. l0. This is the fullblown stateof the lotus. "name-and-form.7. 4. 'onescience" is the manure covering.gestation" (bhaua). The Tath agata. fluxional 'operceptions". The sentient beings also have unshared(asadharana) or individual mental karma. In lotus symbolism this is the budding of the lotus. No. 2 "motivations" (sarp.variegated eye of a peacock'stailt / There remains to be eftplr{ned.

Someone craves that fruit ("craving"). The members pro"downduced are birth. In particular. s2Pnersan PnADHAN. and old age and death.ed. AbhidhQrma-samuccdya' . 26. six sensebases. The producing members are craving.andthismayhavealso the metaphorical thisassociates account of the 10th member been the intention of the Arthavini1cayatika's the water of "craving". lines 20 ff." the Arthauiniicayatikd account continues. III." The Sanskrit of oname-and-form The "tree" thus exhibits the two karma members as the "field " into which the seed is cast. The many quotations in the part containing the Dependent Origination material has numerous quotations from such works as the Lalitavistara emphasizing the sufferingsand ills of the world. the Yogocdrabhumi and its summation in Asanga's Abhidharmasamuccayq. two lives. casting" means casting down into the cyclical flow Besides. representingit as a kind of prison. whereupon sharp pains arise ("birth"). One should understanclhow all this mass of suffering came about.. moistensit with water and eats it ("gestation").Anyway. Accordingly. sectionalready Origination 'perception' as "explainingthat the seedof refersto the SAlistambasfitra of the (vijftana) in the field of karmawhichhas manure onescience' is planted with the waterof craving. name-anddown are cast tions. and gestation.31 where he describesthe formula as applying to one life. that the fruit's moisteningsuggests slThe Lam rim chen mo js Tson-kha-pa'sencyclopedicexposition of the path to enlightenmentfor the three orders of persons(cf. n' 28. and three lives of a person." to wit. takes it (("indulgence"). passage desdouze is in Thdorie waterwith "craving". and as the "eating" or digestion process."32 The expression (sarylsdra). indulgence. the Tibetan treatment accepts Ndgdrjuna's brief exposi30Inthat Dependent Tson-kha-pa mentioned. LtvEs on'a PnRsox This section is much indebted to Tson-kha-pa's Dependent Origination section in his Lam rim chen nto.andthenthe shoot (avidya).180 Insight Buddhist ing possessed of cause.. This treatment undoubtedly draws much from Asanga's encyclopedic work. there is Asanga's grouping of the twelve members as available in Sanskrit from the motivalatter work: "The downcasting members are nescience. The members form. above). and feelings. "gestation. and how to escape. andthat is moistened ' in the wombproceeds to completion. p. 84 3rd paragraph. text. p. and perceptions. such teachingsas that of Dependent Origination are he shrivels up and dies ("old age and death".

Dependent Origination-The Indo-Tibetan Tradition


tion in his Pratityasamutpdda-hrdaya-kdrtkd, in part that three defilements-nescience, craving, and indulgence-give rise to two karmas-motivations and gestation-which in turn give rise to the seven sufferings, namely, the remaining members, and that 'othus the wheel of becoming (bhauacakra) itself revolves again and again." Tson-kha-pa's treatment introduces the terminology of 2-l/2 and 4-l/2. By 2-l/2 is meant the members 'onescisnce," "motivation," and then the visionary half of "perception" which is called the "causal uijfidna". By al/2 is meant the members beginning with the fallen half of "perceptions" which is called the "fruitional uijfidna". One should note about all the above terminology that it agreeswith the second kind of Dependent Origination, involving karmo and rebirth of the person. Besides, it is necessary to clarify the member No. l0 "gestation" (bhaua)as a karma. The ancient explanation by varieties of three worlds (desire, form, and formless) immediately associates the member with the Buddhist theory of food; and it will be recalled that in the detailing of the "tree of suffering" the eating of the fruit was credited to this karma member. The Samyutta Nikdya, ii, 98, sets forth four kinds of food "for maintaining the sentient beings who have been born or for aiding those who wish to come forth." The standard order of the four is morsel food, coarse or subtle; sensecontact (sparia); volition (manaltsarycetand); and perception (uijfiana). The Abhidharmakoiu (chap. IIf explains that the first two foods nourish the being already born-extend its life-and that the last two foods enable the being not yet born to come into existence. The kinds of food that are necessarydiffer according to which one of, the three realms the sentient being aspires to or lives in.s3 Hence, the role of this member as the new karma by the act of eating. while I employ the rendition "gestation," the words "digestion" arrd "brewing" probably also apply. My "gestation" for bhaua agreeswith its representation as a pregnant woman in the Tibetan wheel of Life. There is partial confirmation from a definition in the Satistambasutra suggesting that this bhquais a self-perpetuating entity. According to the pdli Abhidharma it both looks behind (Epimethean) and looks ahead 33The above discussion of thefour foodsis based onmy treatment in Analysis of the Sravakabhumi Manuscript,chapter v, "Asanga'sviews on Food," pp. 135ff.


Insight Buddhist

(Promethean). Perhaps this member gives the mane bhaua-cakra (Wheel of Becoming) to the whole seriesof tr,velve members.Ba The follorving, based on Tson-kha-pa's Dependent origination section, probably cannot be worked out in the commentarial tradition consistent with the Theravdda. of course. all these Buddhist schoolsbelievedin rebirth. One Li/b of a Single Person l. Nescience, and 2. motlation, constitutean Intermediatestate that forecaststhe destiny. Nescienceforecasts either a good or bad destiny,to r,vit,confusion (sammoha) about karma and its fruit forecastingan evil destiny, confusion about the meaning of reality (tattua) forecastinga good destiny. Motivations are virtuous, nonvirtuous, and indeterminate. 3. Perceptions,4. name-and-form, 5. six sensebases,6. sense contact, and 7. feelings, are a set going with the destiny. perception (uijiidna) is imbued by motivation (sarytskdra) with habitenergy (udsand)either for good or bad destiny. Good destiny is said to be gods and men; bad destiny, animals, hungry ghosts Qtreta), and hell beings. 8. Craving, and f . indulgence,again and again foster the habitenergy of the destiny. 10. gestation-no information, but presumably it would be a repetition of the realm, whether desire,form, or formless, with the same 'food' being eaten over and over. 11. Birth, i.e. rebirth, means that again and again one repeats in this one life the same destiny. 12. old age and death; finally one sees the trouble or disadvantage(adinaua)of the destiny. This explanation of Dependentorigination seemsto go with the "tree of suffering" previously mentioned to agr:ee with the phases of sevenand five members. The first sevenare the growth of the tree. The last five reinforce the habit-energyof the destinyand reap the consequence. Finally, "old age and death" furnishesthe realization that the destiny is deplorable, and the being determinesto leave it. III.2. Two Liues of a Single Person (l) The past life:life no. l. l. nescience(as delilement) Saofcourse, "existence" and "becoming" are established meanings of the III. l.

Dependent Origination-The Indo-Tibetan Tradition 2. motivation (as karma) 3A.. casual uijfiana (as suffering:last perception)


(defilement, with |craving r (death and indulgence objectnor defined) [intermediate state) J ,7 10. gestation(asKarma) :" karmq-pi11e1"ss J (2) The present life ..-life no. 2, as effect. 38. resultant uiifidna \ 4. name-and-iorm I 5. six sense bases | (the seed of later suffering) 6. sensecontact I ) 7. feelings I 1 . bir r h ? 12. oid age and deattr tttre present suffering) J There are various casesin Buddhist theory to which this fortetm bhava. Still, whereBuddhisttradition callsthis bhavaa karmamember of Dependentorigination, one wondershow such renderings .,existence,, as convey the connotation of the warned-of hells and glorified-of heavens for good and bad acts (the karma. of course) of laity and monks ! A Tibetan work included in the canon, probabry of the earry ninth century, with reconstructed title P r at i ty asamutpdda-gaqta ndnusrir erja ci t ta sthapano p ay a, Japanese photo edition of the Tibetan Kanjur-Tanjur, vol. 145,;. 278-2-2, mentions that there are four ways to summarize the series,to wit, by count, nature, denotation, and grouping. Under the category of denotation (5. Nirukti, Tib. nespa'i tshig) the unknown author presentsthe list that happensto be in the salistambasutra,Thdorie des douz causes, p. B1; N. Aiyaswami sastri, ed., Arya ,gcilistamba Sutra (Adyar Library, 1950),p. ll; p.L. Vaidya, Mahayana-sutra-sarhgraha, part I, p. 103-30to p. to+.i. when the list comes to bhava,it haspunarbhavajanandrthena bhavart.,,rt is bhavabecause it engen_ dersbhavaagain." While the term punarbhava is usually rendered,.rebirth,', such a renderingin the presentcasewould imply that the definitionrefersto the following member, 11. "birth" (iati), for which the definition should have had instead punarjanma. However, none of the other ,,denotatior-r,, is in terms of the immediatelyfollowing member, but is stated in terms of the member itself. Accordingry,this definitio' of bhavais simprya recogni'oexistence" tion that the word means but that we should regar,cit here as signifyingthe promotion of re-existence (hencemy translationof the term in vasubandhu's conment on the Madhyanta-vibhaga verse,supra). In short, that bhavais a self-perpetuating entity. rt both looks to the past and looks to the future according to c.A.F. Rhys Davids in her Hastings'EREarticle, vol. 9, p. 672,giving the pari scholastic tradition of two kinds, kamma-bhava "fruition of past actions" and upapatti-bhava..result in future life,,. 35For the "karma-mirror", cf. A*x wAyltaN, ,,The Mirror as a panBuddhist Metaphor-Simile",History of Rerigion"v XIII: 4, May 1974, pp. 264-265. This essayis pubrished ersewhere in this volume.



Insight Buddhist

mulation of the members may apply. For example, there are many popular stories of lcarma where something happening to a person is explainedas due to his previous life.36 There is also the caseof the Arhat, who is in his last life, for which reasonhis preceding life is called "having one more lifc." Then there is the theory, so much identified with Tibetan Buddhism, of the incarnate Lamas. It was held that certain high Lamas could be immediately reborn, e.g., the Dalai Lama series;and so it would be pertinent to refer to the last life and the present life. The Srimdlasutra has a remarkable specialization of the theory called the "inconceivable transference" of Arhats, Pratyakabuddhas,and Bodhisattvaswho have attained power. These beings are held to have a special kind of nescience,presumably undefiled, called and a special kind the nescienceentrenchment (auidyduasabhumi); (andsraua-karma). karma of motivation described as non-fluxional With those two members as conditions, they have a specialkind of causal-uijiidnarefened to as "bodies made of mind," with which they have the "inconceivabletransference"to another life.3z The formulation of members also seemsto accord with a tantric description in rvhich the three members 8, 9, and 10, are called "Gandharva cgnsciouSin the Sequence, "rebirth consciousness" ness," "Indulgence-in-desire consciousness", and "Seizing-ofbirth consciousness".s8 III.3. Three Liues of a Single Person:

Here there are two solutions. A. Solution in Tson-kha-pa's section, with no Intermediate State explicit. Besides, the BoThere literature of thekarmastories. Buddhist is anenormous kxtant in Tibetan). One thereis the Karma-Sataka tales, Jdtaka numerous
may signal also the huge Arya-Saddharmasmttyupttsthana'sutrafor popular accounts of getting into the heavensand hells. The extensiveverse section of this scripture, with numerous kArmq verses, has been edited in Sanskrit, Chinese,and Tibetan versions,and translatedinto French with title Dharma' by Lin Li-kouang, lst part (Paris, 1946); 2nd and 3rd parts samuccaya by A. Bareau,J. W. de Jong and P. Demi6ville posthumouslywith revisions (Paris, 1969 and 1973). 37Cf. AI-Bx WlvuaN and Htosro WAYuAN, The Lion's Roar of Queen Srimala; a Buddhist Scripture on the Tathagatagarbha Theory (New York, 1974), pp. 29-31. g8Arrx Wayua.N,"Buddhist DependentOrigination", History of Religions, 'Eastern' Tradition"' 10:3,Feb., I97t, p.195, in the Table"An

DependentOrigination-The Indo-Tibetan Tradition


Life No. I : the producing life, the previops life. This consists of 8. craving, f. indulgence,and 10. Life No. 2:the life produced, the present life. It is possible to have a seriesof these. Each such life consistsof 38. resultant uijfidna,4. name-and-form,through 7. feelings; and these constitute a set included within 11. birth, and 12. old age and death. Life No. 3: the forecast life, the future life. This consistsof 1. nescience, 2. motivation, 3,\. causal-uijfidna. This formulation also can be interpreted to go with a number of Buddhist situations. This essayhas previously indicated that 8. craving, which is usually of sullied character and conceivably so in the present formulation, has the decisive role of altering destiny becauseit leads to a new bondage. But also it might be a virtuous craving for the religious life. For example, in the Indian Buddhist tradition there was a disciple phase called "entering the stream," rvhich would be Life No. 1, when a set number of lives, say seven, could be predicted for progress up to the Arhat-fruit, each of which lives could be counted as Life No. 2, with the Arhatfruit itself counted as Life No. 3, with the "causal-viifiana" as the "body-made-of-mind" already mentioned. Then, Mahdydna Buddhism sets forth its hero called the Bodhisattva, whose vow and action irr faith would be his Life No. 1; the lives necessaryfor the first sevenBodhisattva Stagescould be counted as Life No. 2; and when he attains the status of a Bodhisattva of the Eighth Stage,this could be his Life No. 3, with the "inconceivabtetransference" mentioned in the Srimdld-sutra. This agrees with the tantric maxim, "By passion the world arises; forecast by passion it goes to its end. By knowledge of the diamond passion, the

seVasubandhu, that in other op.cit.,p.621,states in Tucci,"A Fragment," ('gestation') is the five "grasping aggregates" the Lord saidthat bhava stitras in his Madhyathis explanation accepts "(paftcopadana-skandha). Nagarjuna to accordratherwell with seems XXVI, 8. This interpretation maka-karikc with the Origination. And it agrees the presentsolutionof Dependent implying"new karma". In contrast, the "Promethean" definitionof bhava, in the previous solution"Two Lives of a SinglePerson"should be bhava with the 'Intermediatekind, and agrees as the "Epimethean" understood
a variety of bhavawhich Vasubandhuacceptsin Tucci, State' (antara-bhava), "A Fragment," p. 621,line 6. As the Therav6da denies an Intermediate rather than antard-bhava. State,it usesthe terminology kamma-bhava


Buddhist Insight

mind becomesthe Diamond Being.',no Besides,Ndgdrjuna concludes his vigrahauyduartini by bowing to the Buddha ..who explained voidness (iunyatd), Dependent origination, and the Middle Path (madhyama-pratipad) in the same sense." And according to the Sattstamba-sutra,when it was said, ..whoever seesDependent origination, he seesthe Dharma," the Dharma which he seesis the Eightfold Noble And this is the path proclaimed in the Buddha's First sermon as avoiding the extremes of senseindulgence and flesh mortification. Now, in order to treat Dependent origination as the lvliddle path, it appears that this formulation in three lives of one person works out the best for the reasons given above. B. Solution of the Theravada, which denies an Intermediate State.a2 Past Life: 1. nescience,2. motivation. Present Life: 3. perception,down to 7. feeling. This is rebirth process. 8. craving, f. indulgence, 10. gestation.This is karma process. Future Life: I 1. rebirth, 12. old age and death. The remarkable difference between this solution and the preceding Tibetan solutions, by suggestion of Asanga's workq is that while the Theravdda Abhidharma tradition assigns the last two members-birth, and old age and death-to the future life, the Tibetan solutions all place these two members in the category of suffering of the present life. what they all, including the Theravdd.a,agree upon is that the sequenceof twelve conditions does not by virtue of that order constitute a temporal sequence. There is a time factor, and it is stated in terms of "past life," "present life," and .,future life.,' In Asanga's school, as the Dependent origination section of the Lqm rim chenmo puts it, there are "two cyclesof causeand fruit."
a0The Dakini-vajrapafijra, as cited in the subha;ita-saqngraha (Bendall edition). aTThdor[e des douzecauses, pp. 7l-72. azcf. Nyanatiloka, BuddhistDfctionary (colombo, 1950),p. ll4; and, with more complications, Ndrada, A Manual of Abhidhamma, Diagrams XVI and XVII.

Dependent Origination-The Indo-Tibetan Tradition


This means that the chief temporal factor of the series is the alternation of cause(hetu) and fruit (phala) ifl terms of lives, while the sequenceof conditions (pratyal,a) is the sufficiency causesfor the members to arise. The two cyclesare Asanga's groupings of the members into o'downcasting" (Nos. 1-3A) and "producing" (Nos. 8-10) as against the members "cast down" (Nos. 3B-7) and "produced" (Nos. Asanga's structuring permits the solutions in the Tibetan tradition to shift blocks of members, differing in this matter from the Theravida which sticks to the usual order of the twelve terms. Another difference is that the Theravada, by not accepting an Intermediate State, was obliged to place nescience and motivation in the past life. A more subtle differenceis that the Theravdda had only one solution in comparison with the three from the Tibetan tradition's working over of Asanga's teachings. This indicates that the Theravdda insists on a single interpretation of the series, and so followers of that traditicn would likely not accept my organization of materials into o'two kinds" of Dependent origination-and in terms of "original Buddhism" they might be right. IV. TsB Buoollrsr Fonuura AND rHE SAyrurvl The Buddhist doctrine of Dependent origination can be further clarified by corrrparison with a non-Buddhist system,the Sarykhya. My foregoing materials have presentedtwo kinds of Dependent origination; and it turns out that the classicalSar.nkhya and even the kind of Sir.nkhya attributed to the teacher Ard{a, the older contemporary of the Buddha, are to be discussed along with the second kind, of Dependent Origination, as foliows. +srhus, Tsor.i-rsa-pA, in theDependent origination section, mentions from

Asanga's Bhumivastu (the first part of the yogacarabhumi): ,,The members reaching from viifiana down to vedana have the characteristic of being mixed with the members birth, old age and death; that being so, why does one teach two kinds? For the purpose of teaching the difference of characteristic as the basis of suffering, and for the purpose of teaching the difference between the downcasting members and the producing members." By further citations of Asanga, Tson-kha-pa shows that the rnembers vijftana (No. 38) down to vedana (No. 7) are the "seed" of suffering , while jati (No. 1 l) and, jara-mara(ta (No. 12) are the manifest suffering.


Buddhist Insight

The initial comparison is with the third member, "perception" (uijfiAna). Previously, it was shown that "perception" is referred to metaphorically as the "seed" (btio). So also Aryadeva in his Catuhiataka (XIY , 25): " Vijfidna,is the seed of phenomenal life; the (inner and outer) objects are its field (of apperception). When the seedof phenomenallife ceases."44 it seesthe object as selfless, That tlus uijfidna is the Buddhist equivalent to the dtman or "field-knower" of the pre-Buddhist literature is supported by ASvaghota's portrayal of the future Buddha's visit to Ardda (Buddhacarita, Canto XII, 70-7 3) :as For I deem the field-knower even though liberated from primary matter (prakrti) and secondary characters has the attribute of giving birth and the attribute of being a seed. For even if the purified soul (dtman) be deemed to be liberated, again it will be bound by reason of the real presence of the conditions. It is my belief that just as a seed does not spring up through lack of the season,earth, and lvater; and springs up by reason of theseand those conditions, so also does it (the soul). And rvhat is imagined to be liberation through abandonment of (the three things) act, ignorance, and craving (: Buddhist Dependent Origination Nos. 2, I , and 8) is ultimately not a complete abandonment of them as long as there is a soul. Along the lines of the previous finding of this paper, one may infer that when the Buddha denies a true liberation of the purified self it is because the purification is from defilement (kleia), so from defiled nescience and from craving as well as from concordant acts; while there is still no liberation from undefiled nescience which, serving as the condition for an appropriate motivation, provides a condition for the seed-no matter which seed-to again spring up. Now, I have elsewherediscussedthe terminology of 2-l/2 and 4-l/2 members and concluded that the first l/2 of "perception" is the equivalent to the Sdr.nkhyabuddhi and that the second l/2 of "perception" is the equivalent to the SaankhyaaharTtkdra. They aaTranslated in the contextof its citationin Tson-kha-pa's Lam rim chen (vipafyana) mo, Lhagmthofi section. Cf. V. Bnetucsaxvt, TheCatuhiataka p. 230. of Aryadeva, 45E. (ed.),TheBuddhacarita, p. 137. H. JouNsroN Part I (Calcutta, 1935),

Tradition Indo-Tibetan Origination-The Dependent


roughly correspondto the two selves,supremeand individual, of the early Upanisads, which stem from the B.g-ueda; although Buddhism does not call those halves of "perception" "Selves"or o'perception" a higher and a lower self, and in fact only counts (uijfrdna) once to be the third member of Dependentorigination.4G To carry the comparisonfurther, just as "perception" in Buddhism was shown above to be the seed of phenomenal life, in the Sar.nkhyasystem it is buddhi or Mahat that is the initial evolute, o'reconinaugurating the phenomeual series. In Buddhism, the the Abhidharma necting perception" (pratisarTtdhi-uiifidnaof traclition) first arises as the "appropriating consciouslless" (dddna-ui.ifidna of the dlay,auiiiidnatradition), i.0., the vision of the phenomenal abode (the future parents); this is rather close to the Sdr.nkhya Mahat as a field knower (k5etraifia)-the first creation (sarga) of the Anugitd (of the Mahdbharata). Thus the first half of "perception" has the role in Buddhism of establishing the initial division into subject-object by perceiving an object, as does the Samkhya buddhi which cognizes "thatness" and which 'oascertainment" in Sdfnkhya-kqrikd No. 23 has the function of (adhyauasdya). The reconnecting "perception" then falls into the womb as the fruitional consciottsness(orpakauijfidna ot iiuitendriya), rather close to tire Simkhya aharykdra-the second creation of the Anugitd. The second-half uijfidna is followed by lame-and-form just as in Snmkhya the aharykdra,accordancl the six sensebases, ing to Sdrfkhya-kdrika No. 24, through its function of conation (abhimana)gives rise to the various organs and elementsconstituting the body. According to the Viifiaptimatratdsiddhi the beings o'I" (suam take the alayauijfiana ("store consciousness") as their abhyantarant dtmdnanx or sua adhydtmika dtman) because of its continuity and homogeneity, but one should not take it as a ooself."47This text of Yogdcdra Buddhism thus makes it equiva'I' " (aharytkdra),but insists that one should not lent to "calling call it that way. Now reverting to the first two members of Dependent Origination I shall continue the comparison with the Sdpkhya in a 46WlvuaN,"BuddhistDependent Origination",p. 202. 4Tl-ours TomeI, pp. 150 and Vijfiaptimatratdsiddhi, or La Vanfe PoussrN, 181.

..the karrna of body. they are all objective. "nescience" and "motivation" are added to the replacement correspondences: Dependent Origination Madhyantauibhdga Samkhya terminology terminology terminology nesclence motivations imagination of unreality voidness purusct prakrti The Buddhist formula starts with "nescience.motivations. wavlrAN.g.oqrriar:o as the efficacy of former karma to attain a fruit." Tson-kha-pa'sgreat commentary on the Abhisantaydlarykdra helps. the sdlnkhya sets forth an irreducible duality of purusa (pure consciousness.the subjective knowledge (yul can ye . 66. As to the "voidness.190 Buddhist Insight manner employed some years ago.ur ston fiid). and in both systems have the role of causing a development-in the Sdmkhya. but metaphoricaily the ground). e. here Saqnkhya has its prakrti (also with three strands. not the agent) and Prakl'ti (pure matter. prakrti as the original cause (pradhana).and mind. 15'TOy Vol.fes) and the objective voidn ess(1." showing that no matter how many the void. in Buddhism.. I.iectof the knowledge or insight that discerns them. speech. samskarahave the sameverbal root... while Buddhism sets forth a primeval duality oi auidyd (nescience. p. Xy:1. the Buddhist text replaces the sarnkltya purusa with the 'imagination of unreality ' (abhutaparikalpa) and repla prakrti ces with 'voidness' (iunyatd). Sdlnkhya holds that the puru.407. 1965. 5'Tso*-rga -pA. . both the 'imagination of unreality' and 'voidness' are real. the list of twenty. and are yet distinct. Bstan bcos mnon rtogs rgyan'grer pa dan bcas pa.nesses. the . 4esunswonANATH DAscuprA. the impersonal agent). "The yogicdra Idearism(Review Articre). philosophy Eastand West. I. p. ."Legs biad gser phren. the gunas) emergein the new developmenteach with their specific auidjd. Moreover. p."a8 Enforcing my theory.4s Next Buddhism places . not the agent.249.Imagination or a8A.i rgyacher bSad. but metaphorically the manure) and samskdrcr (motivations. the ob. In this tsuddhist system. A Historyof Indianphitosophy. vor. the impersonal agent. co-exist..'(auidvd). becauseof his section .b0 Thus. (Sarnath. while interpreting the celebrated Yogacdra work Marthydntauibhdgato have two realities: "Thus. (sarpskdra). Varanasi. prakrti and. Jan..

rdjasika-. the Madhyantauibhdga agreeswith the Sar. even though there are some striking parallels.nkhya in positing two preexistent realities that are on an equal footing. serving as the condition for the arising af the second and objective member. and the Madhydntauibhaga(I. it was never my position that correlation and replacement of terms meant identiflcation.other Buddhist Tantric material.nkhyain an early and admittedly speculativeeffort.nkhya system. and sdttuika-ahantkdra. There is another way I compared Dependent origination with the Sdr. Ethnos(1962). "Buddhist Dependentorigination and the Sarhkhyagu4as". l l) states that from this "imagination" proceed the twelve members of Dependent origination beginning with 'onescience. 14-22. ." The "rmagination of unreality" may therefore be this Yogdcara text's expressionfor what Asanga calls the unmixed nescience. This text. 51A. the cosmic intellectual substance." or "afflicted. namely. the Buddhist Dependent origination has the first and subjective member.velve fold Dependent origination.or undefiled nescience. And in any case.pp. nescience. I do not deny a possible merit of a comparison involving even late works like the Buddhist Tantras. matter of which Buddhist sect' Here.Dependent Origination-The Indo-Tibetan Tradition lgl Unreality" has cnly voidness (: the void Dharmadhdtu) as its object. in correspondencerespectively with the three kinds of Ahankdra of the classical Sdr. I set the first three members of Dependent origination. The "Imagination of unreality" is deflnitelya form of nescience.just as Puru$ahas only prakrti as its object." and vasubandhu in his comment accordingly explains o'nescience" as the first member to be the positive irnpediment to the view of reality. counts the series as "defiled. develops quite differently from the Sdr. and perception. motivations. nescience. In contrast. one would be at the level of Mahat. one should grant that the Buddhist series. motivations. but there is no point in following up this kind of comparison in the present essay. as previously pointed out. partly by suggestion of the Kdlacakra and. f'his is tantamount to saying that if one succeededin abolishing the tr. namely tdmasika-. In summary.

one can see both kinds in the form here organized.t92 V. or perhaps "see" just one kind. the others must be wrong. In the application of writings from a long time span. much of the past argumentation misses the mark. But if what I have tried to show is indeed the case. Those theories were not based on "seeing" Dependent Origination. . but rather on the premise that if one theory about the series is right. It could also be argued about the two kinds of Dependent Origination that if one can 'osee" Dependent was inevitable that the "discovery" and "seeing" of the serieswould be intertn'ined. CoxcrusroN BuddhistInsight Certainly much more is written about the formula of Dependent Origination in the Buddhist canon and commentarial traditions than can possibly be conveyedwithin the limits of this paper.

" Asanga. WavuaN. and the paper shows its association with light and vision. circa 375-430A. For uidya I accept ooclear sight. t een bhwmis r aharyi. of Calif. shows that there were other works of the sametitle. it is the chief facuity to counteract 'onescience"in the senseof ignorance. and to erase the "traces" of "waywardness. Analysisof tlrc Sravakabhilmi Manuscript(IJriv. Vastu-sarTtgrahani. "Nescience" is adopted as the translation of auidyd to include "ignorance" (ajfidna) and "waywardness' (uiparyasa ). is probably the most famous author of the Buddhist school called tiie Later Mahi5dsaka. NESCIENCE AND INSIGHT ACCORDING TO ASANGA'S TOGACANrcUAMT Th.D. has its "traces" (anuiaya) and 'oentrapment" (paryauasthdna\. "fnsight" is my usual translation of prajfia.which also includes some Mahdydna positions especially based on the scripture Sarytdhinirmocana-shtrql. La Yogacarabhumi de Ssngharak. A. rvho wrote in Sanskrit. ." the seeondkind of nescience. Vinii caya-sot?tg tlre exegesisin order of those seventeen.e topic treated here is of enormous importance to Buddhism. and the vielvs of this school have the most extensive corpus of preservation in Asanga's encyclopedic work. Press.25-29. by 1C1'.9. Tltrs Yogdcdrobhumizby Asanga has five major divisions (sometimes incorrectly entered in catalogues): Bhilmiuastu or Bahucomprised of seven bhtTmilca. pp. the Yogacdrabhumi. .BEFEO.a. Berkeleyand Los Angeles." opposed by nescience's blindness. 2Paur DBMrdvrrr-s.44 (Ig54).. "Waywardness.1961).

Part I (University . (13) Stage of the disciple (Srduakabhumi). The seventeen (1) Stage associatedwith the set of five perceptions (paficauiiayuktd bhumi). It is necessaryto mention these divisions becausevarious ones will be ref'erred to in rny following materials.(12) Stage consisting of contemplation (bhduandmaytbhnmi). (14) Stage of the self-enlightenedperson (pratyekabuddhabhumi). (10) Stageconsistingof hearing (irutamayi bhumi).. Bhattacharya's edition of the Sanskrit text which ends with Bhumi No. (3) Stage with inquiry and with conclusions (sauitarkd sauicdrd bhilmi). bhumi). (16) Stageof Nirvapa with remainder (sopddhikd (17) Stage of Nirvdqa without remainder (nirupddhikd bhumi). It is well to include here from Tson-kha-pa's Lam rim chen mo an exceptionaily clear explanation icientifying the ignorance kind as of AcaryaAsartga.misceilaneous explanabhfimis are: tions. Parydya'sarpgrahalti. (15) Stage of the Bodhisattva (bodhisattuabhumi).3 Tnn Two KtNos oF NESCIENCE The two kilds of nescienceare ignorance and waywardness.KHARA BnnrracnnRvn. sa:skdros. (5) Stage without inquiry or conclusion (auitarkd'avicdrd bhilmi\. {4) Stage without inquiry and with only conclusions (auitarkduicdra-mdtrti bhumi). Viuara4a-sarytgrahapi. 5. .of synonyms.r94 BuddhistInsight basic Buddhist topics. The entire work is preserved in Tibetan and Chinese translations.. and portions are extant in original Sanskrit. (8) Stage with thought (sacittikd bhumi). BVronusnr. Bhlrmis 3-5 are grogped as Sauitarkddir bhumi in V. (9) Stage without thought (acittikd bhfimi). (11) Stage consisting of pondering (cintdmayi bhumi). iidnakdy a-saqnpr (2) Stage of mind Qnanobhumi). The Yogacdrabhumi 7957). etc. (7) Unstabilised stage (asamdhitd bhumi). {6) Stabilised stage (somdhitd bhumi). of Calcutta. etc.

28): "the contrary of clear sight like enmity and untruth. Vasubandhu) maintained that from among the adhering to waywardness about the right meaning or just the confusion about the right meaning. one should not regard enmity and untruth as just the negation of friendliness and truth. 'The Meaning sForthe two kindsof nescience.e. the positing of self in person (pudgala-dtmagrdha)such was maintained by the great acarya Dharmakirti fPramdnaudrttilca. with the second kind of nescience. it is the intellect that does not understand. However. rather. as part of the instructionto the "middlingperson". one amasses the motivations that send one to a good destiny. one amassesthe motivations (sarytskara)that send one to an evil destiny.andthepassage is translated from the Dependent origination section. of Un- . since this is an explanation of nescienceas the first member of Dependent origination. it emphasizesthe flrst kind of nescience. Acdrya Asanga and his brother ( regards Asanga's it is the latter. According to the (Abhidharma) Samucce))e.s aThe editionwhichI useis theTashilunpo one. rather as the contrary side which actively opposes clear sight (uidyd). this is tantamount to maintaining that the chief opponent to the opposing side is the insight @rajrta) which understands selflessness." Besides. which I now translate from the Tibetan:a Nescience is as stated in the (Abhidharma) Koia (in III. Here. that of ignorance (ajiiana) or confusion (sarytmoha). as the opposite side which actively opposesfriendliness and truth. there are two: confusion about karma and its fruit. 2l5cd-2l6abl. I. as contrasted. that from among the deviant reflection and the intellect (buddhi) that does not understand. the opposing clear :sight is the clear sight with the meaning of right selflessness of person (pudgala-nairdtmya). nescienceshould not be regarded in the senseof an opposite as just the negation of clear sight or as just different from it. Accordingly. that of deviant reflection or waywardness. and with the latter.Nescience andInsightAccording to Asanga 195 the first member of Dependent origination (pratttya-samutpdda).with the former. or as just different from those two. and coniusion about the meaning of reality (tattua). in short. so it is the view which destroys its enemy. When one analyzes that confusion. my earlyarticle.

They are heedlessin sensefields. 10-11):0 One finds that creatureslie in two categories. the with consistent thereare \Analysis o."s This indicates that when Asanga mentions that "creatufes lie in tWo categories" he means also those follorving *@ilosophyEastandWest. While those caught by craving arc those heedless Asanga's self commentary relates this classification to Buddhist of Dependent Origination in two parts: "the dharntaspossessed (auidyd) cause" are the fi. buddhas becomes pure through purification of the hindrance of defilem ent (kleia)."7 ((text' This nrust also be why he states in the Bodhisattuabhumi '. Asanga includes within the Cintdmayi bhumi these verses of the Paramdrtha-gathd(nos. "non-self of dhaymas" while "craving.YII:|-2. deviantly setting out. 21-25. front "nescience" down through "feelings" (uedand)-here the creatures are caught of cause" is the last five by delusion. to that of Dharmakirti.|957. pp.Ju|y. pp. the lineage of bodhisattuas becomes pure not only through purification of the hindrance of defilement. p.tg6 Insight Buddhist Now. Truly those caught by delusion are those deviantly setting out. 180-181' in opposition zThis observationsets the position of Asanga-Vasubandhu of Tson-kha-pa's. when one has eliminated "craving" he has overcome "the suffering possessed Of cause. not through purification of the hindrance of the knowable (ifieya). 3). "The suffering possessed members." eliminate to a realisation (dharma-nairdtmya)is a realisation to eliminate "nescience.r\mong pratyeka' and irduakas the of all lineage the them. However. according to the previous passage of person(pudgalaDharmakirti as assigningselflessness where it represents as the first member of Dependent nairatmya) the role of countering nescience Origination. p." while when one has eliminated "nescience" he haS of cause.29.April. That explanation shows that in Asanga's position." This implies that understood "the dharntaspossessed (pudgala-nairdtmya)is personality" "non-self of in his school. 169. sAnalysis. " but my conclusions "unwisdom.f the Sravakabhumi Manuscript.rSt seven memberS. from "craving" (trsUa) down through "old age and death" (jard-mara4a)-here the creatures are caught by craving. but also through purification of the hindrance of the knowable. . in sensefields.. I no longer usethe rendition present study. moreover.

that of ignorance. Conceptand Reality (Buddhist Publication Society. according to a passageof Asauga's I shall later cite.ff. may be associatedwith the three "poisons. Some (the irduakas and pratyekabuddhas) manage.e This passageshows that the "feelings" member. What one inquires about. yam safijdndti. Thus r.10 caya-sar. by non-seif of dharmas. but also. 1977)." the photographicreproduction in Japan of the Peking edition of the Tibetan . Previously it was mentioned that in Asanga's school. hatred. tar. it should be menlioned that Asanga evidently means by "nescience" here the auidya of Dependent Crigination independent of the life of a single sentient being. one inquires about. has a concomitant inental state involving discursive thought.ngrahani Vol." lust. Hence..p. one develops upotr. That leavesthe problem of where in Depenof the secondkind of nescience. and delusion. with the possibility of "way'nvardnessof idea" (saryi. by non-self of personality.Kandy. to anticipate tire later finclings. to be not caught by craving with its attendant defilement. Asanga himself expounfu two kinds of nesciencein the Vinii(PTT'. 10PTTis the abbreviated reference to the "Peking Tibetan Tripitaka." these feelings. the first kind of nescience . I sirali outline the main elements of the passage.. to be not caught by delusion. is the first member of Dependent Origination. 111). And before that. these psychological poisons lvould be in the form of "traces" (anuiaya). 3. since eCompare with the translation by Bntrcuu NiANaNaNn Asafiga Nescience andInsightAccording 197 the religious life in the Buddhist sense.). Some (the bodhisattuas) manage not only that.. In this case there is an irnportarrt passage in the Pdli scripture MadhupiqtQika Suttcr of Maijhima-nikdya (I. when o'craving" arisesin dependence on "feelings. Before translating it from the Tibetan. last of the first seven members. What one has an idea about. on has an idea uitokketi tarTt about.) What one feels. and. dent Origination is the emergence that of waywardness. 110. yatV papaficeti. 28-1-5.nuitakketi.r to inaugurate but is suliied a new bondage.vhile'ocraving" has the my translation: (Yary uedeti taryt saiijdndti.p. it is usually not a pure "cra-/i119" with deviant leflection.4d-uiparydsa).

110. 269-4) Asanga also states that the lst.ryrrlaN. seems directlyopposed to Ndgirjuna'spositionthat the lst. analyzed the variety. apparently the nescience whichis the first member of Dependent Origination. and not perceiving the meaning of the knowable. 8th and 9th members(avidya. the defiled confusion.198 Buddhist Insight two types of persons are mentioned. l97l).tr[Ud. when having seen. and not analyzing the variety. The undefiled confusion (aklisla-sarTtrnoha)is the ignorance free from waywardness uThis positionof Asanga's of a nescience that is unmixed withdefilement.heard.p. The defiled confusion (klipla-saanmoha)is the ignorance through waywardness of thought (citta-uiparydsa). . c. avidyd. as set forth in A. Having the mental conco. one has mental straying and forgetfulness. The confusion of heedlessness is the ignorance. it is possible to speakof a nescience that is unmixedwith defilement. The undefiled confusion B. and upaddna) arc comprisedby kleia. The seemingdiscrepancy may be resolvedby noting that when Asangasays. The confusion of not comprehending d. and perceived it (the meaning of the knowable). b. and the undefiled confusion. pp. in the Viniflcaya-sarygrahaqti. Vol. The confusion of heedlessness c. esp. and 9th membersarc kleia (defilement). Unmixed nescience (: ignorance) a. or three livesof a sentient being. "Buddhist Dependent Origination. No. The defiled confusion The translation follows : Among them. two lives. 8th. Vol. a.' he is usingthe formulaof Dependent Originationin its discovery orderby Gautama Buddhaand independent of applying it to a single sentient being.l1 A. 'creatures lie in two categories."History of Religions. it is to be understood briefly as four kinds-the confusion (saqnmoha\ of not comprehending. what is nescience (auidyd)? The obscuration ('gebspar byedpa fiid) and the hindeing (sgrib par bycd pa fiid) in regard to the reality of the knowable that of consciousness is to be comprehended. one thenspeaks of thelst member. But whenthe formulais applied to a single life. 188-189. the confusion of heedlessness. 10. (PTT. Moreover. 3 (Feb. W. on the first two bhDmis. Whentheformulais so interpreted. Ffowever.mitants of defilement (:waywardness) b. The confusion of not comprehending is the ignorance (ajfrdna) of not seeing and not hearing. being comprised by kleia. and so there is a nescience without defilement. d.

But then the question arises of which one of the kinds-or is it both?-that has the former and later states mentioned.. while not entrapped by the other group of defilements. The one having the mental concomitants of defilement is in the case where someone seeks that there be no confusion and that no defilement arise. hatred. and yet their insight is not strong enough to eliminate the hindrance of the knowable. and yet there are still present other defilements. the "traces" of lust. And then there are the bodhisattuas.whose nescience is unmixed with the defilementsof lust. Asanga's order is consistent with the passage I cited above from tus Bodhisattuabhumt. hindrance. lust.. It is noteworthy that Asanga qualifles the two kinds of nescience in terms of persons following the Buddhist path. namely. 111. Vol. entrapment. The unmixed nescienceis in the case of some person of dull insight who. All those kinds of nesciencernay be summarised as two kinds: having the mental concomitants of defilement.. and (the Truths) do not appear to him in the genuine way as they really are. B. and there is obscuration. Asanga discusses these two terms ootraces" . and delusion. etc." In the outline f reversed the order in which he presentsthese two persons so as to preservethe order in which the two kinds of nesciencearise in this interpretation of Dependent Origination. etc. This is consistent with my observation that he did not lose sight of the distinction alluded to in the Paramdrtha-gdthd. has the wrong method of orienting his mind to the Truth of Suffering. 138-1)he saysthat nescience two states. and unmixed. but still there are present other defilements from the group of lust. formerhas the state of "traces" (anuiaya). and nescienceis present. A.p. and darkening of consciousness. etc. The foregoing should make it clear that Asanga does not refer to the two kinds of nesciencewhen in his Vastusarpgraha(ti (PTT. He scarcely disguises his implication of the irduakas who seek to eliminate the hindrance of defilement. etc."One finds that creatures Iie in two categories.Nescience and Insight According t o Asafrga 199 of thought. It is this passagewhich may be the one that led to Tson-kha-pa's remark that in Asanga's position it is insight (prajfiQ which is the main opponent to nescienceas the first member of Dependent Origination. and later-the state of "entrapment" (paryauasthdna).

says. (ed. pride (mana). being forms of defilement (kleia).1. "When one has eliminated entrapment.lbersof Dependcnt Origination which Asanga described 'othe as sufferingpossessed of cause. "reifying view" (satkayadrpri) and 'nview holding to an extreme" (antagrdhadrp{i). they are statesof the secondkind of nesc.200 Buddhist Insight and "entrapment" at length in ltiniicaya-samgrahani on his Sauitarkadir bhilmi. again and again the entrapment arises."12 Furthermore (p. Vol. 132 (Tib. the Sarytdhinirthe defiletnocanq. 282-2. becauseas was shoivn above the first kind is "unmixed. but has not eliminated the traces. "On account of the state of waking. there are the traces. enmity (pratigha). illustrations traces of these of thesix senses." It follows that the kind of meditation that gets rid of the entrapmentsthat are in the nature of those ten defiiements has not elirninated the traces of eight defilernents that iie deep and are vitalised in sleep. unmixed vlith defilement. Asanga's scriptural authority. the power of insight must be applied to eliminate the "traces" 12For in sleep in termsof the three"poisons". p. he says (p. These two states. In the exegetical section he stressesthe "exaggeration of vielvs" (dr.lementper Bhattacharya. 281-5)." Asanga adds to the set of eight.e. p. tr61). cannot apply to the flrst kind of nescience.. 283-1. nescience (auidya).with each defined (pp. as Asanga mentioned. PTT. Here he means the eight-fold def. 110." This is becauseat p. and doubt (uicikitsa). and the rernaining ones are "deviant views" (mithyd-drsli). 282. text) and p. and tr. exaggeration of rules and vows (iilaurata-pardmaria). Now.This Table1 gives dream defilements 2. where chapter see is reprinted in this volume. "feelings. passion (raga).ence. 244 (French translation). . essay l3EusNNs LAnaorrn. there is entrapment. Sarydhinirmocana Sfitra (Louvain. "By means of meditation one suppresses their traces. This set of ten defilementstherefore applies to the five last mei'. 281-4). 281-4." Asanga (p." i. in the caseof the suffering ranging in the "realm of desire. and to p. 162-164). on account of sleep. that of waywardness. the eight "traces" must be a fuller list of possibilitiesthat go along with the seventh member of Dependent Origination."13 Therements. For exarnple. 1935). text. Therefore.282-$ settles on the number eight for the o'traces"in connectionwith the Truth of Source (samudaya-satya). p. through p. Thus. by meansof insight one well erases fore.

6. is nescience. confusion about entity confusion about time (adhua-sollxmolza). Vol. confusion about pride (abhimdna). Dharma. Four fornrs of ignorance (aifiana)4.a.) a list of sevenignorances 205.." That Artha-uiniicayclcommentary includes "confusion about realityl" as a degreeof nescience (auidya).uas dnti. confusion about reality (tattua-"). outer. sevorrkinds of confusion (sarytmoha) : . confusion about transfer (i. Asanga and InsightAccording Nescience 201 of the second kind of nescience as well as. Sangha) is darkness (tamas). Here there ?. confusion about pride (abhimana:).ls of the Buddha. : PTT. confusion about entity (inner. 109. the three times). and confusion about the meaning of reality (tattua). The same group of seven has been subdivided and partially explained in the Artha-uiniicaya-likd (author unrecorcled). p. 172-3). Vol. Three degreesof nescience(auidyd\confusion about reality 1.e. there are two: confusion about karma and its fruit. confusion about defilement and purification (sarTtlcleiauyauaddna-"). (tattua).. in Tilretan (PTT. 5. confusion about time (i. 7. and both inner and outer). great nescience is blind obscuration. Dependent Origination) is "not understanding" (anabhisamaya). Then he mentions (text. 260-2-3. (. : ff. confrision about defilement 2. p.karma and its fruit) as a form of ignorance. middling nescience and puriflcation. and includes "confusion about transfer" (which involves . This subdivision helps to clarify Tson-kha-pa's remark as was prerriously cited: ooWhenone analysesthat confusion. This implies that it . confusion about t w"). karma .p. to counteract the "ignorance" constituting the first kind of nescience. confusion about the excellent (the Three Jewu. Nescience as lgnorance Asanga in the latter part of the Sauitarkddir bhumi (text."). confusion about transfer (sarytkr the excellent (agra-'). is not seeing (adariana). each with brief explanation. is ignorance.20a) presentsa list of nineteen entities about which one rnay be ignorant. rninor nescience is delusion (moha'). 145. p.

in the follorving manner:la a. f. each called a "confusion". here listed as four. ignorance of the Dharma 14. p. ignorance of prior limit (the past sarytskdras) ignorance of later limit (the future sarytskdras) ignorance of prior and later limit (with doubt) ignorance of the personal (one's own sarytskdras) ignorance of the other: person (the other. pTT. ignorance of path laln the following.202 Buddhist Insight is the forms of ignorance. 204). f. confusion about view (drsli-sarpmoha).) 8. which are associated with the list of nineteen ignorances. 4."the pastsaqnskdres. ignorance of maturation 11. 260-2-6) another list with five kinds of ignorance (ajfiaita). igrrorance of the Buddha 13. 12. ignorance of karma 10. ignorance of suffering 16. confusion about heedlessness (pramdda-'). (p. e. 5. ignorance of karma and maturation (with waywardness). ignoranceof cause(believingin a creator lord. ignorance of cessation 18. here listed as three. confusion about the meaning of reality (tattudrtha-"). the sinless." constitutes minimalextraexplanation from the definitions ignorances of the nineteen in the Sanskrittext.g. ignoranceofsource 17. p.Asanga mentions (Sanskrit text. and keep one in !'cyclical flow" (sarlesdra). that constitute the nescienceheading Dependent origination that is the condition for the second member "motivations" (saqnskdra)of the type leading to an evil destiny.and the mixed) b. c. And implies that when one is nolonger plagued by this ignorance.s saqnskaras) ignorance of the personal and the other person (in terms of friend.occasional extramaterialwithin parentheses. . enemy. 6. etc. Besides. 3. 2. it is the degreesof nescience. ignorance of the Sangha 15. 17. 205. and neutral) 7. ignorance of saqnskdrasgenerated from cause(the sinful. that are the condition for motivations toward a good destiny.

confusion about the entity (artha-saqnmoha).Nescience and Insight According to Asanga 203 d. (4) waywardness that considers impermanent as permarrent. I[. confusion about pride (. p. ff.abhimdna:). indulgence in any of the 62 views of the Brahmajdlosiltra. For the inrplication seechapter12. 119-1. Along these lines. What is the waywardness of rsThis category prideespecially regarding confusion about concerns Asafiga's. It is this ninth member which according to the Abhidhqrmakoia is of four kinds. (Sanskrit ed. . Under heading one places all nineteen ignorances" this Therefore the comprehensive kind of ignorance called "confusion about the entity" is equal to the previously-mentioned kind of "unrnixed nescience" called "the confusion of not comprehending. the second kind of nescienceenters the mind as a concomitant of the o'feelings" that are the seventh member of Dependent Origination. asin the viniscaya-sarygrahapi of the Nirvipawith-Remainder (PTT.indulgencein rules and vows. (7) waywardnessthat considersnonself as self. etc. follows:' (l) waywardness of idea (sarpjfrd:).) wherehe appears to hold that Nirvdna-with-Remainder keeps the six sense bases. With this condition there arises "craving" the eighth member. What is the waywardness of idea? It is the discursive thinking (parikalpa) of idea that considers the impermanent as permanent. while Nirvdna-without-Remainder lacks the six sensein termsof gotra (species). the ninth member. ignorance of the special knowledge of the six sensebases as they really are (with waywardness of consciousness)l5 c." where the creatures are caught by delusion. (2) waywardness of view (dfsli-"). indulgence in the five strands of desire (the five senseobjects). But some items add a "waywardness'o element.. (5) waywardnessthat considerspain as pleasure. Vol. 19. Nescience as Waywardness As was previously indicated.. discussion of Arhat attainment. Asanga explains "waywardness" in the Sauitarkddir bhumi. 166): There are seven kinds of waylvardness(uiparydsa). (3) waywardness of consciousness(citta-"). p. which is followed by "indulgence'o (updddna). and Nirvd{ra-without-Remainder stages.(6) waywardnessthat considers impure as pure. indulgence in the self-theory.

p. the "outflor. 109. settling on. Passioninvolves the pair of rvayrvardnesses. pride. as he explains (Skt. the "root of waywardness" is nescience (auidya). Among those. The "outflow of waywardness" is the deviant view (mitlrya-d75!i). "Waywardness" is the reifying view (sotkdysdfs{i). and doubt. the one th."as made explicit at the end of the citation.vaywardness. naturally] losing memory (smrti). p. There is the outflow of waywardness. By defining the "root of waywardness" as nescience. The exaggerationof rules and vorvs is the wayrvardness ttrrattakes pain to be takes the irnpureto be pure." Since the three aspectsof defllement include all ten of ttre defilementspreviously mentioned as going with "the suffering ranging in the realm of desire. or clinging right there to the so-discursively-thought idea. (PTT." By mentioning o'waywardness'in terrns of the five "traces" he means them in application to the four "waywardnesses of idea. etc.250-4). the exaggeration of view and exaggeration of rules and vows. he means the second kind.v of waylvardness" includes sorne other "traces. lVhat is the waywardness of consciousness? Any defilernentof passion. There is r. Then. Here one should understand defilement by three aspects-There is defilement. text.204 BuddhistInsight view? Any acceptance. enmity. the onesidednessof view that adheresto an extreme. and the one thattakes pain to be pleasure. orienting the mind in an improper manner. the onesidednessof view that adheres to an extrerire. The onesidedness of view that adheresto an extreme is the r. . 163): o'What is nescience? Any defiled ignorance-whether refecting upon or not reflecting upon the knowable entity (jfieya-uastu). in preciselythat so-clung-to (view).Vol. the reifying view is the waywarclness that takes non-self to be self. and passion. The exaggeration of view is the wayrvardness that takes the impure to be pure."76 It is feasiblethat by the alternatives"whether reflecting upon or not reflecting upon the knowable entity" he intends the states "entrapment" and "traces.flistening to heretic doctrine.vaywardness that takes the impermanent to be permanent. one should understand defilementby three aspects." it is roTheportion within brackets wassupplied from the Tibetantranslation.belief. As Asanga mentions. the root of waywardness. Among them. be it (relying on) ignoble persons.

Asafiga points out that the four "The Obermiller. the stage of vision (dariana-mdrga). p. XI. So in that sermon the Buddha stressed the avoidance of the extremes of indulgence in sensegratification and mortification. PTT.nkara of . (Thus. Vol. there is non-lust. p.) the absence belongs to the Stageof accumulating of the four rvayu'ardnesses (merit) (sarpbhdramarga)and to the stage ofl praxis (prayogamdrga). where the Buddhist path begins with operating on the implications of the last fi. "Thus the one rightly enterprising. stage of contemplation (bhauand-mdrga). and non-delUsion.lhdgamana-mdrga).ve members of Dependent Origination. 244-5) he says: "By the Viuqrana-sarTigrahant Instructions of the morality-set and the mind-control set." Acta Orientalia." Furthermore. setting forth th. basing himself on the mind-control set. Yol. of Mind-control. the Abhisamayalar. of Insight." Here Asanga combines the early Buddhist theory of three Instructions with the Mahdyana classification. Asanga (Cintdmayi bhumi. and ultimate state (ni.efour Noble Truths (or Truths of the Nobles.and Insight According to Asanga Nescience clear that Asanga means by that "waywardness" passage "the suffering possessedof cause. generatesthe mind-control set (adhi-citta). basing himself on the morality set (adhiiila). developed in the Prajiidpdramitd exegesis." In his (PTT. 1932. 18-4) says. Insight as qn Instruction The division established previously of two parts of Dependent Origination is consistent with the first sermon of the Buddha. and the candidates are those caught by craving and henceheedless in sense flelds. non-hatred." It will be iecalled that here the creatures are caught bY craving. generates the insight-set (adhipraiiid). 110. although the Tibetan word sa in each case shows that Asanga used the term bhumi rather than marga.a)and liberation (uimukti)belong to the Instruction of the insight set.rT In the Viniicaya-saqngrahaltt. I I 1. out in detailin Eugene is worked 1?The theoryof fivepaths Doctrine of Prajfla-paramitl as exposed in Maitteya. of Morality. the dryas). the Buddhist training was expressedby the three Instructions. These two extremes may well be what were referred to among the ten defilernents as "passion" and "exaggeration of rules and vows. clear sight (uid|. Vol.of five paths (marga).

XV. "There are four olustres'(abhd). "lights" (dloka). "secondary lights. four "beams" (prabhd). In Asanga's position.' (obhdsa)." p.So me c o rre c ti onsw ere made by consultation of the equivalent chinese section in Taisho.) among the members of the Eightfold Noble path. 111.g. consistent with assigning Right views. l8'oThe Meaning of Unwisdom. 296-5). fire. he says a little previously.1e one of the most striking features of what follows is the set of similes emphasizing light. sun. one cultivates Insight with Right views. Also.the Instruction of insight is required. p. 2 3 2 -1 . Vol. Here five paragraphshave the sarne form. But there is no hint in the pdli scripture that these similes have the implications which Asanga makes explicit. and Right Effort. with five entries that are in the Pali "Book of Fours. V ol." But." Chap. as was already pointed out.the aspects"There is voidness" and "There is non-self" oppose the waywardnessthat non-self is self. a-sdk .l8 Here the meditations on voidnessand non-self serveto counteract the reifying view (satkdyadrsli) that takes non-self to be self. Right conception. (vol. . for liberation from the traces state of nescience. Vol. That is. (pTT. and insight. that of the moon. e. the aspect o'There is impermanence'.2 . and the last one is greatest. he statesin the Srduakabhilmi (PTT. 109.nessthat pain is pleasure. opposes the waywardness that the impermanent is permanent.3 ).206 BuddhistInsight aspects of the Truth of Suffering serve to oppose the four waywardnesses. but rvho does not drvell accomplishingthe eight liberations as a 'rvitnesser rvith body' (k d1. This is indeed a mystery of Asariga's sources. leMy wife Hideko aided me at this point. that the faulty adhiprajfid is adopting any of the 62 wrong views (of the Brahmojdla-siltra). 30. 751). 23. ( i' Terminology of Insight Asanga has a rather remarkable list in his parydya-sayngraharli (PTT .70-1): "what is the person liberated by insight? The person who has achieved in every last degreethe ending of fluxes (dsraua-k$aya)." Likewise. the aspect "There is pain" opposes the wayward. 297-1. p. ll0. According to Asanga's Srutamayi bhumi. the first two Instructions counteract the entrapment state of the defilements during the phase "the suffering possessed of cause.p .and "lamps" (pajjota).

or which is purposeful. 'oinsight" as the object. in sfrtra passagesfor Sravokas): "non-retreating insight" is the insight that does not Asanga Nescience and Insight According 207 Taking the order of terms as in Asanga's text. (2nd group. "insight that conduces to liberation" (nairydltika-prajfiA) is what well comprehends the natures that conduce to liberation. "profound insight" (ganfihtra-") is rvhat rvell comprehendsthe dharma possessed of profound voidness consistent with Dependent Origination. "incomparable insight" is the insight unequalled by others. "favranging insight" is the one whose domain is boundless and infinite. and what rightly reflects on the profound meaning and insight which the Tathdgatas enjoin. middling. I have grouped them by rather obvious headings. "insight" qualified in various ways. "sharp insight"is what well comprehendsthe phenomenon and noumenon. (1st group. "increasing. in sfitra passages): "obtaining insight" means any insight that is virtuous without qualification. It is the great insight enjoined for the disciples (irduakas). C. becauseit illuminates with a light like lapis lazuri's 'Jewel . (3rd group. as well as the freedom from mundane cravings. in order that this insight would be for a long time and repeatedry cultivated. and expanding insight" refers to an ascending scale of small. "insight that penetrates" (nairuedhika-") is what well comprehends the freedom from supramundane cravings. "equipped with insight" means the insight that recognizes defi"lement of the one which eliminates it. and great. A. emphasisinglight): of insight" is the insight that is chief of all faculties (indriya). B. "speedy insight" is the insight that cannot be overtaken. "fulfllling insight" is the proceeding to the ultimate state. enhancing. "perfectly pure insight" means the maturation at another time of the insight formerly and repeatedly cultivated. but goes on to the ultimate state.

). when the Dharma is well considered with insight in this and that way. D.vhichgeneratesamong lordIinessesthe best lordliness.). "reins of insight" is the reins of the horse of mind-organ for virtuous practice. "stake of insight" is the one which dispels the Maras ail the way from the "defilement" one to ths "son-of-the gods" one. "power of insight" is the invincible insight about principles and dharma used to comprehend the distinction of former and later of oneself. (4th group. or lvhat arises through the generative praxis of others. i. which secures the consecration (abhi. "secondary light of insight" (auabhdsa)is the one which goes along with subsequenttimes. "eye of insight" is the native insight (sahajdprajiid). "lustre of insight" (dbhd)is the insight gained from others. which is best of all treasures.e. "beam of insight" (prabhd) is the kind consistingof praxis.eka) for one's own mind. emphasisingfaculty or function): "faculty of insight" is the insight used to comprehendothers.e. . "li_sht of insight" (dloka) is the insight consisting of contemplation (bhduandmayi p. and which illumines.e. "expiatory insight" frees the body (of sins) and destroys (them). and it is not directly realised by the body [i. during Gautama Buddha's teaching career]. among the gems of the Cakravartin. "lamp of insight" (pradyota) is the kind which establishesthe profound scriptures expressed by the Tathagata.208 Buddhist Insight. "Possessingit" means possessing the jewel of insight. after the Buddha's Nirvdna]. "insight free from darkness" is the one directly realised by the body [i. consisting of hearing (irutamayi prajfia) and consisting of pondering (cintamayip. "torch (or meteor) of insight" (ulka) is the one which goes along only with the time of Teaching of the Dharma [i. "s\r'ord of insight" and "knife of insight" is what cuts all the bonds of rebirth (sarytyoiana). and q. "treasure of insight" is the one r.e. the Buddha's eye of insight].hich is the basic causeof all mundane treasures.

172_3_4. "temple of insight" is the one concernedwith the ultimate.. The list appears basedon the fow Agamas (th. yarna aild Mdra. blo) as any narive insighi capable of differentiating (alternatives). 234-1) that the native insight is aitained through birth (skyesnas thobpct). nTerana-o . 16l). klesa-o deuaplttt.'.sa nonrinatrplefix has ihis pcssible significance in classical sanskrit. %3-g buddhi(-{.fes rab {"superior. p. Vastu-sawgraha4i. pta. He contrasts (ibid. Asaitga lists nias or"them. This group agrees with the translation of prajiid as "insight.raN. 21Tlre nou. 2.a-'.n prajiia is ren<lered into Tibotan as . p.. It is intr. ernphasisinglight. 152-5)starting vrith entrapment by clinging to sentient beings and non-ssntien'r entities associate<l with householder. and nine vrere narned (in Bhattacharya.112-114.. PTT. p. lll. crosesoff the innumerable gates to the various defilements. and.{ikdyas)Insight as Metapharical Light Asanga's third group of terms. The "stake" suggests an iinpaling of the Miras. ed. p. s'kailtii. As to the "bonds of rebirih" {s'atTtycjnna). Asanga. "knowing. trII. u'hcre pra.. p. In contrast. WAv. "ladder oi insight" is the path arising frorn the praxis. 111. p.irte..naiiterature.... 137-3).A.{t-" . Asanga himsellcxplains a iittle later (paryclyasamgrahat."zr The "eve of insight" as the native insight (sahajdprajfid) deserves more er'planation. this native insight is present in every rational act of thinking.) keeps the oltl significa:rce of "f.Nescience andInsightAccording to Asanga Z0g 'ofence of insight" (has only one gate). obviously begins r. prr.t(ita) rvith the native insigirt possessedby the intelligent person (ui. (ibid.zo . Asanga gives five childish states belonging to chilCish (cr foolish) . He defines(ibid.orth" as a verbal prefix. saqnskara-pravicaya. p. T2-$ the pronroted insight possessed by the learned man (pa.guing that Asanga's list seems to iiave no elernents drawn from Mahayd.vith'Jewel of insight" as can be observedby the description "a light like lapis lazuli's". No. who arc of coursethe four. zzln thc vastu-samgraltani (1st topic. "siudies in pp. Therefore." jfia). Vol.?. rab.eSanskrit canon roughly equivalent to tire fcur pdli in prajanrTli ("[:iiolvs about'. Vol. arthough he is generaily taken as a Mahayanist.ti. refers to insigtrt's weapon (mtslton) fol eliminating ail defllernent.22 As such it is usually 20Cf. vol.s life.

he perceivesand witnessesthe Tathigata as the inner Dharmakiya. And when he seesthe body of form. 1...rst. smoke is preceded by the element of fire and hurts the eye.. PTT.. 5. a caitya. ll1. Asanga in Srutamayt bhilmi. which Asanga mentions in Viniicaya-sarygrahanion Sauitarkddir bhumi. Vol. he thinks. Vol.2tO BuddhistInsight affiicted. "Presumably the "arya" eye of insight is the three levels of praifid. p. p. 'mental (PTT. 110. It is the insight transcending mundane insight. 170-4. pondering. 4. in the absolute sense. the subtle murmur' (manojalpa) is 'thinking with signs' (uictira). 109." This is illustrated in Srutamayiblrumi. 231-4): "'Knowledge' (jfidna)is any insight arising from supramundanepraxis (lokottara'Obprayoga). givesa simile to show how the eye of insight is assailed For example. Asaflga admits that the irrational personmay lack or be deficientin this native insight."' Thus. . In the same way. Thus. conjoined with the traces of that (entrapment).) speaking variety in Vastu-saqngrahani. 2.. and contemplation." He indicates an inferior and a superior Vol. : p. not having attained initially the native insight. bJ' lr.ttainedthe insight of the iryas. this is not the right perfected Buddha. after witnessing the inner Dharmakaya. ." it always constitutes the development of discursive thought. with "mental murmur". PTT." Whether this uitqrka-uicdra one is is a member of the First Dhydna of the "realm of form" or is the kind in the "realm of desire." A feature of this "mundane eye of insight" is the developrnent of the coarse to the subtle prajfra as a discursive series.. or an external painting. Asanga states (Parydya'salngrahaUi. remaining with entrapment of confusion.(PTT. namely. 'indeed. (p. "The coarsepraifid based on 'adumbration' (uitarka).. and delusion. whether with form (rilpin) or formless (arupin).. Vol. Asan-eaindicates a wide range of possibilitiesfor this "eye" (in ibid.. and hurts the eye of insight. taining insight'means any mundane insight obtained after (pfslhatabdhi) the supramundane insight. consisting of hearing. of "mundane eye of insight" in contrast with "eye of insight belonging to the nobles (drYa). as speech motivation (uaksarytskdra). 2-3. 281-3).290-$: "With the eye of insight one sees all aspects (akara) of all dharmas. 3. not having a. starting. he persons (bata\.p. P. 110. not having obtained insight arising by reason of others' words. 16-1): "With that eye of insight. craYing (typaa)is preceded hatred. as Asanga says. Thus.

p. p. New York and Lonclon. trs. the certainty of cogent discourse..Nescience and Insight According to Asanga 2ll returns to mundane discursive thought. and the third consisting of creative contemplation. there arise three kinds of trust regarding the path and the fruit of the path which is Nirvaqa. one is especiallycertain about the meaning-one accomplishes the prajiia consisting of zsArExWaynaaN and HroBro WayulN. Vol. namely. 23-3): Taking recourseto the insight consisting in hearing itself. to deny something "in the absolute sense. Asanga briefly explains them in Bhauandmayl bhumi (PTT.1974). namely. we arrive at the following: jfidna is supramundane insight (projfid) devoid of discursive thought. with isolation from hindrances and reflections. As to those three levels of prajfia-the first two. inquiries.ane aclassicalstatement. insight consisting in hearing (irutamayi prajfid) and insight consisting in pondering (cintdmayi prajfid). not by resort to perception (uijfrdna)i' This points to the superiority of supramundane praxis. 110. its recital in low voice. and so forth. So as to accomplish the insight consisting of pondering. and that taking recoursethereto. and does not intend to deny the value of the mundane praxis. but not with idle verbiage. namely. with discursive thought. the trust that oneself can attain it and learn the means. 103.o'Oneshould cultivate by resort to knowledge (jfidna). including. uijfidna is mund. consisting of hearing and pondering.the trust that it has good qualities." These provisional and final resorts are clarified in my previously published note:23 For the most obscure set-jfrdna and uijfidna-when we combine the references in de La Vall6e Poussin (especially from the Bodhisattuabhnmi)with RatndkaraSdnti's explanations. . the trust that it exists." The foregoing involves the theory of flnal resorts (pratisaralta). p. Press. there is the trust that when one has isolated body and mind. insight consisting in creative contemplation (bhduandmayiprajfid). %3-Q: "The 'exercise of insight' (prajfidpracdra) means any insight possessed of what is to be perceived higher and higher of perceiving the meaning by way of scripture. Asanga says (Parydya-s. The Lion's Roar of eueen (Columbia Srlmata Univ.

Asanga explains in the Bhduandmayi blrumi. the sun. Therefore.and views the essential(gli mthon bar'gyur).and at both times. the path of vision (dariana-mdrga) which understands directly. sun. p. daytirne. Taking recourse to it. and the light of ttre body. one starts the conviction which views samsdro as base and starts the conviction which views nirud4a as superb. There are three kinds of lightthe opponent of darkness. in that seriesin the Pali "Book of Fours. He points out that various kinds of "light" are set fortlr in the Samdhitabhilmi. Regarding the "lights" associatedwith theseprajfid levels. The "light of body" meansthe light whicir arisesfrom sentient beings themselves(as in certain states of yoga). the 2nd level of prajiia) when one continually performs contemplation and has the praxis and engagement of devotion."-u1ong the lines (I.r a-nirud 7t a-dhat u) . After that. as they were pondered. 268-5to p. only the Nirvd4a-withremainder realm (sop adhii e.212 BuddhistInsight pondering. Now. etc. etc. by this sequenceone attains in the meantime the prajfid consisting of contemplation. etc. by repeatedlycultivating the bhduandmdrga. in daytime. refer to the light of nighttirne. insight. the learned liberation (saik5a-uimukti). Vol. Referring back to this part (PTT. gems. the light of dltarma. rve find "abstinences" (an-dhara) (from darkness)explained as when there is "light" (dloka) and frequent mental orientation thereto.269-1).such as the frequent darkening of consciousness lvhen one is trying to keep the mind on a meditative object. (p. Asanga says (Bhcluanamayi bhilmi. The "opponent of darkness" means at night the moon and stars.. that the "light" is a variety of the "idea of light" (dlolcasaryffid)meant to counteract one or another kind of darkness. namely. fire. both night and day" and the iight of dharma. Taking recourse to that (i. one attains the comprehension of truth (satya-abhisamaya). and of Sarytyutta-nikdya.25-2) that in the presentcontext the "idea of light" is meant that is aimed at the "light of dharma".25-2). . ancias they werefelt. the light of fire.e. 14)-the lights of moon. The "light of clkarina" means reflecting on the doctrines (dharma) as they were heard. or contemplating mindfulnessof the Buddha. Repeatedly contemplating this.p. one attains the liberation beyond learning (aiaik5auimukti) and completes the liberation. 109. the liberation which has bcen completed is.

the Yogacarabhumi. and to counteract these darkenings. by excerpts from its great extent.concerningsome of the most fundamental problems of Buddhism. and the "light of insight" (dloka) is the seven "ideas of light" that counteract the seven damaging factors of the contemplation. the "beam of insight" (prabh@ is the four "ideas of light" that counteract the four . It is the hope of the writer that the foregoing not only clarifies some matters of Asanga's positions on nescience and insight .damaging factors of the pondering. there are various kinds of faults or darkening. there are four "ideas of light" associated with the insight consisting of pondering. but also gives a taste of Asariga's encyclopedic work.Nescience andInsightAccording to Asanga 213 Asanga explains in the same place that in the practice of calming the mind (iamatha) and discerning (uipalyand). Thus. and seven associatedwith the insight consistingof contemplation. .

This is because in this particular case. and the Sanskrit-Tibetan Buddhist dictionary Mahduyutpatti. was referred to with a technical term I render "reifying view. determine rvhich of the many lists found in the Pali canon were so expressed by the Buddha himself or were added by later "Analysts. Therefore.especiallywhile analyz' ing man's make-up as five personal aggregates (slcandha). the Vinaya commentator Vinitadeva. the evidence of the Palisambhiddmagga. thus denied." This particular kind of analysis also serves to illustrate how subsequentteachersdisagreedabout these lists.London. 1913). Perhaps this bent justifies in part the Theravdda claim. and o'self.10 THE TWENTY REIFYING VIEWS (SAKKATADITTHI) The Buddhists were fond of making lists of doctrinal terms and their varieties.the opposing positions are well defined and each supported by eminent authorities. On the other side there is the Abhidharma work Jfidnaprasthdna. it is now difficult to Vibhajjavddin (an "Analyst"). artd the teacher Nagarjuna. which can be found in the translation of the Kathduattnu (Points of Controuersy. ." A splendid exampleof this type of analysisisthe Buddhisttheory of the "reifying view." This theory stems from the well-known Buddhist stresson "non-self" (andtman). To anticipate my findings." The denying in four ways that any of these five is a commonplace view of man. on one side there is the scriptural statement in the SaryyuttaNilcdya. that the Buddha was a However.

The Yogacarabhfimi of Acarl.sect. slcancfi'ta. V." Furthermore it is a 'oview" kind of waywardness. since the listing of the twenty aspectsshou'sin each casean observingof self (dtman)in a r. IX) as an "alternative" (5.vrong manner.s At the scripturai stage. zSeeAbhidharmakoia. . Therc is a valuable article on sakkiiyadiyyltiby J. 4V. 41. BuarrncHARyA.adilyhi). 102.216 Buddhist Insight study of this topic may reveal a sense in which Nagdrjuna diverged frorn the Abhidharmists. . satl<dyadr. P. is an unrvieldy translation and I prefer to ernploy the rendition "reifying view.. (5. 7957). khandlia). atyia). The Lion's Roar of Queen Srimata (Columbia University Press. iii Candrakirti's lvfadliyamakduatdra as a "piece" (S. 1974). is frequently explained and provisionally acceptcdin this paper as rei'crring to the five pcrsonal aggregates (s.satkiiyaar P. 1956). Asanga explicitly statesthis:a "Among those. p. cf. 3So BntrrHU The Path of Purification (Visuddhimag7a) by NAxauorr. in the Mahdtyutpatti as a'opeak" {iikhara). F. the reifying view is the waywardness that takes non-self to be self.a isvaricusly Cefined.sakkiij. In the foilowing. ed.the full tern cr-rutrrl -l. Those viervsare applied in four \\.ara). kolika).we may consult the Indian edition edited by Jagdish Kasyap of the Sarytyutta-Ir{ikdya. ditrtrhi)are variously referred to.1 but it seenrspossible to make a modest aclvanceby considering the various bits of evidence. note.e renclerecl "vier. 15-17."s The trventy views (.. "CittarJ.g." T'ranslators from Pali sometimes rencler it "theory of indiviciuality. l93l-32. it arnounts to a commentary on the waywardness (S. 'S'for Sanskrit.19: tatra satkdyadStir anatmany atmeti viparydsall.P." but th. p. sFor the three stages of waywardness. Bhadantdcariya Buddhaghosa (Colombo.ahder.but the 'kr77'a. 227-239. taking as self what is nonself. uiparydsa) in the traditional statement. drsli. 'F' will stand for Pali.{i. La VarrfB PoussrN tr. Melanges chinois et bouddhique. "La satkdyadrqti d'aprds Vibhdqd. Ceylon. including the "view" stage. I. e. 166.v that the aggrcgates are treal. in the Abhidhannakoia (Chap. in the Di!trhikathd of the Palisambhiricimaggapaftof the KhucldctkaNikdya as an "aspect" (P. F. ArBx and Hnmo Wavlraw. Chap. 8'.aysto each of the five aggregates to give a total of trventy. text. The portion S.5. dl.: in this acceptance. RanorR.a Asanga (University of Calcutta..p. p.

then. uccheda-di1trhi) or under 'oeternalistic views" (P. ooobserves self as having form. or the self as in form. 'The scripture continues' "Well.u The views..nyron. The scriptural style continues in the Dillhikatha which classifies the views under "nihilistic views" (P. PaliText Society. T.there is no reifying view. Thus. the identification of self with form (rupa). or body) as a self. with the opposite of the foregoing statement. Palisambhidamaggd. p. who does not observeillustrious persons.. regardsfeeling as a self . body) in time perishes. l7-18). or feeling as in the self. . in my translation: In that. your honor. feeling. Dutiya-Isidatta-sutta. the ordinary person (P." One may find approximately the same statement in Majjhima-Nikaya. III.p." observesfeeling. The passagecontinues with the reply.." "form as in self. constitute "nihilistic views. namely. Vol.. constitute o'eternalisticviews.256.. who is not skilled in the doctrine of the nobles. ideation. householder. regards form (rupa. Vol. as a self. ideation. or form as in the self. who is not trained in the doctrine of the nobles. there is the reifying view. and perception.. dorvn to). householder. ideation as a self . you should know. sakkayaditthi hoti" ti?). for the passage beginning. (and so on." with analogous views for the other aggregates. or motivation as in the self. perception as a self . bhante. how is there no reifying view?" And the reply: "trn that. is the nihilistic view. who does not observe the nobles. sassata-dilthi). then. who is not trained in the doctrine of illustrious persons.. householder. motivation as a self . perception. or the self as having a form.The Twenty Views(Sakkayadighi) Reifying 217 saqnyutta. how is there the reifying view?" ("kathar.likewise with the other aggregates. or ideation as in the self. I.thenoble disciple. motivation. 1905. your honor.who is not skilled in the doctrine of illustrious persons. Thus. o'observes form as a self.. "Well.who listens(to the Buddha's teaching) . you should know. or perception as in the self. householder. (III." The point of the classification seemsto be that since form (or.. motivation."3. puthujjana) who does not listen (to the Buddha's teaching).n puna." The views. On the GThe only editionavailable to me is AnNoro C." "self as in form. 150..

el-outsoE Ln Varies Poussnv. to wit. by Mns.lgll. He denies that there are more than four terms. p. has the remark:8 "A11 of them are to be consideredas blocking the way to the Path. we first notice Nagdrjuna's Madhyamokakarikd. the aggregates are not in him.T Buddhaghosa's commentary on that work. XXII.u sal. nor does he possessthe aggregates. Chap. likewise the other aggregates. is the Tathdgata? Candrakirti's verses VI.1958reprint).1900)." By "First Path" is meant "Entering the Stream." For the tradition of Sanskrit Buddhism. five of the aspects are nihilistic views. form being in self. 432: skandha na ndnyah skandhebhyo ndsmin skandhd na te. by reason of having it. Thus.rf. as not blocking the way to happy rebirth.still leaves self to continue. Candrakirti points out that when one takes this verse as having five terms. the Atthasdlini.r/ tathigatah skandhavan na katamo 'fta tathdgata\. then. nor he in them. and so this is the eternalistic view of self. 457. The twenty are listed in the Dhammasangani. nor he in them. by Pp MauNc TrN under title TheExpositor. also not other than the aggregates(skandha). Le Musdon. by CanorrNp A. and flfteen are eternalistic views. lol-ours on La Var. especially verse l.744. p. likewise self vis-a-vis the other aggregates. What. F.-312. is the Tathdgata? But in the context of Candrakirti's Madhyamakduatdra.' the skqndhas are not in him. Psychological aTr. What. and rev.then the fact that form perishes. not other than the skandhas. II.218 Buddhist Insight other hand.Vol. citing this very verseunder YI. or self being in form.311. skandha). if self is other than form. Rnvs Davros under title A BuddhistManual of Ethics(London. he does not possessthe skandhas. then.e PoussrN. which on first sight one would think to translate this way:e The Tathagata is not the aggregates(5. and as that which is to be slain by the First Path. 144-145 are especially devoted to the zTr. Mulamadhyamakakarikas avecla Prasannapada. when applied to each of the five aggregatesit would yield a total of twenty-five rather than the traditional twenty. 259.ed. p. and so we are forced to translate Ndgdrjuna's verse diffetently: The Tathagata is not the aggregates. . RHysDlvms (London.

The twenty follow: 1. Now we move to the Mahavyutpatti dictionary.. there are here two kinds of reifying view. 312-313.satkdyadr. tr. These are held to be the twenty pieces of the self-view. p. Likewise. no longer exists among those who have entered the stream. Feeling belongs to the self." Rahder. that the Brahmajala-sutra two false views. know all the skandhas in four ways.The TwentyReifyingViews(Sakkayaditthi) 219 topic. is a self. the self is rent asunder. sahajS remains. the "co-natal" (5. and so no longer has the "imagined" kind of reifying view. 7.a) lrlbid.pointsout "La satkayadrpti. 4684 is the title. where in the Sakaki edition.dtman is not in rilpa. 89-4.rli-iailalt (the mountain of reifying views. The self has feeling. The self has a form like an adornment (alankara). 2.239. and are among the few verses of his Madhyamakduatdra aha:11 cited in the Subhd. The self is in form like a pot (bhaiana). Form (5. Photo edition. the imagined (S. The more subtle form of "reifying view. 8. Vol. the two kinds. sary{fi. but the second kind. the riipa is not in dtman. With the thunderbolt of enlightenment to non-self. Ideation (S. high with trventy peaks). in his native Tibetan commentary on the Madhyamakduatara. is the root of all the sixty- . rupa) is a self like a prince (suami). 154.for an old Abhidharma Abhidharmakoid." is still there. explains that the one who has entered the stream has given up the bad doctrinal systems.itasarytgr The atman is not the rupa. The self is in feeling. Form belongs to self like a servant (bhTtya). uedand)is a self. Feeling (5. La Vall6e Poussin points out in the note what is the first modification of position in comparison with the Pali Buddhism tradition set forth above. These are the high peaks located on the large mountain of reifying views. That is to say. and along with them (the high peaks) the mountain of views collapses. parikalpita). PTT. 3.. S. tzSee theoryof V.l2 Tson-kha-pa. Furthermore. says that the satkayadr.rpa. 6. Chap. 41. 4. nor does dtman have a rf. the First Path.p. the first. p. 5. item No. p. uirytiati-iikharasamudgatah.

"because the defilementsthat are simultaneously destroyed are eliminated by the path of vision (dariana-mdrga)." and "like a pot. 13. The Mahauyutpotti in common with the Mfrlasarvistivddin Vinaya has a list with apattern of quasi-inflections. 17. YoL 122. which obey a pattern of quasi-inflections. The self has motivation." "like a servant. 11. and.""locative. 18. repeats for each of the aggregatesthe similes. The self has ideation. "locative". gives the iist of trventy as in the Mahauyutpatti." "like an adornment." Since his is a commerfiary on the words of the Vinayauibhanga(of the Millasarvdstivddin Vinaya).vs are said to be like a mountain because they are difficult to shatter. "like a prince. Perception {5. Candrakirti s expression "thunderbolt of enlightenment" (bodhakulria) also occurs in Vinitadeva's account by the same Tibetan translation.2).vhichrvas the only Vinaya acceptedin Tibet. The self is in ideation. p. Vinitadeva. uijiiana) is a self. moreover.p.explains that the reifying vier. r. "nominative. 15. 12. ." "genitive." "locative".Buddhist Insight 10. Motivation (5. or the self has X. as follows: X is a self. "nominative." oogenitive. The self has perception. Ideation belongsto the self.part of his commentary on the "Fourth Defeat" (PTT. or the self is in X. Motivation belongs to self." Notice the difference from the Pali formulation of the four terms. in his Vinaya-uibhafiga-pada-uydkhyana. The self is in perception." as follows: X is a self. Virritadeva. sarytskaralis a self. 14. 15. Perception belongs to the self. Motivation is in self. it follows that in all likelihood the Mahdryutpatti list stems from this Vinaya. 310-1." "genitive. 310-1-4. 20. or X is in the self. or the self has X. 19. and with the explanation.

the Jiianaprasthdna is here consistentwith the Mfilasarvastivadin Vinaya tradition preserved in Vinitadeva's commentary and with the Mahduyutpatti list. (4) vedandis the receptacle of dtman.n.{i.La p. and fourth aspectsas dtmiyadr. o. and that Sdriputra when explaining thern did not divide them into dtmadr5li and." Hence." or "the self is in X. but this is not borne out. which is that the interpretation of the second." would be "eternalistic" just as in the Patisambhidamagga. 22t In short. the Mahauyutpatti reversesthe third and fourth aspects.a." While this is a definitely formal departure from the old pdli Buddhist formulation. as "nihilistic" or "eternaiistic". all involving the self as "other. dtrniyadrsli. XXII. third. or the self is in X. with the division into "nihilistic views" and "eternalistic views.TheTwenty Reifying Views(Sakkayaditthi) or X belongs to the self. "La satkdyaolqti.notice th:rt the Vibha." pp. and the remaining f.rli favors the reinterpretaiion that substitutes"X belongs to the self" for "X is in the self. Chap. 228-229. that this work mentions that the Buddha expressedthe list of twenty views. 14trn agreement with this conclusion. is faithful to the old Buddhist scripturehe was probably using the canon known as the four Agamas." The Jiidnaprasthdna classification also furnishes a reason for the differencebetween the Mahduyutpatti list and the P51iliterary tradition.L' It then appears that Sdriputra's explanation is the one found in the Palisarnbl'aidctunagga. o'X is a self..b.perRahder.(1) rlrpa is the We may now conclude that Ndgirjuna in his Madhyamakakdrikd.fteen to be "view of what belongs to self" (atmtyadr. This is becausein the Mahduyutpattt account. satkdyadp." including." or 'otheself has X.vs" it would make no difference. if indeed the Mahauyutpatti list belongs to atradition which is classifying the twenty vielvs. Rahder's article shows that the vibhdsd cites the Abhidharma work Jfidnaprasthdnawhich takes five of the views to be "view of self" (dtnnadrgli).(3) vedana is the servant of dtman.rli). including the Sarytyuktdgama-in that he uses the four terms. (2) vedand is the ornament of dtman. still in terms of the division into "nihilistic views" and "eternalistic vier. and substitutes "X belongs to the self" for "oX is in the self." or "X is in the 13RAHDER. the first one would also be "nihilistic view" and the next three.. usesthe ternrinology.and so on. .231.

how will there be what belongs to self ! By cessationof self and what belongs to 'I' or 'mine. citeCabove(note 9) showsa rejeciion of the Abhidharma position espoused by Vasubandhu.rz For Ndgarjuna. tr.vo quite different problems.222 Buddhist Insight would exclude the characteristic of aggreg&tes." 16Asin Candrakirti's illustration.a1to bhavatil "Just as a horse. as was discussed . 1." but of course denies each of them. when a cow characteristic passes away. p. the Mddhyamika.3explains:lyathahi gor anyo 'fvo na golak. he does not depart from this in favor of the list r.vhichmade its way into the Mahduyutpatti. were other to arising and would be subject than the aggregates. but applies to self and what is other than self. 343. Cessation of self automaticaily ends what belongs to self. Therefore.titobeliefin "I" and o'mine" shows an agreement with the Abhidharma tradition of t}:reJfianaprasthana. and so on. Candrakirti's Prasannapada commentary. excludes the cow characteristic.XYIII. 1?Inshort. if indeed he is responsible for what was recorded in the Palisambhiddmagga.2.text.. p. skandha). Abhidharmakoia.16 Therefore. deciding that "not other" is a covering expression for denying the next three terms.the reifying view is not restricted to self and what belongs to self. 1. verse passing trf it away. (5.V. there is neither versesti. restrictingthesatkayadr. Ndgdrjuna'sverseXXII. for him the 15For the last part of the verse: bhaved askandhalak$(tah.who."ls And verse 2: "When there is no self.this providesno information on what happensto a horse characteristic. Chap. being other than a cow. One may appreciate further this distinction by noticing Ndgdrjuna's treatrnent of the topic in Madhyamaka-kdrikd. apparently in agreement with Sariputra. but since he is following Ndgdrjuna's school.' " Nd. the interpretation of the twenty aspects of the reifying view as a matter of self and other than self is incompatible with interpreting them as a matter of self and what belongs to self. Furthermore." Passing to Candrakirti. for him. in my retranslation of his verse XXII. above. 17. he is presumably familiar with the alternate tradition and affected by it sufficiently to empioy the terminology of a mountain with twenty peaks that is shattered by the "thunderbolt of enlightenment" (bodhakuliia). bnt cessationof self per se does not end rvhat is other than self.gdrjunaexpresses in these self. l-2. it the aggregates 1: "If the self were Thus. we should note that Ndgirjuna has no implication of "not belonging to.

The present writer hopes the foregoing can be considered the modest advance promised at the outset.than those personal aggregates that could be understood as kdya (accumulation). skandha). as would be the casewhen ending the view of self. This is consistent with classifying the 4X5 views as "nihilistic" or "eternalistic.The TwentyReifying Views(Sakkayaditthi) 223 "kdyA" of the satkdyady. the view of what belongs to self also ends. but also anything that is other." and the ending of one set does not entail the ending of the other set. .i/i is not only the personal aggregates (5." since "nihilistic views" are other than"eternalistic views.

r-t<rrn-pA's Lam rfm chenmo. Real (Columbia University. the sections "calming the Mind and Discerning theReal. sometimesheatedly. is not. each denied. it is not possibie to deal rvith all the previous studies.each denied.11 Wi-{O UNIDERSTANDS TF{E FOUR AI-T"ERNATIVES OF TI{E BUDDHIST TEXTS ? INtRopucrroN The Buddhist four alternatives are often referred to by their sanskrit naine cctuskoli. Tson-kha-pa's separationof rTsor. see A. both is and is not. . with observation that each of theseterms may be denied. Certain discussions wiil be considered herein within the scope of my five sections: I. and the differences stem frorn my having published a translation of Tibetan work that deals in several places with the formulal. The four alternatives applied to existence."Thefour-alternatives discussion in theo'Discernoccurs ing the ReAl" section. The three kinds of catugkoti. The four alternatives and logic. III. neither is nor is not. since so many authorities and scholars of ancient and modern times have discussedthis cardinal matter. and given in the form that something is.various considerations. v. New York. As we proceed we shall see that this is not the oniy manner of presentin g a catu. In fact. The four alternativesapplied to causation.koli. 1978). My findings differ from those of the western schorarsthat have come to my notice. The four alternatives in a disjunctive system. wavuaN calming the Mind and Discerning the. IV. II.

As suggested I ail also indebted to certain Western writers. goes back to AtiSa (l lth century). the causal topic is first. and Willard Van Orman 'ologic" (bibliography herein). . with alternativesapplied to causation (discussed in section III herein). in Buddhism the problem of how aTathagata or Buddha arisesby reason of merit and knowledge. of the Tathagata after death. I. may be simply becausethis systemwas not put to meditative use. for exampie. (3) the principle free from singleness and multiplicity. Thus. who in hrs Bodhimorgapradipa-paiijika-nama presents four ways of realizing insight {prajfia) main sources are from Asian languages. He illirstrates this in his text by Ndgarjuna's Madhyamaka-karika (M. AtiSa's classificationis revealing of the meditative use put to the denial of four alternativeswhen applied to causation or to existence. Hermann Bernard Bosanquet Weyl for the limitations of symbolic systems. The tivo topics of causation and existencerelate to Buddhist teachings that are essentially distinct. for treatment of disjunctive statements.). 103. {4) the principle of Dependent Origination (pratityassmutpAds). Chap. that is. since a Tathagata trras to have arisenbefore there is a point to inquiring whether he exists after death.each denied. then.226 Buddhist Insight the causation and existence aspects of four alternatives. as follows:2 (1) the principle that denies existence by four alternatives (discussed in section IV herein).pp. Quine for his use of the world 2The passage is in the Tibetan Tanjur. The fact. the problem of cause. that his listing does not allude to the disjunctive systemof the four alternatives. 1. 39-4-8 to 40-2-2. Historically.that I discussin sectionII. for example. the first topic represents what the Buddha preferred to talk distinct from the problem of the existence. eariier. Naturatrly. and the second topic includes matters which the Buddha sometimesrefused to talk about. He appeals to such an author as Santideva (especially his Badhicaryauatara. (2) the principle called "diamond grain" (uajrakaqa). that the dkqrmas arise dependently and are void of self-existence. namely. vol.K. Here he means. IX).

50-5g: hereafter Robinson. Furth.s which included a discussion of the four alternatives. 'othere is little evidence that Nagdrjuna understood the logic of the four alternativesas formulated and utilized in early Buddhism. founder of the Mddhyamika school.. GRtcnano H. 1 (Jan. JavannrBrE. F{e hacl written an article entitled. for he concludes that scarcely any western scholars.. PhilosophyEast and west 19..logic..a chataiian. 315-325.. 1965).. no.. ." Journal of Indian philosophy I (i.. . euine points out that while writers have used the term . one of the western scholars whose theories on the matter were rejected for the most paft by Jayatilleke. 'osome sRrcnARo H. aRIcnaRo H.8 F{e then states that it is less vague to call logical certain locutions.ras not content with putting down Nagdrjuna. pp. 'oA study of R. philosophy Four Alternatives.itrr. 1957): 291-30g. or modern Indian and Japanese writers have comprehended tiris logic either.' East . ttscnlet'..z wjriie agreeingwith chatalian thus far. 1967). N. section II. ttevery". Robinson's Early Madhyamika in India and china. R-onnvsoN. 1969):72-8tr." "Philosophy East and West 6. no. hereafter cited as Jayatilleke.some Logical Aspects of Nagarjuna's System.. . ttunless". questioning the use of the word 'ologic" to refer to the four alternatives. gtc. RostNsot't. wisc.. and incruded a section entitled "Nagarjuna's Logic" in his book (Earty Madhyainika. including "if. he metrtions that a set pattern of ernploying theselocutions 'orhe Logic of 3K. I am still puzzled by Robinson and Chatalian for their overattention to other persons'use of the word .\.a among other things.not'..: The University of wisconsin press. ciassical Indian scholars.logic'. 1-3. Logical Aspects of Ndgarjunaos system. hereaftercited as Robinson.then. and Vf/est. book-review. H. "alltt. 4 (Jan."s This scholar v. . with varying scope.. RosNsoN. 17: 1967): 82.'..ermore. Richard F{. Early Madhyamika.. assertsthat Robinson dicl not justify his use of the word "logic" in his book. Robinson. Early Mcdhyamika in India and chirua (Madison.Logic. Logic and Argument.. . although he admits that this is a vague description. in\d.or'. cnlrnlrAN.who understands the Four Alternatives of the Buddhist Texts? 227 1. .the science of necessaryinference".pp.Early Bucldhist Theory.g7z). seeespecialiy 75-76. pp. book review of Jayatilieke..'. Elementary Logic (New york: Harper & Row. "arry". TnB Foun ArrrnNarrvEs AND Locrc Jayatilleke says.subsequently replieclto him. 7G.. ..... a common part of their usageis called . 8lvrrrlno vaN onuax Qunr....

becausewhen recent dissertatioo." what is meant here is the usual "granted. it is hazardous and probably contraindicatod to apply symbolic logic. Chi.rjuna writes 8). "all is genuine or is not genuine-" this has a logical structure.o'e Accordingly. and thus have truth or falseness according to their logical structure regardless of content. Then. Y. Here there are two pointr: If the statements do not have an easily isolated logical ^structure. . among others.N."A Study on Nigarjuna's Method of Refutation. XV[I. Other writers have used such terms as . assumed. one asks if they are also so complicated that and truth sho'v or sift to requires a symbolic representation eCoNrER.HsnulNN WEYL. Even if they do have an easily isolated logical one structure.formally valid. falsehood. Quine further qualifies a." "analytic proposition".to prove them logically true or false.228 BuddhistInsight allows us to speak of the logical structure. and thus his use of the term falsehood in this sense. the application ofsymboliclogic to Ndgdrjuna's statements." has the same logical structure." This involves a problem of translation.1949).. Nakamura. regardlessof what is given. statement as logically true if its logical structure alone yields 'ologic" involves truth and truth. This is tantamount to saying that every grammatical English sentencein the indicative mood has a logical structure. including Shohei Ichimura in h. (Macthyamaka-kdrikd. Philosophy of Mathematics and Natural Science as (Princeton. in an English translation. goes along with such a title as "the logic of the four alternatives": and this application of symbolic logic has been engagedin by H. R. or "tautology" as closely related to this usage of "logic. PhilosoPhY. J.p' 13. Robinson' Jayatilleke.: Princeton University Press. By "given. "Every X is an a ot & b.rjuna's statements are assumedto be at hand. S. the rnere fact that there are marks on a page in th-e English language purported to be his statements does not prove that tl-ley faithfully relay Nd:girjuna's intention by marks on a page in the original Sanskrit language. Indeed. This still leavesthe important problem of whether Ndgarjuna's statements are indeed logically true. when Ndgd. every statement with the paltern." It does seem that both Jayatilleke and Robinson were justified in using the term "logic" in a study of these matters when tirey employed symbolic logic. hereaftercited Weyl.

as the '"given" has been explicated earlier.partially or rvholly. Thus the symbolic system becomes a vested interest." while claiming that such a renowned author as Ndgdrjuna cannot understand it ! Or claiming that a modern writer like Robinson cannot undersfand. In the case of the catupko!i. and yet symbolic logic is utilized. 37-38. ." Thus Weyl. has not mastered the art. Now to the first point. of the givenwhereby an undeniably brilliant rvriter as Jayatilleke takes the stance that he virtually alone understands "the logic of the four alternatives. even if there were a valid utilization of symbolic logic. Thereby the free manipulation of conceptsis contrastedwith their applicatiotr. So it may be merely a sectionor subsetof the given whose logical structure is not isolatable. and even to what may not be at hand. But then the application of symbolic logic is a matter of mastering the art of the symbols. not to speak of contributions by later Asian authors. pp. by Iecourse to Weyl's remarks regarding "constructive cognition":10 "By the introduction of symbols the assertionsare split so that one part of the [mental] operations is shifted to the symbols and theleby made independent of the given and its continued existence. loWEYL. the usersjealous of its misuse. the given is a rather considerable corpus of material in the Pdli scriptures and then in Ndgd.rjuna'sworks. is frank to admit that the pule operations of mathematics are independent of the existenceof the given. of being converted from their natural form to the artificial language of a symbolic system.Texts? of the Buddhist the Four Alternatives Who Understands 229 We may start to solve this problem with its two points.while they champion its misapplication to the given. that is. And so one may presumethat it is an arrogated comprehensionof the -siven-although in fact the symbols are independent. it could not account for the full corpus of the given. And there is the assumption that this corpus is at hand in a translated form of English sentencesthat are susceptible. Philosophy. If one would grant the applicability of Weyl's remarks. ideas become detached from reality and acquire a relative independeltce. a correct translation of a passagefrom an ancient whole or part. Let us assumethat the catuskoli statemerrts do not have an isolatable logical structure. because he does not apply the formal symbolic system right. an eminent mathematician. for example.

"' But this premonition of light thrcugh the symbolic system is a will-o'-the-wisp." II. The Philosophy of wonder trans. rt is like a person fascinated by a brilliant lamp and therefore is not seeing anything illumined by the lamp. The master of the art is hirnself masteredand uses the symbolism willy-nilly: even for the simplest computation. 38. with the implication of an understanding already at hand to certify the necessity? Perhaps there is working a psychological factor which could be called '"wonder. This halting. p. and the symbolic system is independent. he needsthe computer. the employment of symbolic systems for representing propositions of Indian philosophy. in whole or part.230 Buddhist Insight Then to the second poirrt. Some of the modern writers have rendered the discussions into an artificial language. is at the same time permeated by a premonition that light may be shed on this thing. to in the thesis is agreed to be present in similar casesand absent in llconNpus vsnuosvrx. I do not propose to denigrate. provides sufficient material for understanding-if a person can understand.1967)." Either B or c is left and one of these two is excluded. and then have dwelt on false issuesof whether this or that scholar's formulation is a 'ologic. including the traditional exegesis.qrrvrs rN a DlsruNCTrvESysrEu Here by a "disjunctive system" is meant a system of statements subject to the judgment 'oA is either B or c. whose "reason" (hetu) is relevant to the "thesis" (sddhya)when the case referred. a subtle infatuation. . of the given as it has been describedearlier. which men call attention. to determine the interceptedvolume of the cone? As Buytendijk has been cited: "wonder is charactefized. by a halting of the thing observed. in general. Tnr Foun ArrrnN. But are the catuskoli statements so complicated that a symbolic restatement is necessary. Becauselight can only be shed on the given. Such a juclgment appears to be involved in the Indian syllogism." what mathernatics student getting the "right answer" with calculus has not at tirnes felt a wonder at the ability of the mathematics-beyond his native capacities-s&y. For centuriesthe Buddhists believedthat the given of the four alternatives. Mary Foran (NewYork: TheMacmillan Company.

B..D is open. SrcnenBATSKy. by Shwe Zan Aung and Mrs. 1948). torments others. where saiid means something like "idea". and D are ipsofacto closed. and the disagreement was over the presence or absenceof safifitiin that state. .rqfifid." . 1962).. "Logico'.. The Essentials of Logic (London: Macmillan and Co. .242-245. B. pp..neither huppy nor unhappy". C. Tn. 1. The Pali work Kathduqtthu recards a dispute between the two Buddhist sects Theravdda and Andhaka about the nature of the meditative state which is called in Pali neuasafiiidnasafiiiayatana(the base of neither the safifia nor non-rafifia). He points to such systemsas: "A person is wholly happy.rNeurr.13 Bosanquet has an apt illustration:1a "f supposethat the essence of such a systemlies in arrangements for necessarilyclosing every track io all but one at a time of any tracts which cross it or converge into it. where the term safifid is rendered "consciousness.. Rhys Davids (London: Pali Text Society.taThis conclusion agrees with the previous observation that only one of the four alterna+"ives is the case at a tzCoNFER. and for a particular system it is necessary to state the rule of the disjunction. pp.Who Understands the Four Alternatives of the Buddhist Texts? 23I dissimilar cases. . 14BeRN. vol...125: hereafter Bosanquet. l3JayarnrEKr. 155-156. The section concludeswith an appeal to the case of the "neutral feeling" (the neither-pleasurenor-pain)... pp. Jayatilieke has shown that various systemsof four alternativesfouird in the early Buddhist texts are in a disjunctive systemwhose rule seemsto be that when one of the alternatives is taken as "true" the rest are certainly false... as example. unhappy. thus consistent with the traditional Indian syllogism which uses. if A.. p. Buddhist Logic (New York: Dover Pubiica. D. B. C. tion. The Essentlals of Logic.. the disjunctive judgment is a forin of inference (anumdna). Points of Controversy. 1915). and C are closed.who neither torments himself nor othetrs".12Anyway. The track X receivestrains fiom A.both happy and unhappy. "X is a person who torments himself. Just as it rvould not be cogent to ask if that neutral feeling were either pleasureor pain. lsCoNrnR in translation of the Kathavatthu." But the matter is not without complications. and so on. something well known to society (lokaprasiddha). 70-7l. if the entranceforthosefrom A is open.lno Bos. so is it not proper to assert there either is or is not sqfifid on the basis of neither the safiiid nor non-... both torments himself as well as others.

Jayatilleke quito properly explains tb. 79.implying thatniruana but not is presentin the Buddha and absentin ordinary persons. 8): or is not genuine." the idea (safifil) the Braimta-jdla Sutta explainsthis as wh. p. In agreement. "Logic. in the present verses (XXVII. and the sensebases ality aggregates l6Ja. 18My rendition 'ogenuine" is close to the dictionary. 82. 17-lB). one must also grant that the pair "neither the permanent nor the impermanent" is ilroven. not futiie"). 14. This brings up Ndgarjuna's remarkable verse (MK XVIII. we learn that the "neither.e third alternative: "S is partly P and partly non-P".or is neither genuinenor not-genuine. he deniesthis for one and the sameplace.nor" alternative points to a neutrality with indeterminate content. That is the ranked instruction (aruSdsana) Accorclingto Candrakirti's comment ary "all" means the person(skandha). also makes explicit his position that the fourth alternative (neither the permanent nor the impermanent) is derived from the third one.78 genuineand not genuine. Besides.232 Buddhist Insight particular time.enone h.. of the Buddha. 1718: If the same place (elcadeia)that is divine were the same place that is human. the negative forms atathya ("untrue. and has the idea that the world is infinite across. Confer.17that Ndgarjuira does not here deny au aiternative of "both the permanent and the imperrnanent" per se. and One should note about this passage(Jayatillekemistranslates misunderstandsit).This can be illustrated by his own verse(MK XXV. stated as "the universe is both fiuite and infinite. the realms (dhdtu). XX V I I .or is both AII (sarua)is genuine (tathyahl). unreal") and avitatha ("not untrtte.varttrErt." p.16 Thus for the content of the third alternative. If "both th"epermanent and the impermanent" were proven. and that tire third one (both the permanent and the impermanent ) combines the presumed first one (the permanent) and the second one (the impermanent). it would be (both) permanent and impermanent.. . cited later). present and absent in the same that the world is finite in the upward and downward directions. Ndgdrjuna states in his Madhyamaka-kcirika. Nagarjuna. 1zlbid.. That is not feasible.

1 : . .teachesthe true nature of the Sravakayanaexactly accordingto their expectationsand th. order to lead them onto the path by having them admire his omniscienceabout all these elements. 2 s T i b e t a nT a n j u r . .Texts? of theBuddhist the Four Alternatives Who Understands 233 (dyatana).. 3 3 . W. (b) After these beings had come to trust teln translation. "A Buddhist Tract onEmpiricism. and of otirer fortunate sentientbeings. Here the form anuiasani is used. p p . sont vrais.crldly beings the personal aggregates. 392. p h o t o e d i t i o n . "ranked instruction" (anuidsana).qFraNA.1 pa kyi chos ffan thos theg lta du ba bZin skal . tions. Kalupahana's discussion2o about the "Discourse on "Everything' " (Sabbasutta). 22See FnlNrrrN EoceRToN.and sense with their various enumerabases. ' p h a g s p a Sa-ri'i bu la sogs pa dan/de las glan pa skal pa dan ldan pa."2s Th. 1949).with the three kinds of marvels observing the streams of consciousness of the noble Sdriputra.p. being necessarily Next."zz This interpretation is confirmed in Vasubandhu's Buddhdnttsmrti' likd. KaLup." Hereafter cited as de Jong Cinq chapitres. and not vrhy his commentary interprets the ranking as follows: (a) The Buddha taught to See."21 "is naturally taken as an individual. oe JoNG. the interpretation of the word anuidsana as "ranked o'marvels" instruction" comes from observing it among the three (prdtihdrya) of the Buddha's teaching... 1969). as just expounded. 27: "il a enseign6 que ces agr6gats. Therefore the word "aIl" in Ndgd:rjuna's verse amounts to "anything." where the "anything" is any entity chosen from th. v o l .. in a manner that "all is genuine" ir. 65-67.. 1 0 4 . 1 (Jan. ztThe Essentlals of Logic pp.This agreeswitil Bosanquet'sobservation that the content of the disjunctive judgment "A is either B or C" concrete.1 . and so on. no. ". undet pratiharya.5 . apparently made possible by the preceding "mind reading. 20D.eset of "all" entities according to the Buddhist meaning. and the third.rst one is o'magical performance" (rddhi).8t o 3 4 .is only clarifies rvhy Candrakirti's commentary on th. 123-124. available both in the Pali canon and in the Agama version in Chinese translation." Philosophy East and West 19. see J. 6l6ments et bases .eir potentialities.e verse interprets it as a ranking. the second is "mind readingo'. p.rnams kyi sems 'phrul gsumbstan pas bsam pa ji lta ba dahl can gyi rgyud la gzigs nas cho ji pa'i flid ston cin. J..along the same lines.tlie realms. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary. (ddeiand). saying in part. Cinq chapitres dela Prasannapada (Paris: Paul Geuthner. of which the f.

in his own way. so as not to scare the irduakas from entering the Teaching. expiained as teaching that form.e. XII. 6dite par Sylvain L6vi (Paris . In illustration. one asserts that the son is neither white nor black ( : non-white. because they rnomentarily perish and charrge.25 The f. It is the fourth one whose relevance is obscure: this is the pari4dmana-abhi" (the veiled intention about changeover. is existent. the application to Ndgarjuna's line "all is both genuine and not-genuine" is the opposition (pratipaksa) to the fault of one-sidedness." Candrakirti is at least partially consistent by saying 'oto certain 2aI have summarized.234 Buddhisr Insight the Lord. seede Jong. far progressed in viewing reality and scarcely obscured. The second one is lolr. "all is spurious". explained as teaching that all dharmas are ri'ithout self-existence. For example. i. He tells them this.zc However. zsAsanga: Mahdyana-Sutralafnkara. (c) Certain select disciples could be told 'all is both genuine and notgenuine'. just as in the case of the son of a barren woman. he taught that "all is neither genuine nor not-genuioe". (d) To certain advanced disciples. it was safe to inform them about all those divisions of the world that "all is not genuins". in the case of the third one.In full translation.. That is. explained as teaching by taking into account the taming of faults.e. the Sutralarytkdracites a verse: "Those who take the pithless as having a pith abide in waywardness. to faults). the four "allegories" or "veiled intentions" (abhisarltdhi) which are listed and then defined in the Mahaydna-Sutrdlarykara. namely.rst one is auatdrarya-abhi" (the veiled intention so they will enter). of dharmas). 82. 1907). The third one is pratipak. etc. namely. p. 16-17. so they may become detached. So far these terms agreequite well with Candrakirti's exposition.rana-abltio (the veiled intention about the character.i.. not see it in just one way. and sc forth. . to reality). namely. Cinq chapitres pp.without origination. he seems to be following. Those who are mortified with the pains [for austere endeavor] [abide] in the best enlightenment.ta-abhi" (the veiied intention about opponents. that the sarne element which is genuine to the ordinary person is not-genuine or spurious to the noble person who is the Buddha's disciple. 27-28.

without outer" can be restated as "with neither an inner nor an outer. And going on with a still different teaching to certain advanced disciples. Noble. Jayatilleke's hostility to Candrakirti's commentary on the verse may stem from the modern Theravadin's reluctance to attribute a ranked instruction to the Buddha. 100) reads: mayd dhammo qnantaraLn abdhirary karitud ("By me was the Dhamma preached without inner. Early Madhyamika. pp. 146. ii.q. and then teaching those beings once they had become disciples (: the inner) in the illusional manner. as Thomas rendersit: "Buddha replied.everse cited above. herein) concerning the dependence of the subsequentalternative on the previous one or ones. so also one could not determine if the Buddha's doctrine was either inner or outer. becauseit portrays the Buddha teaching worldly beings (: the outer) in the realistic manner. 26J.qyA." because these ones would take the pithless as pithless. 56-57. last sermon of the Buddha could be taken differently than it usually is. That is because the original Pali (Digha-Nikdya. o'Logic. However. without outer"). Candrakirti's explanation attributes to the Buddha precisely such an inner and outer. z8Eow.y that in th. Candrakirti's commentary is consistent with Nagarjuna's MK XXVII.17-18 (translatedearlier.zz to den. But that same scriptural passage from the traditional. and herein the Tathagata has not the closed fist of a teacher with regard to doctrines. the four alternativesare in a "relation of exclusivedisjunction" a{Ldto claim that they amount to the non-Buddhist relativistic logic of the Jains. THouas." And then just as the "neutral feeling" (neither pleasure nor pain) is not either pleasure or pain. The phrase "without inner. and perhaps consistently with Ndgdrjuna's verseas Candrakirti understood it. . The Life of Buddha (New York: Barnes & 7952). p. far progressed in viewing reality. ordinarily the canonical passage cited in this connectionis. both as presented in Robinson's book. Jayatilleke26 refers to the samepassage of Candrakirti's and to a different commentary on Nagaijuna's verse in the Prajiiapdramitoidstra.rtttEKE. 2TRoerNsoN. 82." p.RoJ.Who Understands the Four Alternatives of the Buddhist Texts? 235 advanced disciples.' ')28 From the modern Theravddin standpoint. "What does the O'der expect of me? I have taught the Doctrine without making any inner and outer.

the seriesof tr. it is not a "Mahaydna" quarrel rvith the earlier "Flinaydna" school. .velve ascondition bers which begin with the statement"having nescience zsTheExpositor (Atthasalinr). Rhys Davids. without the closed fist. replying to questions by Kassapa (KdSyapa).and my another. THn Foun ArrrnNarrvEs AppLrEDro CauslrroN. would gladly communicate in a graduated manner so that disciplesin different stagesof progresscould have a teaching suited to their particular level. l:246: 2:318-31. the first member is called "right views" (sam1. Thereupon the Buddha memtanght the Dharma by a mear1 namely.ed.byEdward Conze (Oxford: Bruno Cassirer. Then Kassapa asked the Buddha to explain suffering to him.denied that suffering is causedby oneself. B.s. the Noble Truth of Path explairied rvith eight members. by use of the word anuiasano. and of the Buddha. vol. Of theseTruth.the first is the Noble Truth of Suffering. the four Noble Truths have been a basic ingredient of tsuddhist thinking and attitudes.9. Then. BuddhistTexts Throughthe Ages.pp. While this position may not be agreeableto some rnodern exponents of the Theravadatradition. So in the Pdli Samyutta-Nikaya (II. in answer to further questions.the Buddha stated that he knows suffering and seesit. wearisome by repetition of the same doctrine over and over again. l9-21). Sometimes "right views" \\/ere establishedby determining and eliminating the wrong t iervs. by both oneselfand another. trans.1954). amounts to the nihilistic view. HonNER.236 Buddhist Insight and one homogeneous character. or neither by oneselfnor by another. Eacu Dnuro Starting with the Buddh. while claiming that the experiencerof the suffering is different from the one who causedit. I atd 2 (London: Luzac & soAscited by I.2e III. becausealso Buddhaghosa of the Theravdda tradition in his Atthasalini insists that the Buddha's teaching was fittingly modified in accordance with the varying inclinations of both men and gods. 68-69. which is the eternalistic view. 1958reprint). and was told that claiming the suffering was done by oneselfamounts to believingthat one is the same person as before. edited and revisedby Mrs.seemsto mean that the Tathagata. Pe Maung Tin. Ndgdrjuna's verse.a'sfirst sermon.e fourth Truth.

and so Purusa. 114: Since entities do not arise by chance. and as stated in Candrakirti's Madhyamakduatara. atoms. suabhdua. In agreernent. 1 states: There is no entity anywhere that arises from itself. slBosANQUur. Calming the Lam rim chen rno.32 Besides. Nirayanat on (primal matter. or from themselves. or both (themselves others) then they arise in dependence (ot causes and conditions). . 'None of your distinctions touch the point.Any (thing) that is born (in dependence)on conditions. is not born (to wiQ: The birth of this (thing) does not occur by selfexistence (suabhdua). The element is "suffering" The (duhkha) or "externat entity" (bdhya-bhdva)in MK XII' "Negameaning of the denial here is aptly stated by Bosanquet: tion of'a disjunction would mean throwing aside the whole of some definite group of thoughts as fallacious. (i. you must begin afresh. Ndgirjuna's Madhyamaka' kdrikd. Io begin afresh amounts to accepting "dependent origination. In this casethe given elernentis called the "entity" (bheua).others. or by chance. the motivations cease. Mind and Discerning the Real. is declared void.) from a lord. time."'31 In the discourse to Kassapa. as mentioned later in the Madhyamaka-kdrika. Any person who understands voidness.. I. and etc. follorving the ancient discourse to Katydyana.f Logic. from both (itself and another). Any (thing) that is dependent on conditions. with the cessationof this entire mass of suffering. The Buddha proceededto teach that by the cessationof nescience. 125.VI. See Wayman. s2Here translated from the Tibetan in the context of TsoN-rcra-pa's o'Discerning the Real" section. for so the Anauatapta (ndgardja)pariprccha is cited: . p.and so on. to begin afresh amounts to the establishmentof voidness(lunyata).Who Understandsthe Four Alternativesof the Buddhist Texts? 237 the motivations arise" and continue with' similar statements through the rest of dependent origination (pratitya-samutpdda)." This is also Ndgdrjuna's position. It amounts to saying. and going back to begin again with a judgment of the simplest kind. The Essentials o. 32.e. The first two of the denied atternatives have the given element of "cessation" (nirodha) in MK YtrI.). from another.

r Foussin." nor . and Ndgarjuna goes on to add that the act of so designating. 85HereI have taken suggestions from the context of the Lam rim chenmo when MK r.dependent origination is the way things happen and that it is voidness. and Granrnar in Indian philosopltical Analysis (The Hague : Mouton. so it is not voidnessthat is's non-void. .. lg77).It's both (void and non-void).238 Buddhist Insight is heedful. vol.whiie the dharmasso arising are void. 1903-1913). earlier) rvas aimed at four philosophical positions.Epistemology.when there is the is reasonableto assumethat it is essentialfor the rest of his work. But in the meaning of designation (prajfiaptyarthom). Epistemology. seeLouis DE LA varrf. Flut now my understancling only partialiy agreeslvith his. 4 (St-p6tersbourg. p. it is taken for granted in the denial in tcrms of existence. 239. Logic." nor .!i). to wit. o'Depenclent origination:Emptiness: Dependent cesignation:The Middle way.Mfrlamadhyamakakarikas de Nagarjuro o|"" la prasannapadd cantmentairede candralcirti. Bibliotheca Buddhica. whethei cne recognizesthis to be the case._andfrom the annotational comments of the Tibetan work called Mchan b/i." But it may be said in the meaning oi designation. 1 is cited. l. as in MK XXII. and Grammar. "It's void." nor '."33 since Ndgdrjuna begins his Madltyamaka-karikd with this theory of causation. Also. and so the attempt to establishvoidnessby way of existencebecomesa faulty point of view (dr." Because I would say that as far as Nagarjuna is concerned. as in the celebrated verses (MK xxIV. one should not say. The denial of arising from itself is the rejection of the 33For the various occurrences of the important verse. as follorvs:Bs l. and here Ndgarjuna adds that the act of calling when there is the dependency.. But r. 34HereI accept Matilal's correction of my earlier stateclposition. hereafter cited as Matilal." because the four alternatives applied to existence cannot establishvoidness.Logic. is the middle path. MK I.the denial of the four alternatives in the scope of causation (confer.vhilehis school designatesdependent origination voidness. p.there is the act of calring dependent origination "voidness" and the dharmas so arising "void". l4g-149.. confer.ft. is indeed the middle path. 11: One should not say "It's Besides.this is not what every other Bucidhist sect does. since voidness ((Sunyatd) is establishedin the course of the causal denials.s neither. Bimal Krishna Matilal. 18-19).

Who Understands the Four Alternatives of the Buddhist Texts?


Sdr.nkhyaposition, which is the satkdrywsdda (causation of the effect already existent). Murti is certainly right on this Point'so 2. Tlne denial of arising from another rejects the creator being (tiuara), and Kalupahana increases the list from a Jaina source for "caused by another": destiny (niyati), time (lcala), God (tiuara), nature (suabhdua),and action (karma). The later Buddhist logicians heid a theory of "efficiency" that belongs here.3? Murti incorrectly puts this kind of denial under the heading of asatkdryauada(the non-existenceof an effect before its production).38 3. The denial of arising from both itself and another is the rejection of the VaiSe+ika,who say the clay pot arises from itself (clay) and frorn the potter, wheel, sticks, etc. trn fact, this theory is in both the Nydya and Vai6esika philosophy, which Dasgupta,se in agreement rvith Shastri,aocalls the asatkdryaudda, the opposite of the Sar.nkhya'ssatkdryaudda. Here, the clay is the material cause; the stick, wheel, etc., the instrumental cause. 4. The denial of arising without a cause(or by chance), is the rejection of the Lokdyata (the ancient materialistic school), which espouses the arising from self-nature.alThat school held ttrrat consciousnessis just a rnode of the four elements(flre, 36T.R. V. Munrr, The Central Philosophy (London: George of Buddhisrn Allen and Unrvin,1955), pp. 168-169.
37confer, Davro J. KarupaHANA, causality : The central philosophyof Buddhism (Honolulu : The University Press of Hawaii, 1975), pp. 5, 46. For the theory of the Buddhist logicians as later expressedby Ratnakirti, see surendranath Dasgupta, A History of Indian Philosophy,vol. I (London : cambridge university Press, 1932), 1:158-159.This is a theory that "efficiency" (arthakriyakaritva) can produce anything, ancl so a momentary, efficient entity is the 'oother" from which something may arise. The stream of consciousness is held to be of this nature, with one "moment" of consciousnessgiving rise to the next one. Hereafter cited as Kalupahana, causality. 38Murti. The central Philosophy, p. 170. rnisused the term asatkaryavada (for the correct usage,see below). gsA l[[story of Indian Philosophy. 1:320. 40DnanusNona Narn Snasrru. critique of Indian Realism (Agra : Agra University, 1964), p. 236. 41see now KarupanaNa., causality, pp.25ff, for a valuablediscussion of the svabhdvavdda in connection with the ancient Materialists, and on p. 3l he admits for them the appelation'non-causationists' (ahetuvada).


Buddhist Insight

air, water, earth): consciousness is not the effect of another consciousness.42 Hence, there is no denial of arising per se, but the alternatives are meant to deny the arising falsely ascribedto certain agencies, to wit, itself, another, both itself and another, or by chanceThis, then, is one of the "right views." V. TsB FouR ArrnnNATrvESApprrno ro ExrsrENCE. EacH Dexrrn The Buddha rejected each of the four alternativesregarding the existence after death of the Tathagata, becausenone of the four Ndgdrjuna devotes are relevant (na upeti), or defined(auydkata).a3 Medhyamaka-karikd, chap. XXV to the same topic, saying generally (XXV, 22): "Since all given things ("uastu\no are void, what is endless,what rvith end, what both endlessand with end, r,vhat neither endlessor with end?" Tiris refers to the celebrated fourteen "undefined given things" (auydkrta-uastuni).asSo in the is treated in verses5, 8, 13, 16; and the Lord chapter, nirudrya before and after cessation, in verses17, 18. For example,this is verse 17: "One should not inferaG that the Lord existsafter cessation (i.e. in NirvdrSa). One should not infer that he does not
a2The Tattvasafigrahaof Sdntarak;ita with the Commentary of Kamalaiila, trans. by Ganganatha Jha, vol. 2 (tsaroda : Oriental Institute, 1939), pp. 887-888. o'Logic," p. 81; and K. N. Jayatilleke,Early Buddhist a3Cf. JnvarrLLEKE, Theory of Knowledge(London : George Allen & Unwin, 1963),pp. 473-474. acWhile the verse in Sanskrit has the locative plural dharme;urather than vastLttu,Candrakirti's commerrtary makes it clear that the latter word is intended, becausehe promptly talks of the fourteen avyAkrtu-vastilniand does not mention any dharma-s:while in the Tibetan translation of the verse, instead of the stairdard translation for dharma (T. chos),one finds the term ditospo, which is frequently used to translate vastu; confer, Takashi Hirano, An Index to the Bodhicaryavatara Pafiiika, Chapter IX (Tokyo: Suzuki Repp. 273-27 6. searchFoundation,1966), 45EowaRo J. Tnouas, The History of Buddhist Thought (London : that they are actually & Kegan Paul, 1963reprint), p. I24, states Rotrtledge four, but become fourteen by stating them in different ways. aGMytranslation "should not infer" is for the Sanskrit nohyate.The verb uh- has a number of meanings,including "to infer", and the latter meaning with the verb root when there is the prefix abh[,withsuch is more associated a form as abhyuhya" having inferred."

who understands the Four Alternatives of the Buddhist rexts?


exist, or both (exists and does not exist),'or neither.,, Hence the rejections,again, are aimed against att phitosophical positions that resort to inference or to ordinary human reason in such matters.aT The failure of reasoning is clearly expressed in the Mahdydna work Ratnagotrauibhaga (chap. I, verse 9) when denying the four alternatives about the Dharma-sun as the ultimate nature: I bor,v to that Dharma-sun which is not existence and not non-existence,not both existenceand non-existence, neither different from existencenor from non-existence; which cannot be reasoned (aiakyas tarkayitum), is free from definition (nirukty-apagata!),, revealerl by introspection, and quiescent; and lvhich, pervasively shining with immaculate vision, removes the attachment, antipathy, and (eye-) caurs toward. all The question arises whether it is proper to interpret this to involve denial in tsosanquet'smeaning, what he calls, ..contrary negation."4e "As we always speak and think within u g.n.rul subject or universe of discourse, it follorvs that every denial substitutes sorne arlirmation for the judgment which it denies.,, one could argue that simply to deny onr ludg.ent and trrereby affirm another judgment would be a proceur or triinking that is negatedby the goal arlrrdedto in the precedingpassage, since the Dharma-s'n "cannct be reasoned." Floro.ii, if Bosanquet,s statement were altered to read "every cle'ial substitute, ,o,n" affirmation for the de'ial," it then appears to suit the state of azThis conclusion, however, goesagainst various speculative sclutions that havebeenadvanced to <ietermine particurar schools to go with thevarious denialsappliedto existcncc, namely,those of JayatilrJ<e. EarryBuddhist Theoryof Knowledge, pp. 243ff.: Murti. The Centralphitosophy, pp. 130_ 131: I(' v' Ramanan, phirosophy Nagarjuna's (varanasi : Bharatiya vicya Prakashan, pp. 155-158. 1971), It is noteworthy that thereis littleagreement between theseauthors'solutions, ancl their arbitrariness itseif stems from humanreason, while to ccuntersuchpositions Ndgdrjuna wourdalsohave had to use ordinaryhurnanreason.

aETheRdtfiagotravibhaga Mahdyanottcratdntraiastra. ed. E. H. Johnston (Patna: Bihar Researchsociety, 1950), pp. 10-il : confer, arso Jikido Takasaki, A study on the Ratnagotravibhaga (uttaratantrc) Roma : rnsti_ tuto Italiano per il Medio ed EsrremoOriente, 1966), pp. 163-166. aeBosauqurr, The Essentialsof Logic, p. I29.



affairs alluded to in the passage above. In short, the whole system of four alternatives would be denied in this contrary negation, thus to suggestthe retirement of convention (satpurti) in favor of absolute truth (paramdrtha-satya). In the preceding illustrations, it is the Tathagata or the Dharma or Nirvif a which is affi.rmed as the affirmation of absolute truth in the processof the denials, becausethese denials afe a meditative act-and acts succeedwhere theories fail-which downgrades the role of inference and human reason generally,and upholds the role of vision, so-as AtiSa indicated-to promote insight Qtrajfid). Therefore, it is now possible to evaluate two interpretations which seem to be starkly contrasted: (l) Murti's "The Md,dhyamika denies metaphysicsnot becausethere is no real for him; to Reason. He is convinced of a but becauseit is inaccessible (2) Streng's, "In Ndgdr(praifia)...."50 higher faculty, Intuition force is an effi"cient power reason of juna's negative dialectic the disthe that could argue One for realizing Ultimate Truth."51 mental as the taken to be is reason agreementis deceptive,sinceif processof making the denials which substitute an affirmation of the Real or Ultirnate Truth, then indeed while the Real is into reason,it cannot be deniedthat reasonbrought about accessible that higher faculty, the supernal insight(praifiQ, to which the Real is accessible, This very pointis madein the Kaiyapa-pariuarta: Ka$yapa, it is this way: example,for when two treesare rubbed together by the wind, and arises (from the friction), (that fire) having arisen, burns the two trees. In the same way. KdSyapa, (when given things are analysed) by the most pure discriminalion (pratyaueksalta). the faculty of noble insight is born; and (that Fire) having been born, (it) burns up that most pure discrimination itself.5z Hence, the very discrimination which is the kind of reasoning
50\{1rp1v,The Central Philosophy,p. 126. srFnpoEnrcr J. SrnsNc. Emptiness : A Study in Religious Meaning (Nashville. Tenn.: Abingdon Press, 1967), p. 149. is translatedin the context of its citation in Tson-kha-pa's b2Thepassage Lam rim chen mo. lt is number 69 in A. Stael-Holstein.ed., Kaiyapapari' varta, (Commercial Press, 1926),but original Sanskrit is not extant for this passage.

Who Understandsthe Four Alternatives of the Buddhist Texts?


that deniesthe alternativesis describedmetaphorically as a friction which arousesthe fire of insight that in turn destroys this kind of reasoning. Turning to Tson-kha-pa's section,ssdefending the denial of the four alternatives, this concerns the presence and absence of entities. Tson-kha-pa states that there are only two possibilities for an entity, that is, accomplished by own-nature, and effi.cient. Then, if the first alternative is stated in the form, "An entity exists," this is denied-the denial meaning to the PrasangikaMadhyamika that, in the case of both truths (saryturti and paramdrtha), one denies that an entity existsaccomplishedby ownnature, while the efficient entity is denied in the paramdrtlta or absolute sensebut not conventionally. Likewise, the Prdsangika-Md:dhyamika rejects the nonexistence of an entity, should someone affi.rm the nonexistence of an entity accomplished by own-nature among the unconstructed rta) natures (dharma). {asaryt5k Likewise, this Mddhyamika rejects the simultaneity of existence of that sort of entity with the nonexistence of the other sort of entity. And he rejects that there are neither, even one accomplished by own-nature. While I have insisted that the ultimate nature is affflrmedby the four denials, it should be granted that tbe acceptanceof this absolute in Ndgdrjuna's Madhyamika is a matter much disputed by Western scholars; de Jong's thoughtful article5aon the topic deservesconsultation. In any case, Candrakirti's position is clear, as he stat:s in his own colnmentary on the Modhyamakduatara: Regarding this sort of suebhdua(self-existence)as written in particular (Madhyamqka-kdrikA, XY, I-2), received from the mouth of the acarya ( : Ndgdrjuna), does it exist?(In answer:) As to its authorization, the Bhagavat proclaimed that whether Tathagatas arise or do not arise, this true nature of dharmas abides, and so on, extensively. The "true nature" (dharmata) (of that text,:slssbhaua) (necessarily)exists. Which (elements) 5sReferred to in note1,herein.There weremanyTibetan controversies on this issue. 54J.W. oB JoNc. "The Problemof the Absolutein the Madhyamaka school,"Journalof IndianPhilosophy 2 (1972):1-6.


Buddhist Insight

have this "true nature" ? These, the eye, etc. have this suabhdua. And what is their suabhdua? Their uncreate nature and their non-dependence on another; the self-nature which is to be understood by knowledge (in dryasantapatti) free from the caul of nescience (and its associated habit'oDoes energy). When it is asked, that sort of thing exist?" who would answer, "No."? If it does not exist, for which goal do the Boddhisattvas cultivate the path of the perfections? For what reason do the Bodhisattvas, in order to comprehend the true-nature, assumemyriads of difficulties that way?55 fn short, Candrakirti explains the suabhdua of MK XV, 1-2, as the "true nature" of the scriptures, and in a manner equivalent to the dharma-sun of the Ratnagotrauibhagapassage.s6 Finally, the denials concerning existenceare also referred to as the rejection of four "views" (dys!i). So MK XXVII, 13: Thus whatever the view concerning the past, whether o'f existed," "I did not exist," "I both (existedand did not exist)," "I neither (existed,nor did not exist)," it is not valid. Such passagesundoubtedly support the frequent claim that the Midhyamika rejects all "views." But note that the views here are of existence,not of causation; and that Nagarjuna elsewhere adheres to the view of Dependent Origination, which in Buddhism rvould be counted as a "right view" (samyag-drsli). V. THE Tnnps KrNos or Cnru;KoTr, Vanrous CoNslonRATloNs It might be argued that there are not really three "kinds" of 55The passage occursin the Tibetan Tanjur, photo edition. vol. 98, pp. 151-2-3 preceded to l5l-2-7. immediately by Candrakirti's citation of it in Lam rim chen MK XV, l-2I l:evetranslated mo context. soWhile it is not possible to deal here with the many misconceptions in Ives Waldo, "Nagarjuna and Analytic Philosophy."Philosophy East and West25, no. 3 (July, 1975),one may observe that Candrakirti's passage (p. 283)that the acceptanc his remarks directlycontradicts e of "relational (pratyaya) a denialboth of svabhava entails conditions" and of nonrelational Because Candrakirtiaccepts, events." as doesBuddhism gene"significant
rally, the pratyaya in the causalchain of Dependent Origination, and yet he also insists here upon the svabhavaas well as on a significance (the bodhisattve's goal) that is perhaps nonrelational.

who understands the Four Arternatives of the Buddhist Texts?


catu,skoli but simply different applications of the catu;ko1i. . Perhaps an exaggeration of contrast is involved in using the word "kinds." still I feel the word is necessaryto counter the frequent discussion of the catugkoli as though the catu-rko{i is at hand and the only difficulty is in how to explain it. Hence we may observe that the first kind of catuskoli, in a disjunctive system, is explanatory of the individual propositions, and thus serves as an introduction to the next two kinds or uses of the catuskoli, to wit, to apply to the problem of causation or to the problem of existence. There were disputes concerning each of the three kinds, but it is especiallythe causation and existence applications of the four alternatives that occasioned spirited disagreementsbetweenthe two main schoolsof the Mddhyamikathe Prdsangika and the Svdtantrika-disagreements which would require too many technical explanations to be treated in this article. Moreover, all three kinds of catuskoli arcfound in early Buddhism and later in the Madhyamika school. The first case where the four alternatives constitute a disjunctive system, rvith the individual terms not necessarilydenied, was well representedin passages of early Buddhism, as preservedin the pali canon; and then was included in Ndgdrjuna's Madhyamaka-kdrika in the verse about the ranked instruction of the Bucldha. The second case, denial of alternatives regarding causation, stating with the discoursesto Kassalra and to Kaccayana, is rnade much of by NagSrjuna as the basis of the Mddhyamika, but does noi seem to have been stressedas much in other schools of Buddhisrn. The third case,denial of four alternatives,has important examples in both early and later Buddhism, and, of course, is generously treated in the Mddtryamika. Therefore, when Jayatilleke says, "rt is evident that Ndgdrjuna and some of his commenrators, ancient and modern, refer to this logic with little understanding of its real nature and significanee,"s7these remarks define the limitations of Jayatilleke's own views of these problems, outside of which is his own "little understanding." Robinson answered Jayatilleke in a different way: "And since the catuskotriis not a doctrine but just a form, later writers were at liberty to use it in new ways, doing which does not itself prove that they misunderSUayarnrEKE, o'Logic," p. 82.


Insight Buddhist

stood the early forms."58 This is well stated and is meant not only to reject Jayatilleke's criticism of Ndgdrjuna and others, but apparently also to justify the application of symbolic logic. However, I have brought up sufficient evidence to show that Ndgdrjuna, in the matter of the catu;ko!i, is heir to and the continuator of teachings in the early Buddhist canon (in Pali, the four Nikd:yas; in Sanskrit, the four Agamas). Furthermore, I cannot concede that the catuskoli is just a form. Indeed, if Ndgdrjuna had used it in new ways, Jayatilleke would have been more justified in his attribution of misunderstanding to N6g6rjuna. Next, we observe by the foregoing materials that the flrst kind of catu;koli is a disjunctive system that was used to explain the Buddha's teaching. The second, applied to causation, each of the alternatives denied, is a meditative exercise,and besides serves to classify some of the philosophical positions rejected by the Mddhyamika. The third kind, applied to existence,each of the alternatives denied, is another meditative exercise, and besides serves to establish the absolute by negating the notional activity of the mind (sorytjfiaskandha) and its net of imputed The priority of the causality to existencetreatments-as I have already insisted upon-is consistent with Ndgdrjuna's Modhyannka-kdrikd, which devotes chapter I to conditional causes (pratyaya), beginning with the denial of four alternatives concerning origination of entities, but in the same chapter begins alter"Neither natives of existence,nonexistence,etc. So MKI,6: condition valid a has an existent nor a non-existent entity (pratyaya). What non-existent has a condition? What is the use of a condition for an existent?" The next verse (I,7) shifts to the word dharma: "Whenever a featute (dharma) neither existent nor non-existent, or both existent and non-existent, operates, in that case how could an operator-cause be valid?" (and it is not valid.) MK chapteresIII, IV, and V, deal with the s8RouNsoN, book review,p. 76. CommenssThis by Red-mda'-ba's is well statedin the Tibetanlanguage "Four HundredVerses," ed. JetsunRendawaShonnu tary to.Aryadeva's p. 170:"The form andvariety 1974), : Sakya Students'IJnion, Lodo (Sarnath
of natures (dharma) are posited as different by dint of saryjfia (notions, ideas)" but not by reason of the own-form (svarupa) of given things (vastu)-because all of them being illusory, it is not possible to distinguish their own-forms.n'

Texts? of the Buddhist the Four Alternatives Who Understands


products of causes,namely, the sensebases,personal aggregates' and elements,that amount to "all entities" (sarua-bhaua,IV,J)Here again, "all entities" presupposetheir arising as products' so the causality. The establishment of causality in conventional terms and of existencein absolute terms is therefore implied in MK XXIV, 10: "Without reliance on convention, the supreme (paramdrtha)is not pointed to." I propose that it was by not distinguishing these uses of the catuSkoli that there has been in the past various improper of misleading attributions to this formula. For example, there is the problem of which two kinds of negations is involved: the (negation by denial) or paryuddsa-pratisedha prasajya-prati.sedha (negation by implication). Matilal concludes that the catuskoli is of the prasajya type and that so understood the catu,skoli is free from Staal after admirably explaining the two kinds of negation (the paryuddsa type negates a term; the prasajya type negates the predicate) agrees with Matilal that the catu;kotri exhibits the prasajya type, but ciisagreesthat this frees the formula of However, r,vhenone considers this along with my preceding materials, one can promptly agfee r,vith Matilal and then with staal that it is the prasaiya negation which is involved with the catu;koli, nota bene, the four alternatives in their explicit form applied to existence,becausethe proposition "f bow to that Dharma-su,nwhich is not existence" 'x is of the prasojya type (confer, Staal: is not F'). But when one examinesthe propositions of the four alternativesin their explicit with Matilal form applied to causation,one can pfolllptly disagree and then with Staal, becausethe proposition "There is no entity anywhere that arisesfrom itself," is of the paryuddsa type (confer, Staal: "not -x is F'). And this paryuddsatype is of the variety implying action, for which there is the stock example, "Fat Devadatta does not eat food in the daytime." But "fat Devaooat datta" must eat sometime, so when? The world responds, night!"oz Also, the entities that do not arise from self, another,
60Mlrrrar, Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar, pp. 162-167.. GlFnrrs SrAat, Exploring Mysticism (London: Penguin Books, 1975), pp. 45-47; hereafter cited as Staal, Exploring Mysticism. 62Confer, DsrRsNoRa SuARMa, The Negative Dialectics of India (Leiden : E. J. Brill, l97O), p. 94; note where the example illustrates the Veddnta autho(arthapatti). rity (pramapa) called'presumption'

the first two membersof Dependent origination are: (l) "nescience" (auidya). "motivations" do arise with "nescience" ascondition (pratl. "Buddhist Dependent Origination. because one must brin-e in tire tireory of two truths (."0ch. for example. have acause (hetu) which is karnia. I have gone much more into the cause and effect (hetu-phala) side of the formula in my forthcoming "'Dependent origination-the Indo-Tibetan Tradition.248 Buddhist Insight both. A. or by chance. See Chapter 8. Nagdrjuna says(MK XXV. "in the manner of Dependent origination (pratityasamutpdda).raryurti and paramdrtha) to unclerstand Nagarjuna's position. bychance). How could Nirvina be both a presence and an absence? Like light and darkness.this cioes not save the prasajya propositions from mutual contradiction? saying. "In rejecting the tiiird clause. the denial of the principle of non-contradiction is rejected. 47. it is here claimed that '." In illustration. 3 (Feb. Iu such a case. see. and since "motivatiolis" are a lcarmamember. 63Foi Ndgdrjuna's classification of the two members. it is not possibleto uncierstand the four denials in terrns of existencejust by their literai form. not the principle of non-contradiction itself.a-pa Prasangika-Miidhyamika explanation that I gave earlier. p. 2 and 10.einterprets the third proposition in its literal forrn. and (2) "motivations" (sarTtslcara). Wayman. denial that somethingboth existsand does not exist. 1971):188. there is no existenceof the two in the same place. However. Along the same lines. . at least in tlie Tsoir-kh. nos.the denial of th. 14). in the absolute sense (paramdrthatas)." (special issue of Journal of Chinese Philosophy). so how? Buddhism responds. as karma. or frorn both self and another (motivations and nescience).aya). "Motivations" do not arise from self (motivations) or from another (nescience). '"gestation" (bhaua)or "re-existence" (punarbha?:a)." "History of Religions 10. allowing the prasajya interpretation for the catugkoli of existence)..e non-existenceby own-nautre of the unconstructedentity. hence the other lcarnta-member. must arise somehol.'as But then lvhat of staal's position that even so (that is.which is (10). no. 64Staal. Exploring Mysticism. tl'e simuitaneity of existence by own-nature of that effftciententity rvith th.existence" and "non-existence" refer contrasting entities.. In short.e ttiirci proposition amounts in commentarial expansion to: This Madhyamika rejects. or rvithout a cause(that is.

for example. in such interpretations it is not the intention of the denial. at the same time"." A11 these additions are consistent with Ndgarjuna's verses in the MK. to save a principle of human reason from default. or truth must be added. adding"that is. time. but perchance one does understand the four alternatives in a disjunctive system.perhaps drawing upon the two truths. to be paryudasa negations. "that is. adding perhaps. But that a qualification should be added is consistent with most of the attempts of westerners to explain the catu. or are not confident of their own ability to understand. Even so. by reason of the qualifications added in the Madhyamika school. theft disagreement stemming from how such qualiflcations are made. to wit. denies the alternatives. one may deny both a presence and an absenceof nirud4a. that a qualification of place.or the four alternatives applied . they are the ones who do not want to understand. will show that both of them insist on adding qualifications. it follows that the denials of alternatives appried to 'existence. CoNcrusroN Now we must revert to the initial question: who understands the four alternativesof the Buddhist texts? It is easierto define the personswho do not understand: as was shown. with the same truth. turn out. candrakirti's Prdsangika and Bhdvaviveka's Svitantrika. However. with a different subject. in the same place"i or. no one understands the four alternatives. while in their explicit form constituting the prasajya type of denial. even in the case of the absolute. as Staal claims. So the Mddhyamika cornmentatorsand the western writers share this solicitude to rationalize.and so on. their theory of the catwskoli. Indeed.rkoli. which was supposedto cut ofr the net of qualifications. Thus. "that is. with still other subjects. because they usually added something. becausethis reason leads to the insight which realizes the absolute. study of the two main traditions of the Midhyamika. Besides. as was indicated previously. especially in terms of the two truths (saryurti and paramdrtha). or.Who Understands the Four Alternatives of the Buddhist Texts? 249 Thus the third alternative of this type of catuskoli can be resolved in various ways. but rather it is held that such is really the meaning of the third proposition. to wit.the Madhyamika is not againstreason as the faculty which denies a self.

does this own-nature of flre that is of such manner (i. long and short. not dependent)exist? (In of such sort) neither exists nor does not reply:). and future.5 to 264. uncreate. are a meditation with upholding of human teason with its inferences. (one or another) of this side and the other side.rmations mata") and say it exists. which has not deviated in the fire in the past. Mulamadhyamakakdrikds. present. or the four alternatives. each denied. Well. definitions.6. The four alternatives. The alternatives of causation. are a meditation with ultimate downgrading of human reason. still of own-nature. 263. and the like.e. reason exist by the hearers. "this true nature of dharmqs abides. we conventionally frightening avoid in order to (such "It suabhaue" and "It is dhqras is make affi. applied to existence. which is not dependent on causesand conditions as are the heat of water. chapter XV: By suabhdua one understands this innate nature.a Vall6e Poussin. The (suabhaua While that is the case. So Candrakirti says in his Prasannapadd commentary on Madhyamaka-karikd. constitute a preliminary orientation. uncreate."-the suabhduaof that sort. each denied. then. osl. pp. disjunctively considered.250 BuddhistInsight to causation. . The alternatives of existence. which did not arise earlier and will not arise later.4. Then to answer more along the lines of the way Candrakirti writes:-Whether one who understands arises or does not arise.

I2 THE INTERMEDIATE. Chapter III.and later told his disciples about it.2 Saigon 1955. L'Abhidharmakofla troisidme chapitre. vdtsiputriya. as well as the work Sdriputrabhidharmaidstra (of the Dharmaguptaka sect. du Petit Vdhicule. sarvdstivddin. de La Vall6ePoussin. The ones agreeing that there is such a state were the PlrvaSaila. 283. Paris 1926. bouddhiques Les sectes p. India was no exception. Sammatiya. Mahisdsaka. . p. even with its metaphysical setting of rebirth theory. Mahdsdnghika. 1Andr6Bareau. gave sL. and self-commentary. de Vasubandhu. vibhajyavddin.l In the Mahdyana period vasubandhu's Abhidharmakoia. and the Latet Mahisdsaka. n. to observe the sentient beings going from here to various good and bad destinies. Then. it was held that some individuals could communicate what really happened after death: as when the Buddha used a divine eye (diuya-cak. amassed strong scriptural evidence in support of the intermediate-state theory. which issued from the Mahi5dsaka).STATE DISPUTE IN BUDDHISM The possibility of life after death has always fascinated mankind. work. The Buddhist sects that rejected the notion were the Theravadin. But is there life between death and rebirth? It is well known that the theory of such an intermediate state (ontard-bhaua)was a disputed point among the early Buddhist sects. of Vasubandhu's in his translation the main known references of his day. with the belief in the extraordinary powers of yogins to delve into nature's secrets.

and also to tie in this intermediate-state dispute with Buddhist embryology theory. C. z. the Theravdda attempted to interpret the scriptural name antardparinirudyin as "attaining Nirvdpa before half of his life in a Brahma world ha. pp. 4Katha-vatthu( the scriptures.252 BuddhistInsight At the outset it should be admitted that the material is abundant on the side of the sectswhich admitted the intermediate state in this sense. if a term is a member of a standardlist. 212-13. It is possible that the Buddhist sects did not always understand the expression "intermediate-state"the sameway. 212-13. Law).s but the spaceis devoted to rejecting some arguments for the intermediate-statervithout giving in its stead a coherent alternate position."4 vasubandhu arguesagainst this. Rhys Davids.). 24-25. Trm Tnrsrs oF No INrEnurnr.q. and so in somecases there is only a seemingdisagreement.sexpired. of form (rupa). a reinterpretationof such a term has implications for the other members of the list. our considerationspromise to relate early Buddhism to certain Brahmanical teachings. Perhaps this criticism forced the proponents of the intermediatestate theory-as this paper will show-to treat this state in terms of the three realms. which is of course absurd. pp. It seemsthat in his way of disputing. 38. Also. vasubandhuappearstoargue that in such a case. This is not to deny the relevance of criticism that only three realms are stated. the sects which rejected this kind of intermediate state apparently did not make rnuch of a negative position. London 1915. sinceit allowed a greatscopefor rnythological elaboration. In contrast. and Designation of Human Types (puggalapafifiati) (tr. 5de La vall6e Poussin(tr. Aung and Mrs. I.rr-Srarr The Theravada rejection of the intermediate-stateis set forth in Points of clarify the position of the Buddhist teacher Ndgdrjuna.). that of desire (kama). p. charging that one could then reinterpret the other ones among the five Andgamins.s sTranslation of the Katha-vatthz by s. so their immediate textual contributions to the problem are meagre and their reasoning has mostly to be inferred. by B. rII. London 1922. and the formless realm. pp. we could say that the upapadya-parinirvaylr means one who attainsparinirvdqtaupon being born in a Brahma world. .

271-4: I ii ltat mar me las mar me dan I bLin las me lon gi gzugs brflan'byun dan / rgyalas rgya.i 'bur dan me Sellas me dan sa bon las myu gu danI .-that posited centers of consciousness other than the mano-uijfidna and also deniedthe interrnediate-state. Passingto the Mahdydna period in its philosophical sense. the Theravadin irave a bhauanga-uififianq. the wiseperson will understand that there is no transfer. Of such sects.and 240. the reflectedimage in a mirror from a face. so also in the caseof reconnection(pratisarpdhi)of the personal aggregates (skandha). and that is "cyclical flow. Wayman (trs.) TheLion'sRoarof eueenSrtmala. a person is not taught to understand that the one is different from the other. an impression from a seal.three reasons may be advanced for believing that Nigdrjuna did not subscribe to the thesis of an intermediate-state (antard-bhaua). the Mahisisaka a saqnsdrakotrinislha-skandha-the forerunner of the alayauijfrdnaof the Mahdyanaa-and the Dharmaguptaka as an offshoot of the Mahisasaka inferentially the equivalent. sPhoto ed.pp. pp.New york 1974."? Presumably all the Buddhist sects-the Theravadin. 72.the Vibhajyavddin a bhaudnga-uijfiana. etc.Z-3. no sooner do the sense organs for perception pass away than it (the Tathagatagarbha) takes hold of sense organs for perception. Les sectes. 187. . .6and it may be cited in this connection even though it belongs among the early Mahdyana scriptures: Lord. I de dag kyan / / par slobma yin pa de bLin du / phun de fiid dan de las gtan no ZesSes po flin mtshams sbyorba yan / mi'pho bar yan mkhasrtogsbya /. as to "cyclical flow" (sarytsara). a fire from a burning crystal. zlbid.. Wayman Buddhist Scriptureon the Tathagatagarbha Theory. of Tibetan canonefT). p.Vol.the Mahdsdnghika a mulauijfidna. having shown elsewhere that the Srtmald-sutrq was a product of this school.p. 64. a sprout from a seed.a and H. 104.The Intermediate-State Disputein Buddhism 253 How then. 8Bareau. 177. 103. would have someanalogous theoretical statement in terms of the senseorgans. does one cf the early sectsexpressits denial of an in a positive way? I appeal to the Mahisd:ninterrnediate-state ghikas. (1) He writes in the Pratityasamutpddahydaya-uydkarana:s Just as in the caseof a flame from a flame.

those who espousethe intermediate-state Then what can we decidefrom this about Ndgirjuna's school? Now. A solution was to say that those two belong to the previous cycle. DiagramXVII. just as there is no intermediate-statebetween the two flames in the case of a flame from a flame. and de La Vall6ePoussin 1968. pp. the Mddhyamika school based on Ndgdrjuna always maintains that of the uijiianas. But since Ndgdrjuna any one of the knorvn sectsrvhich is an independentthinker of the early Mahd'ydna. besides the five based on outer senses. by H.A Manual of Abhidhamma. however slight. 12. intermediate (antara) be' trveen the two.254 Insight Buddhist Since the old skandhqs do not transfer. Kandy. 20): What be the limit of nirudpa is also the limit of salnsdra. Wenzel in Journal of the Pali Text pp.urikd (XXVI. and this is the context in which do in fact mention it. for exar^rple. both in the Pali and Sanskrit languages. (tr. 11See. in this work allows him a context to bring in an intermediate-state if this were his sectarian position. Ndrada. We arrive then at the striking conclusion that while Ndgdrjuna appears to be in the camp of he cannot be identified with those rejecting an intermediate-state. (2) He rvrites in the Madhyamaka-k. .there is no reason to insist that he be identified with any early sect. (jordmara4ta). the first two members. nescience (auidyQ and motivations (sarpskcira)would perforce after No. Ceylon. 62-63. Society. There is nothing. (3) He does not refer to an intermediate-state in his Friendly Epistle.loalthough his description of the bells. 1886. there is no intermediatestate for them. This interpretation is deeply impressed on the Abhidharma literature. unless the first two members could somehow be understood to not follow upon death.ll Of course. he acceptedonly the mano-uijiidna. and so on. Perhapsthe most important doctrinal effectof the opposition to an interrnediate state is the interpretation of the flrst two members of Dependent Origination (pratitya-samutpdda)aspertaining to the previous life. 2-32). We can see this l0"Ndgirjuna'sSuhyllekha" (tr. reject it. third member of DependentOrigination.) III. birth was standardized in terms of uiifiana. This shows an aversion for intermediate states. old age and death constitute an intermediate-state. Therefore.

asamuccaya (ed.nbhavako 'sti samskdrahetu dadate na ca salnkramo vijfldnam udbhavati sar.Eocrntor. 133. asupport condition r antba 4t 1' 1' In fact-as I have shown in a different contextl4-this passago takes "death" to be divided into two phases-expiration as the last perception and death vision as the karma. or other birthplace. It and there is no transfer. Hence they are said to be reflected in the new series. Japan.nkalpakalpajanitena ayoniSena 'sya kaScit bhavate avidyd na pi sar. But if the first two members of Dependent Origination are attributed to the previous cycle. Wayman. New York. 24 : 12F.This essay also appears in A. by the Mithila Institute). Perception (uiifiana) arises with transference in dependence(on motivations).containingthis verse:12 By the wrong procedure engendered by the constructions of (auidyd)arisesand thereis no originator imagination.Disputein Buddhism The Intermediate-State 255 same theory in the Dependent Origination verses of the Mahiy6na biography of the Buddha called the Lqlitauistara. Thus the Lalitauistara agrees with the theory found in Pdli Buddhism that the first two members of Dependent Origination pertain to the previous life. Here uijfidna just as the face in the mirror depends dependson the old sarytskdra upon the model face. Wayman. . The karma is called p. 12-13. 1965. not the previous nescienceand motivations. 135. in Studies of EsotericBuddhismand Tantrism .p.t.Koyasan.coramauifidna) reason of karma as (adhipati-prat1'a1'a) by and nant condition p (o r a t a ct). started by uiifiana. sar. HybridSanskrit Reader. .Buddhist New Haven1953. Buddhist Tantras (Samuel Weiser. now Starts the transferenceby descending into the womb. 'The Fivefold Ritual Symbolism of Passion'. the question arises: Where? A kind of answer is suggestedby the Pitaputrasamdganta-sutra:13 So. This is consistentwith Nd:gdrjuna'sstatement cited above (from his pratityasamutpdda commentary). great King. becauseuiifidna. a "first perception" (pratltamauiiiidna) arises having two conditions pertaining to "birth" (aupapatti)-by as predomireason of the "last perception" (. re73). 14A.nkramanam Watitya ll 13As cited in Santideva's Sik. the seed. of it at all. nescience provides the cause of motivations (sarpskara).

thus the old karma. "The Mirror as Metaphor-Simile". the Buddhist sects that deny an intermediate-state are consistent with the tradition. From this. worshipping. uijfidna. p. 13: 4. 3. in the case where the f." Observe how neatly this fits the first four members of Buddhist Dependent origination in the interpretation denying an intermediate state: B rhaddrapyaka stat ement Dependent Origination "by death indeed was this covered" 1. Then he moved about. name-and-form (ndmaFrom him.2): "There was nothing whatsoever here in the beginning. 264-65. a Pan-Buddhist History of Religions. and furthermore that member No. that life comes from death.t to the "last perception" (caramauijfrana). 4. for hunger is death.nskaralr (tr. pp. worshipping. By death indeed was this covered. He created the mind. motivations (saryskdra) "He created the mind. III. thinking. for hunger is death" 2. nescience(auidyd\ "or by hunger. This essayis includedin this volume. rcAbhidharmakoia. karmanah / And de La Vall6ePoussin . perception (uijfidna) me have a self"' 'Then he moved about. water rupa) was produced" (:uijfidna in the womb) In short. 2. 'Let 3. is accompaniedby his courtiers (the host of defilements).256 Buddhist Insight in Chinese and Tibetan Buddhist mythology the *karme-mirror" of Yama's judgment hall. becomes the "first perception " (prathamauijfidna) in the new life. III. and perhaps it is for this reason that vasubandhu compares this auidyd with a king who. thus worshipping. May 1974. or by It is well accepted in the theory of Dependent origination.rad (I. is the state of previous defilement (kleia).rst two members pertain to the previous life. water was produced. sarpskdra. There is a remarkable foreshadowing of this death-fertility-death as the instigator of another life-in the Brhaddranyaka (Ipani. 63.2. that member No. auidyd. thinking.). 1. when he comes.lo Then member No. 21a-b : / pDrvakleSadasavidya p[rvasar. 'Let me have a self'. Tnn Tsnsrs oF AN INTERunnnrn-SrArE There must have been flerce argument on the subject to have called 15Ihaveincluded a discussion of this matterin a paper. II. pre-dating Buddhism. Hence auidyd in this context is tantamoun.

reaches Nirvdna in the intermediate state. men. He refers to the satpurugagatisiltra for varieties of the antard-parinirudyin (infra.states that the authenticity of thissfitra was contested.. He says (Abhidharmakoia III. ii lzde La vall6ePoussin. vasubandhu explains the intermediate-statebeing in two verses (ibid. There is here a coitus of the parents. And this question was preceded by the remark (her transration): 'owe do know. He refers to the Aiualayana-sutra (presumably from the Madhyamdgama) for the reference to the word gandh-arua as some kind of being. Vasubandhu's commentary refers to a saptabhauasiltralTfor the teaching that the five destinies. how could there be the term [found in the scriptures] "a being who has parinirud4a in the intermediate state" ? This is part of the teaching that among the five kinds of nonreturnees (anagomin).there is the antard-parinirudyinwho. . sirs. the Assaldyanasuttain the Majjhimanikaya): "But do you. It cannot be impeded or turned back. II. His commentary explains the term gandhabhuk as gandharua. It feeds on odours (gandhabhuk).e. hungry ghosts. to wit (as Miss I. the future being has the period of moment right after birth to moment just before oeattr.namely ihl karma-bhaua. which is subsequent to the moment of birth and prior to death (i. have their cause (sahetuka). and have their access(sagamana). 13-14): It [the intermediate-state being] has the configuration of what is to be the configuration of the future being.The Intermediate-State Dispute in Buddhism 257 forth from vasubandhu his spirited defence of the intermediate state. p. namelythe aitardbhaua. Its sense organs are perfect. and hell beings. accordittg to the interpretation which vasubandhu follows. gods. animals. 12. know whether that gandhabba is u noble or brahman or worker or merchant?'. since it has the same forecastingi to wit. commentary): lasaty antardbhave katham antaraparinirvdyi nama sydt/were there no intermediate state.. It is seen by the pure divine eye belonging to beings of its class. how there is conception. sir.). 13.B. It has the force of magical power of act. Horner translatesfrom the equivalent Pali scripture. IIr.

although obscurely. Horner(tr.Gandharvas 3. II. Such a mention may be intended.) TheMiddle pp. Of course. 369-73. the gandharua in the Veda could be a cloud.8. Le Traitdde la Grande 1944.24 The gandharua. it is on the conjunction of these three things that there is conception.2z Even this use of the word continues the association with the midspace.which prgsumably is to be dated at about the same time as that old Buddhist scripture. X." a particular atmospheric phenomenon. in the Kalha Upanisad. the often mentioned "city of gandharuas".generally leaningsto the "intermediate Buddhism. Length sayings. the first being Soma (:Candra) in the sky. 3. A. 298-99'was written with in Tibetan accepted state" position. indeed.258 Buddhist Insight is the mother's season and the gandhabbais present. S. However.Winter1965'p'300' & I(innaras in Indian Iconography 21R. in these old Indian ideas. gave the woman her sweetness of voice. (Dharwar. Louvain Vertude Sagesse."HistoryofReligions. the Vedas did not contain the notion of gandharua as a disincarnate entity headed for rebirth. Panchamukhi. $'gveda 2aMy interpretation.2Landthis meaning was continued into Mahayana Buddhism as a simile of illusion (mdy\."ls In the Vedic period the gandharua is a kind of spirit generally placed in the antarikpa (the intermediate space betweenearth and sky) along with the Pitaras (ancestors)and Asuras (demi-gods).2o Besides being a musician. A. the question arises as to whether the gandharuais mentioned therein along the lines of the Assaldyanasutta. "Climactic Times". MacDonell. pp. 349vol. 5): p. According to Vedic conceptionszs the gandharua was the second.Yedic in "climactic Timesin Indian Mytho20Atleastsuchare my conclusions logyandReligitt. the rebirth theory has never been traced to the four vedas. -rrCf. pp.4:2. 18I. P. and the third being Agni (:Yama) on earth. 1897.1e The intermediate space can be understood as having Indra in the daytime and the Gandharva at nighttime for chief or typical deities. since the theory of karma and rebirth has a sympathetic treatment in certain old Upanisads. of the three non-human deities that married a woman before she married a human male (:one born of woman). 85. lecf.I. . London1957. Eii"rrn" famotte. 40' 2sTheMarriageHymn. meaning the "castle in the aif . The Kalha states(II. 136-37. Strassburg Mythology. 1951).

Taking these gondharuasin the meaning of intermediate-state b_eings.namely hell beings have a colour like the burnt stump of a tree. classifies them so as to be within the Buddhist three wcrlds.643.At the time sammtircchitar. Radhakrishnan. so (Brahman) in. Thecomparable upaniladic theory is in terms of the vijfianamaya-puruta. New york 1953. we notice that a Mahdydna Buddhist scripture. the AryaAnanda-garbhdvakrdntinirdeia. and that beings headed for a good destiny have a pleasing colour in the intermediate state.the dtman.n so 'sya bhavati tasminsamaye hrdayadesatr / that the viifianabecomes unconscious at wherever be the kalala. ThePrincipalUpani.18-19: tadvijflanar. as Radhakrishnan thinks it is. Bhattacharya).ads. ed.. Karunadasa. If we interpret this passage of the Kalha as a progression. so (Brahman) in the world of the forefathers (Pit rloka) . As (one sees)in a dream.24. like smoke. Y. hungry ghosts.The Intermediate-State Dispute in Buddhism 259 As one seesin a" For the comparable idea in the Pali commentarial tradition. p. animals. namely. Universityof Calcutta 1957. men and gods (in the zsS. so in the world of Brahmd. As (one sees)toward (pari) the water. 26sostates Asafigain the Yogacarabhumi (part I. colombo 1967. by v. BuddhistAnalysisof Matter. As in light and shade. so in the world of the gondharuas. . in a discussion of the term hadaya-vatthu. like water.itsplaceis the heart.n I yatra ca kalaladese .25then the similes can be clarified as follows: simile "as in a mirror' n'as in a dream" referent progression Brahman in the dtman present life Brahman in the world state after death of the forefathers "as toward the water" Brahman in the world heading for of gandhoraas rebirth n'as in light and Brahman in the world uijfiana in the shade" of Brahmd heart26 since "toward the water" (apsu pari) implies "toward the female". 62-66. it follows tbat the "world of gandharuas" may reasonably be identified with the gandharuas that are meant by the AssaIdyanasutta.pp. It explains that beings headed for an evil destiny have in the intermediate state a displeasingcolour of personal aggregates.

2e colour leads to a bad destiny.II. 103-5. PTT. The term gandharua is used because it has access(gamana) by way of' odour and has growth (pusti) by way of odour.40c-4la) adds a further name "seeking (sarTtbhauaigin)." This is presumably what Vasubandhu means by saying the being has the configuration of the future being. III.Analysis of theSravakabhumi The denial of' 2?Inthe TibetanKanjur. the kind invested with darkness (tamalt-pardyalta)' like pitch-black nights. pp.. said to have a good colour (suuarrya). and the kind of a good colour leads.I. (ed. the colour of abiding white. 122-23. Asanga also explains:3o Besides. but not because' its going to a body is going with an object-support (alambana). (tr. Abhidharmakoia. \oYogdcdrabhumi. there is its synonymous terminology. The term "intermediate state" is used becauseit manifests in the interval between the death-state and the birth-state. by Wogihara). . while gods in tbe formless realm are colourless for the very reason that the realm is formless (and therefore lacks both colour and shape). pp.20. a scripture in his Bodhisattuabhumiwhen he saysthat the antar dbhau is of two kinds. gatyd / abhinirvrttir apy ucyate upapatterabhimukhyena nirvartanatayd f: BrCf. 25-29.BerkeTey 7961.9-13: punah parydyFt ity ucyate antardbhava I tasya antarile pridurbhdvat / gandhawaity ucyate maralabhavotpattibhavayor gamanidgandhena pultitaSca / manomaya gandhena ity ucyate tannisritya manasa upapattylyatanagamanatayi ca punar nilambana/ Sariragatyd. pp. taking recourse to itself. Ratnakfi{a collection.260 Buddhist Insight realm of desire). said to have a bad colour (duruarpa). speaks along the lines of that Mahdyina. andthe kind invested with light (jyotilt-pardyalta) like nights that are' The kind of a bad lighted. 28Cf. The term "made of mind" (manomaya)is used becausethe mind. p. which Asanga apparently includes in birth" "made of mind". 390-91.A. to a good destiny. YoL 23. Wayman. Asanga. gods in the realm of form. zsBodhisattvabhumi. The "resultant" (abhiniruytti) is used because it is productive' in the direction of birth.). according to his explanation. and so accepts. proceeds to the the colour of gold. The AbhiChqrmakoia (III. who belongs to the later MahiSd:sakaz8 the intermediate state. as one of the five destinies.

137: "The RV. it would cause that seed of antardbhaua to change course.. while the condition of rebirth is not being attained.n tilthati ydvatsapta saptdhani ti.tzs1the odour(gandha) of the earthissaidto riseto the Gandharvas." 33One rationalization to avoid the object-support could be that the ganis "perfumed"by vdsand dharva (habirenergy). and when there is the condition for rebirth-is an uncertain matter. 123?). then it lasts from seven days to seven times seven days after one has died. Besidesthere are the periods by weeks. the intermediate state lasts for seven days. 20.odouris ordinarily takenasthe object-support of thesense of smell.VedicMythology. But when there is not the condition for the case of one with bad fortune (or: who is unlucky) (a "resultant") elsewhere. Sometimes in that very place there is the "resultant" (abltinirurtti) of the one passed away since seven wouldbenaturalto rationalize thatthe odourof sexual unionis the odourwhichrisesto thegandharva. Asanga states:3a Also. Presumably what Asanga means by the "bad fortune" is that the 3zThat is to say.r alabhe asaty upapattipratyayaldbhe / sati punahpratyayardbhe / punaS cyutvdpunahsaptdhar. for if another activity of the karma should change the course. Sometimes.n parivartayati ll . the gandharua has perfect senseorgans. On the otherhand.found both in the intermediate-state theory and in the theory of intra-uterine development which could therefore be labelled the "lunar route.Compare p. and this ordinarily would be construed (alambana). as an object-support saYogdcdrabhumi I. And when this [condition] is not attained. When that period has elapsed certainly one attains the condition of rebirth.4-8:/ sa punar antardbhavalr saptahar.thatyupapattipratyayam alabhamlna\I tata iirdhvamavaSyam upapattipratyayam labhate/ tasyaca saptdhacyutasya kaddcit tatraivdbhinirvlttirbhavati/ kaddcidanyatra visabhage I sdcetkarmintarakriyi parivartetatad antardbhavabijar. the touch that Gandharvawears a fragrant (surabhi) garment( So the proponents of the "intermediate state" also have here a problem that does not appear to be Anyway. as Vasubandhu has already been cited. so provides its own odour. adds MacDonell. whilein the AV. (l2.n tiqthaty 'niyamal.The Intermediate-StateDispute in Buddhism 261 an object-support seemsinconsistent with the explanation for the name gandharua." Thus.

107-4. Just as there are doctrinal implications in the case of those who reject the intermediate state.p. and then has gone away. and made them opponents of. Even the Points of Controaersy would not have objected to the "intermediate state" ifthe opponent had said that this is what it is. with differerrt kinds of bardo. was translated from Chinese into German by Huebotter.36 Both of thesetexts have the teaching that parturition occurs upon 38 weeks. Yol. l29. The smaller of these. so there are such implications for those who accept it.The Ronald Press Company.). development. Perhaps it is in the light of the intermediate-state position that Asanga has an alternate way of grouping the members of Dependent Origination. Volkerkunde Ostasiens). V. szMartin and Vincent. 23. dhimagga.PTT. to P. the early proponents of the "intermediate state" doctrine necessarilyunderstood this in some way that put them at variance with.But. p.the Vimuttimagga 42weeks for thesame Poona7937.sT As the Mahdydna developed into tantric Buddhism. Tibetan for the same text. 23. In the case of the intra-uterine development. Tibetan for the larger text. However. atd PTT. the Arya-Ananda-garbhavakrdnti-nirdeia. according gives p. 26. those who reject the intermediate state. Bapat. Phil. Vimuttimagga and VisudYol."The Fivefold Ritual Symbolism of Passion". 38Wayman. 3sP. this total of 266 days happens to be exactly the number stated by a modern biological work to be the full term of pregnancy. . et Dr. Med. s6Huebotte4 p.) Abhidharma-samuccaya.20 ff. Indeed. Pradhan (ed. 1960. 2l. p.262 Buddhist Insight gandharua has contributed to the conception in the womb. as it is now frequently referred to by the Tibetan equivalent (abbreviated) of the word antardbhaua. as found in Sanskrit in his Abhidharma-semuccqva :3e 35Dr. Human Biological Developmenf. Huebotter(tr. there was much made of the intermediate state. Die Sutra iiberEm pfdngnisund (DeutscheGesellschaft fiir Natur-u. Embryologre Tokyo 1932. there are the two garbhduakrdnti scriptures in both Tibetan and Chinese of the Ratnakfita collection. My studiesinthis literature showed me one usage of the term "intermediate state" practically equivalent to the ten lunar months of intra-uterine development. Asanga's statement of the periods of seven-day multiples suggestsa coordination of this "intermediate state" with the early development of the embryo. New York. the Arya-dyugmannandagarbhduakrdntinirdeia.99-3.

What are the members which cast downward? They are nescience' motivations. although admittedly I have not found Asanga stating this explicitly. memberswhich are cast down' ward. Analysis of the Sravakabhumi Manuscript. 59.Disputein Buddhism The Intermediate-State 263 the groups [catled] How are the members grouped-[Into] members which cast downward. 4l"Pali and Sanskrit". and perception. Whatare the productive members? They are craving. PerhapsAsanga must take this position because of his emphasis on yoga training. and old age death. I have edited from the aoWayman. Moreover. productive members. "That seed does not have the characteristics of difference as long as it stays apatt from the six sensebases(ga/dyatanA). What are the resultant members? They are birth. When Asanga allows a possibility of the "species" staying apaft from the six sensebases. when speaking of the species(gotra) of the religious family.the manas. it is not possible to make the kind of correlation that was done previously in association with the Brhaddraryyaka Upani."u0This remark immediately contrasts with the position previously cited from the Srmdldsiltra. six sense bases. p. tachment also from the sixth sense. and resultant members. vii. What are the members which are cast downward? They are name-and-form. 346-51- . indulgence.1906. with the Pali version in the Anguttara-nikdya.a1 For the putpose of the present article. pp. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Asanga raises the question as to whether it belongs to a single or multiple lineage. and gestation. SinceAsanga does not classifythe first two members as "past life". with its premise that one may detach himself from the 52. One may conclude that the first three members-those which cast downward-are the intermediate state. and feelings. he assumesan intermediate state between the prior set of six sensebasesand the later set of six sensebases. But usually such detachment and Asanga allows such dewould be from the five outer senses. Turning now to the three kinds of antardparinirudyin in the theory of flve kinds of andgdmin.long ago Louis de La Vallde Poussin made a comparison of the Sanskrit version from the Satpurusagati-siltracited by YaSomitra in his and answers in part.

just staying there in the intermediate state and in the intervening time attains pariniradno.nprataptandm ayoghanair *unmathitanam4r ayahprapatikd utpataty eva parinirvdti / / tvtryo'ntara-parinirvdyi pudgalah antarabhavam abhinirvartya yenopapattibhavas tenopanamati / upanatas ca punar anup apanna eva pari nirvat i / tady atha/ ay ahprapati ka u tp adya plthivyim apatita eva parinirvdti f taime trayo 'ntara-parinirvdyi4ah pudgali ekadhyam abhisar. The first person who attains parinirudna in the intermediate state is made to fulfill the intermediate state no sooner has he died. For example. Yol. a tiny flame of hay arises and immediately disappears.The present is not included excerpt in that work. He accomplishes it at exactly the same time and attains parinirud4a. sankrityayana photographed the manuscript in Tibet. 69-3tr. 2g above.nk$ipya antara-parinirvdyi pudgala ity ucyatef what is the person who attains parinirudna in the intermediate state? There are three persons who attain parinirudna in the intermediate state. a8Part of this word was covered by a tackused whenR. at the time of accomplishing the intermediate state. . The secondperson who attainsparinirudryain the internrediate state is made to accomplish the intermediate state and accomplishes it.p. which I thereafter translate:a2 f antara-parinirvdyi pudgalah katamah f antard-parinirvdyilah pudgalds trayab/ / ekdntard-parinirvayi pudgalah cyutamd. but where be the state of rebirth (upapattibhaua)does not just now head toward azThis is the manuscript utilizedin the work of n.tra evantaribhavdbhinirvartikale antaribhavam abhinirvartayaty abhinirvartate samakilam eva parinirvdti / tadyathd parittah sakalikagnir utpannaiv a parinftv ati f / dvitiyo'ntara-parinirvdyi pudgalah antardbhavam abhinirvartayaty abhinirvartate antardbhave tatrastha eva kaldntarena parinirvdti/ no tu yenopapattibhavas tenddydpy upanato bhavati / radyathdyogu{dniry vd ayahsthaldndm va diptdgnisar.PTT. 110. The Tibetanequivalent is found in the TibetanTanjur.BuddhistInsight Bihar MS of Asanga's Srdaqkabhilmi his statement about three kinds.

just as wheniron ballsor iron plates aremadeburninghot by beingviolently struckwith iron hammers.we find it is actuallyonly the second onethat hasan afiara. In the Buddhist sectsthe difference is partly temperamental.and havingheaded there. disappears. those rejecting the state preferring to have a rational control of Buddhist doctrine.The Intermediate-State Dispute in Buddhism 265 that place. when onetakesthese threeafiara-pctrinirudyinpersons together. For example. once one accepts the intermediate state. perhaps in the upaniqads this reflects a contrasting orientatiorr of the "re-death" (per Brhaddraryyaka) and the "re-birth" (per Kalha) positions. This research also leads to the curious conclusion that the same . and those accepting the state willing to allow mythological exuberance. just as when a massof sparksfrom the iron ascends and then whenfalling quite reachingthe earth. and therefore would not deny the antardbhauas which coincidewith the deathand rebirth states.and the massof sparksfrom the irons just ascends and disappears. CoNsroERArroNS My investigation indicates that the old Upanisads and the old Buddhist scriptures both present the rival theories of "no intermediate state" and "intermediate state". so this is the theory repeatedby Asangaand his brother vasubandhu centuries after the points of controuersy rejected this interpretationof the word antardparinirudyin. there is no end to the elaboration. The third person who attainsparinirudqa in the intermediate statewhen he accomplishes the intermediate statedoes head to whereis the rebirth state. to wit. But they would 'intermediate likely ask.But. This is because all the Indian Buddhistsects agreedthat thereis a death state followed by a rebirth statewithin the womb (in the caseof human birth). FrNar. the expression "person who attainsparinirudpain the intermediate state"is used.without beingreborn. For example.bhaua not accepted by the opponentsof such a state. as evidenced in the Tibetan Book of the Dead. upon inspection of the three kinds of antardparinirvdyin as Asanga states them.attainsparinirud?a. "Then why usethe expression state' in 'these cases?" III.

Of course. . This should unsettle the all-too-frequent posture among modern exponentsof Buddhism where someoneclaims that he knows better than others the Dharma of the Buddha. far as the intermediate-state early to or "original" position the other over to attribute one Buddhism.266 Buddhist Insight ancient Buddhist scripturescan lead to opposing doctrines with partisansequally divided among the old Buddhist there is no need disputeis concerned.


New York 1973). Then-to anticipatethe development-without asserting any ontologicalstatusfor suchmodeselsewhere in the world. and ProfaneTime asthe source of reason. the following have been especially important to this paper : Myths. The limitation of data to Indo-Tibetan materials makes possiblethe' additionof an expression "No Time" to the two categories "Great Time" and "Profane Time" utilized by Eliade for worldwide cultural materials. The presentwriter is not therebyreleased from the obligationto rework the available of Buddata arcordingto his understanding dhism. it doesappearthat in the Buddhist case.l Eliade'sontologicalinterpretationof suchmodesis well known. g (1962): 127-31. althoughthe prevalentBuddhistgenesis legend." Oriens Extremus.13 NO TIME. The Sacred and the Profane (New York. Buddhist' Tantras (Samuvel Weiser.z The metaphysicaldiscussionstems rAmong the works of Mircea Eliade. . will play a significant role. 2AIex Wayman.already studied. Wayman. 1961). Dreams and Mysteries (London. These. 1960). the threemodesof thought alludeto threemodesof being. Great Time as the source of myth. GREAT TIME AND PROFANE TIME IN BUDDHISM This essaymaintainsthat some important Buddhist texts contribute to a neat formulation of man's most treasured modes of' thought: No Time as the sourceof religion. "Buddhist Genesis and the Tantric Tradition. threeforms of Time are not so namedin the Buddhistworks. Thereis no claim to involveall of Buddhismin this the Indian context.The essayalso appears in A.while he marshalsthe evidenceand terminology that facilitate the integration of Eastern and Western spirit.

5): "What is imaginedis explainedas the The text states jective thing' (artha)." what is the "IJnreality" (abhuta) and what the "Imagination" (parikalpa)? 'ob(I.rtoN VmsAce Before setting forth the intended structure of three modes of thought. what is dependent. the "Llniversal Constructor of states and the "Absolute. and objective things. here translated respectivelyas the "fmaginationof Unreality" and " the construction process of unreality."compatiblewith Stcherbatsky's the unrealityof both (subject and object). "percharacters (sattua).5 Of the reality called "fmaginationof Unreality. self (:mind)." The Madhydnta'uibhdga Phenomena" (I. Accononlc ro rHE MADHYANTA CnB.q. called "objective thing" (artha). presenttopic but also conveysa rather different picture of the Yogdcira from the way the latter is depictedin current surveys of Indian philosophy. are calledabhitta' The two realitiesof the Yogdcdrametaphysics parikalpa and iunyatd. Great Time. There was Voidness And it was in that (Voidness). (sualak$a(ta).No Time. and "representation" sonal organ" (uijfiapti): as the projectionof (sixkinds of) Perceptionwas engendered personal (five) organs. in it.1): Therewas the Imagination of Unreality. and what is perfect."6 And from the text (I. And in it no duality (of subjectand object). "self" (dtman). (six kinds of) representations. I shall separatelytreat the rather technical data of the which not only contributesdecisivelyto the Madhydnta-uibhdga.The objectivething doesnot sabhtrta-parikalpo 'sti dvayan tatra na vidyate / ftrnyatd vidyate tv atra tasyim api sa vidyate ll okalpitah paratantraS ca parinigpanna eva ea I arthad abhtitakalpdc ca dvaydbh6vdc ca de5itab // . 3) andVasubandhu's we learn that the "Imagination" has its own four commentary. and Profane Time in Buddhism 271 Buddhismto be preconsidered some early WesternOrientalists eminently rational.

(kti. including mind as the sixth. sdvayibhdvo hy abhavasya bhavah Stinyasyalakqa?am. because havingthe noble natures(dharma).h.reality (subjacent)of this unreality" by names justifiedin the next.lamanas) and the six things as objects grasped by the six sense organs (five by the word sattva).' ialsely depicts the "objectivething.perception).. one of which specifies what is voided and the other of which specifies what remains not voided." whereupon the "representation. the Realmof Dharma(dharmadhdtu). l3a-b): "the unreality of both (subjectand object)."s rhis translation. 1g-19). that seeddoes not have the characteristicsofdifference so long as it stays. ..* the "personalorgan. because not wrong.Frowever. pp.and that when it is so seems to involvean interaction of the "self" and the "personalorgan" with voidness asDharmadhdtu("realm of Dharma").is consistent with yogicdra definitionsin other works as typified by two statements.ya. Madhydntavibhaga-bha. 14) clarifiesthe sense of the .8 The reality called "voidness" has this character(I. 2b): .272 Buddhist Insighr belongto it (i.. The following verse(I. sincethe former (the objective thing) is unreal. TrueLimit (bhiltako1i).n prajdyate I vijflanam nasti cdsyarthas tad-abhivdt tad apy asat ll vasubandhu's commentary (Nagao.and the reality (subjacent) of this unreality.e. its four characters are not groupedin zubject-object relation. versesI. That seedhas been handed down in lineage from beginninglesstime and has states obtained through the six sense bases which are attained by means of 'true nature' (dharmata). Attributeless (animitta)because the cessation of attributes.following strh..the . which is the materialcause..self" approa.z The implicationis that when the Imaginationof unreality is not so imagining." As with all suchultimate processes' the modus operandiof the primordial subject-objectemergence is wrappedin mystery. 15): verse Thusness (tathatd) becau senot otherwise. ultimate state (paramdrthatd) because the domainof the nobleones. apart from the six sensebases$adayatana).rbatsky. (I. 8-9 and vasubandhu'scommentary portray the ImaTartha-satvitma-vijfiapti-pratibh6sar. clarifies the word "self" (atman) as the "corrupted mind'. However. in terms of six representations(vijfiapti)sSuch an idea is found near the beginning of Asanga's Srdvakabhtlmi. sems tsam. here it is translated from Tibetan (Derge edition of raqiur.the latter (perception) is also unreal. Sravakabhumi. of a passagefor which original Sanskrit is lacking.

and mentals. always.ll In the Madhyanta-uibhdga.No Time. and so involve No Time. Perception ( . The first one is the foundation-perception (: alayauijrtdna). (ideas. The story of Buddhist genesisalludes to a mode of being pre* vailing as o'men of the flrst eon" while the lower receptacleworlds are reevolving after the periodic destruction. It is other than Profane Time when man predicts by reason and nature tu caitasdb ll ekam pratyaya-vijflinam dvitiyam aupabhogikam / upabhoga-pariccheda-prerakis tatra caitasAb II llWayman. the younger Imagination of unreality is now precisely that unreal perception of the unreal objective thing: Now the Imagination of unreality was consciousness (of) and mentals. and formless). Great Time. They are "consciousness of."consciousnessof ") sees the objective thing itself.sarltjfid) which distinguish. uedana)which enjoy. The other ones pertain to experience. Since its own characters (saalakgana) had projected the unreal perception. feelings. are self-luminous. These men have bodies made of mind. THE Souncp or. These are the mentals (namely.10 That passagecovers two stages of the process which the present essay intends to keep separate. and (motivations. Man may or rnay not intuit the dazzling ultimate. saqnskdra)which activate (perception). "Buddhist Genesis." which sees the objective thing itself. and Profane Time in Buddhism ZTj gination of unreality in a new role.No Time is the mysterious truth of a voidness reality subjacent to the unreality of subject and loabhfitaparikalpaS ca citta-caittis tridhdtukah / tatrirtha-drqtir vijfidnaintad-viSe. RsrrcroN No Time means the revelation of reality. and are wherever they wish to be. feed on joy." . They are preceded by the atemporal state in which the Imagination of Unreality abides with Voidness deprived of the subject-object relationship. No Tlrua. rtis other than Great Tirne rvhen nature predicts by omens and man obeys. which see modifications of the thing. Their actions have immediate fruition. its mentals seemodifications of the objective thing. everywhere. composing the three realms (of desireoof form.

Dreams l3Alex Wayman. The myth of the Buddha's life also begins with this walking. Generally. 4 (1965): Historyof Religions.)'rz The future Buddha's sevensteps are (No Time in) Great Time."Climactic Times in Indian Mythology and Religion" 310-1I. to acceptance in marriage (in caseof the auspiciousbride). andMysteries. which indelibly impress the being with a sort of centriPetal force." "Nirva4a with remainder" is approximately Great Time. at the moment of birth the infant is at the center of the universe. "f am at the top of the world. his announcement is (No Time in) Profane Tirne. especially men who are close to the soil. and possibly also th. walking with erect stature. to spiritual life (in case of Buddha). His fabulous and exemplary adventures need only be recounted in myth to inspire the imagination. rzCf.econduct of men in later Profane Time. as the child leaves his mother's womb by the right side. in sympathetic communion with the planets and stars. more properly "Nirva4a without remainder. . but anticipates the whole future life.13 pp. At Moment l. the being is not yet alive. .Eliade. as does Profane Time. as the preliminary moment to rnundane life (in case of infant). to the symbolization of the spiritual life (in case of main body of the rite). Buddhist texts referred to this state as Nirvi{ra.Myths. The Mahdydna is all three "Nirva4a without fixed abode" (apratiglhita-nirudqta) Times.274 Buddhist Insight object-a reality neither joined to nor separatefrom the creative center called Imagination of Unreality. Astrologically. takes seven steps toward the north. Gnner Ttltn. called in other Buddhist texts the "Buddha natures" (buddhadharma). rsn SouncE oF MYrn Great Time is the marvelous beginning of time in the senseof an interval not always progressing in a continuous line. This Voidness is the goal to which the noble ones (the elect) aspire. The interval of time is colored by a glorious quality. which has an anterior past. a present moment. All those examples point to the touching of earth as constituting a symbolic moment which we could call Moment 1. becausethen is the contact with earth by the hero. and announces. because it has the noble natures.110'15. . and a posterior future.

of the Imagination of Unreality.No Time. The ones who indulged least proudly retained their beautiful form. Time now. Man has nature down where it can be handled. From the beginning. Since as yet there are no modifications (alsesa) of the objective thing. In Great Time. But an imaginary relationship was introduced among the four characters.on the rsurfaceof earth there appeared an earth essence-in the Tantric version called an ambrosia (am7ta)-which a greedy being tasted with his finger and then ate mouthfuls of. and the gods involved with desire (kdmduacdradeua)still have the subtle kind of food which does not give rise to excrement or urine. and Profane Time in Buddhisrn 275 ) t This place where earth is touched is the center. or subject-object. semi-divine beings as it were. there is no error (bhrdnti) or specific illusion. Perhaps in a magic square they projected their own being through Voidness into an Imagination of Unreality the younger. That is to say. The unreality here is the cosmic illusion. According to the Madhydnta-uibhdga. Great Time. Hell beings. in the beginning the world becameinner-outer. The sun. is what laWayman. In the Buddhist story of genesis. of which Eliade frequently speaks. beings in the embryonic states. and year becameknown. This is first the foundation perception called "basic perception" (dlayauijfiana) which has as object the objective thing itself. other beings followed suit. moon. PnopaNe TlMn.the objectivething is said to be unreal. the begiiining of downfall. But he believes that his inner knowledge stems from outer happenings. what was always there in No Time continued just the same. They gradually lost the body made of mind as their bodies became heavier and more substantial. Genesis. according to L6vy-Bruhl. It is as the Buddha tells: all constructed things (sarpskdra) are sufferiog. rne SoURCE oF RuasoN This is horizontality. The fascinating objective thing conceals in its very freshness the specific illusion that is sure to follow in a subsequentremove of Profane Time. Thus they became dependent on subtle morsel food and no longer fed on joy. the world was pervaded by delusion (moha)." "Buddhist . the suffering is of transformation.

They are also called the "evolving perceptions" (praurtti-uijfidna). These mentals pertain to experience. 1966). . Those beings electeda"great chosenone" (mahdsammata)to provide security.276 "our" minds-the minds of us. his best guide is reason. the "civilizedl'-take his graphic words: Buddhist Insight it to be. and motivations. Then the idea of "private property" arose with individual rice plots. This state is full-blown illusion." 17So in Eliade. R. upon which events fall into position. 123." The remarkable achievements of science fall here. I can therefore go on to agree lsl-ucienL6vy-Bruhl. which is limited and superficial. The homogeneity of profane space is interrupted by certain "holy places" dear to the memory of even the profane rronreligiousman. In Buddhist genesis. In extending indefinitely in imagination. I seeno conflict with his position on this matter. Profane existence proves itself by accumulations such as merchandise and books (religious and. secular). always homogeneousby nature.l? While Eliade has not defined the profane life in the terms I have employed above.edenies a purely prcfane existence. 16Wayman. The Madhyanta-uibhagaalludes to this state of being by "mentals'o seeingthe modifications of the objective As long as man lives a profane life. p. the beings began to subsist on coarse morsel food. which gave rise to excrement and urine. and on which they must of necessityoccur one after the other. along with sexual desire and relevant acts.ecaprruLATroNs It is a basic feature of Eliade's writings that h. "BuddhistGenesis. The distinguishing characteristics of male and female arose.TheSacred and the Profane. accompanied by the latest "laws of thought. something like a straight line. followed by stealing and consequentviolence. It is "the rest of life" after Moment 1. and also by desacralized leavings or residues.lo This shows the emergence of lust and hatred. a line on which foresight can arrange them in an unilinear and irreversible series. then private property and the status of ruler and ruled.and are feelings. ideas. Primitive Mentality(Boston.

The Recapitulation in Childhood In a brief communicationls I called attention to the Indian theory of life stages. Modern studies show that the child is now a "socialized being" and his gamesincreasinglyhave rules. are not meant to deny individual differences. 18"TheStages of Life according to Varihamihira. from which he gradually emergesduring the balance of the year.andProfane Time in Buddhism 277 with him on this denial of the pure profane. Society. Recently emerged from the primeval waters called the amniotic fluid and still dependent on liquids. 142. It is a kind of anabasis. when the lad or girl develops the power of reasoning while playfully dashing hither and yon under the dominion of Mercury. Phylogenetic recapitulation in Profane Time is shown by the last period of childhood. My methods of demonstrating this conclusion are additional.le The ages assignedto these stagesare of course stated with generrality and. the infant is governed by the Moon. andImitationin Childhood p. For purposes of our correspondences based on Indian classifications.GreatTime. Dreams (New York. In the first year-as modern child developrnent study shows-the baby begins with no distinction between himself and his environment. and so is akin to the nondual state of No Time. of which the first three are in point now. Here there are two kinds of recapitulation-that of childhood and that of the daily life of man. 1962). There is no need to repeat here his well-presented justifications. Morbid regressionsto this state could be called catabasis. Also in the next two years the child speaks magic syllables expressinghis desiresand commanding their fulfillment by parents. . the second and third years under Mars. leJeanPiaget. the commander-in-chief in Indian astrology. "retreat to the sea" (classically used for "military retreat").No Time. They are the first year of life under the Moon. the fourth through the twelfth year." About the beginning of the secondyear."Journalof theAmerican Oriental 83 (1963):360-61."advance uphill" (classically used for "military advance").the entire year will be taken conventionally as the "nondual state. the child starts to walk: this inaugurates the heroic stage of walking on earth. So the child during those two years is goverrredby Mars. This is childhood's type of Great Time.Play. and the fourth through twelfth under Mercury.

dream to Great Time. is a matter to be justified" Buddhism generally explained that "discursive thought" (uikalpa) is the nescience (auidyQ. evidencedby the conversion of discursive thinking into nondiscursive imagery. especially in dramatic presentation. I must stress-and in a similar vein. I understand the third period of 20Eliade. Great Time. corrupted by lust and hatred. and also by its premonitory character (in the sense of shorving trends). p. and Profane Time each have a universal or shared character.rl to the three Times (hence the Biblical advice for entering the Kingdom of Heaven).zl Therefore. Play. while Great Time is mostly inspired by No Time. the disguiseis inaugurated by puberty. Dreams and Imitation. 142. The dream is also like Great Time in its shortened psychological distance between subject and object.7. Thus. or causeof it. preeminently Frofane Time. Butachildplayingby itselfdoesnotdevise rules for games. This "discursive thought" is the basis of human reasoningwith its rules. manos life exhibits modes that disguise the three times. The recapitulations of childhood are more faithfi. That the third period (agesfour through twelve). No Time. Certain cases of unsuccessful(o'unresolved") dreaming even parallel the successful"walking" of Great Time by the striking act of somnambulism."1. Myths. Indeed. fn short. establishes Profane Time. The recapitulations are personal or private.278 Buddhist Insight The Daily Recapitulation Each duy. so does Eliade20-that the kind of correspondencereferred to in the iternization of recapitulations does not imply identity with the three Times. dreamless sleep corresponds to No Time. dreaming is mostly inspired by experiencesof the waking state. Properly speaking. that heads the Dependent (pratitya-somutpdda) Origination constituting Phenomenal Life (sarysdra). when the child is allowed to go out and play with other children. . and the u'aking state to Profane Time. p. becausethe maturation of the sexually differentiated characteristics recalls rvhat in the Buddhist genesis legend inaugurated the last period. In contrast. Great Time is the source of myth as held by a certain society to work out public problems while a dream is a private matter to work out private problems. Dreams and Mysteries. elements in correspondenceare both related in some way and differ in some way. 2lPiaget.

. In every life the "Moment 1" is Great Time. would fall into a pit of night-soil while playing. The complete otherness of the revelation makes it appear as a breakthrough from a superior." Breakthroughs By "breakthrough" I refer to the numinous experience as described by Otto (Das Heilige).zz While the recapitulations in both childhood and daily life are not identical with the three Times..Time in Buddhism No Time. echoes.and Profane 279 childhood to be involved in the parable of the Buddhist Mahdydna scripture called Sdgaramatipariprcchd: "Now suppose this boy. but throughout life there are these recapitulations.GreatTime. this breakthrough would be from No Time into Great Time or from No Time into Profane Time. They do so irrespective of the degree of religious feeling in particular persons. they do indeed still recapitulate all three Times.and there are many examples in Buddhist scriptures. In this light. and do so whether or not people indulge in food and sex sacramentally. and intimations of the Sacred. are in aspectsof Profane Time. According to the classification utiiized above. That is to say. Uttaratantra) vibhaga( .. This is also the saqnbhogalrayaof the Buddha preaching to the great bodhisattuasin the Akaniltha Heaven. This act is done by Sita in the Hindu epic Rdmdyallq.) pp. This is why no person in Profane Time can be utterly dissociated from No Time and Great Time. 246-47. The second case-the mysterious power of No Tirne in Profane Time-is illustrated by the Hindu-Buddhist Act of Truth. Here the performer declares the truth of his outstanding acts and 22The parableis quotedin Jikido Takasaki. being a child. do so irrespective of such rites as baptism." It turns out that this "pit of night-soil" is a term for salnsdra. and then the child becomesan adult. nonhuman realm. they do share the universal character in a salient feature.t966. we can combine the childhood and daily recapitulations to observe that although the child. It is an irrational revelation of overrvlielming majesty or of mysterious power. In the Indian context.A Study on the Ratnagotra(Rome. the first case-overwhelming majesty of No Time in Great Time-is illustrated in the Bhagauadglta by Krishna's revelation of his cosmic form to Arjuna. the rest of life Profane Time. an irreligious as well as a religious person may use with sincerity such expressionsas the "sanctity of the home.

Hence we spea. It is during his ecstasy that the shaman undertakes. 95. epilepsy. of more or less sullied character. It is a wonderful feature of Profane Time that it assertsthe truth of religion. The miraclean incredible event apparently violating "Nature's laws"-is the breakthrough. in the spirit. reified as modes of being-a sort of rnystical immersion-or at least to be able to get into and out of those stateswheneverone whatever be the truth in these cases.mdzod cigcesbrjodpar byaho l(KyotoTokyo Photographic reprint [1959-6U of Kanjur-Tanjur. z4Eliade. p. or up to the Moon or down into Hell.r bdenpa gan gischosthams cad rmi lam dan lldra bar mfiampa[i bdenpa desbdaghdodpat'i rmi lamche gemo mthonbarmdzod cig/ thospar. etc. pp. all for "ego-defense": battlefield traurna. 'oh Bhag avatyajrasattva. vol. Great Time should include the Buddhist search za/ bcom ldan hdasrdo rje semsdpal. Myths. The higher Times have truth but do not assert it. Participations There is also the attempt to ascend to higher states of consciousness as though to live integrally in them. Success here can be understood as either discoveryor verification of spiritual truth.kof participation in Great Time or in No Time. 72. Dreamsand Mysteries. Anandagarbha contains this ritual statement in his Srparamddi-1tkd: "He should recite. and also as the acquisition of supernormal powers. by virtue of that truth may r be allowed to see and be allowed to hear the such-and-such desired dream t' ))zg Both kinds of breakthrough have been responsiblein numerous casesfor the striking religious phenomenon of "conversion. just as it is true that all dharmas are like a dream. Eliade writes: up'n the plane of the archaic religions." In the category of breakthrough I would also place some debatable religious experiences. it is the human mind which so assertsit. participation in the condition of the "spirits" is what endows the mystics and the magicians with their highest prestige. psychedelic drugs (as indicated by such images of "shattering" as walls breached by sea-water).305-3).280 Buddhist Insight commands the gods to produce the desiredmiracle. . long and dangerous mystical journeys even up to the highest Heaven to meet the God. young man in the whorehouse.

pslichological distanceman's advancing self-awarenessin Profane Time that he is differentiated from the object (nature). believed that by a regular course of conduct. even the highest. in common with Hinduism. This meditative ascensionis usually stated in terms of sensory experience. such as restrictions on food and sex activity. 'oln short. sensory . which curtails a person's empathy with beings located mentally by that person in other groups. The merits of a single day that are due to the supernormal faculties would not occur in a hundred births for one lacking the supernormal faculties.26 rn that way.Thus. Buddhaghosa's visuddhimagga. a person (preferably male) could then undertake the somewhat arduous training for samddhi and thus ascend to various levels of consciousness. a). Extraordinary sensory experience is governed by the second instruction of the Buddhist path. Eliade points out. in Atisa's Bodhipathapradtpa (verses 35-36): Just as a bird with unspread wings cannot fly up to the sky.GreatTime.activity has been used as a means of participating in the sacred. those bodhisattuas who are called "great beings" '(mahasattua) are in Great Time. t j I ll il - . Myths. 74. even to abolish. in the sameway the one without the power of the supernormal facultiescannot servethe aim of the sentientbeings.p.zt The implicati on zsEliade. 27Thefamous Pdli text. the Incomparable complete Enlightenment of the Buddha. Buddhism. This factitious grouping-the castesof India and the world-is the prejudice engendered during the third period of childhood (see *'Recapitulations").and Profane Time in Buddhism 2Bl for or experience of suffering as a Noble Truth. . and (3) insight (adhipr ajfia-i ik sa). 2oManuscript translation from Tibetanby Alex Wayman. and by finding the proper place and there a guru. For this it is necessary to reduce. throughout religious history. vastly able to serve the aim of . which is arranged in three instructions : ( I ) m orality (adhii IIa-i i k t a).t{o Time. (2) concentration (adhisamddhi-Sik .sentient beings by dint of the supernormal faculties. is arrangedin three parts in accordance with three instructions."25 In the bodhisattua doctrine of Mahdydna Buddhism this is also stressed.and attaining to the divine. DreomandMysteries. such as divine hearing. The attainment of mental calm gradually brings out certain supernormal faculties.

The old Buddhist aim was of liberation (No Time) and later came the Bodhisattva ideal (Great Time). or for the sake of gaining a striking experience. and one has to give up all means and timid acts in order to have h. and other pains of the soil.eroicconduct.. the Buddhist rationale of reaching that lofty state is to do it in circumstances whereby the concurrent hypnotic delusion is elirninated.2s Here one has to select the proper site. 'oshortcuts" These meditative procedures-the old ways or the such as the Tantras claim to have-are meant to reach an otherworldly condition. I have in mind especiallythe map(a/a rites of rvhich are analogousto stepsof meditation. Then.pp. Lessing trans. and seize the meditative object by leaving off the usual mental dashing hither and yon to a multitude of sensoryobjects. they both deexhibited mand the abandonment of the usual huriran weaknesses in Profane Time.(The Hague. serves the function of reminding profane man of that mode of being he has lost and even suggestinghow he may return. eliminate gross corruptions frorn the mind. especiallythe genesis legend. there should be the insight which sees things as they really are (what early Buddhism said) or which seesthings arising as in a dream (what later Buddhism said). what does Buddhism have to say about participating in Great Tirne and No Time as modes of beins in the senses 28See Ferdinand D. It is here that the myth. That is to say.282 BuddhistInsight of these instructions is that Buddhism is not seeking to attain Great Time or No Time just for the sake of doing so. In Buddhist meditation one must also find the right meditative object. 279 ff- . the fruit of the second instruction. Theserites have featuresin common with meditation procedures. remove all the stones.1968). The order of instructions places morality as the foundation for both mental calrning and insight. Ritual action has this in comrnon with the heroic conduct of Great Time: one has to give up all random action and do things with exactitude in the performance of a rituai. Since Great Time had the seed of downfall into Profane Time.Mkhasgrub rje's and Alex Wayman. This is borne out by the assignment of certain rites to Great Time. and meditatively seizethe site by vowing to perform the reviewed rite. potsherds. ("Fundamentals of the BuddhistTantras"). And so it rvas taught that on top of the mental calming. Tibetan Buddhism.

means living without terror in Great Time. now called "consciousness cult Vedic as the current LSD-possibly tbe soma of the ancient of experience is in the same category-bring one easily to the Great Time. 2eSee Paravahera Mahdthera. 440:'and Mircea Eliade.Ceylon. Immortality andFreedon 30See Journal. In addition. the experienceis of kaleidoscopic and o'one pointedness of somewhat distorted images rather than the mind" (ekdgrata-citta) of samddhi and is uncontrolled by the subject except for some affective preconditioning ("expectancy"). however. The sheath is one thing.In the case of drugs. Alex Wayman. and Profane 283 suggestedby the genesislegend? It was believed in ancient Buddhism that by advanced meditative techniques one could draw from the physical body a duplicate of it called the "body rnade of mind" (manomaya-kdya). as recorded in the Digha-nikaya: Here a monk createsa body from this (his) body. having form mind-made. GreatTime.Time in Buddhism No Time.19."2e The Lankduatdra-siltra distinguishesthree degreesin development of this "body made of mind": (l) its potential separationduring stabilization in the pleasure of samadhi. the reed is another. 165. These three stages of the "body made of mind" appear to reversethe three downward stages of the Buddhist genesislegendand. with a reorientation ("alteration of consciousness") toward dharmas (natures). with all limbs and parts. to prove the myth." Indo-Irdnian 1. means living in No Time.3o The second stage. Drugs that arouse striking sensory images have precisely this intensemindfulness(smrti) in common with yoga.sdnti). 3 (1959): . pervaded by "forbearance of the unoriginated natures" (anutpattikadhar' mak. Just as if a man were to pull out a reed from its sheath. 1958). and finally. when the "body made of mind" has been initiated as a Buddha. by masteringthe three Times. Yoga: p.p."studies in Yama and Mira. 1962). drugs. not deprived of senses. there are ancient and modern claims that certain such expanding" (psychedelic). he would know: "This is the sheath. this the reed. while the third stage. (3) its becoming a body of the Buddha. (NewYork. It is frorn the sheath that the reed has been drawn forth. (2) its separation due to reversal ofthe basis of the evolving perceptions and of the basic perception (dtayauijfidna).BuddhistMeditationin Theory Vajiraffdqra and Practice(Colombo.

usexperience normally without risk. these drugs cannot supply the mental calm (iamatha) necessaryfor the supernormal faculties. possibly also they represent the extreme of mortification. 110.. of body chemistry..:284 Buddhist Insight Therefore. for. for all its apparent obvjousnessit does not explain itself and is never unequivocal. Jung. he can easily grant that there are various ways of reaching or plunging into those modes of being as a veritable transfer or flight of consciousness to a different slFrancoise Gilot and carlton Lake.' has the upper hand: being the only thing perceived. there is no special distinction in reaching Great Time or No Time somehow or other. 32C. CoNcl. 1965). or: 'This is the truth.. 171. 1933). so that the painter becomes hypnotized by his own work and paints almost as though he were in a trance.31 Jung writes consistently: "A great work of art is like a dream. no matter in how disoriented a manner.usroN If one accepts the terminology of three Times associated with three modes of thought and further accepts that these modes of thought allude to modes of being. They seemto amount to at least one of the two extremes rejected by the Buddha in favor of the Middle Path-the extreme of indulgence in a riot of sense images. This is becausewhen perception seesthe bare objective thing. after all.11. that object. He must stay as close as possible to his own inner world if he wants to transcend the limitations his reason is always trying to impose on him."'32 The breakdown of formal profane structures through shortened psychological distance can bring types of religious experiencesto artists and drug-takers as well as to yogins. as "nature. A dream never says:'you ought'. an artist of the visionary type is more likely to live in Great Time than any drug-taker. G. p. However. Indeed.. Life with picasso (New york. . p p . it has virtual hypnotic value.ModernMan in Search of a Soul(New york. Notice the words of picasso: There must be darkness everywhere except on the canvas. there are the recapitulations which all of .

area kind of thinking well known from the ancient Upanigads. includedin the Fourth state (Turiya).and Dreamless Sleepare encompassing categories and are themselves.. Dream.isparate featuresof man's d. . Great Time. This. and. if it shouldturn out to be a more convenientdescription for worthy data than other schematic descriptions in use. The threeTimesthemselves. or the background of which Buddhisrn itself arose. and Profane Time in Buddhism 28s: field or domain. The states of Waking. The formulation would be outstanding if it shouldprove to fit well with other salientfeatures of man's thought and life which personsat large might cogentlyadduceas worthy of inclusionin such schemathat is. is for othersto judge. frightening.though given to different"ways of thought". after all.'.No Time.evelopmentor states of consciousness is not surprising since the mind of man is structurallytbe same..which seems to be the forerunner of the Mahdyina "Nirvala without flxed abode. and the corresponding procedure usedfor dealingwith them. one can select from varioussources the particular materialthat fits into a prearrangement.profane Time" for subsuming d.' The useof the categories "No Time. one that is initially strange and possibly. and ." "Great Time.

such as Herbert Read and J. emphasizing the messagerather than poetical finesse. as well as Sri Harsa's dramatic work. and problems of discursive and non-discursive thought and art. GnNnRarttIns The term "art" is here employed for the visual arts-namely. rnost of the versified Buddhist works are of a didactic nature. such as ASvaghoga's early Kavya and his drama. An attempt will be made to compare meaningfully with some Western contributors to aesthetics theory. P. witir the premise that these problems are common to man. sculpture. This is not to deny certain outstanding works of Buddhist literature. the works of Mdtrceta andAryaStrra. architecture. Sartre. of whatever period of The author hopes to communicate his own fascination time. Probably others were composed in the early A.D. the iconic period. The comparisons are non-historical.T4 THE ROLE OF ART AMONG THE BUDDHIST RELIGIEUX This paper will flrst go into some generalitiesabout Buddhist art. Among the significant findings is that the term "freedom" is employed in two contrasting senses. In contrast. then proceed to the aniconic period. and painting-which constitute the greatest artistic achievement of Buddhism. centuries whose authors were not sufficiently appreciated in monastic circles to have their works . with the topic as suggesting intriguing implications beyond Buddhist art itself. I.

cf. The remarkable outpouring of art was characteristic of Buddhism in every country in which it became followed by a sizeablepart of the population. F.Dialogues p. as now called). sizeable body of Buddhist poetry in the various Asian languages. and began to make theological justifications tThe Mahaparinibbana-sutianw. It seems that the Mahdsdnghika came in league with these laymen who were probably among the prominent and especially devout of the Buddhist laymen. and of the Buddha.1959). or in other parts of Asia when they fell to marauders and depredation. whether or not original. one can gain an idea of how Buddhist art spread through south Asia. There is presumably a. the only present-daycreativity of Buddhist art is in some of the best Tibetan tankas and carpets. us then turn to the visual arts which are our concern here. Ajantd.4thed. 1966)Many Buddhist monuments have been irretrievably lost when they lay in the path of invading armies in Northwest India.. and the Far East.T. Part II (London : Luzac& C. 1971) is a satisfactory modern coverage of most of the Buddhist monuments of the ancient India area. Rhys Davids. Company . and the Buddhists along with other Indians were fertile in tales. in English translation. A. Let. Southeast Asia. But about a century after the Buddha's passing. certain monuments and art centers. often of an elegant form. there was a schism in the Buddhist order with the splinter group called the Mahdsinghika. it seemsthat the groundwork was laid by instructions attributed to the last sermon of the tsuddha to allow a kind of division of labor for the monks and Buddhist laymen. including modern Pakistan and part of Nepal. and Ndgdrjunakop{a.. are also well preserved at or near their original locations in India. As far as this writer knows. such as sdffchi. Many flne Buddhist art objects are preservedin the great museumsof the world.288 Buddhist Insighr repeatedly copied and thus preserved. Ltd.l It was the laymen who were to take care of the memorial edilices called stupas which contained the relics. and we should not overlook the continuing artistry of the Japanese. by consulting the comprehensive catalogue Guide du Musde Guimet I (Paris. Buddhist music does not appear to have been especially influential. Debala Mitra's Buddhist Monumenls (Calcutta. continuing alongside or geographically separatedfrom the school of the Elders (the Sthavira or Thera. 154. As to the origins of the aft. W.

The former sevenBuddhas also appear in the aniconic period. the most striking feature is perhaps ttre shift of subject matter. of Archaeology. p. as we find these days in the case of some Tibetan lamas.poured out a deluge of art around all t'e details of sdkyamuni's life. perhaps hired some sculptors-say.. gifts of art are made to show appreciation for servicesrenderecl. "The Rise of Mahayana Buddhism and its Rerationstrip to the worship of stupas. from Rome. whether historical or somewhat legendary. vor. 'cf. 301-319. 1963). But then the theme of heavenscame to include the iconic former seven Buddhas. ."The Romanstyle at Gandha ta. Alexander soper. Basically it is the movement from aniconic to iconic type art. Tson-kha-pa had the worn_away paintings of the local temple dcne over in accoidance with the way those gods had appeared to him in his own samddhis. pp. the "Thousand. I. the production of Buddhist art now as in past centuries is mainly by well-trained laymen. or wealthy Buddhist laymen. even if the art was aniconic. with the first icons. again it rvas Sakyamuni as the main theme. For example. .4r. India in the Timeof patafijati(Bombay. 22 (Tokyo : The Toyo Bunko. there is the caseof Tson-krra-pain Tibet. 68. in ancient times temple icons were not saleable (apanya) according to the grammarian patafrjali's gloss on a panini siltra. 1951. |OSV. the local Buddhist establishment. founder of the yellowcap sect called Gelugpa.s but thet were undoubtedly stealable. Later. p." Memoirsof the Research Depqrtment of the Toyo is well known. The artists. In the long history of Buddhist art. Also. N. whose new school was sponsored by a powerful hereditary family calred 'ol tr(ha.Giuseppe painted Tucci. LY. Puri. but there is much more to it than that. lg2. shadowy srhis is my deduction from the materials presented in Akira Hirakawa. Buddhas of the Fortunate Aeon (bhadrokalpa)l' and the Buddha Amitdbha-Amitdyus. In the early days it was trre historical Buddha sakyamuni that was stressed. although of course sometimesmonks themselves were artists..2 Be that as it may.No.The Role of Art amongthe Buddhist Religieux Zgg for stilpa worship.American Journa\.Tibetan scroils(Rome. Tuccia shows how by invitation of the family. Besides.3 The preciousnessof this art is inclicated by the depiction of "donors" at various art sites and numerous inscriptions which name th.e benefactor.1g4g). For the Gandhara Buddha-type.

which seeminglyreplace the early Buddhism of the Pali canon. In agreement. his surYeyof the living beings when he was seated under the Bodhi tree. {Ascona. The great Bodhisattvas.Chinese ?Alexander Soper. it seeixs that certain Bcdhisattvas began as personifications of high ievels of the Buddha's life.century before the T'ang dynasty. the Mahdyd:na scriptures. i.Switzerland. and in doctrine. the local differencesof BuCdhist art involve an adaptation to the particular country. missed the early stress on the founder. Thus. near the Chinese Lo-yang eapital. with. Sakyamuni and Maitreya were the chief subjects. Deep sttrdy of the Matidyana scriptures shows not so much a replacement aS a reworking and overlay of the early canon. 348-349. As I have elsewhere suggested. Literary Evidence for Early BuddhistArt in China 1959). The seerningreptacement of the founder of Buddhism. pp.bha and AvalokiteSvara types. paraltels the ernergenceof a huge new religious literature. But the contact with original Buddhism is not lost to the extelt it appears on the surface or at first giance. came in for a share of the art. Avalokite6vara. Doubtless the Southern Buddirist countries are more conservative. Sakyamuni. and Buddhas. and Mafiju5ri inspired many artists. these hosts of Arhats. and went directly to the Amitd. Wiiletts's tableo shows that in the.their both in art representations art keeps mainly the first state of iconic representation.1958)' oWilliam Art (Penguin Willetts.2go Insight Buddhist flgures called Arhats.e. Again. Avalokitesvara may personify the Buddha's look. . Buddha depicted in scenes In contrast. a showing that Buddhism is "at home" t"!rere. but that apparently starting with the T'ang near tfre same capital the Amitdbha-Amitdyus and Avalokitesvara types were dominant among the new art representations. MafijuSri may be the Buddha's insight (prajfiA). the Malay Archipelago being subject to later influences also exhibits Chinese-type deities and tantric art of later Indian Buddliism. Bodhisattvas.). the of his life (such as the Great Departure. sakyamuni. Books. Arnitdbha may be Sakyarnuni's other-worldly I. suctr as the future Buddha Maitreya. being later. standardized as sixteen and then eighteen and appearing even in groups of five hundred.7 The Tibetan art school. His data should be compared with Soper's. and then to the host of tantric deities.

l the last sermon of the tsuddha:10 "There are four places. but not likenesses (Greek. The founder of the religion. from which by somo commonplace miracle it emerged. p p . and this sense is maintained in subsequent centuries by the stupa (ot caitya). the parasol as the protective dome.Icon & Idea (Newyork. agalma) of deity. wirat are these four?" Foucirer answers : "They are. those r.o Ananda. No matter what their inception. the Dharmakdya so called.vhere the predestined one for ttre first time received iliumination and preachecl and those rvhere for the last time he was born and dieci. quoting fro. These symbols were images (in Greek. cornford.egerm and 8cf.TheBeginnings of BuddhistArt (paris. Herbert Read. Now just in the devout practice of the four great pilgrimages resiclesany hope which we have of at last coming upon the long-sought point of departure.8 As such they amounted to living embodiments. the stilpa his Parinirvdf a. and so a Buddhist kind of ritual. these Bodhisattvaq and other Buddha figures developed a life of their own in the course of time. as though to preserve intact that tree. was not at first represented in a human form. London. In order that we may grasp at once th. . Plato'scosmology (New york eclition. II. 1972repfint). the tree representing the enlightenrnent as does the empty throne. such as the proportions and icon size. THp ANrcoNrc PnRroo It is well known that in its first period Buddhist art was aniconic. lglT). FrancisM. eidon).The Role of Art amongthe Buddhist Religieux Zgl form. chapterIII. hence a substitution.lg57). 53. is weli stated by Foucher. 99. And yet the art forms become fixed by hieratic standards. r0A. pp. It is ail Buddhist art and can be regarded as the oak tree that does not resemblethe acorn. rvhich an honorabie worshipper should visit with religious emotion. the auspicious marks such as his footprint representingprophecy."e That certain images in the above sense were associated with pilgrimage. scf. Gautarna tsuddha. They are also "symbois for the unknown.11. but rather by symbols such as: the elephant representing his conception. ff. Foucher. as we know. 1 0. the wheel as the first teaching set in motion. p.

the aniconic form exerted its 11C. the so-called"Buddhist" coins. and group visitation at the given place. P. 1'956).B. The image here is involved in a sort of spiritual synesthesia.11 Certain images-the tree. which would have been images (Gr. Thus many persons would participate in this auspicious concatenation of time and space. furnishing a reason for the Buddhist world to becomereceptiveto a new form of art.TheBeginnings. They would be invested with an intangible power through the religious zeal of the pilgrim who had travelled to the site-associated with legends of miracles-often with considerabledifficulty and sacrifice while filled with faith.C." Foucher has an excellent point about these theorized souvenirs. usually in cave and stupa elaboration r. the sectionof India norv calied Madhya Pradeshr.Buddhist Insight the directing principle of Buddhist art.Foucher. 12Cf. the wheei. the sermon associatedwith the spot visited. But even after the iconic art appeared.. Sivaramamurti believes that the Amaravati Sttpa ofAndhra in South India by the Krishna River was founded by King ASoka in the 3rd century. 14-15. 4.vould be establishedjust south of the Vindhya range in a band that extended clear across India. it is necessaryand sufificient to admit that the Indiarl pilgrims were pleased to bring back from these four holy places a small material souvenir of what they had there seen.vas ly Buddhist. pp. The aniconic symbols reached triumphal expressionin elaborate stfipas. and has such surviving centers as Ajanti and the morerecently discovered stupa near Nagpur. In the samecentury (the 1st.C. agalma) of deity. and the stltpa-were in time rendered banal by appearing on punch-marked coins. B. The extraordinary and still-survivingstitpa of Sdiiclii implies that in the lst century" strongB. in the Madras Government Amaravati Sculptures Museum(Madras.C. Sivaramamurti. The bas-reliefs of Barhut suggest wealthy patrons of Buddhist art already in the 2nd century.lz Perhapsthis very rnultiplicationand dispersalof imageswould eventually result in a weakeningof the holiness associated with the images.C. Pilgrimage was ordinarily associated with the cyclical return of a certain date of the year. .) such Buddhist art. a visual form somehow correlated with the auditory word which is the "insight consisting of hearing" (irutamayl prajfia). B.

D.vo principles of att: "vital image" or "vitality as an aestheticfactor".Thus Schiller's speculations turned round the contrast 13K. Inside there is the bare. I would be loathe to cite Keats's line "Beauty is truth.lg32). . 32.rks of Gombrich's at hand: "For beyond the general neo-platonic faith in the truth of the artist's vision sucir as it is exp.The Role of Art among the BuddhistReligieux 293 .religious fascination. 16. At the old Karle cave stilpa in present-day Mahirdshtra. there is a much-reproduced representation of a magnificent male and female pair: the woman depicted with rnature sensual corporeality. in Andhra L4lcon." for fear of abusing the poet's intention by quotation here. Chap. There is evidence that at one time the cave walls were painted with Jdtaka-type scenes. This produces a stark contrast betweenthe teeming scenesof "outside" and the spare 'oinside. and the man as a well-built strong male. The symbolism of the one's being detailed and the other one's being plain apparently agreeswith Herbert ltead's descriptioala of the ti." at least in Gombrich's interpretation.nd intriguingly applicable Keats's "Ode On a Grecian urn. especially pp. Indeed. were not theserema. and tL'te stupa is the still centre. on the facade by the entrance. the Buddhist stupa^s continued to exercisetheir influence over the Andhras who visited the holy spots and showed their reverellce to them in the shape of benefactions and votive offerings.I. if it is not stretphingthe caseto attribute "beauty" to the stiil centrc. rvhich is the central can f.R."and serves for a much greater challenge to the sculptor (and later to the painter of the cave walls) than if he werejust to construct the stereotyped central stltpa.. and beauty as the "still 6enf1e"-because the sculpturcs and later paintings of rire Karle monriment are the vital image. and even later. 17.33. pp. let us attempt to fathom some of the aniconic symbolism. Thus Subramanian says:13"As late as the sixth century A. Buddhist Remains (Madras.[f. subramanian.:essed in Keats's letters." Now.p. It seems that the outside representations-and the cave paintings like the Jataka sculptures of Barhut would be an extension of them-are meant to show the "realm of desire" (kamadltatu) which is left behind or surmounted when one turns to the plain stupa. truth beauty. the idea that the realm of beauty can be entered by man only at the price of renunciation plays an important part in eighteenth century aesthetics. unadornedstupa.

p. In contrast. where is the so-called freedom. is lifeless through being a likeness. as was Islam. The icon. . but his theory of the Greek-type has been countered by evidence taking the Gandhdra Buddha rather as a Roman Apollo type. But that early Buddhist texts are simply silent on the matter has been disputed by scholars. the changelessbeauty of what never arose to pass away." so called." the consequence of the Greek incursions into India in the early centuries. others lean to the native evolution of the Buddha statuary. are already the 15E. III. let us notice that the foregoing ties nicely with Read's two basic principles of art -the principle of vitality and the principle of beauty. the "inner" would be the absolute truth (paramdrtha-satya). Also. 271."ls Later in this paper I shall revert to the nature of this "freedom. 93. et al (New York. becausethe main point is that the icons of the Buddha becamepopular. Furthermore. the aniconic symbols. "Visual Metaphors of Value in Art. t6Cf. like the Lover on the Grecian Urn. by Lyman Bryson. For the present.294 Buddhist Insight between the enslavement of our animal nature and the freedom of aesthetic contemplation.ciency" (arthalcril. 1?PerSoper (n. as was suggested above.16 If we take Keats's line in the above sense. Foucher says the idolatry starts with what he calls the "Gandhdrian revolution. H. Gombrich. 1954). and in this interpretation. The provenence is not very important to the role of art. 3.D. and the "inner" with the beauty that is truth.A. to be renounced.we can split Buddhist art-as at Karle-into two: the "outer" with the vitality of our animal nature. Preciselybecauserecognized as a similitude. B. TsE IcoNrc Prnroo Buddhism in its inception was not hostile to idolatry. referring to the vitalism as "effi. rvith their earliest remains belonging perhapsto the lst century.C. starting at Mathurd. such as the tree." in Symbolsand Values: An Initial Study. it is not taken as the residence of the Buddha. Eventually the Buddhist Midhyamika school was to represent the "outer" as cyclical flow (sarysdra). above).dkdritd). ed. Icon. and so there are meditative practices-as will be illustrated later on-aimed at getting the Buddha to descend into the icon.

If freed from these you should get a favorable moment.The Role of Art among the Buddhist Religieux 295 seat of deity and so are not associatedwith meditation but rather with practices of faith. from the Tibetan by rsCf. Wenzel. . So one may understand would be sometextualinsertions the paintingof the Buddhain suchworksof aboutthe passages mentioning NidanaSutra and the Chinese A. Asanga. 1886. as with the hooded serpent-king who servesas a kind of umbrella or sun-shadefor the meditating Gautama. So also there is the ideal human representation in art to symbolize the condition o1' enlightenment. represented 2oDoubtless. Alex Wayman. such as the tree. such as the circumambulation of stupas. doubtless giving the old teaching..Analysisof the Sravakabhumi 196l). or birth among the long-lived godsthese are the eight unfavorable moments.rmthe favorable state of being in the presence of the Buddha and. and a touch of vitalism. or among the heretics in far-off places.2o The iconic type (Betkeley. 60.yatua). the Damamuka 4th and 5th centuries. the saints and gurus. or among the heil-beings. p. there iconographically. exert yourself to avoid the birth (of those eight). among the hungry ghosts (preta). being born rvhen the Buddha's promulgation is not present. Buddhist doctrine apparently supports the Bucidha icon by the insistence on the human state as essential for enlightenment.rjuna's "Friendly Epistle" states the theory negatively as the "eight unfavorable moments" (ak5aym): "Adhering to wayward views.rB Ndgd. 19. H."r0 Nigdrjuna mentions the states to be negated in order all the more to affi. being born among the animals. generally. Journal Dr. Manuscript rsCf. of the Pali Text Society.D. Nagarjuna's "Friendly Epistie. and being able to listen with human intelligence and good organs. deflnes "personal of the embodiment and heads the extended as Success SucceSS" list rvith "human state" (manu. having defective organs and stupidity." Translated p. The artists were not oblivious to the distinction. and in a compromise with the earlier form of art manage to include in the background the aniconic symbols. oncethe Buddhabecame the to justify it. The shift from aniconic to iconic art might constitute a movement from impersonal reverence to the kind of personal devotion called bhakti (In Hinduism it is easierto trace the hhakti movement from its intellectual form in the Bhagauadgltd to the more emotional type centuries later in the Bhugauata-purdna and later to the erotic forms).

Santiniketan. "Contributions Regardingthe Thirty-Two Characteristics of the Great Person. In a paper long ago I pointed out that tire variant lists cf the Buddha's g0 secondary nrarks favor in one case an interpretation as a great 1.2s In fact. remembering (it). ed. unvirtuous natures.avartin). 6l-62. or making images (of it). 2.2lBut hell scenes could be represented. seeing a picture of hell.a. and the standing one equivalent to the universal emperor (the Cakr. This was the instruction to the one in the reiigious life that he should have sense-restraint(inclriyosarltuara). the trvo interpretations give rise to tr. June 1950. l-resl1ould avoid taking hoid of signs(nimitta-grdha)or taking hold of details (ndnuuyaiijanagrdha) from sensory experience that would incite sinful. pp. sucir as the abnormally of which featuresare characteristicof the actual male head." 23Alex wayman. in another case. Another kind of Buddhist teaching would oppose realistic arttypes.a typesthe seatedone in meditation. Numerous benefitswere set forth to be derived frorn contemplating the body of the Buddha wlriclr brcught calming of the rnind (iamatha).ogitr. The Buddha is normally represented with the ugnisaon his head and elongatecl ears. In the later tantric period a goddess.and.pp." Sino-Indian Studies. 24 (verse 84): "But thosewho. These two elementsare included among the 32 standard characteristics of the Buddh. 1957).22 rt is feasible that in the old days this favored the aniconic representations. as a k'atri):a (the Buddha's reputed caste). tirat is.Analysis. by Kshitis Roy (Visvabharati. as well as the male god. :1Wayman. as are citerl in ArexanderSoper. sewes the iconic purpose. "Early Buddhist Attitr-rdes Toward ihe Art of painting. Liebenthal Festschrift.p. they certainly will experience immense rewards (vipaka).such as Tara. Indeed.vo Buddh. hearing (of hell). zzNagdrjuna's "Friendly Epistle. and then from legend of King A6oka.296 Buddhist Insight thus has the role of constantly reminding the devoteeof the oorra bility of consummation by reason of human birth. are also non-realistic."p. 255. reacring(about it). 149-150.neith. The non-realistic representations of the Buddha in tiine were corrrbinedwith meditation exercises. .xxxll. granting the early and temporary exception of the Gandhdra Buddha with the wavy hair." Art Builetin. the non-realistic form rs usual in Bucldhist hieratic art. generatefear (of it). and various other characteristics.

vellingwithin its retjnue.. The Transformation of Nature in Art (Dover Publications.:the means) are out of sight (pcro!r.rameans "direct senseperception. Generating a desire for the merits cf tirat (body). we know that showing an icon doesnot violate tantric secrecy.25 Coomaraswamynnakes a sirnilar poiot about art creation: "Thus the artist's model is ahvaysa melrtal image. yellow like the color of purified gold. 26Ananda K. he subduesfading. V. New York.Sila'sBhauqndkrama III:2a In regard to that. The Buddlist Tantras. 79. reflecting the repose of the Dh. 2. p." hence beyond vulgar experience." hence of the icon. and then is to accomplish calming. whiie the terrn parok." Besides. adorned lvith the (32) characteristicsand the (80) minor marks. or rnergeslvith the external icon.arrnadhatr"r. the religious goal.. Light on Indo-Tibetan Esotericism . . "the god assumesa concrete attitude.. but to the ear. shifting to the tantric literature."zo rhe sarneauthor has relevantremarks rvith someIndian terms. since samddhi is not accomplished by what the outer sensesare . p. II.awareof." Difficult. and the other faults. and the artist's model. confession of sins. but not impossible. Coomaraswamy. first the )togin fastenshis mind on the formal body of the Tathagata as it is seen and as it is heard.Ibid. 1956). zaAlex wayman. on Parokta.zz Here the term pratyctk. since the violation doesnot consist in revealing to the eye. di.a). 1973).ra fireans "beyond the senses . excitement. So in Kamala. 'concerning the remark "dwells in front. We may appeal now to a great line of the Buddl"rist logician Dharmakirti (Pramdna-udrttika. the icon servesas a sort of meditative prop to assistin transferring the likeness to the mind. and should practice meditation until such timc as that (body) dwells in front and is seenclearly. p. before the socontemplated Buddha. ztlbid. Anyway. Chap. l32b): '"When the goal (:cessation of suffcring) and its cause (." as I have written elservhere. 67. to explain them is difficult. but rather by what the mind is aware of.(New York. etc. In this case. He orients his mind continuously on the form of the Tathigata's body.The Roleof Art among the BuddhistReligieux 297 making offerings thereto. words rather faii to explain the santiidhi. 58. and acting for the aim of the sentient beings by diverse means.

furnishing the condition for No. of sense organ. they do not occurfrom a point of uiew. This is not necessarilyin conflict with Sartre's position. 123-124. do in they not appear. and partite perception. It is the second part of Dependent Origination. For the rest. "craving" (tr. Madison. of the thirrg one desires.New York. by BernardFrechtof Imagination. Kaelin. 2eJean-Paul tr. the spectator seemsto have. consinPress. painful. Buddhism explicitly statesthis situation in the formula of Dependent Origination (pratitya-sanautpada) where the first seven members are understood as the passive unrolling of causesestablishedin the o'previouslife" and run down to No. but at the same time. since feeling aroused by an art object. . the icon-and the category includes the tantric icon as well-is exposed to direct sense perception (pratyak5a). 1968). it is out of reach. Next.amounting to such particular views o'The pot is pretty. Square man (Washington . as cited in Kaelin: "For this is quite the final goal of art: to recover this world by giving it to be seen as it is. although he does not have. "taking" otr "indulgence" (upadana). 7. 8. Besides.9.ThePsychology p. are they are the culmination of the deterministic series. prepare the new destiny of the being. Buddhist scriptures insist that feelings are associated with the 'onaming faculty" (sarTtjiia). beginning with member No. the object as an image is an unreality."28 As this paper will argue later on. serve as the condition for No" 6. It is an incantation destined to produce the object of one's thought.. sense object. if it is at all to be adrnitted by Buddhisrn. This is becauseit is thesemembers which create the new circumstances. this includes of course the pleasurable and Therefore. 5.. one or judgments as "ft hurts. a mannel that one can take possession perception. ." which establishpartite experienceand o'contact". and neutral."2eSartre further (The University of Wis28Eugene Aesthetic F.ttd. . Sartre is remarkably parallel: "We have seenthat the act of imagination is a magical ona. It is no doubt present. freedom. and so is the basis for feeling. but as if it had its source in human freedom. that amounts to free will.298 Buddhist Insight However. "feelings" (uedand).1962). in Pdli taryha). An Existentialist pp." etc. 159. these objects from a particular angle. Sartre." does not chooseto appreciate art. which serveas the condition pleasurable. not a matter of free will. . "six sensebases. Press edition. . . for No. feelings. as do it.

" Thus the new being is childlike and is free in desire.Religieux the Buddhist The Role of Art among 299 o'Certainly the agreeswith the old Buddhist series when he says: unreal always receivesand never gives.ThePsychology man p. Thus.. 178. 9. Co. but which I hoped had now become obsolete."31 Now compare what Santideva writes in his Bodhicaryduatdra (IX. 1909).. Sdntideva's verse points to the supernormal facuity (abhiimQ ot knowing another's state of mind (paracittaiiidna). tr. goJean-Paul of Imagination. of believing that the minds of every one else are like one's own. . Sometimes this is referred to as a faculty or eye which is opened by the magical eye-ointment. knowing it as impassioned if it is impassioned. Publ. The Buddhists more than trvo millenia ago had gone profoundly into the matter of discursive and non-discursive thought.which always means "taking."so This is the intention of Buddhist member No. but the object viewed by the supernormal faculty is independent of the o'eye-ointment" itself. . i.even though to perception it rnight look helpless. Was it solely by introspection? In this connection I recall Francis Galton's retort to Max Miiller who had claimed that all thought involves language or language-signs: "Prof. has fallen into the common error of writers not long since. art products generally survive best in peacetime. DlscuRstvE AND NoN-DtscuRSIvE Tsoucnr AND ART This section is quite technical but hopefully will permit some further comparisons with modern aesthcticstheory. 4.The Open Court p. one learns from others' minds the nature of one's own mind-just the opposite of IVIax Miiller's procedure of judging everyone else's mind by his own or what he conceives to be his own.. etc. Appendix." and never "giving. His aptitudes and linguistic pursuits are likely to render him peculiarly dependent onwords. by Bernard FrechtSartre.Max Milller on the Science of Thought(Chicago.e. upddana. sLF. The pot that is seen through the adept's rite of eye-ointment is not just eye-ointment. Max Miiller . ry. And like children. 25) : One illumines himseif by seeingsomeoneassociatedrvith other conditions..

"B2 According to Bosanquet.. having rejected and rejected. A case in point: suppose th. up to comprehension v. up to the comprehensionu'ith direci perception of the knovrable entity.a)does not become ever higher. Hence his conviction becomes everhigher. F{e.aving rejected that image. especially p. completelypurified. he wor-rldnot again and again leave off the intense contemplation..most completely purified. if. 119.Analysis.. G. Having d. ar. collingwood to task. having first had instruction from the master.. conpletely cieansecl. p.. he were to make it s2scienceand Philosophy and other Essaysby the late Bernard Bosanquet (Books for Libraries Press. rvhile an art work must originate in an artist's mind.e pupil of a painter for the first time is engaged in the work of painting.y.admit an inner and outer in art. Langer. more completely cleansed.d remakcs it. insists on the singleness of the intuition-expression..3oo BuddhistInsight Modern aesthetics theory has had its own "idealists. its representationin external or material forms is an essential part of the art process. and refusing to ."BB curiously. haviirg looked and looked. destroys it. makes an image. For Bernard Bosanquet's refutation. Being rightly engaged ihat way. so also one declares his image ever higher. Langer in turn takes R. Freeport. more completelypurified." Thus croce rejects the reality of the external world. again and again he leaves off tire intense contemplation. N.ith clirect perception of the knor. 3g3. saWaymen.oneit and done it. more completely purified.417. see his "croce's Aesthetic. Just as. Feelingand Form (New york. Hence again anc a-sain ire is convinced. after some time he becomes the equal of the rnasteror even his superior. ssSusanne K.Inc. reprint 1967). the Buddhist teacher Asanga-whom both oriental and western tsuddhologists usually associate with the idealist school of Euddhist philosophy-accepts an "outer" part of art rvhen he desclibes the parallelism of meditation and art tecirnigue:sq If he would be convinced regarding the rneditati. takes a mod"el and.lg53). His conviction (acihimok. he makes it.. . without h. questioning why '"he is anxious to deny craftsmanship any role in art and consequently to reject the concept of technique. object at a single time. p. he leaves ofi the intense contemplation.

This is apparently the kind of thinking which Asanga mentions in his Srauakabhumias when the yogin regards the lower planes as coarser and the higher planes as finer. and thus emerges from a given plane and attains the next higher stage of consciousness. Langer. TheBuddhistTantras.76." from which plane he is held to have entered Parinirvala. Buddhism would probably not agree with her. p."This line won't do. it is said that one blessesthe defilement into purity by using the paint of samadhi-knowledge". the Buddha is thus held to have surmounted the "realm of desire. line won't do.p. 36lcon. like being rapt in wonder at an object."3z If the word "symbol" here suggestsan ontological status. The tantric cornmentator Buddhaguhya writes. 'oNow consider the most farniliar sort of non-discursive symbol. comparable to the improvement of painting. The improvement of meditation." and to have passedsuccessively through the planes of the "realm of form" and "formless realm. according to Asairga's indications. p. the Mahuparinibbdnasutta. which is the very kind of thinking as when the artist says." then to have proceeded downward to the lowest plane of the "realm of form" and upward to the top of the "realm of form. seelnsto be what Read36calls the "truthful consciousness"which is "the foundation of all genuine art. Both the meditation and the painting art require undivided attention." Turning to the role of non-discursive thought. Langer says. 92. ? pictu1s." as when he cites Collingwood: "And this is preciselywhat evel'y artist is doing when he 'This says. . 1948)". The emergencefrom each of theseplanes would. Philosophy in a New Key (Penguin Books. "fn the manner that a thousand ounces of silver are changed into gold by using gold paint. since at Asanga's passageenables us to define one kind of discursivs thought that is especiallyemployed in art creation.The Role of Art among the Buddhist Religieux 301 repeatedly by taking a stand on just that. So also in the present case one should understand the method (as that). 94. never would that image of his become completely pure. sTSusanne K. require this specialkind of discursive thought.'" This is the pursuit of perfection founded on despising one's olvn imperfection-the imperfect picture. In the last serrnon of the Buddha.

which is of course lauded in Buddhist circles. and in Sariryutta 'raises Nikdya. Now. are seenin relief. as Coomaraswamy points out: "in Vinaya. reverting to the topic of discursive thought. in Buddhist literature its importance is emphasized by assigning it the rather nefarious role of prornoting nescience(auidya). the kind that serves for the Buddhist path. And yet rve were introduced previously to a kind of discursive thought tirat is improvement-oriented. and the voidness. passages about the artist's techniques suggest colors. as cited by Coomaraswamy. attended with all the best aspects. and so on. l7) associated with Asanga. 91). But why would "voidness" be said to passage? Perhaps the be the picture. . where notice is taken that a painted surface (citrakrta-pradeia) is observed in relief (nimnonnata) though flat (animnonnata). and so on.pp.vell in the Lankduatdra-siltra (text. and yet we see it there" ( "There is no actual relief in a painting. more given to realism. p. Morality.atnogotrauibhaga answer is in a passage of the hfahdydna-Sutrolarykdra (XIII.. Transformation. Forbearance. 144-145. a monk 'raises' (uwllhdpeti)a picture (cittam) on a cloth. IV. often catrtred the "meairs" (updya). 5. This use of the word o'means" in connection with the painting process agreeswith Bosanquet's and Langer's point that technique is an indispensable part of art. we can get the point: the "painters" rvho are the Giving. is essentiallynon-discursive. and yet the picture which is voidness is really flat: the "painters" are an illusion. In the earlier period of Buddhism. a painter up' (samu!{hapeti) a shape (rnpant) on a wall surface by rneans of his brushes and 'fhus.302 BuddhistInsight least the Madhyamika school does not allow such a status for "voidness". II. 145. although language can be employed to expatiate upcn the individual ones.. Comm. is said to be the picture (pratimd). and the picture is voidness in the Ratnagotrauibhaga ([. Recalling that "voidness" in Mah6ydna literature is associated with illusion (mayd).. driyate atha ca). We flnd this as i. r'erse92): "Those painters are the aspects. F-orbearance. natonnatary ndsti ca. Sornetimes the 38The p.." The full list of the "painters" (: the act of painting) adds to the three already named Striving and Meditation. Morality. The group of five. 61."se the phiiosophical positions.Giving. the relief portion is really there. 3slbid. as in that R.

they are sharing this right kind of discursive thought. that are the field of direct perception Qtratyakpa). f. and this pratyak. t has a term pratiti : "constructive thou ght (kalpana) is a cognitive dawnin g (pratiti) of a mental reflex able to coalesce with verbalism. a sort of bed-fellow to the non-discursive thought.subsequentto the sericsof point-instants. Although Asanga does not name this distinguished type of discursivethought. the mental imagery of sound. which properly belongs to the determined. Suffice it to add that according to Asanga's Yogdcarabhumi.ell as by the good painter. or of the yogin.The Roleof Art amongthe BuddhistReligieux 303 is employed expression"right discursivethought" (samyag-uikalpa) for the right kind." rvhich we have already noted to be the one used on the Buddhist path as n. In addition to the rvord uikalpa for "discursive thought. and that the Arthauiniicaya-sutra calls this pair "speech motivation" (uak-saryskdra). and "thinking with signs" for uicdra. Dharmaklrti's l. This pratiti (literally: "approach") seems to be the most primitive discursive thought. especiallyin regard to supramundane knowledge (lokottarajfitina)." ft would certainly be a gross digressionin the present paper for me to treat this pair of terms with anything like the amplitude of the materials I have collectedfor a separate study. involuntar.v part of the psyche.. But the philosophical discussions especially involve an archaic pair of terms-uitsrka-uicdrA.{ydyabindu (Chap. uitarka and uicdra always amount to discursive thought. . The verbalism is the "naming faculty" (saanjfid). and presumably by inventors." previously we met with a kind of discursive thought attributed to the "naming faculty" (sary1ifia). I should mention my renditions of "adurnbration" and "inquiry" for uitarka. the particulars (sva-laksaqta)." Now a challenge would be apropos : Certainly the goal of the painter and the gbal of the Buddhist path are different: Of course. or "right discursivethought." The text refers to the initial universal (samanya-lakgaqta) wleich is the fielcl of inference. this is surely the improvernent-oriented one. etc. and are assumed for the "realm of desire. and their goals are different.the idea that something is such-and-such. but there is a discursive thought outside of uitarka and uicdra. terms which occur in the traditional statement of the first meditation plane of the Buddhist "realm of form" (among the three realms). of introspection. of the mind. observedpreviously by the ifustration "This line won't do.a may be of the five outer senses.

the "freedom of L0AnExistentialist p. headed by "craving. Buddhist version of 'ocreativeimagination.o' The foregoing permits an assessment of the word "freedom" as employed in more than one sense. . when I claim that Sartre makes the same distinction. "wayward") toward the. The reverseprocedure would have amounted simply to a projection on to Buddhism of some system of our culture. which is the freedom to inaugurate a new destiny. "right") in referenceto supramundane knowledge. while in imaginative exnuum perience. That is. The last five members are headed by craving (tfsUa)..realm ofdesire" in the manner of aitarka-uicdra.or tend "upward" (hence. is Sanfideva's Bodhicaryduatdra VtrII. lndeed." This is the Mahayana. consciousness intends an unreal or absent object which may appear only on the margins of the real world. But that Sartre has a comparable position is clarified by Kaelin: "It will be remembered that for Sartre the perceptive intends a real object of the spatio-temporal conticonsciousness we normally call the real world. 120: "Whoever desires (icchati) to speedily rescue oneself and others too. based as they are on much meditation and practice. should practice what is the highest secrets changing places between himself and another. becauseissuing from desire rather than perception.304 Buddhist Insight color. Here the first seven members develop perception in a determinacy seriesand wind up witlr feelings and their associatednotions (uedana and saryjrta) in the manner of a syndrome. this discursive thought could tend "downward" (hence. This distinction was establishedby the Buddhist Dependent origination formula. this is not said by way of explaining the Buddhist position. After coalescingwith the name."4o Sartre's goes with the Buddhist first seven memperceptive consciousness bers of Dependent Origination which develop perception with an imputed realistic object. 364. clearly differentiate between passive enjoyment and the creative imagination. our technical meanderingsdo have this positive result-to show that Buddhist teachings. etc. while what is here called "imaginative experience" (in fact. An example of this freedom. this position had to be understood prior to the comparison with a Western theory." Therefore. the creative imagination) goes with the last five members of Dependent Origination. Aesthetic. an attempt to make Buddhism come out or be in that manner.

the "freedom" of creative irnagination is to be taken as the genuine freed. p.xic art. Besides. .' to apply names. we find the . Samuel's translation. we have already noticed ihat some authors trave regarded this "free. a2lnthe translation by Fred D.'-which was brought up in tirediscussion of aniconic art-is different from the o. All the while they demonstrate that they liave learned nothing frorn others. and take possession of it. first kind. GjennGray (Ftrarper Torch* books). or neutrai these authors arrive at a seemingfreedom called o.' ./orcl. Atong the same alln HoraceB. in l4that is catted Thinking?. divided as it is into trie deterrninacyand the reratively-free s. having resorted solely to intro_ spection.. gazing appreciativell.vitir the lowl}. Moreover. (upeksa). indicatesthat there is neither incompatibility between the two. while the naming function has an involuntary character.i freed.. although it is not. 4. with feelings and the naming f*nction. r. right..freedom.rm because it is not limited by pcrcep_ tion of this and that. what Buddhist texts called "equanimity'.The Role oi Art amongthe BuddhistReligieux 305 aestheticcontemplation..Jom" as reali. Thus there may be creative imagination as when an actor acts his role.. as possibly does the creator of a piece of and th. . so Neitzsche in The Genealogy of Morals has the "masters' right of giving names . (TheModern Library). Th. my study of the Buddhist nependent origi*ation. s6 the local sunset.causenot directedin particularity to this or that being_in a \. . following upon feelings pleasurable. of creative imagination-which was used in treating ic. we call on what is preient to arive." Tliat is.. they say 'this ls may have both passiveenjoyment a'd creative irnagination.ebackyald-garden varieiy of having passive enjoyment and no creative imagination.ries. u. it reduces to th.freedtm. r'vhetheror not he enjoys the make-beiieve."4' Heidegger. In contrast. since it involves perception of the object as a real thing. In this Buddhist sense. of aestheticcontemplation. nor requirement of their conju'ction. io be infatuation that the object is confolled by naming To cite sartre again. painful.masters. wieck and J. resumes this position: "By naming.zhilethe spectators edoy what thcy take as a real object. 120. sintideva's aspirationis of this iyp. it is "as if it had its source in human free_ dom. is not altereclessentiallyby travelling far to a grandiose vista as cofirparecl r.

the present writer believes in the feasibility of East-West comparisons on these matters.first sevenand second five members of Dependent Origination (i. he h. and daily offers devotion to it. the goddess Tara. That is. the Buddhists accept that "nescience". V. both kinds of "freedom" require Dependent Origination for a platform in cyclical flow (sarpsara). In conclusion. the vinaya work samantapdsddikd prohibits a monk from holding any of the images of a woman made out of clay. the Buddhist description of the plocessesof art production in comparison with meditation techniques' and in general a sufficiently detailed and ratioralized presentation of their pc'sition to permit some comparisons with Western thinkers. by P. Unfortunately. neither are equivalent to the Buddhist "liberation" (mok1a) or "release" (nirudpa). P. and with perceptions and feelings ever older. Accordingly. This is because for this liberation it is necessary to have cessation of Dependent Origination. the occasional monkish avoidance of some afi representations. this includes a nature with desiresand indulgence eYeryoung. This devotion is not opposed to either of the two kinds of freedom mentioned. A Chineseversion by Sanghabhadra pasadika. But when a Tibetan monk keeps a miniature painting of his tutelary deity. and that the actual comparisons have clarifled some important issues. can cohabit with "craving". the role of art among the Buddhist religieux involves their appreciation of beauty and creation of great art schools.yanaideal of enlightenment. 1970). I suppose. the first member. Finally. such comparisons are frequently made wittr insufficient background in Buddhist sources. or painting'as The monk is of course seeking the "father" and the "mother").306 Buddhist Insight lines. of Samanta' asshan-Chien-P'i-P'o-Sha. Poona. I{irakawa (Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. wood. the lack of incompatibility betweenthe. provided one is able to make the comparisons. not freedom in the aesthetic sense. In contrast. whether it be the seemingfreedom of aestheticcontemplation or the genuine freedom of creative imagination. the seventh. Bapat and A. 368: . permits a Buddhist solution for man's nature as a compound of determinacy and free-will.asthe Mah6. And.

.ing. needs to be told so that. it must be grantedthat he wrote out of his knowledge of sources especially in his nativeJapanese. This is not necessarily the case. the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvaradoes not appear in any of the prajfldparamitd sttras. to wit. that whenan Asian talks in the west on the lreart sutrahe communicates his Asianlore.for example. p.and the western non-sectarian commentary. hopefully. In the western sensethis is a most helpful remark. say. lDaisetz Teitaro Suzuki.Here thereis easilya rnisunderstand.when Daisetz Suzuki wrote about the Heart sutra. 1934. It is quite apparentthat most of what Suzuki writes about the Heart Siltra is not the renditionof Asian commentary but ratherwhat he thinks the westerner.l"as far as we can ascertain. Japanese.. For example.'I OF THE HEART SUTRA fNrRooucrroN commentaries on the Heart siltra: There are two distinct typesof commentariesof the Heart siltra (prajfidpdramitdhrdayaiatra): the Asian sectarian commentary. he will understandthis scripture.assumed to be an outsiderto the topic. It is almost inevitablethat an Asian (whether chinese. ." is not whatwouldhaveeverbeensaidin the traditional Asian commentary on the Heart sfitra: it would havebeenconsidered impertinent and impugning the validity of the S[ an Asian Buddhist monk.15 SECRE. Essaysin zen Buddhism (Third series)London: Luzac and Company. But what he said. 195.

Westerner talks on the Heart Sutra he cannot help but give a Western-typetreatment. 1972. and Sthiramati (who clarified). would end up spending the time lecturing on general Buddhism and never really explaining the Heart Sutra itself. Berkeley. it follows a certain type of explanations from sources in Asian languages. and so. After a while he wrote me a note zYoshito Kukai : Major WorksNew York : Columbia UniS.e Sltra refer respectively to the Srivakas. that when a .Iapanese native commentaries. There is easily another misunderstanding. Vasubandhu (who poputrarized). the Asian sectarian commentary is the type found in the Tibetan Tanjur collection. and the Mahdyana Bodhisattvas. . for wirich I have used some Yogdcdra passagesof. Asanga (who understood). A good illustration from the Far East is Kfikai's "secret Key to the Heart Siltra. That is. Japan.308 BuddhistInsight or Tibetan). and among Chineseand ."z In this casealso. versityPress. it is a sectarian commentary filled with allusions to thc special tenets of Kukai's own school (the Shingon)-suctrr as the Diamond Realm and the Lotus Realm. were he to lecture to a Western audience on the Heart Sutra would start by assuming-and ordinarily quite correctly-that his audience members are ignorant of the fundamental teachingsof Buddhism. without ever intending to depart from the Heart Sutra. Hakeda. as is the Vinaya master Vinitadeva. tbe poet Gary Snyder had received a scholarship from the First Zen Institute of Nerv York to participate in the training of a Zen monastery in Kyoto. but the illustrious Mdrlhyamika Aryadeva also is helpful. But just as the Asian can speak as a Westetner. Such lectures thernselvesnray be quite informative of other matters. Pratyekabuddhas. Backgroundof thepresenlcotntnentary.pp. In contrast. My present commentary is probably to be describedas an Asian-type commentary composed by a Westerner.'Al'ouild the middle 1950's when I was a student at the University of California. so also the Westerner can speak as an Asian. 262-75. and could be understood by porsons with the appropriate background. F{ence it is valuable for showing Kflkai's position. Tiris background is especially in the Buddhist theory of meditation. or could not be expectedto speak as an Asian would. namely. and inCicating that portions of th.

So I consulted the Tdhoku catalog of the Derge canon and located the six Tanjur commentaries on this sutra in the section devoted to Prajiiaparamitd scripture commentaries. . a different theoretical basis than what these commentaries were irnpressing upon it. I made my own translation of the sutra. the others.1l:3.. but rather were simply applying their particular learning in Buddhism to the terminoiogy of the it means. for tire most part being followers of the Madhyamike. such as a misappiication of the three gates to liberation. and attempted to relate tlie structure of the siltra to what are calledin Buddhism the "three gates to liberation"-ysid1s55. he had been unable to find anyone who could expiain what it meant. and I cannot commend it. the interpretation of tire Heart Sutra in this early essay suffers from various faults.rianposition by their kind of citation. rvishiess. There are perhaps only two important points that I saw or rendered correctly in those days. tliey rvould sl:. The writers seemed to be experiencing some difficulty in exposition. In those days I used to spend much time reading in the Tibetan canon. "3 From my presentvantage ground. That would account for the great variety of their cornments. as though they were not writing through having inherited a tradition about this scripture going back to its original composition.olv this sectd. Accordingiy. "The tsuddhist'Not this. Then. and that the basis might actr"iaily be of Yogacara nature. Later I incorporated my interpretation of the lfeart Sutra rvithin a published paper. using the Max Mtiiler and Bunyiu Nanjio edition of the shorier version and taking into account some remarks from certain Tanjur commentaries. 109-13. and asking me if I could find out wh. In those days I communicated my understanding of the sutra to the Berkeley Buddhist Church. while helpsPhilosophy Eastand West. One feature of these commentaries on the Heart Sutra struck me quite forcibly: each commentary seemed so different from. It occurred to me that perhaps the Heart Sutra h. and non-sign-source.1961. 1) that the Tanjur commentaries. pp. Oct. Certain commentaries gave explanations of the concluding inantras. and yet they seemed all to show in greater or less degreethe influence of the Mddhyamika school of Buddhist philosophy. Not this'. the Kanjur and Tanjur in the Derge edition at Berketrey.Secretof the Heart Siitra 309 saying that while the monks recite the Heart Siltra every day.

" o'hence. since there is no obvious antecedentto appeal to as the reason for saying "therefore. called "Explaining the Difficulties.or tasmdt." Doctrinal introduction: This commentary of mine.. As is well attested.s Furthermore.6 For the purposesof my present explanation I have translated. S. Sanskrit Syntax (Kyoto : The Rinsen-ShotenBookstore. 48-50. Para.e. Max Miiller and Bunyiu Nanjio. As to translation of individual words. still were not really explaining this siltra. p. the usual translation of the two tasnta-f-s as "therefore" strikes a janing note. III (Oxford: ClarendonPress. which is usually and quite properly rendered as "therefore. F. and 2) that the commentary by the author calling himself Vajrapd4i correctly related parts of the concluding mantra to earlier sections of the Heart Siltra. U. " is rare' but as I have occasionally noticed..T This is the reasoned conclusion. sSee Chapter 22. i.1884). based on my essay about mantras. The present interpretation is based on certain findings in my researchon Buddhist meditation. which is a sort of logical afterwards for what went before. 6For these editions. 1968). pp.a and in the case of the concluding mantra. as "after. for which see Speijer. unless prepared by introductory teachings. f now find Conze's editions of the longer and shorter Heart Sutra preferable to the editions of Miiller and Nanjio. pp. "The Ancient Palm Leaves. 148-67. . C. at least as concerns the Buddhist three worlds and the theory of two dharmas.Vol. the rendition that most needs defending is my o'aftetwards" f." in Aryan Series. S.310 Buddhist Insight ful on this or that phrase. 344. AnecdotaOxoniensia. Anyrvay. 444. see Edward Conze. eds. the purely temporal interpretation of the ablative in Sanskrit. Speijer. aSee Chapter 3." and "for this reason" as the "conclusive" interpretation of the ablative tasmdt. the shorter version and added in parenthesescertain from the longer version that I deem essentialfor undersentences standing this sutra. and that it would be more fruitful'to consult Asanga's works. Thirty Yearsof Buddhist Studies (Columbia.: University of South Carolina Press. when the "after" interpretation is demandedby a context it may be overlooked for that very reason of rarity. 1968)." would not be comprehensible to the usual Western reader. in the context of the Heart Sutra.

above.and one explanation of this member in the old Budcihist canon (the Pali scriptures) is that it has the varieties of body.cessation of "motivation of bodv" (kayasaryskara). Cessationof ideasand feelings: cessation of "motivation of rnind" (manairsaryskdra). not harming another. eSar. denouncing no one. Cessation of "motivations" in the three worlds. p. and mind. proceed to Purinirudna. pleasure by way of body. The two dharmas. For the ancient view there is the verse in the Saryyuttanikdya:s As the tortoise in its own shell withdraws its limbs. free from inquiry (uitarka) and investigation (uicara): cessation of "motivation of speech" (udk-saryskdra).Secret of the Heart Sfitra 311 a.rN{ b. form. resortless. I. cessation of constructed dharmas. so may the monk (withdraw) his mind's (outgoing) conjectures. inquiry and investigation. 2. SecondDhyana: First Dhydna: .q. Fonnrnss Rparvt R. oF DEsIRE RB. One may contrast the older and later religious aims of Buddhism. The following lay-out will show the nrain elements of the solution: Sulrriarr or ExrsrnNcn (bhauagra) 3. 9 (in the India Devandgari edition).nyutta-Nikaya. In my essay on Buddhist meditation8 I have gathered the textual sourcesto show how three kinds of motivaticn successively cease in various parts of the three vrorlds. sThe one of note 4. speech.Barlr oF FoRM free from inbreathing and outbreathing. . The second member of Buddhist dependent originatioh (pratityasamutpada) is "motivation" (sarpskdra). and formless) is also ancient. Fourth Dhydna: Third Dhydna: l. The Buddhist theory of three rvorlds (desire.

and iir tlie l\4ahayana sense to the two Forrnal Bodies.and that .e Mahdyana senseto ihe Dharmakaya.949.312 Buddhist Insight However. ed.w. by JetsunRendawashonnu Lodo.The Bodirisattva path is the other one of ihe pair.72 the discussion appears limited to the voirlnessdhsrnca. Here there are only these two.Foi. there rvere in 'effect trvo gcals-the older one of liberation from the cyclical flavt (sc. 157.{apauarga).sras tire Dharrnakdya.-thorRed-mcla'-ba.ruarga)andliberation ."r0 The Tibetan ar.roidnessis Nirvana. refers to tl-ris vory pessage along with a citation. It is in connection with those two dharnrus that this essayis entitlectr"secret of the trreart siltra. sarnath: sakya students' Union. As candrakirti e>rplains in part tiiis passage.titsaro). the NirvSla r. r. p.xvIII. pa'i . 23 (:r. XItr.hile voidness ieacis to liberation (apauorga). available in Sanskrit: T'he Tatiiaigatas have stated in shorl that the Dharrna is nonharming (of r:thers). cinq chapitres de la Prasannapadd paris: paul Geuthner.r Hundred verses'. ri."Non-harming and voidness-these two clharntasattain heaven (. mainiy presents the "dliarnta of voidness.chosde gfiis ni mtho ris dai bvan grol thob par byed pa ste." The Heart Sutra. 4.pp. de his lectures on the catttf#ataka. with the rise of the Mahdyanaideat of the Bodhisattva.ith its stress on voidness.. In the Frasqnnapa-do." Accordingly. Commentary to Aryadeva's.Ifrdnagarbha explains the rovidhushekhara tshattacharya.. where the verse is cited amidst the commentary on chap. who has opted to stay{n the world for the benefit of other beings rather than pursue the personal aim of liberation." ." but has hints of the other dharma.ll "Tkrc i"dirvil4arvith rernaincler is explained as the two Forrnal Bodies [i. lvith the dharma "non-harm. 12J. Sargbirogakava and Nirma4akayal. xYuI.vithoutremaind. 1. and in th. is concernecu'ith this sicle. The two are statecl this way in Aryadeva's Catuiilatal:a./erse 298). 163:mi 'tsheba danstonpa iiid ces 1931). . 1974. 10-13. The catuhiatakaof Aryadeva (Calcutta: visva-Bharati Book-shop.and the newer one of cleliberately postponing tliis iiberaticn to servercankind and later to acllieve complete eriiiglitenmcnt. lrRed-mda'-ba GZon-nu-blo-gros. non-harm leads to iiear:ea (sr:arga).sincr:. p. 4.e.

LoNcBn AND SHoRTER wirll THECoMMENTARy "ExPLRININGTHEDiprlcurrlEs" {And at tltat timc..e Tenth Stage. it is claimed in Mahiyana Budcihism that the Buddha teaches Avalokitelvara rvith a body callecj the sambhogakal..e. ins:pactcd ond observe.(The noble BoCkiscrttva great being Avalokiteiyara spoke as fellsy. is especially noted for preeminence of his insigirt (prajf.a. 'There &re three persons mentioned: the Lord.und Appearance. with the three kinds of 13T. .T. is the enlightened one.104. in pAh.irakaya. the Buddha. teaches the Mahayana Doctrine to Avalokitesvara and the other grcat beings on th. TneNsrRrED FRoMTHE '1. . one of the great early discipies of the Buddha.e Nirmatakaya. vol.rlha fheaven].staying in the range of 'desire for as long as the cyclical flow (sa4tsdra)lasis.. and with his hiirrnd. staying in the abode of the Akani. The Heart s*tra represents the Buddha. So the Buddhist master vasubandhu explainsin the Buddhdnusntrtilikd:Ia "According to tlle scripture (agama)./ERSIon-s.ile in the samddhi " Prafc. 109. observing the strcams of consciousness of the noble Sariputra. i. and teachesthe discipleslike Sariputra witir a body .Tlrc noble Bodhisattva Avalokitei." inspiring Avalokitefvara to instruct Sdriputra.Jfranagarbha's Aryamaitreyakevalaparivartabhd.jfiaparamitd. the inaugurator of Buddhism. .and of otlr. ome of the great Bodhisattvas. ancl so on. Avalokiteivara. wh. the Lord (bhogauct). the sons of the Buddha.3 4 a :7 .sya (commentary on the Maitreya chapterof the sarpdhinirmacanasutra). the pro.while engaged in the pra.called th. you should k.rrrAHBDAyA-sUrRA. 203b:Bto 2 0 3c : 1.s 7s tlrc venerable Sariptttra).stence".atre.! that theJive personality aggregaiesare void of "self-exi. 14TT .Secret of the HeartSDtra 313 term 'osecret": "Because for immature sentient fortunate sentient beings. paiifra). with the Sambhogakiya.ctice of profuund pra. the lord was equipoised in tlte sctmddhi"profounC aDpeat"ance").found Dliarma is secret. ."13 Tsn PRnri{ApAnar. 3 3 e :5 to p . V ol.tow. is especially noted fcr surveying the sentient beings in compassionate mairner.

the opening of the reThisis in the Book of Eights.eventhoughthereis evidentclumsiness with a possibility "rjes su" rneant"after". any insight discriminating (them) after search is vision" I S2an yan chos rndms yoris su tshol ba'i Sesrab gari yin pa de iti iespa2es bya'olyons su btsal ba la(s) so sor rtog pa'i ies rab. gan yin pa de ni mthon ba Zes bya'ol. T. T. in that case knowledge and vision would be better purifled in me. is obhdsa. 106:219 when. Monks. sattakanipdta i' in TheAnguttara and Atthakanipita). Probablythe term rjes su tsholba translated a perfectform indicating completed action.Vinayavibhangapadavyakkydna." Thus vinitadeva's comment is directly applicable to that passage from the Book o. ed. Vol. Maitreya chapter. 'vision' (dariana) is the insight after search. This is made certain that the second in Ytian-ts'6's great commentary on the Sarpdhinirmocancts[itra. in the Tibetan translation.." That is. he presents one that is the obvious expansionof Vinitadeva'sgloss. Vinitadeva explains the expressionin his commentary on the Fourth Defeat of the Vinaya:16 "'knowledge' (jfidna) is the insight (prajfia) involved in search.r is knowledge.1960). tr conceived [profound] appearances(obhdsa)but did not see[far-spread] forms (rupa). Kashyap p. @aliPublication +9. to help explain the Samddhi "Profound Appearances. T. Board. Concerning the Samdclhi "Profound Appearance. "If I were both to conceive [profound] appearancesand to see [far-spread] forms. Yol. The additions "profound" and "far-spread" are bracketed in my translation:15 Monks. The Pdli equivalent to auabhd. 391. jfidna-darSana) is important in early Buddhism in the theory of advanced meditation. suttacalled"At GayE Nikaya(chakkanipdta. loVinitadeva.314 BuddhistInsight marvels (pratihdrya) teaches the true nature of the Srdvakayana exactly according to their expectations and their potentialities.chapteron Earthquakes.o' since Avalokitesvara teaches Siriputra. in the course of giving numerous explanations for the term jfidnadaridnd. 219:e:5-6: "Also. it occurred to rne. before my awakening when being a Bodhisattva I was not completely enlightened. 122-3ll: iespa bq'f flesrab bolmthori ba /es bya bani rjessutshol les bya ba ni rjes su'tshol ba'i fiesrab bol.' and Gautama tsuddha spoke thus to the monks in a passage preserved in Pali in the Anguttaranikdya (Book of Eights). any insight searching the dlnrma-. the Nirmalakaya is here represented by Avalokite$vara." the Sanskrit expression is gambhira-auabhdsa. by BhikkhuJ. ." This expression "linowledge and vision" (5.f Eights.

T. Tathagatas and Bodhisattvas of the last three stages. an heir of Dtrramma.1975). hence Avalokite6vara and other great Bodhisattvas. XVI devoted to the Perfections (paramita). May's article CffOfO (Hobogirin IV. 1970). and when coming to verse 41 to deal with prajfiaparantitd the text usesihe word jiiana instead of prajfra and says "with the assistanceof sentientbeings" (sattvaparfgraherya).e. which also includes Asariga's treatrnent. leT. and was assistedby sentient beings.7l73. 502. But he says that a yogin who is pure can leap over the second one.Secret of the HeartSltra 315 Heart Siltra represents the Buddha entering the Samddhi "Profound Appearances" to inspire Avalokitesvira with the preenlightenment stages called "knowledge. more can be said of Sariputra from the Pdli canon with 00. Edward Cowe. his Fali name Sariputta in the Majjhfmanikaya (III. cf.29): speaking rightly he would say of Sariputta-'He is the Lord's son. jumping from the First Dhydna directly to the Third Dhydna. note.pp. .Avalokite6vara as an advanced Bodhisattva has certain abilities in proceeding through what Buddhism calls the "three realms": desire. Jhdna). "Born frorn his heart" means among the inner sons. Vol. As meditative attainments the realm of form is divided into the four Dhydnas (Pali." i. and formless. And finally. agrees with this identification af prajiia with iiiana because in verses36 through 40 each of thefirst five Perfections(giving. containing the reference to J. 18For this leaping of a Bodhisattva.' " Asanga explains some of the terms of this sutrq passage in the Parydya-sarygrahaniof the Yogdcdrabhtimi:1s "Son of the Teacher" is the brief reference.1? Besides. The Large Sutra on Perfect Wisdom (Berkeley: University of California Press.) is said to stay in the world with the assistance of knowledge(jiiana). when prajfid was involved in search. etc.. and the formless realm with its four "equipoises" (sarndpatti) is surrnounted by the "summit of existence" (bhauagra). and comparably in reverse order: for example. "Born from his 17TheMahayanasfrtralamlcara.not an heir of material things. Asanga's Sarndhitabhumiteaches that a yogin who is not pure can do no better than pass through these states sequentially.. and p. and not the third which is too far. can enter any of these stagesfrom any other one. and likewise in reverseorder. born frorn his heart and his mouth. lll:238a.because omitting ordinary persons (prthagjana) who are unadvanced. form. born from the Dharnma. a creation of Dharnma.18 Finally. Chap.

vay:21 it is void of self-existence whether form be a mode-of-being @hAua)or a designation (prajfiapti). Motivatiott. Voiclness verily is form means according to Vimalamitra the voidnessof the "city of gandhalyss"-fusnce. as suggested in the htahaydnasutrdlamkdra.316 Buddhist Insight mouth" means born from the words which teach the Dharma. Sdriputra.'i. Tire same would apply to the other aggregates-feelings. f. sems tsdm. voidness voidness. -fi"om that is form. 2lArya-Prajfiapdramitd-tikA.Jbrm is not dffirent fo. Pratyekabuddha. 94:280.rn't. Ideas. the statement voiCness vuily is form and a like statement for the other personal aggregates. l47b-2 to 6. 109:99b-c. thdnimi t t a)." and so on. Using his hint.2o Form is voicilrcsr may be understood from Vimatramitra'scommentary this r. that is voidness. And here the yogin especiallycontemplatesrevolting objects. and Parydyasarpgrahani. or sens ory objects (ui. Vol.and Percept ions. form is voiclness. sarygrahalti. T. 40a-5to f. . 50. can be illustrated by combining Asanga's explanations from two placesof his Yogdcdrabhumi for tlie similes of the ancient Buddhist canon:22 2oT.suchasthecadaver in decomposition. by mention of the sign-sourcein front.form. since here there is neither "inquiry" (uitarka) nor "investigation" (as development of discursive thought) (uicdra). and voidness verily rJ is not dffirent from .what is voidness." Here (iha) means the Second Dhyana of the "realm of form" where occurs the cessationof "speech motivation" (udk-saryskdra). Vol. Sthiramati's subcommentary clarifies that this contemplation is meant to destroy the immemorial attachrnentto the sign-sourceof location (p r at i . 40b-6.and perceptioits. zzYogdcdrabhtimiin the edition of the Derge Tanjur. Then Avalokitesvara spoke to Siriputra about how the Sravaka. T. T. and Bodhisattva contemplate the five personal (skandha)to reahze"non-self of personality" (pudgalaaggregates nairdtmya): "Hcre. the "recep tacle-realm" (bhAjanalok a).s.motivations. of the o'moon in the waters (of earth).raya). also the voidnessof a dream. ideas. XIX. f . "Born from the Dharma" means born frcim orienting his mind methodically to the Dharma and accomplishing the Dharma accordingly. What is form. The sqi?rc is the cnse with Feelings. vastuZi.

e. Then Avalokitesvara spoke to Sariputra about how the. motivations. and is incapable of behaving as it wishes. Asanga: by way of perception being a "magician" approaching (motivations) virtuor:s.s. o'traveler at the crossroads" based on and being the four stations(i. feeling. I . moiivations. ideas. because ii differeat in the sense tltat voidness possesses likewise. paints for the could say that used lve also as a base-then voidness painting a picture are different from the picture. appearsas though it is a self while it is not a self. soil (senseorgan). "an illusicn" uerily is perception. stand out as different from the picture which is the reified void base. and as though tormented (by thirst) and deluded. As I take the is not different fromformtwcr statementsindividually voiclness a form. As with form. cetand) he does not find a core. Asanga: by way of the appearanceof a knorvable. peeling it (pulling off the various volitions. and vice versa. and unshaken. form (i. by way of cloud per(senseobject). and rain (sense ception). ideas. upon ideas. form. feelings. the body) has arisenfrom the element Asanga: because of rvater. This agreeswith the Mddhyarnika pcsition that positing voidness as an external entity would be reifying it. form. "a bubble" uerily is feelings. and perceptions. motivations. so also in the cases of feelings. and percepttons-then 'ovoidness"would be reified as a self.Secret of the Heart Sutra 317 "a lump of foamo' uerily i. Voidnessis not dffirent frotn form. unvirtuous.and motivations). out. voidnessis not external wit. And form is not different in that form is a layif different the sense voidness-bscause from percepttorts. form is not different from voidness means according to Vimalamitra: there is no respective external entity (bdlryartlta) of form and voidness.which amounts to the diverse causes of many kinds of body (" upright shoots").e. by way of (the noble disciple's) cutting the root which is Asanga: the reiiying view (satkdyadr"oli). "a plantain trunk" uerily is motiuqtions. feelings. that is to say. 'oa mitage" uerily is ideas. and so aIso.ideas. Asanga: by way of a triple association.

e. According to Asanga. the elements (dhatu).e. and the reality of the unreality." Here (iha) meansthe Fourth Dhydna. Viniscayasaqngrahapt of the Samdhitabhumi. 25T."25 This points to the o'dharmavoidness " for the Pratyekabuddha. Vasubandbu' s Abhidharmakoi a (VI. Tib. 109:98d. i. ed. 24) states: The Teacher (i. .e. T.318 BuddhistInsight Pratyekabuddha and the Bodhisattva contemplate "all dharmas" to realize "non-self of dhqrmas" (dhanna-nairdtmya): 'oHere Sariputra. the cessation of "body motivation" (kay a-sar. T. 1964. the path of equipment). without subtraction and without addition. The character of voidness: Sthiramati. Nagao.p." becauseit involves the Bodhisattva's path as contrasted with that of the Pratyekabuddha. y a. Tokyo: Suzuki ResearchFoundation. the Buddlia) and the rhinocerus (i. all natures (Dharma) huve the character of voidness.ed. by Gadjin M. 23:208e. XIX. and 23T. 48. the gates to liberation-voidness. the sensebases (ayatana).free from the fault of inhalation and exhalation. subcommentary on Sutralarykdra. Before that: what is conducive to liberation (i. have a single basis (i. of the four paths).nsk dr a) . uses the term o'character of voidness" (iunyatd-laksa4a. wishless.are not originated and not destrol.e.e. Yol. the Pratyekabuddha) up to (their individual) enlightenments at the upper end of (the F'ourth) Dhydna. The Madhydntauibhdga says: 'oThe unreality of the two (subject and object). as alluded to in Aryadeva's verse. is the character of the void (funyalaksana)."2a All natures (dharma) means thepersonal aggregates(skandha). ston pa fiid kyi mtshan fiid) in connection with the verse's "knowing as they really are" of the Bodhisattva starting with his First Stage. Vol. ztM adhyantavi bhaga-bha. Hence here there are the two dharmas-non-harm and voidness. Thus all dharmos are the gateway to liberation.23 Thus "character" (laksapa) points to the "dharma of non-harm. 22: dvayabhava hy abhdvasyabhavah ifrnyasya Iakiaaarhl. not defiled and not ptre. The Mahdyana scripture "Meeting of Father ond Son" (Pitaputrasamdgama) has this: "O great king.

" svThe Paftcavirltiatisahasrika Prajftaparamita. all dharmas are directed toward liberation. ed. A. it says in " Meeting of Father and son" :27 Great King. 23:201d:3-4 "O greatking. and the particularone here presented mostto fit the contextof the Heart Sfitra. 23:201b.28 Not defiled and not pure means the non-sign-sourcegatewaybecauseit is sign-sourcesthat are defiled or pure. Avalokitesvara explained to Sdriputra the Truth of Cessation (nirodhasatya):30 26T.Analysisof the Sravakabhumi Manuscript. Thirty Years. Corue.. Pifiputrasamdgamasiltra.. this is the wishless. Likewise. when one understands it rightly as it really is. calls attention to this . Are not originated and not destroyedmeansthe voidness gatewayi.46-47. by Nalinaksha Dutt (London. seemed 27T.unvirtuous sources natures (dharma) would flow in his mind.Secret of the Heart S[tra 319 non-sign-source-distinguish the Fourth Dhydna. When the sign-source of the eyesense-base is free of sign-source-this is the non-sign-source. accordingly the eye-sense-base The eye-sense-base is directed toward liberation. T. 111:11d. Great King is the three doors of liberation. Vol. . Vol. 6l: "he doesnot takehold of sign7961. of CaliforniaPress. University (nimitta-graht) ot detailsby reason of whichsinful. c. the (rgyal po chen po dela objects dream-like" sense organsare illusory. Wayman. 1934).T.p.T. Having told the two dharmas related to heaven (suarga) and liberation (apauarga). Why so? When the sign-source of the eye-sense-base is void of the eyesense-base-this is voidness. 158. and since there is no other dharma in Buddhism than those two in the sense'oborn from the dhamma" (as was said of Sdriputta). I surveyeC Yogdcarabhumi much of Asanga's for various explanations of the gatesto liberation.Luzac forth approximately & Co.similarity. Why so? This eye-sense-baseis a non-sign-source (animitta).e. Berkeley : p.2e Without subtraction and without addition means the wishless gateway-because there is nothing to subtract or add for the eyesense-base to wish for. T. the sense po rnamsni sgyumalta bu I yul rnatnsni rmi lamlta buriespar bya stel).pp.. dban 2ecf. When it makes no wish. is because the sign-source is void of the eye-sense-base. comparable to a dream.z8 And further. the eye sense-base is void of the eye-sense-base. 28Cf. sets the same materialas in the Heart Stitra under the title "precept of cessation-truth" (nirodhasatyavavdda). Vol.

ldown to]--no old age and deatli.ledge and the attainment.'" 'oNoy..cesscttion or path. no ideas. the Lorcr has not passedinto Nirvdqa.rus equipoises (samdpatti)up to the base of neither idea nor no-idea.. nor in which he had the knov. in voidness there are no form. eer.nor in which he discovered the twelvefold dependent origination and the manner in which it is extinguished (nescience down to old age and death. ito extit'tciion of olC age and death.entered the base of neither idea nor no-idea. you should know. no feelings. the venerableAnanda said to the venerabie Anurudcha.ards... this is not the state in which the Buddha discovered'all dharmas':five personal aggregates (form down to perceptions)." Thereupon. [down to]. he has reachedthe cessationof feelings and ideas. if there is no light. nor in which he discovered the four Noble Truths (su/fering down to patlt). eighteen realms (realm of eye down to realm oJ' mind-percaptlon).brother Ananda. and successively the equipoisesdown to the First Dhydna. No eya. no fcrm. And in this condition there is no non-attainment just as one cannot speak of darkness. na perceptions.320 BuddhistInsight "Afterw. or mental.. into Nirvdna. no ext[nctionof nescience . s'ource. extinction of nescience down ta extinction of otd age and death). nose) tongue.ovrn to mind. and ernerging from this base. No attainment. according to the tradition. ttngibb. form dorvn to mentals). or mind. According to the Mahdparinibbanasutta. Sdriputra. to non-attainrnent. no realm of mind-percept I on: No nescienct. Then." Afterwards (tasmat): In the summit of. there is cessation of "mind-motivation" (manah-sarTtskara)-referred to in the ancient Buddhist scriptures as "cessation of feelings and ideas" (sa4njfiduedita-nirodlta). sntell. triste. the Lord has passed. motivations. twelve sensebases(eye d. No reolm of eye . proceeded again through the Dhydnas . and emerging from the First Dhydna. "Reverend Anuruddha. No sulfering. sounds. and successively the vari. since here there is cessationof all "constructed natures" (sarytskrta-dharma).. the Tathdgata took his leave of the monks and attained the First Dhydna. existence(bhauagra). the Lord emerging from the cessation. No knowledge. reached the cessaticn of feelings and ideas.

the morality of the one without enthusiasm for re-existence. and dwells without obscuration of thoughr: It is said.e. azThistheory is presentedin Yiian-ts'€. 29).other" is.there is a theory that among the Dhyanas of the realm of form. for this realm leads to the non-attainmentsummit. T. the one of the Tenth Stageis in the Third Dhydnq. return to the realm of form.Secret of the Heart Sutra 321 to the Fourth Dhydna. Besides. Afterwards (tosmdt): After proving that there is no attainment. This is because the present referenceto the irreversibleBodhisattvashas to do with their. the Lord passedinto Nirvdna.. and dwells without obscuration of thought.Thus. and insight (prajm@ tied to the means ( tskes recourseto prajfiaparamitd. Avalokitesvara explained to Sdriputra that afterwards the Bodhisattva returns to attainment by recourseto prajfidpdramitd: "Afterwards. the Bodhisattva of the upper three stages among the ten returns promptly to the realm of form. forbearance everywhere. and so also no possibility of non-attainmentin the cessationof feelings and ideas. and emerging from the Fourth Dhydna.This is not necessarily inconsistenti.ntatha dhyanary. the striving to bring forth all good. The Bodhisattva's meditation is apart from the formless realm.." and explained: 'vrife of another' is prajfidpdrantitd.and my piacementof the informaticn under the Fourth Dkyana. likewise meditation (cthydna) apart from the formless realm. the Bodhisattva of the EighthStage is in the First Dhydna. srvindrfipyar. .. T. wherein are the four Dhvanas. since each of the four Dhycinaheavenshas various types of deities. explains: For the right praxis of the wise in the six perfections is the giving of the one without wish. The M ohdydnasutr dIarykAr a (XIX.vith the previous information that Sthiramati associates the "character of voidness" with the First StageBodhisattva. Vol. the other five perfections). tlre Bodhisattva takes recourse to prajfiaparamita. l06:209e where he combines the Daiabhumil. by reason of the non-ottainment. "He takes recourseto the wife of another.asutra's deifying of the irreversible Bodhisattvas(those of the last three stages)lvith the Dhyana tradition. the one of the Ninth Stage is in the second Dhydna. commentary on sarnchinirmoconasfitra. sariputra. in the Eighth Stagethe Bodhisattvais Mahdbrahmd. the .

vinitafrom of the two kinds of "insight" previously mentioned called search in deva. 109: 19c this one is the "vision. by Alex wayman and Hideko wayman (New York : Columbia University Press. the one involved "vision" called "knorvled ge" (ifiana) and the one after search (dariona).Bu-ston of sarpsdra. there ur. a EudclhistScripture on the Tatha' gangarbha Theory. while side other the ('she at arrives') r. wit. therr of views (drsti) attached to the ideas." And Gautama Buddha in that passagepreservedin the "Book of Eights" explained that when he (devatfl developed the "vision" he saw the forms of the deities of the different classes. pain as pleasure.above). ne. having transcended waywardness.e. 52' 35T. sarysdra yoga. and no spatial fear for (iha).322 BuddhistInsieht defilethe Diamond being (Vajrasattva). Tlte Liott's Roar of QueenSrinnla. There are three stagesof waywardness.969). subcommentary unexpectedl) oftemporal laqnkdra. 1.1974).sa at Avalokitesvara explained that the Bodhisattva has arrived the Summit-Nirvdna: that Prajfldplramita goes on to explain (in Tibetan). 910. note 15. T. and (spatial) domains (ui. on XVI." on the sutrd' fearless. i.aya). finally of consciousness(citta) with secondary defllements going with the view attachment. i*o kinds of fear: of objective etc'. as a Bodhis attva of in terms although still with obscuration of the knowable. Fol. tr.vho is the son mo at the other sideof sarytsara' is the sonpo ('he who arrives') Vajrasattva salnthe suttacalled "At Gay6" (cf.33 He dwells without the stages. and the impure as pure. Nirvdqa. he is at the summit' fearless.p. Since the Bodhisattva does nothave thought obscuration (cittd-auarana) he cannot have tfie last stage 33TheCollectedWorks of Bu-ston.Part 14 (Pha) (New Delhi: Indian surveyof the Tantras the abbreviated Academyof Indian culture. no. According to Sthiramati. 1'02'and note. nonself as self.s vinaya commentary.Becauseof the non-existence of thought obscuration.2) floods. commentary seCf . of rulers. three upper the ment obscuration. waywardness: waywardness (uiparydsa) means taking the impermanent as permanent. . Then. and of ideas (saanjfia). such as planes of two the for fear itself. robbers.35 The Bodhisattva has no temporal ooafterwar "here-S" two the ds" (tasmat).

incomparable incantation is gate gate because this means one has embarked (tirlta). that of consciousness(citta). the incomparable incantation. becauseshe arrives at the other shore (pdra) of the ocean of insight. p.waywardness. 1066. the incantation of great vidya is gate gate pdragate parasarTtgatebodhi svdha.and sthalagata. with the sambhogakiya. the incantation which allays stffiring. right complete enlightenment.'s with cessationof speechmotivation in the Second Dhydna. 1949.Tome II. the equal-and-unequalincantation.lh\ where the Buddha entered Parinirvaqa. Besides. s8cf. Louvain: Bureal. they realize the complete Enlightenment at the top of the realm of form in the Akanittha heaven. above).pdragata. i.'. the falsehood.1953.Secret of the Heart Sutra 323 ofwaywardness... The incantation of great vidyd. "The Significance of Mantras. Wayman. Avalokitesvara then made the Mahdydna identification of Nirvila and enlightenment: "All Buddhas of the past. present." The great incantation of prajfiapdramita. 31. .rx du Musdon. Buddhist Hybrid sanskrit Reader.e. seeFranklin Eclgerton. at the upper extreme of the Fourth Dhydna.'(note 5. Avalokitesvara then summed up all the foregoing by way of an incantation: "Therefore one should know the great incantation of prajfidpdramitd. New Haven: yale Universitypress. because she arrives at the extremity (anta) of all the insights and attains the summit (niplhagata)i. completely realize the incomparable. as foilows: gate gate pdragate pdrasarytgate bodhi svdhd. seFortheseterms tirrya. p. The summit-nirvd(ta: He is at the summit (ni. after taking recourse to the perfection of insight. "Conversion of Sariputra and Maudgalyiyana. sTEtienne Lamotte. and future.Le Traiti de la Grandevertu de sagesse. because uidya means the female variety of incantation (mantra) and sudhd is the final mantra of a female formula. and the sDtra intends this to mean the Bodhisattva has transcended. the sirtra now treats the individual terms of the marfira: The'.Bs Flaving referred to the mqntra in general terms. true because devoid of proclaimed in prajiidparamitd. Le Traitd gives the denotation of the word pdramitd (perfection) as applied to prajfrd:87 "she is called pdramitd.

it is.and mind. the essenceof Mahdyina teaching with reference to Prajfrdpiramitd as the mother of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. saying sddhu. by suggestion of PraSS. composed by Alex Wayman. 94:284e: 5.because' this means one has reached the dry land (sthalagata). sadhu (It is well. because devoid of the various falsehoods. cited in Wayman. Company. is equal to the Buddha in attaining the cessation of body motivation in the Fourth Dhydna. with cessationof body motivation in the Fourth Proclaimed in the prajfidpdramitd is sudhd because this is the clarification at the end. crThis explanation by Ratndkaraof svahais from a tantric commentary of Mantras"(note5. B.324 Buddhist Insight The equal and unequal incantation is pdragate because this means one is well on the way (pdragata). 58-59. (Then. But these yogins are not equal to the Buddha as regards having attained the incomparable enlightenment in the Akanirtha. So ends the "heart" of noble prajfidpdramitd. AvalokiteSvara was empowered (adhitistha) by the Tathdgata in the Samddhi "Profound Appearance" (gambhtra' auabhasa). called "Explaining the Dififlculties" (paiijikd-ndma) of the Aryapraifid' p dr amit d-hydaya-silt r a. The incantation which allays suffering is PdrasarTtgate. The Pratyekabuddha. as was Sariputra.So the Tathagata. " sddhu Sddhu"). Horner. 2) there is the "heart" witlt reference to the sonsof the Buddha.'accordingly. "PraSistrasena'sArya-Prajfiiparamita-hydaya-!ikA. "born from his heart. with the Sambhogakdya. 6. Vol. well) indicates concurrence with Avalokiteivara's exposition. Heart: There are two kinds of "heart" (hydaya)intended by this. you should Thus Avalokitesvara finished his instruction to Sdriputra. ReidelPublishing in Honourof I. 1) there is the "heart.strasena's commentary and partial adoption of his remarks: devoid of the falsehoods of body. speech.e. a0Edward Conze. According to Vimalamitra." D. beyond the swirling waters of sarpsdra. above'). . But is this cessation of mental natures to be called 'oNirvaqa"? True becausedevoid of falsehood is bodhi.Dordrecht: Studies Buddhist 1974. it was in fact the Tathdgata's promulgation (ajna).a2 rvhile this sutra was expressedby' Arya-Avalokitesvara." i." So ends the commentary.pp. scripture. and the Bodhisattva. the Lord emergedfrom thot samadhi and told Arya-Avalokiteivara. "Enlightenment" (bodhi) is true.T. "The Significance Sdnti. 42T.


(Tokyo). 16 and lV (sopadhiiesd and nirupadhiie sa bhumis). and bhduandntayibhuntis). and is a portion of the encyclopedic work YogdcdrabhAmi by Asanga (circa 375-43A.A. cintdmayi. 375-379. pratyekabuddha-. 1960. Alex Wayman. He concludes with the fruits (phola) of the path-bhunzis Nos.vith the traditionatr three levels of proiiia (insight)-bhumis Nos. 13-15 (srduaka-. 7:1. and then discussedfrom another standpoint in bhhmis Nos. and bodhisattua-bhumis). since the Sacittika and Acittika text is Asanga's most extreme summarization of the psychological states that rvere discussed extensivelyin ihe first five bhilnis (edited in Sanskrit by V.t The Sacittikd and Acittikd bhumis occupy only one folio side in the manuscript and yet constitute Nos. 8 and 9 of the seventeenbhumis. 6 and 7 (samohitd and assmAhifi bhilmis).). Asanga then deals r. F{e then exposes the three vehicles (yAna)-bhumis Nos. 10-12 (irutamayi. They have an importance far greater than their length might indicate." Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies pp. .D.l6 THE SACITTIKA AND ACITTIKA BHUMI TEXT EXP TRANSLATION The brief text here edited is from the photographic Srduakabhumi manuscript. Sacittika Acittika ca Bhumih / sacittika'cittikd ca bhflmilr katamd / sa dvidhdpi paiicabhir cittaFrkarak veditavya / bhtmiprajflaptivyavasthdnato'pi rCf. Bhattacharya)."The Sacittika and AcittikaBhumiand the Pratyekabuddhabhumi(Sanskrit texts).

n niruddhary bhavati / yenacittika bhfimir ity . punar anutpadakara4air anutpddah sd 'cittikd bhnmi\ // thanatab pa{ avasthdh sthdpayi tvd sacittika / tatr av asthdvyavas bhumir veditavyd / . . / Filayavijfrinary tu na niruddhap bhavati / panmirthato 'cittika bhunrir ity ucyate // / yogacarabhflmau sacittikd bhlmir acittika ca samaptalf Translation of Asanga's Sacittika and Acittikd Bhumi with minimal additions from Asanga's own comments in V ini i cayasarltgr ahan i.n tad bhrdntam ity ucyute/ yat punas caturbhir viparydsendviparyastar.rtu..n) tad acittam ity ucyate (p)r(akrti)bhra.ndrptvd '[yam purusapudgalo 'citta unma]ttah ksiptacitta iti I tad anena paryayena yad bhrdntary cittarp tad acittikd bhumir yat punar abhrdntap tat sacittikl.nj frikam niro dhasamapattim ca sthdpayitvd tadanya sacittikaiva bhumih samdpattyupapattika lasam] iffiko nirodhasamdpattis ca td (a)cittika bhnmih // / tatra cittabhrantivyavasthanato yat caturviparydsap viparyastar.n niruddhar.ncittar. // 'ttabhih karaqaih / tatrotpattyanutpattito cittasyotpddo ['nutpado] va / tadyatha indriyaparibheddd viqayd:ndbhisam ayandd manasikaravaikalydd apratilabdhadvirodhdt prahdldd nirodhdd utpadac ca f etad viparyaydd utpddo drastavya{r kqaya(e)va karataib / tatra ya utpddakaraqais cittasyotpidah sa sacittikl bhflmih / ya\.nb hfl m au samapattyupapattikam asar.328 BuddhistInsight bhrdntivyavasthanato'py utpattyanutpattivyavasthdnato'py avasthdvyavasthanato'pi paramarthavyavasthanato.pi // f tatra bhfimiprajfiaptivyavasthdnatah paffcavijfianasamprayukti bhlmir manobhfrmilr savitarka savicara ['vi]tark6 vicdramatrd ca bhfmir ekantena sacittika / avitarkdydm av ic aruyar.n tad abhrantam ity ucyatef tatra yad bhrdntacitta(r.n bhavati f tadanyasv avasthasu pravrttivijfidnar.tlat / tadyathil lokair vacas uktam f unmattakqiptacittar.njffikam nirodhasamdpattir nirupadhiSesanirvd4adhdtur yd punar etah qad avasthd iyam acittik[ bhnmi\ // / tatraparamarthavyavasthdnato nirupadhiseqo nirvdnadhdtur acittikd bhumih / tat kasya hetoh / tatha hy avasthdb katama tadyathi acittikamiddhdvasthd'cittikamurchavastha'sa4rjfrasamdpattir dsar.

5.absolute. Without inquiry and with only deliberation. Any thought not wayward with the four waywardnesses is a nondeluded thought. 4. Text and Translation 329 What is the stage "with thought" and. nonattainment (of other realms. 3." Hence. establishment of the .ideationalexistence." Esr. 3. any deludedthought is a stage "without thought. establishment of states. Association with the five (sensory) perceptions (uijfidna). non. opposition (to a thought by another thought which is present. they say. impairment of senseorgan (six in number). when worldly personsseesomeoneof insane.' insaneo his mind distracted.thought"? Each of these is known under five categories: establishment in terms of when experiencing pleasure . 4. "That person is 'destitute of intellect. establishment of (thought) occurrence and non-occurrence.The Sacittikiand AcittikaBhDmi. and cessationequipoise. Sr. the deluded thought is said to be "destitute of intellect" becauseit has lost its primal nature. 2. distracted follows: f .q. Among those. the one "without .c." and any one not deluded is .thought. With inquiry (uitarka) and deliberation (uicdra). EsranrrsnrvrENT lN Trnus or. establishment of thought delusion and non-delusion. without either inquiry or deliberation. non-appearance of sense object (six in number). Mind (manas). lack of attention.non-ideational 'These stagesare in each casea stagewith thought: l. For example.srrsHMENT op OccunRENcEAND Nox-OccuRRENcE Thought occurs or does not occur by eight causes. such as the Dhyana heavens. 2.'with . by reason of not accomplishing the path). under which there are non-ideational equipoise." EsranllssMENT or TsoucHr DnrusroN nNo NoNr-Drlustotr A thought wayward with four waywardnesses is said to be deluded. Non-ideational equipoise.and cessationequipoise (each) constitute a istage"without thought. A stage"with thought" must be apart from those terms.

2.6." oF TI{EAssorurP EsrasrtsHMENT This is the stage "without thought. What are the six? As iollows: 1." neither: Arhats." Finished titute a stage "without the in Yogacarabhumi. cessa3." Nirvafa-realm without residual basis. and delusion are eliminated by the Eightfold Noble Path). 1-5 in "Establishmentof states. 3-6 in "Establishment of states. just when there is ending of those causes.330 Insight Buddhist one does not experiencepain). 7." and Tathagatas. 8. state of sleepdevoid of thought (:dreamless sleep). state of faint devoid of thought. Pratyekabuddhas. In the other (five) states." EsrasusHMENToF STATES One should knorv the stage "with thought" as exclusive of six states. Possessing aijiidna: Arhats.but (in those flve) there is no they do not conscessationof alaya-uijfidna: in the absolutesense. 6. tho Sta-se With is thought." alayaevolving perception and not possessing 2. non-ideational equipoise. when in stages"rvith thought. 'owith thought. there are four casesfor possessionof al ayauij ii dna andf o r evolr'ing perceptio n (p r aurt t i-uii iidna) : 1. as when lust. when in stages 3. Possessingalayauijiidna and not possessingevolving perception: personsin statesnos. any originaof origination. non-ideational existence. hatred. as in momentary theory). having finished occurring. statesnos. irreversible Bodhisattvas. For what reason? For the reason that there is cessation of the "store consciousness" (dlaya-uiifidna). elimination (of a thought by the path leading to the elimination. is a stage "without thought. thesesix statesconstitute a stage"without thought. Pratyekabuddhas. 4. there is cessation of evolving perception (prauytti' uijfidna)." below). tion-equipoise.e. Possessingboth: persons other than those (mentioned above).e.irreversible. is a stage"withthought. The opposites of those constitute origination (of thought). and consequently they constitute a stage "without thought" (in the conventional sense). Among them. 5. Furthermore. Thought and Without Thought According to Asanga." tion of a thought by causes And any non-origination by causesof non-origination.4. occurrence' already (i. Possessing . cessation (i. Nirvd0a-realm without residual basis.

to a class of deities abiding in the Dhyina heaven Bphatphala. are: attention (manasikdra). priorto the exegetical bhumi of Asanga's Yogdcdrabhumi "nonequipoise.non-self as self." BothNirvir:as (with and without residualbasis)are treated in the comments to the Paramdrtha-gathd. idea (sar. one-pointedness(samddhi).fe*t arrJfranslation TheSacittikd 331 Bodhisattvas. The associate natures (caitasika-dharma) that go with all the uijfrdna. The set of eight is more common.The two kinds of Nirvifa constitute two stages(Nos. or in Nirvdla-realm without residual basis. suffering as happiness.andAcittikaBhumi. The four waywardnesses are to regard the impermanent as permanent. Together with dlayauijfidna. p. feeling (aedand). and the "cessationequipoise" as that of the drya (noble person). insight (pr aifia). . according to the Abhidharma' koia.volition (cetand). II. Vol. when in cessation-equipoise. and the impure as pure. Asanga states in his Vastusalngraha4i (PTT. 41. ! amanas). 16 and 17) of the seventeen sections." The term "non-ideational existence" (dsaryjfiika) refers. (See my essay "secret of the Heart Sutra"). Asanga points out there also that some outsiders (wrongly) attributed the two kinds of Nirvdla to this Brhatphala heaven." "cessation tation in Theravada and MahiSasaka" above and Asanga's Srduakabhumiexplain the "non-ideational equipoise" (or "equipoise without idea") as that of the ordinary person. and Tathagatas. mindfulness (smrti).vemental elementsnever associatedwith dlayauiifidna: longing (chanda). Besides. they make a set of seven uijfidna.placed as the highest of the three divisions of the "fourth Dhyana" in the "realm of form." and ideational existence. contact (spar. 111. There are fi. the mind (manas) has many other mental elements associated with it. 134-3) that elimination of ideas(sarnifiilhappensin the samadhi of "signless mind" (dnimittacitta).ia). uij fidna asmanouij and the eighth as dlayauijfiana." "non-ideational the three stages. Asanga in the foregoing mentioned only "Nirvdqa without residual basis. The evolving perceptions are mind (manas) and the five sense perceptions.njfid). the seventh as "defi led mind" (k li . The set can also be counted as eight by taking the sixth fidna. conviction (adhtmoksa). Regarding essay "Medithe equipoise." Speaking generally.and relate this terminology to the "formiess realm.

A. Besides. for details of this text as originally editedand translated. 3 (1962). an earlier section of the Yogdcdrabhumi. I havemademinorimprovements throughout the translation aswell as major (nos. ff.z Some introductory remarks are necessary. Berkeley. THE PARAMAnTUI-. 3g. 163. and so on.pp. Long ago I edited and translated the Paramdrtha-gdtha and commentary in my doctoral dissertation at the University of California. I haveadopted all his suggestions except one(on verse3g). small sets of verseswith Asanga's comments. bibliography for the Asian renditions. the Abhrprdyikdrtha-gdthd. 17 (University of CaliforniaPress. The intrusive folios of that bhumi contain the Paramdrtha-gdthd and the complete text of Asanga's comments thereon. Thus "yogacara" in the title 'oStages (bhumi) of Yogdcara" does not stand for the Buddhist philosophical school sometimes referred to as "yogacara luniversity of california Publications in classicalphilology. Berkeley and Los Angeles.196l).4 and 38). vol. published as Analysis of the SrduakabhumiManusuipr (1961). correction of two verses . No.T7 ASANGA'S TREATISE.r uA The intrusive folios in the unique Bihar Srduakabhilmi manuscript include a large portion of the cintdmayt Bhumi. vol.r Now I shall present this text and translation with various corrections. The bulky work called Yogdcdrabhumiwas composed for persons in the Buddhist religious life. with incomplete text of Asanga's comments. and the first part of the Sqrirartha-gathd. 2FromFranklinEdgerion's generous reviewin Language.


Insight Buddhist

philosophy." Much of the large work is given over to Buddhist abhidharma-type doctrinal categories; and, generally ,speaking, the treatise exposes extensively the doctrine and practice indications for one aiming to follow the Buddhist path, either in the old senseof early Buddhism or in the later sense of the Mahd:ydnaBodhisattva. However, the work does contain an early form of what is called "Yogacara philosophy," especially by Asanga's use of the term "store consciousness"(alayauiifidna) and his three lakpa7a-s or suabhdua-scalled "imaginary" (pari' k alpi t a), " dependency" (p arat antr a), and "perfect" (p ar ini ;p anna), The Paramdrtha-gdtha themselves do not clearly evidence any technical o'Yogacara philosophy," but Asanga's comments do bring in some indications of this philosophical position. The verse that most needs some explanation in this senseis no' 4,withtwo mentions of the word "self" (atman). The translation especiallyAsanga's of the versefollowed commentarial suggestions, use of the word parinippanna, which, as a grammatically passive participle is possibly controlled by the instrumental of another word, thus forcing the term dtmanas (genitive or ablative) to be interpreted ablatively in overlap of instrumental function. So my translation of dtmano ndsti as "is not by way of self." When the verse states that the "self" is imagined in reverse manner, it follows that it is imagined to be "by way of self." Asanga's comment with the word parini5pannaimplies the other two terms of the three lak;aua. Thus, the "self" is "imagined" in reverse rnanner-the "imaginary charactet." The "dependency character" is shown by the phrase "not by way of self," sinceAsanga's Srduakabhumi examines the "non-self" aspect of the Truth of Suffering by the one aspect "non-independence" (asudtantrya).t Finally, the "self" is not the "perfect character" (parini;powrulakSaqta). Asanga's interpretation of the verse no. 4 is not inconsistent with the {Iddnauarga, I, 20, including: f dtmeua lty dtmano ndsti lcutoputrd lruto dhatto* / , since kuto (: Skt. kutas) is abiative; thus, "For the seif is not through self. Through what the sons? Through what the wealth?" In short, one should realize ooindepenclent" self, and that the self is not autonomous ; that an sons and wealth is an illusion. one that "possesses" sCf.V/ayman, Aspects of the Four NobleTruthsand Their "The Sixteen placewith n. 17. Opposites,"

Asanga's Treatise, the Paramdrtha-gdthi


For the meaning of the word paramArtha, we note that the commentary on Sutrdlarytkdra, VI, l, says that paramdrtha .("absolute meaning") is non-two meaning (aduayartha). Asanga, (PTT, Vol. 111, p. 162'5) says: "By the in his Vastusaqngrahaqti 'world' (loka)-arisen manner of paramdrtha one should know the and cognition (ifiana); theme44$ ofcomby dint of ideas (saanjfid) 'world'-iightly knowing as it really is the ing to the end of the arising-transformation of aspectsbelonging to the six sense bases 'world'-apprehending the end of of contact; and the end of the 'body,' (after ending the craving for any senseobject."a Ending ) the craving points to Nirva0a with residual basis; the end of '"body" points to Nirvdla without residual basis (cf. gdthd 42). Hence "non-two meaning" of paramdrtha signifies-this way and no other way. The Paramdrtha-gdthdss

'pi ni6ceqtaatha ced vartatekrtyd dharmdl,: sarve // There is no proprietor at aIl, no doer, no feeler; Although all the dharmas are inactive, yet possible activity evolves. 2. dvddaS aiva bhavdn gini skandhdyatan adhlfiava\ / vicintya sarvarty etdni pudgalo nopalabhyate l/ The trvelve members of phenomenal life are the aggregates (skandha),sensebases(, and realms (dhotu). Pondering all those, a person (pudgala) is not found. 3 . Silnyam ddhydtmikar.n sarvar.nSunyar.nsarvar.n bahirgatary / 'pi ka6cidyo bhdvayati Strnyatarnl/ na vidyate so Void is all within; void all rvithout. Nor exists anyone who contemplatesvoidness. 4. atmaiva hy dtmano ndsti viparitena kalpyate /
aI havecondensed usingjust his words, from the Tibetan Asanga'spassage, version. 'By gc\thaAsanga apparently meant the ancient versesor verse portions that he pieced together to make this set of forty-four. This meaning is certio'master fied by his own commentarialconclusion,calling this group of verses lineage" (aptagama), i.e. scriptural authority. Flence, the commentarial dha (he says) refers to the Buddha.

t . svdmi na vidyate ka5cin na kartd ndpi vedaka\,/


Buddhist Insight

naiveha sattva dtmd vd dharmds tv ete sahetukift // For the self is not by way of self; it is imagined in reverse manner. Here there is no being or oneself. But these dharmas have their causes. 5. ksapikah sarvasamskdrdasthitdndm kutah kriyl / bhfltir yesar.n kriydsau ca kdrakah saiva cocyatef f AII the saqnskdras are momentary; how could there be the activity of transient things? Preciselytheir arising is the activity as well as the agent. 6-7. caktuh paSyati no rlpar.n Srotram Sabddm Srnoti nab / ghrdqary jighrati no gandhdm jihva ndsvddayedrasam / kayah sppsatino spar5dmano dharmdn nakalpayetf ndsti caisam adhitthdta prerako vidyate na ca // Neither does the eye seeform; nor the ear hear sounds. Neither does the nose smellodord; nor the tonguetasteflavors. Neither does the body feel tangibles; nor the mind conceive dharmas. And these have neither controller nor instigator. 8. na paro janayaty enam svayar.n naiva ca jayate/ pratitya bhdvi jdyante niqpurdpa nava navd // Another does not engenderthis; nor is it engendered of itself. Entities arise dependently. They are not old, but ever new. 9. na paro nd5ayaty ena{n svayar.nndpi ca nalyati / pratyaye sati jiyante jatdh svarasabhahgura\ // Another doesnot destroy this; nor is it destroyedof itsetf. When there is the condition, things arise; and having arisen, are perishable by their own essence. 10. pakqadvaye ni5rita hi janatd upalabhyate f pramatta viqayeqveva mithyd coccalitd punab // One finds that creatureslie in two categories. They are heedlessin sensefields; moreover, waywardly advancing. I 1. mohenapahptds te vai mithyd uccalitasturyef t1'qfayd:pahftdste tu pramattd viqayequye // Truly thosecaught by delusion are those wayward.lyadvancing. While those caught by desireare those heedless in sensefields. 12. sahetukatvad dharmS-n5"r.n duhkhasyeha tathaiva ca / maulam kle6advayarykltva dvadaSangodvidhd krtab // Becausedharmas have their cause, as does also suffering,

Asanga'sTreatise,the paramirtha-satha

J5 |

Since one has createdthe two fundamental defilements, there are the twelve mernbers,of two kinds. 13. svayamkrta kriyir naiva tatlta parakpta na ca f paraf kriyiqn na karayati na ca nasti kriyd pur,a\ // The activity is not created by self, nor created by another; Another (life) doesnot causeilie activity; but also the activitv does not fail to exist. 14. nddhydtma{n na bahir va ca nantarale tayor api / anutpanno hi saryskarah kaddcid upalabhy ate // Whether within, without, or between the two, The sarpskdra that rras not (yet) arisen is nowhere found. 15. utpanno 'pi ca samskaralrtendsaunopalabhyate / anagatam nirnimittam atitam tu vikalpy ate // Even 'rhen the sarpskarahas arisen, it is not thereby found. The future is devoid of sig*. But one imaginesthe past. 16. kalpyate 'nubhtrtary (na) ca ninubhutar.n ca karpyate / anadimantal.r sarpskdr6 idiS caivopalabhyate // one imaginesnot just the experienced, but imaginesalso the not-experienced. The saqnskdras are beginningless.still, a beginning is found. 17-18. phenapirl{opamarprlparp vedani budbudop ama/ maricisadlSi sapj nd sarirskdrdlr kadalin ibhab, / mdyopamaln ca vij fi dnam uktam adityaban dh.and / ekotpad.i5 ca samskara ekasthitiniro,llinah // The solar kinsman has proclaimed formation to be like a lurnp of foam; feeling like a bubbre; ideation like a mirage; motivations like plantain trunks; and perception like an illusion. The sarytskdra,s arise alike, abicleand perish alike. 19. na moho moirayed moirar.nparam naiva ca mohayet f na paro mchayaty ena4-lna ca moho na vidyate f Delusion does not delude delusion, nor cloesit at all delude any one else;nor doesany one elsedeludeit; and yet delusion does not faitrto occur. 20. ayoni6omanaskaratsarnmoh.ojdyate sa ca f ayoni5omanaskAro nasarprnu$hasya jAya& l/ Thai coni'usionis born of unmethodical mental orientation, And tlie unmethoclicalmental oricntatioir is born of one not free from confusion. 21. pu1.1ya aputyd anifl1'ya sar.nskdrds trividhd mata\ /


Buddhist Insight








trividham cdpi yat karma sarvar.netad asarlrgatam // Meritorious, demeritorious, and motionbss are the motivations (and) held to be threefold; andwhichever be the threefold karma, alI that is disjoined. prabhangura vartamana atita na kvacit sthitd/ ajatah pratyayadhinal. cittar.ncipy anuvartaka\n l/ The present ones are disintegrating; Those of the past abide nowhere; The unborn depend on conditions, And the mind evolves accordingly. atyantikah sar.nprayogoviprayogas tathaiva ca f na ca sarvair hi sarvasyacittary copagam ucyatel/ In an absolute sensenot all (mind) has associationa). dissociation likewise-with all (sarTtskdr It is said that mind evolves accordingly. punah / tasmin srotasya vicchinne sadp6isadpSe kriyate samvrtih tv iyary // dtmadfqtyanusarena (of consciousness) has similar and dissimilar Again, the stream disruption, but this convention works by follorving the view that there is a self. 'pi nalyati bhidyate rupakdyas ca namakdyo f 'pabhogaSca paratreha nirucyate svayar.nklto // The setof formation breaksup; the setof namesalso perishes; and the self-doneis declared "fruit-eating" both in this and in the other worid. paurvaparyef a cdnyatvdt svahetuphalasamgrahAt / sa eva karta vetta ca anyo veti na kathyate // 'odoer" and the "feeler" through difference prioriof That is the ty and posteriority, and through comprising in itself the cause and thefruit. But one should not explain (that) as "different." hetuvartminupacchedit simagryd vartate kriyit / svasmad dheto6 ca jayante kurvanti ca parigrahaTn // Given that the course of causes is not disrupted, activity evolves by reason of the asseinblage(of causes).They are born by their individual cause and take control. prapaflcibhirati hetu tatha karma SubhdSubham / sarvabijo vipdkaS ca ittdniqtatn tatha phalar.n// When the causeis delight in elaboration, likewise the action (karma) is good or evil. When any seedmatures, likewise the fruit is desirable or undesirable.

Asaiga's Treatise,the Paramdrtha-gathi



29. sarvabijo vipiko 'bhijdyate atmadar5ana\nf pratyitmavedaniyo 'sau arDpi anidar6anab // When any seedmatures, the view of self is reproduced. what is to be known of one's own self is that it is formless, invisible. 30. kalpayanty antarutmdnar.n tam ca biid ajdnakA\ / dtmadarSanamdSritya tatha bahvya5 ca dy;taya\ // And that is what the immature and ignorant imagine to be the self within, having based themselves on the view of self. Thus there are many (false) views. 31. pindagrdhdtmabijdc ca ptrvabhydsdt sahayata\ / Sravaldd anukildc ca jayate dtmadar5anaan// As a result of the coheringseedof self,the former concomitant habitual practice, and (present) hearing in conformity therewith, the view of self arises. 32. snehas tatpratyayam caiva adhyatmam upajayate I anugrahabhild+aS ca bahih sneho mamayitarg l/ Attachment originates in addition to that condition within; And attachment craving for acquisition (originates in addition to) the cherished thing without. 33. yato bibheti loko 'ya\n tan mohitmar.n haraty asauf pfrrvar.nniveSanarykptvd tenopaiti prapafrcita\n // whatever this world fears, that brings the self of delusion. Having formerly made an abode,it undertakesthe elaborated. 34. yat ian nivesanatn krtar.n tad arya duhkhato viduh / yena duhkhita sadd baldh ktairamatram upaSamito nahi l/ Whatever the abode that is made, that the noble ones know as suffering. Thereby the imrnature always suffer, for it is not appeased even for a rnoment. 35. vain"rpyaparigatarycittam acinoti duhkhar.n tathdvidha\n / yada cittary bhavati baldnam ahar.nkdrasukhaduhkhapratyayarp // The mind that is filled with variations gathers suffering of like kind. Whenever it is a mind belonging to the immature, it is the condition of egohood, happiness,and suffering. 36. yatra saktdl.rsarvabdli6dhparike patati kuffjaro yathd / sar.nmohas tatra cadhikah sarvatragah sarvaceqtitetatpara\ // Where all fools are stuck, as an elephant sinks in a bog, There is the remaining confusion, proceeding everywhere,

Buddhist Insight glven over to every actlvlty. vinirbhedaya ylni loke srotdrysi viqamdni / 3 7 . sarvasrotasdr.n 'tiSoqayed anyatra naitad asty agnir na vayur na bhdskaro dharmacaryayA// No fire, wind, or sun could dry up those unbearable streams in the world, so as to destroy all streamsNothing but the practice of the Dharma. 3 8 . Duhkhi duhkhito 'ham asmity atmanary sukhito v[ duhkham vyavasyati f parikalpo dpqtisamutthdpakah sa tasmdj jdtas taj jinayaly z api // When suffering, one thinks, o'f am suffering;" or "I am happy,o' when he ascertains himself suffering. Imagination is the arouser of (right and wrong) views. It is produced from them and generatesthem in turn. 39. sahotpannaniruddham hi kle6aih kli+tam manalr sada / tasya nirmokqo na bhlto na bhavi;yati l/ The defiled mind always arisesand ceases together with defilements. Its releasehas not occurred and will not. 40. na tad utpadyate pa5cacchuddharn anyatra jiryate I tac ca plrvam asar.nkliltamkle5ebhyomuktam ucyate // That does not arise later. On another occasion it is born pure. Precisely that which formerly was nnstained is called "freed from defilements." 4r. yat kli;tam tad ihatyantac chuddham prakytibhisvara\n I kaScitkutaScidvipi Sudhyati ll na ceha Sudhyate That which was defiled, here in the end is purified, with its intrinsic light. Anything not purified here would surely not become pure anywhere ! 42. sarvabijasamutsddit sarvakleSaparik;aydt / tatraiva c6py asarpkleSaddvidhdbhinnar.n pradarSita\n // By reason of the utter destruction of all seeds-the total elimination of all defilement; in the satne place, as well, by reason of no stain, a portion of trvo kinds is specifled. 43. pratyatmavedaniyatvdd duhkhamdtraparik;ayFft / tathaiva nilprapafrcatvat sarvatha na prapaficayet // Through what is to be known of one's own seif, through elimination of suffering only; just so, through no elaboration, one does not elaborate at all.

Asanga'sTreatise,the Paramdrtha-gdtha


44. pravahe pudgaldkhyd syad dharmasatnjry ca lakqane / na veha kascit sa(nsarta nirvdty api na kalcana // The terrrr "person" (pudgala) means "continuous stream" and the expression "natufe" (dharma) means "character." Neither is there any transmigrator here, nor is anything allayed (in pariniruapa). CorraunNraRy / pudgalanairdtmyar.nparamdrthatas tadadhikdrat paramirthaln gdthd / samaropdpavdddntadvayapratipakpfa / tatta sudmi parigrahasya karta kriyd4dr.n uedakalz/ tat phalind:rir gdthdrddtmdndm pratikqipati / dharmalt dhendrthantaraparikalpitam sorue 'pi niice;ld iti dharmdfdm evatmatvary pratiksipati I etena samaropantary parivarjayati / atha ced uartate kriyety anena parivarjay ati f tatr a kriya trividhd dharmastitvena cd,pavdddntar.n svdmikriyd karakakriyd vedakakriyd ca / yayd kriyaya svami prajflapyate / karako vedako vd katame te dharmd iti noktam ata itha / duddaiaiueti gdthdrddhap yatha bhavdngakramena ye vartante skandhds tdn parid ip ay ati / skandhadhdtvdyatanagraha\ary\ I svdmikdrakavedakagrihakapratipakqela cak$uh pratitya rupdi:i cotpadyate cakpurvijfrdnaqnphalagr na tu iuicid uedako 'stity dhatubhir vedakibh6vam paridipayati f suami aqtddaSabhir nd uidyata ity uktar.n/ sa punar yatha na vidyate tat paridipayati / etdni pudgalo nopalabhyata iti f uicintyeri tribhiir uicirttl'a' pramanaih pariksya / tasmin na vidyamdne katham ddhyatmikabdhyavyavasthanarlr sidhyatity aba I iilnyant adhyatntikary soraaryt iunyatp saruatn balirgatarpf vyavasthanamltraln tv etad than atn sidhyatiti iti j fl apay ati I kathar.n parik gyaparikpakavyavas 'pi yo bhduayatiiilnyatamiti f katham kalcid /Ahal na uidyate so aryapythagjanavyavasthanar.nsidhyatiti I ?rha f dtmaiua hy dtm' eno ndsti uiparitena kalpyata aryappthagjanatmaiva taddtmanah parinippanno nasti viparyasena tu kalpyata iti jrt,apayati / katham paratmavyavasthanam sidhyatiti / aha naiueha sattuo y av adanavyavasthanar.nsidhy atiti / frtnna ueti I katharlr sar.nkle5av aha dhqrmds tu ete sqhetukAk / na sa$klista na vyavadita va 'pi niiceg[a ity uktar.n na tuktar.n kaScid astiti f dharmalt sarue / kathap ni6ceptaitiI ataAhaI ksanik{tit saruasarpskaraasthitanaryt kutah kriyeti I atha ced uartate kriyety uktar.n/ tat katham asatydin kriyiydan kriyd vaftata iti aha I bhutir yetArytkriyasau ca kdrakas saiua cocyata iti I phalatvdt kriyi hetutvat katakah I tam punar


Buddhist Insight

bh[tir yayatanebhyo vijfianotpattyd sfrcayati tadutpattya ca / I caksurddinap ndntarena tatsiddhel,r dharmah sarue 'pi niice;la ity / uktary / tary niscestatarysaptavidhdrn darsayati kiritraniscegta/ tary cak;ult paiyati no rilpam ity evam ddind /anuvidhdnanisceqiatlnp / nasti cai;dm adhistrhdtd prerako uidyate na ceti f svdmikdrakabhavdd yathdkramary yasyanuvidhdnam kuryuh/ utpddananiScestatdryna paro jo.nyaty enam iti utpattiniscestat am suayaryt / naiua ca jayata iti / samkrdntiniscestatdr.n prattya bhaud jayante nispurd?d naudnavditi vindsananiScestat aryf na paro ndiayaty enqm iti vinastinisce;tatdnl f suayamndpi ca naiyatiti / kiyathd,pratitya jdyante tatha pratitya vinaSyantifi / aha f pratyaye sati jdyante jafik suarasabhafigurdl3 dharmds tu ete sahetukd ity uktam / f atas tan samklesasvabhdvdn gr-hasthapra.rrajitadharmansahetukan paridipayati / palc;aduaye niiritd hi jantateti dvabhydr.n f gathabhydm avidyatrst d.hetuparidipandt ata\ param paff cabhir / gdthdbhis tam eva saryklesam prabheda tab dsrayatatr hetutah / kdlatas ca samdarsayati f tatra sahetuka dharmlh avidya ydvad vedana sahetukary duhkha{n trud ydvad jaramarana etena trividhar.n klesakarmajanmasamklesaln darsayati maulary lclesaduaf y arytk rtueti / kle(;asapklesat pradhanaklef agraha+ar.nd,arsayati / suayantkrta kriya naiueti karmasamklesasya puna[ ppthagjanarp vacanar.n tatkrtatvad vaicitryasya f tadvipikasya cdcintyatvltt / tatra na svayamkrtaiva kriyd pdpakalydlramitraparopasatnhdras caksanan na parakStaiva purusakardpekqandtf na para euakriydryt karayati / plrvajanmahetvapek qa4at nq bahir uety / ndcthydtmarn anaya gathaya / anitgatasritasamklesasambhavaqr pratyutpannd.titasar.nskirasritasamklesam darsayati f utpanno,pi sarpskdralt tenaiva na vikalpyate 'ndgatarlt tu nirnimittatudn navikalpyate / idam idlpm vd bhavi sy atity anavadhdrartdd anyathahi kalpitam I anyathaiva kaddcid bhavati f atitarp tu uikalpyate nimittakaralid idary caivam cabhud iti / na kevalam anubhltam eva kalpyate / ananubh[tary canagatary vikalpyate vindpi nimittikarela etena kalpandhetukary saryklesary pratyutpannar.n sar.nskdrisrayar.n darsayati / anddimantah saqnskdrd ddii caiuopalabhyata iti / sar.nkl eS asya kdl ar.ndafi ay ati/ anddikaldnugatatvdd abhin avotthipanac ca / atah parar.n vyavadandpakqary darsayati / yathlt parik-syamano vyavadayate / svalakqanato rDpadindry phenapin{ddyupamayEt, sdmanyalakranatah sa4rskptalaksanasamdny6d ekotpat t ist hi t inir odhataya sar.nvptiparamarthasatyatas ca f tathit hi na kascid mohako na ca / moho ndsti pratitya samutpannah

nprayukta4rvd.ndarSayati I atall paratn yathd: tad.nvgtydaa moho mohayatity ucyate I yan namuQhasl'dyoni tasmad asau mohary na mohayatiti / paridipayati / Somanaskdrqh tatha hi vijfldnary puqtyddisaryskdropqgamucyate saryv$yd para' marthatas tu nopagacchati / trtuidha matd ity atitdnagataptatyut' panndh I triutdharytcdpi yat karmeti kayddikarma snruam etad qsarygataryx / paraspare4asamadhdndt tatha hi prabhangurd uartamdndk I atitd nakuscit sthitdft | aiAffiftpratyayadhindh cittaln capy anuruartakarTt/ teqdfnyattatsalnprayuktam I atoyathd pulyd:dindr.n6 caturvidhar.ntstiyayd/ tatra sahajdtmadyqlipiadagrahasvabrjatca tadanuSayaj jayate / parikalpitn tirthikatmadlstih purudbhyasdd iti I sa ca tirthikadrqlih abhyastd bhavati f ayonii.rdr.ncodyar. the Paramirtha-gdthd Asanga's 343 sar.nprayuktaln va I aviprayuktaln vd va uiprayogo va f bhavati I na ca sarvasya cittasya sar.kramaln dvitiyayd. dtmadarianaryt / sarnudayanuplrvam dubkham .nsd.nna bhavati / yathd ca yasya hetuvartmanah ucchedo na bhavati I tad ekayd gathaya paridipayar.n / pafrcabhit gitlrabhih paridipayati I tatra yathdtmany asati punarbhavo bhavati / nocchedahl yathd ca hetuto yugapat phalary nabhavatif yatha ca sarvatal] sarvar.n saryskarir.nparamarthataScittasyopagatatvam asiddham / cittaryxcopagam ucyatef saryv5tyayena karaqena tad darSayati 1 tasmin srotasya uicchinna iti gathnyaTn saryturtikkriyate tu iyam ity upagam ity eqd yathd cdsati kdrake / vedake ca paramdrthatah suoya\nkrtopabhogah sarllttya nirucyate I yatha ca punah sa karoti / sa prativedayate I anyo ueti to vydkriyate I tat paridipayati / paurudparyena cdnyatuAd ii I gifihayd evar.n sailgamo ndsti I tatha tat samprayuktasydpi cittasyeti katharyr tasyopagatatvaqr bhavi-syatiI yad dhi cittain yena saryskarena sar. i viprayuktar.nprqyogo evar.nparidip ayati harati / caturbhil: padair yathf.dhayatyatarkyatvat / rnpa1d hi tarka4d sirtra ukta / 'desanaya a*ayary phalap ca anidarSanatvac ca f parebhyo f dvitiyaya/ bald a6rayastadanya drqtayah phalam hetur.aSceha tarkayati f tadanukular.n paramafthatah sviminy asati karake vedake va hetuphalamdtre ca sati codyaparihdrain hetuphaialak$alar. hetuphalalakianafn / tisrbhis tatranatmani hetuphale yathatmadgqtiviparyasah I tat punar dlambanata\ / afuayatab phalatalr hetuta5 ca paridipayati / tasydlarnbanam ekayd gathayaf tac ca pratyatmavedaniyatvam arupitvdnidarsandbhydr.n vd / na tarp tena f kadicid tatra cdtmaviparydsar.Treatise.n vdsaddharmaql paratab Slnoti / ity a6rayamanasikdrdlambanadotaiir parikalpitasyatmadarSanasyotpattir.

nklesad vastumokqary/ yo bhikqavas caksuqi / chandaragas tam prajahita f evary ca tac caksul.n bhavigyatiti / sltrapadanyayenaf eva41 sopadhisesary moksarn dar5ayitva nirupadhiSelar.ary ca f sarvabijasamusadena klesaparik":ayat klesamok qa\n / tatraiva capy asar.61n.ramani srotdmsi caksuradini pa! paflca gatayall trayo dhitavas ity evamddini ti4r ca dharmacaryary I bandhamoksaparijfraya darSayati I tatra bandhaparijna yad evar.lary ntanah sada kresebhyastasya nii.n dar(.smiti / atmana4r vyavasyati / sa ca parikalpo ci19!el3 samutthapakas tata eva / dpsterjdtas tajjanako bhavati moksaparijiidm sesa/ bhih pdbhir na bhuto yadi klesais sahotpannary na bhauisyati yada tai\ sahanirud/ dham yada tarhi muktam .Ftt/ tatra ui.t anayagSthayd tary ca / moksap dvidham darsayati kiefamokqarp vastumok/ .pyaqi darsayitva visoqagarp dharmacarltqiy^ 6o.344 Buddhist Insight nivartayati / yathd ca tad"duhkham punah sdhainkdrayor dvayor dubkhatayoh karapa4n bhavati / yatba ca moksasya vibacrdhdya bhavati / tat paflcabhir gathabhih paridipita ry f tatra pratiamaya gathayi samudayar.larr tad ihatyantdct it.r prahi4ar.n sarvakalanusaktatvat f rc.n parijdniti / duhkham eva vyavasyati yo out trritatr sukhito.irr paridipay ati saltotpannaniruddhaqn I hi kleiaih kli.itanugatatva.ayati pratl.t sarucce. / tac ca duhkhar.noulrmrasar.nsarativa parinirvati vd tat paridipayati I praudhe pudgaldkhyd syad ity anaya gitthayd I samaptam ca paramarthagdthdn amaptagamavyAkhydnary II .trant apy anupaSantarp I catuithyi yatha duhkham anyayor duhkhavor atrarnkarasyaca pratyayo blravati f paficamya yatha p*nar moksasya vibaddhaya bhavati sarytrrtohas tatra ca(thikah / itariibhydrr-r duhkhatabhyam antikat f sawairagal3 sarvaved.r{ite kusa/ lakusaidvydkl'te / tasyeclanim iirayavijflanasarygrrritasya duhkhasya sarah.ataya / f tasyacintyatirp clarsayati I abhavamAtragrahavyudasartham dultkhamctrakscyenopadhiricqapanayary tatai.arlam.ngrhitam ilay avijfiitnar{r ay au7 tad.n darsavati/ dvitiyatptiyibhydr. n iuei qnaqn krtuti f tenopdti prapaficitam bhavisyami na bhaviqyamity evamadi f niueianam ity dtmabhavaparigrah ary. ca sarvathapy / aprapaiicaniyatvam f anyo vd sah ananyo va bhavati vi f parary maraqan na bhavati vety evamadi / saty api ca banclhe mokse ca I yatha na pucigalo na dharmah sar.cyate tat samciarsayati tad eva I paicdc chuddham utpadyate 'nyatra sucldhanamano jayate f tac ca pfrrvam evasamkii.<tatvad rnuktam ity ucyatef etam evarthary punaf sadhayati I yot kli.

. that is. .. perception based on the eye. ."f2a-b] so that he may exponnd those personal aggregates (skandha) r. TThe "members of phenomeual life" are the twelve of dependent origination.conssciousncss" badly misses the meaning.) and six objective (forms. "feeler. the "proprietor. of activities.) are listed in gdthas 6-7. The proprietor is pointed out by the activity. tirat is.conscionsness.sense bases" (ayatana).' and o." Note that Asanga admits vijfiana is fruitional. he saysthe half-verse"The twelve.Asanga's Treatise. By the half-gdtha [la_b] he r. referred to in gathas Z. what those dharm{ts are. 9Asanga here accepts the ancient doctrine.. perccption arisesdependently on the eye and formse with exclusion of a subject. he removes the extreme of denial. has not been (so far) stated.ciousness of (something). Among them. srho f.s of phenomenal life [ personal agglegates are iisted by similes in gathas 17-1g.(expound) the sensory object." of the latter's effects.feeler. frrereby he removes the extreme of affirrnation. likewise the doer or feeler. 32): I cakkufi ca paticca rupe ca uppajjati cakkhuvififiuryary / "The eye-basedperception arises dependenrly on the eye and form. The twelve sense bases. .. six personal (eye. of the d. "realms" (dhate. of the feeler. [1c].herefutes the posses.doer. 1l-I2. .the paramdrtha-gdthd 345 TRaNsrauoN oF FaRaviARTHA CoMMrNranyo -/l L$t-af adversary to the extremes of affirmation and denial. salayatana-vagga.oer.sion of self by the dhermas.. Pafi LY.8 and (expound) that the fruitional eye-based.l:ibelcd a through cl.. making a total of eighteen ihatr. e. The eighteen rearms.g.By saying "yet activity evolves" [id).. Here activity is of three kinds: activity of the proprietor.vhich evolve according to the sequenceof the tnembe. eQuotations in 1hs ccmnentary of rire gathtis ai'e tier-e identified by the gatha nunrber and by pados..non-selfhood of a person" (pudgalanairdtmya)from the standpoint of supreme rneaning. since the word . and .. through existence of the dltarmas. ny sayinj "Althougb all the clharmas are inactive'. 'oproprietor. . . as in the stock P6li phrase (cf.fates the self (dtman) imagined of other meaning.odoer.e. there are the verses of suprerne Meaning. to the twelve sense bases.... saryyutta-Nikdya. pratityasamtttpddalT.personality aggregates" (skandha). are arrived at by adding six "perceptions" (vijiiana).'is ordinarily used as a faculty independent of and preceding *'con.' is of property." the function . This shows that the frequent translation of the termvijfiana(Pdlivifiiia4a) as .. mentioned below in the cornmentary.. referring to . Therefore. etc. etc.

are direct perception inference (anumatn\. Hence hd says [5a-b] : are momentary.' Then. as described inAsanga's hetuvidya section of the Yogacarabhtimi.r o'yet possible activity ?" It was stated. "There is no proprietor". How does he prove the establishmentof another and oneself ? He says [4c] : "Here there is no being or 919ry]!" How:{ogqhe prove the ?' establishment of stain (sarykleia) an4 pqdfication (uyauadana) He Jivit4d1 ' "th. It was said. (uiifiana) perception production the of indicates by he arising at the sensebases(ayatana) and by the production of that through accomplishing it in a manner not apart from the eye. a [2c-d]. vity of .a)." but it was not stated how they are inactive. that is. it is the agent. 'person' (pudgala) is not found" "Pondering all those.transient thir-rgs evblves. How does he prove the establishment of the thing inspected and the inspector ? He says [3c-d] : "Nor exists anyone rvho contemplates voidness. how does he prove the establishrnent of inner and outer ? He says [3a-b] : "Void is all within." he expounds the non-existenceof the feeler in the eighteen realms. It was stated. void all without.1o In the light that there is none. and master lineage (aptagama).. it is activity. -that from the standpoint of cause. how does activity evolve ? He says [5c-d] : "Precisely their arising is the activity as well as the agent.!-s nonfeither stained or-pure." (Thu$ he teaches the mere establishment. and he now expounds how there is none with the words.panna) by way of their self." That inactivity he shows to be sevenfold : {' 10Thethree "euthorities"(pramarya) (pratyak. how could there be the acti"All the saqnskdra." (Thu$ he teachesthat it is preciselythe self of the noble one andof the ordinary person that is not perfect (parini. "Although all the dharmas are inactive. . "Pondering" (uicintya) means inspecting by means of the three authoritie s (p r amd4a)." How does he prove the establishmentof the noble one (c\rya) and the ordinary person (prthagjana) ? He says [aa-b] : "For the self is not by way of self. but is imagined in reverse manner. tt-was slated. in the light that activity is unreal.346 Insight Buddhist By saying "There is no feeler. and so on. "Although all the dharmctsare inactive. a section I have translated ("Rules of Debate") for inclusion in a separate work. Further-nao{-e. se dharmashave their causes"." From the standpoint of effect. there. it is imaginedin reverse manner.

" . Inactivity of transmigration.creatures craving causesby means of tr. Inactivity of generation. but ever new.Nor is it destroyed of itself.. Among them [l2a-b]. 6. viz. . and birth (ianma). .] nescience(auidya) through feeling (uedand)." 7. they are perishable. and. They are not old. cause (hetu). for which they would make obedient evolving in proper order-because of the nonexistence of the proprietor and the doer. by [Gatha 6] "Neither does the eye see f o r m.he shows the chief defilement object by way of 'defilement stain' (kteiasarytkleia). Inactivity of destroyer.. by expounding the nescience.. by the words [gc-d] arise dependently. " 2. by their own essence." Hence he (norv) expounds the dharmas. with the words [l2c] "since one has created the two fund. so are they destroyed dependently ? He says [9c-d] : "when there is the condition.And these have neither controller nor instigator'... the clharmas possessed of causesare [the seven. .. the suffering possesseclof causes is [the five. "These dharmas have their causes..Another 3." Is it the case that as they arise dependently. Inactivity of generator.. with the words [13a] "The activity is not created by self" (he shows) furthermore the ordinary-person parlance of "action stain" (karma-satTtkteia)that is manifold by way of what was (formerly) done and has its maturation in an inconceivable ..having the nature of stain.the paramdrtha-githa 347 l. by (Gatha 7) ..Nor 4. by the words [9a] . by the words is it engen[Bb] dered of itself." It was stated. rnactivity of obedient evolving. by the worcls [9b] . by means of five gathds [nos. .Another does not destroy this. of householder and monk. action (karma). " Moreover.Asanga'sTreatise." . Thereby he shows the three kinds of stain (sarykteia): defilement (kleia). he shorvsthis stain in varieties : thatof basis(diraya).viz. Inactivity of agent. by the words does [ga] not engenderthis. having arisen.amentaldefilements.vogdthas [ncs... 1l] : lie in trvo categories. and time (kale. .Entities 5. l2-16]. with their causes. Inactivity of destruction.l craving (trsud) through olcl age and death (iarimaroaro). things arise . 10. .

" when peopiespeakOf "my kormo." and the iike [GAthA 171te and (by inspecting) the generality of constructed characteristic from the standpoint of generalizing characteristic (sdmanyalak." he shorvs tlr.12 With another gdthd [no. 13For Asanga'sexplanationsof these similes.t. abiding. but also the unexperienced future is imagined without sign construct.ll Here the activity "not created by self?' is what is brought about by others-sinful and beneficial friends. So also [Gathas lg-2O]-there is no deluder at all. Thereby he shows the stain which is the cause of imagination to be With present as the basis (diraya) of motivations (sarytskdra).ra7a)by "like arising." is not imagined. In the same v. Since therc is no assurance of the type. 12In the casesof the human effort and causefrom a previous life.a4a) by the similes of "himp of foam." Not only the experiencedis irnagined [see 16a-b]. by time and by reason of generatingit following it for beginningless anew. or u'liat is due to the gods). through advice. that is.348 Buddhist Insight way. the "future" one [15c]. not of the presentlife.vhile imagined in another way. that "not created by another" is with reference to human effort. . a Still.'ay as one purifies by inspecting from tfuestandpoints of conventional and absolute truth. [15a] it is not thereby imagined. (by inspectiirg) forrnations and so on from tire standpoint of individual characteristic (sualak.e time of stain.akdra).r. are the vrords [6c-dl "The soqnskclras reason of beginning is found." it sometimeshappens in one way r." and "your kertna.avebeen due to the different actions of former lives. "One imagines the past" [15d] through making a sign expressing"So this arose. beginningless. 14] he shows the non-origination of stain that is based on the future and of stain that is based on "Even rvhen satflskdra has arisen" present and past saqnskdra. there is no rrThis remarkmay referto the popularusage of the wordkarma. because "devoid of sign. but o'callsefrom a previous life" (pilrvaianmahetu)for the usual daiva substitutes (fate. cf. 22. "Secret of the Heart Siltre. The words Ii3c] "Another (life) does trot causethe activity" refer to a cause from a preceding1ife." place with n. or similar will occur. and perishing" lcatha 18]. Asanga accepts the usual Indian terminology of "human effort" (puru. he shou's the category of purification. Nor." as though the unpredictable resultsrnu:t h. Wayman.

and one says (only) by convention that delusion deludes. . he expounds the delusion of seif (dtman) with five gdthas [nos. . inasmuch as there is no joining of the motivations meritorious. rebirth occlrrs undisrupted. Moreover. there is no proof that mind evolves accordingly. karma of body. By convention "it is said that mind evolves accordingry" [23d]. . (c) how nothing at all occurs. and so on.e. howcan themind associatedtherewith evolve accordingly ? Since the mind is either associatedor dissociated with a motivation. Thus. for which reason he sh. delusion) does not deludo delusion" [19a]So also lcatha 21]-by convention it is said trrat perception evolves after motivations (sarpskdra) neritorious. and the mind evolves accordingly" [Githa 22]. iikewise the doer or feeler. . but from an absolute standpoint it does not evolve." while the doer and. from an absolute standpoint.owsthat. of speech. while the seif is unreal. and. (a) how. and present. future. while frorn an absolute standpoint the proprietor is unreal. 24l "Again." Thus. F{ere. feeler is unreal from the absolute standpoint. associated with them.and is not determined as different he sets forth by the gdtha [no.. how that creates. the Paramdrtha-githa 34g delusion arisen dependently.Asanga's Treatise. And not all mind has either association or dissociation. the unmethoclical mental orientation of one not free from delusion he expounds with tire words "It (i.. those of the past abide nowhere. disruption." that is. the characteristic of cause-aird-effect removes objections.. In the gdthd lno. "And lvhichever be the threefold karma.all that is disjoined" for the reason of mutual unlike receptacle (asama-dhdna)So also lcatha 22-26]-"rhe present ones are disintegrating. hence. "Herd to be threefold" means past. And among those (gdthds). as the casemay be.through <iifference of priority and posteriority. . still. 27-31]. and so on. the unborn depend on conditions. and so forth. experiences. (b) how ttre effect does not occur simultaneously with the cause.-setting laThe reference is to karma of body. and (d) how its courseof causesis not disrupted. "The self-done is declarecl 'fruit-eating"' lin 25c-d] by convention. the stream has. and of mind. while causeand-result-only is real. it is neither entirely unassociated nor entirely undissociated with it. 26]'o.14 ." the vzords "this convention works" mean "evolves accordingly.

350 Buddhist Insight forth that rvith one gdtha (no. and since it is invisible : through non-display to others. but also one unmethodically reasons in this world.With the second (Getha 281 he sets forth the characteristic of cause-and-fruit. With three (Gathds 29-31) he sets forth how. since it is non-rational. other (false) views are the fruit. Sarytyutta-Nikaya. namely. and consciousness support. Among them. mental orientation. "Abode" means the lsThere kindsof "misery"(duhkhafi) arethree foundin theancient Buddhist (cf. he sets forth and removes a fourfold objection with four pddas in sequence.vit becornesan obstacle for release." there is the irnagined heretic view of self. Or one hears from another a non-illustrious doctrine consistent therewith. in the siltra "conception of form" (rupand) was declared "rational" (tarkaaru). With the third [GathA 3l] he setsforth the cause (hetu). Saldyatana-Vagga. Now. 'oHaving (formerly) made an abode.tu That is to say. With the second lcatha 30] he sets forth the basis (diraya) and the fruit (phala) : the immature are the basis." "I shall not be. there is the delusion of self-view (dtmadrili). Not only is that heretic view habitually thought. it undertakes the (verbally) elaborated" (33c-d]-"I shall be. 291 he proves its consciousness-supportwhat is to be known of one's own self since it is formless and invisible. and cause (hetu). Ferhaps the "misery of change" is incorporated by what the Yogdcdra philosophy calls the "evolving consciousness" (pravytti-vijfiana). 32-361he sets forth how that view of self arouses suffering following upon its source. With the second and third [Gathas 33-341he shorvsthe store-consciousness (dlayauijiidna) that incorporates the suffering-(dultkha) and motivation-(samskara) miseries (dultkhata).259). it is generated from the self seed-the natural coherence of the self-view. scriptures Part IV. With the first gdthd lno. fruit {phala). . with the first giithd [no. with five gdthos [nos. 27). basis (diraya). Thus he shorvs the origination of the imagined view of self by the faults of basis." and so forth. and that he sets forth from the standpoints of consciousness-support (dlambana). how that suffering then becomes the reason for two kinds of misery (duftkhatd) accompanied by egohood. which is its traces (anuiaya). "As a result of the former habitual practice. the two that Asanga mentions plusthe as incorporated by the "storeconsciousness" o'misery of change" (vipariqtdmadukkhata). 32] he shows the source (of suffering). and hor. whiie cause-fruit is without self. In that (verse).

and the indeterminate. And that suffering. 39-44].Among these. "The defiled mind always arises and ceases together rvith defilements" [39a-b]. But [38b] he who thinks "r am happy." for drying it. . miseriesl as well as for egohood. and the formless realm (arupadhatu). having shown [Gatha 37] that this suffering comprised by the store-consciousness compares with a lake. and (imagination) born of just that (false) view is a generator of that (view). and so forth. the realm of form (rupa-dhatu)." Moreover. In that (verse).Its release" from defilements"has not occurred" [39c] rvhen it arises together rvith defilements. At another time.and "will not" [39d] rvhen it ceasestogether with them. is called "freed.. There is releasefrom defllements by destroying all five destiniesare the gods (deva)and men (manu. "proceeding everywhere. theparamirtha-gathi 351 possessionsof the ernbodim ent (dtmabhaua)... The time when it is called "freed" [40d].the three realms. and evil destiny(durgati) consistingof the animals (tiryagyoni).. . and so on. by reason of its prior non-stain. "to every activity. the five destinies. has an imagination that arouses a (false) view. 16The six personal sense bases were previously listedin gathas 6-7. wirh the fifth lcatha :01 rr.4 1 ] " T hat whic h wa s d e fi ]e d .a). he shows that : just that later arisespure. he shows its drying up: just "the practice of the Dharma. non-virtue. the pure minci arises. h e re i n th e e n d .." when he has ascertainedhimself as suffering.Asariga's Treatise. and precisely that.There is the remaining delusion" [36c]. he proves precisely this meaning by the gdthd [n o . He setsforth the complete knowledge of releasein the remain_ ing six gathds [nos. "unbearable streams" means the six (senses) of eye. "is not appeasedeven for a moment" [34d]." that is. to virtue." because following after all feelings. hungry ghosts (preta). The . and hell denizens (noraka). Now. . there is complete knowledge of bondage when one so recognizes:he ascertainsit as just suffering.16 He shows that practice of the Dharma by complete knowledge of bondage and release. shows that it then becomesan obstaclefor release. because closeto the other two miseries. And that release he shows lcatha 42] to be of two kinds : reieasefrom defilements (kleiamokpa) and release from materials (uastumokrc). with the fourth lcatha 35] he shows how suffering becomes the condition for two other sufferings [or. by reason of adhering to it in all time. The three realms are the realm of desire (kamadhatu)..

43al he shows the inconceivability of that (release)so as to elirninate the positing of mere absence. Becauseit is "what is to be known of one's own self" lno." . . namely. whatever be the sensuous lust in the eye. As a consequence. "He becornesdifferent. he shows the condition with nothing at all to be (verbally) elaborated. abandon that ! So also wiil the eye disappear. he sets forth how. with the gdtha lin sar. or not different. and in the same place. The sutra says : "O monks. Furthermore. as well. that elimination of the sensuous lust in the eye-that is the way of release from the eye.nsaraf 441 " term'person' (pudgala) means'continuousstream.352 Buddhist Insight seeds as a consequenceof ending defilement. while there is bondage and release. 17A similar statemgnt occurs in Sa4tyutta-Nikaya." and so on. for example.. 7: I yo cakkusmiry chandaragavinayo chandarogapahanam I idarn calckussa nissaranarp | "That restraint of sensuous lust. "' The lno. 43b]." ltt In the manner of that text he thus shows the releaservith rernaining basis and then shows the one without remaining basis. The explanation of the master lineage named Paramarthagdthd thus ends. He sholvsthe removal of the remaining basisby "elimination of sufferingonly" [no. or beyond death does not exist. Part IV (SoldyatanaVagga). there is releasefrom materials as a consequence of no stain. no "person" (pudgala) or 'onature" (dharma) revolves or is allayed lin pariniruapal.

reconstructions of a few terms. but are presumably the author. These verses on the three instructions are among the same intrusive folios from which I drew the paramdrtha-gdthd. first one for Brahma. It seems that the word gdthd is here used for verses that summarize sutra teachings about the three instructions in a way to bring out the sutralntentions_which perhaps amounts to the school called Sautrdntika. t'the gathaandcommentary areon plates 3A-Bandl5A-B of the Sravakabh*mimanuscript. . from the partially extant commentary. then fifty for the Bhagavat's reply.l Some bad places in the manuscript of the gdthd required.l8 ASANGA'S TREATISE ON THE THREE INSTRUCTIONS OF BUDDHISM The sanskrit title of this treatise Abhtprdyikartha_gdthd signifies the gdthd set on the meaning of what was intended.s own composition. a description of whichmay befoundinwayman.s question. There are fifty-one gdthd. Thus. The extant commentary (at least onefolio is missing) goesfrom the beginning downthroughciting verse g. it resumes with the commentary on verse30 and continues through verse 51.Anarysis of the sravakabhumi Manuscript (1961). which cites each of the verses. or iiplied (in the Buddha's teaching). these gathd are not pieced together as were the poramdrtha_gdthd that immediately precede the present set in the cintdmayi Bhumi of the Yogdcdrabhumi. r edited the gdthd both from the separate verses and.

He evidently considered that of the three instructions it was the morality one that needed the most exposition.asupiramipraptah sarvasar. he did not forget or reject the four Agama (sometimes called "Hinayana"). and his following extended section in the Yogdcdra' bhumi-the Sartdrtha-gdthd-deals much with Mind Training. . to the Mahdydna. atha khalu I tatra abhiprayikafthagathdvyavasthanatah // brahmd sahirypatir yena bhagavdrys tenopasarykranta upasar. not for laymen. Mind Training. The verses also prove that Asanga is a "moralist. 38 : "One should not adhere to one's own view. in 49. 29.354 Buddhist Insight that are italicized. and Insight-were prornulgated for the monks.ta. civarasarptu. . discarding the old lineage (paurd1tam dgamam). Of course..nprcchati sma f (l) {2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Sik. p.a / tisrah Siksdh samasena Srrru yd td su5ikqaqLa // bhavet qa{angasar." This verse supports a conclusion I made long ago in my Analysis of the SrquqlcqbhumiManuscript. possibly prihi-are certain.npannaS cittasthitisukhdnvita\ / catursu caturdkdra(h) jflanaSuddhah sadd bhavet l/ supratisthitamllab yaS cittasyopa6ame rata\ / samyuktavyd visamyuktavya drqtyadptyaryanarya /l adi5uddho dhydnantab satye ca kuSalo bhavet / utpddayed (vi)varjayed brryhayet satyam eva ca /f Sikqdpadequvidyante catasro gatayas trisu / vivarjayitvd dvigati dvigati samudinayet // dve dvayapratyupasthdne ekd nirvdtagdmini / anupfrrvopanisadabhinnasarybhinnabhavita / / 2Thereconstructions in 16.npatir bhagavantaln gathabhigitena praSnar. Asanga does not neglect the other instructions. in 25.nSayandsakta\ / Sikqim udglhite pf$Io ydnuSik+d suSikqaAn// adhi5ilam adhicittam adhiprajflam ca mari.nkramya bhagavatab pddau Sirasi vanditvd ekinte nyalid(ad) ekintanipalno brahmi sahir. that when Asanga was converted. according to the legend. ca yacitavyarTt-is not the original term.2 I add my translation including commentarial €xcerpts. One verse that deservesspecial mention is no. vyalambana." and believed that the three instructions-of Morality. His Paramdrtha-gdthd emphasizes the instruction of insight. while in 29.

n na kurvita jivitdrthar.nh rA / / (17) eka ekd bhavec chiksd sadvitiyd paro bhavet f ekasydtmd tltiyaiva td budhah samatikramet // (18) ahrastaSilah SiksAt(sa)pratijf.eyagaro bhavet / agarhitasamdcdralt paf.n 1[hen6pi ca vartayet f dhttdn gutdn samdddydn samarthar.thitayn // Q5) bhavet salnchannakalyir.nhird / sdmdddnaprdvivekyaghoqadbhogasar.nkle5ava{ita\ // Q7) syid irydpathasar.tha kaukrtya / Sikqam agamayet tatra pratipadyeta bhdvatas // Q0) pratydkhydnar.npanno mdtrdp kurydt pratigrahe / tadarthar.n yatra Sikseta parygita(\) // (9) yato viSodhaye jfrdnar.n kurydn naiva katha$ ca na // .!)AdinA // Q6) alpena vartayed mdtr6r.n Sucotpattisukhanvita\ / madhydsau sarvaSikqanam yatra Sikseta paqgitah // (10) yato vimocayec cittatn prapaflca(m) ca nirodhayet / Sreqthdsausarvasiksapdr.casthdnavivarjitab // (19) anapattaye vyutthdtd niskaukrtyo .n na nalayet / pratipattau sthito nityar.aan Sodhayer pfrrvam djivam api SodhayetI QL) antadvayar.n bhaved api // Q4) bhaved drabdhaviryaS ca nityar.n kalpitdm irydr.n varjayitvd praqidhd.n yatra sikqeta paaditah l/ (11) aSuddhagdmini pratipat tathd sugatigamini / ddyd pratipad ukteyary sa ca niskevald mald // (12) viSuddhagdmini pratipad na sarvatyantagAmiii / madhyi pratipad ukteyary ndpi niskevala matd l/ (13) vi6uddhagdmini pratipat sarvatyantagamini / Srqthd pratipad ukteyarir sa naivadvayakevall // (14) Sikseta yo na Sikqetaubhau tau pa4{itau matau f sikqeta yo na sikqeta ubhau tau balau sarymatau ff (15) parigrahaparityagdd dautthulyapagamat tathd / pratyakqatvdc cajfreyasya sikrddinam tridhi bhavet // (16) sdlamband v(ydtambana) slkqmoddrikasar.n pravrttavinayo bhavet // pratijf.Asanga'sTreatiseon the Three Instructions of Buddhism 355 (8) nirkaukrtyo bhaved ddau paScdc ca sukhit o yatah f ddydsau sarvaSikqa{rir.rah tathd vivltapdp aka\ / lDhena vd pranitena (ciuarasarptu.n d1{hapar akramah / niqevati pramddarp ca paflcingasuprati.nary vivarj ayet // (22) antarayakardn dharma(n) ndbhigrdhyet karhary cana f cittakpobhakardn dharmdn urpannd(n) nadhivasayet /i (23) natilino ndtisltalr sadd supasthitasmitih / maulasamantakaiir Suddham brahmacaryar.

n vilayagdminab / pratydyeqv aSritalr kamdh pramadasya cabhnmaya\ /f (46) karanka-sadlSd:h kamdh malnsapesyupamdstatha / tr4olkisadr6ds caiva tatha agniSikhopamA\ l/ caiva tatha svapnopamil.n prakalpayet f tatheti kara4iyesu svayar.nsargamna kurydt klesavarddhanar.n (36) dpattir.n naiva Sokavydkgepakdraka\n / duhkhasya janakdn klesan utpannd(n) nddhivdsayet /l (34) Sraddhndeyatnna bhufljita kathar.n na par4myiet /[ (39) vyavakpqtavihari syit prdnte hi Sayanasane / ku5aldn bhavayed dharmdn d1{haviryaparakrama\ // (40) acchadrikaS chadrajito apradusto vidl$alah / nirmiddhaS caiva middhi ca kale Sinto na ca stfutah // 'tha ca kdnkqati (41) niskaukl'tyalr sakaukrtyo nihkdmkqvo / sarvatha sarvada yukto bhavet samyakprayogavdn// (42) nudano bodhanaS caiva tathd samyojanopatah f naimittika snehanaS ca tatha vilasanoparuh // (43) nispidanas ca paramah snehanah kalpa ucyate f kdmaragasya janakas tam budhah pativatjayet ff (44) atrptikarakdh kdmd bahusddhdralds tathd / adharmahetavaScaiva tatha trqna(m) vivarddhakd\ // (45) satdry (vi)varjaniyds ca ksiprar.n cic ca ksatavratah / pratyikhydnarn na kurvita saddharmasya kathatn cana/f' (35) paresary skhalite do$e andbhogasukhi bhavet / jffdtvd: vivlScaydt puna\ // dtmanah skhalitam doqar.356 Insight Buddhist (28) atmands ca gu+an bhutdn na ldpen ndpi liryayet / tdn gur:rin atha cdrthitvary nimitteria na datsayet /f (29) pares[m antikdt kramin na yacfrary ca ydcitauydry f dharmenopagatary labham ldbheneha na sar.n Srd.nd:r.dikar$/l (31) lokdyatdr.n (33) kurydn mitrakular.nstathd mantrdt nirarthan na paramlSet / apdrthary dhdrayen naiva utsadar.r punah / (47) aSiviqopamdS ydcflydlar.nkdrasadlSds tatha vskqaphalopamdh // .nsargar.n ca desanary f' 'vadyadar5i ca ndbhyacakpita satvatha Srdddho // (38) sugambhiresu dharmesu atarkavacare$u ca / paura4am igamaln tyakqvo svadrltir.ncayet // (30) labham naivdbhigldhyeta satkdratn ca kathar.n pdtracivara\n // (32) Brhasthaih sahasar.nkdri patur bhavet // (3i) buddhd.vakdndm ca anubhdvar.n cana f drqtiS ca nibhinivi6et samaropapavd.nI' kuryaj jfldnaviSodhanary // dryais tu sahasar.n ca tathapanno yatha dharmar.

nlY wife Hideko gavesomevaluable suggestions for thetrans- . with the implication that since personsare of widely different character and ability. it is practical to add commentarial remarks from the Tibetan version. namely. Besides. Brahmi Sahaqnpati went there where was the Bhagavat.g However.nSrtu yo nityar. T30 [no. and Insight are the three Instructions in short. (48) 3. chinese trans.sanga's Treatiseon the Three Instructions of Buddhism 357 evar.the Buddha presentedthe Instructions compactly as three kinds :)a (2) Exalted friend. Morality. i.n) saryksayifi // For the following translation of the gdthd. the sa4tyutta-Nikdya. whatever be the training and the points of instruction. there should be an appropriate teaching for the lazy person as well as for the enterprising one.A.Japairese trans. 462-82. went to one side. Mind Training. and having bowed with his head to the feet of the Bhagavat. what be the training ! (3) one should be equipped with the six members (of uroralation from the sino-Japanese versions of the text in the yogucarabhumi. 1579i. Rombo 6.n kdmdn paijnaya nabhigrdhyet katham carLa f saddharmar. Listen.n cintayed bhivayed api // {49) Sdnto ddrikadar6i prag yavan aikdntiko bhavet / prthi yo kle6adauqthulyam prahd4e carato bhavet // (50) mimatmakah sydn nimitte prayogaparamo bhavet / kurydc ca kamavairigyar. the extant Sanskrit portion was consulted for editing the verses. pp. 365-67..n rDpavairagyam eva ca ff (51) satyabhisamayam kurydt sarvavairagyam eva ca f dftte dharme ca nirvayat tatha upadhi(r. pp. Then. Asanga'sfurther commentarialremarks make it clear that he has in mind the Brahma sutras of the sarltyuktagama (in pali. since half of the sanskrit commentary is missing. pray tell how one embracesthe Instrnction ! (commentary advancesthe vieri' that in considerationof persons being fearful of too many rules and tending to raziness. 136-138). and remaining at one side Brahmd sahdrypati put a question to the Bhagavat by reciting a verse : (1) You have been perfected in the Instruction and have cleared all doubt.and will be cited in a few placesof the commentarial remarks.. Kokuyaku Daizokyd. you should know.I have selectedportions of Asanga's commentary to go with relevant versesor verse groups.

2. is the basis for both the Instruction of Mind Training and trnstruction of trnsight. rniddling. the bad destiny (durgati) and the good destiny (sugati) of the realm of desire. unmixed and mixed.4. He should ward off two destinies.358 Buddhist Insight lity). its pleasure by way of beatific dwelling of present life. The Instruction of Mental Training is fixation of mind (cittasthiti) of four kinds. have the pleasure of Dhydna. one is the Nirv64a-road. one should acquire two destinies. the Instruction of Mind Training. 5. middling one. to wit. views fearfully the major and minor sins. and the four kinds among the four should ah. respectively. Instruction of Morality. c) take on the nobie right view and leave off the ignoble wrong view. is the basis for the Instruction of Insight and that part of the Ins- . endowed with the pleasure of mind-fixation. should promote the truth of cessationby cessation of defllement whettrrerminor. He should generate the truth of path.) a) have what is the well-established basis. and the Nirvana destiny. One should cultivate th. (7) Two are based on two. and should have skill in truth. eliminate. Of the two.vayspurify knowledge. or great. has perfection of good behavior (dcdrasarytpannah). (5) He should be pure from the outset. the "upper" destiny of the realm of form and formless reaim. The Instruction of Insight is the purification of knorvledge by the four kinds for each of the four Noble Truths. The six menbers are: l. b) have joy in the pacification of wit. Instruction of Morality and Instruction of Mind Training. The second. has the perfection of lawful resort (gocarasarltpannalt). and promote truth. having warded off two destinies. he should (respectively) generate. and should acquire two destinies. (4) (Namely." there are the four destinies. 3. one$remains in possession of morality. namely the four kinds of Dhyina. rightly takes and learns the "points of instruction" (iiksapada).embecoming in sequencea basis. (6) When there are ti'le ttrree "points of instruction. the first one. should eliminate the truths of suffering and source of suffering. is restrainedby the Pratimoksa vow. 6.

Through adherence to the Instruction of Morality. This information can be added to Franklin Edgerton's Buddhist Hybrid sanskrit Dictionary. that one should be at first without regret. whereby knowleclge is for purification and one has pleasure in arousing purity-this is the middling one of all instructions. 5g0- .8-10.' for the abhinna. namely the path which is the pure way and not the final way-this is held to be not by itself. next happy-this is the first of all instructions. The Instruction of Mind Training especiallypromotes the root of virtue (kuiala-mula). anrl. the Tibetan translation of the two terins as . Hence. (10) Wherein the wise one trains. whereby one would liberate the mind and destroy verbal elaboration-this is the best one of all instructions.e. the Instruction of Insight. (12) The path said to be middling. exposition is presented in gatha without regret through the Instruction of Morality. namely. since thethree aie explained in terms of "peth" and in consideration of whetherthey are lrevala (by thenrelves).11-13. and be happy through the Instruction of Mind Training.'dren mo "guiding" for the sarybhinna. (11) The path said to be first. "respective. (9) Wherein the wise one trains. i. nameiy the impure way. In sequence. This path is pure of the defilements of the realm of desire. But it is not free from the defilementsof the realm of form and formslt appears that the "unmixed"exposition oi the threeInstructions is presented in thefollowing gatha .r.i. there is the rvay to good destiny. since thethreeare defined individually withoutreference to theothers. consistent in leading to the goal. p. there is the impure way rvhich is the way to bad destiny. it appears that the'omixed'. and mixed (sarpbhinna). One should cuitivate them unmixed (abhinna). Through failure of the Instruction of Morality. This refers to the Instruction of Insigirt. And either one is accomplishedby one instruction alone.e. is the road to NirvAna.Asanga'sTreatiseon the Three Instructions of Buddhism 359 truction of Morality as pertains to the "restraint of meditation. Likewise. consistent respectively.5 (8) Wherein the wise one trains. likewise the way to good destiny-this is held to be by itself (keuala)." The best one.

(16) They are accompaniedwith meditative object or devoid of meditative object. by solitude of body and mind. the other two do have. The knowable are the four Truths. The third Instruction is the nature of one. is the wise one. becauseit has not erased the tracps (anuiaya) of sensuous lust. i. are subtle or coarse. and the rvho does not train in a wayward manner. one who trains in a wayward manner. is not accomplished without the prior two (instructions) or by itself. The one The not one who trains rightly with the three Instructions. i. since by itself. the Instruction of trnsight. by the word of another and the bent (abhoga) of rightly orienting the mind within.trhulya) are the discordant elements lo samddhi. (17) one Instruction (the first) is a single one. and bent. etc. namely the path which is the pure way and the final way-this is not by itself. The one who trains and the one who doesn'ttrain. thus the Instruction of Morality is "coarse. It is not the flnal way. without the first and the best (instructions)." the other two "subtle.e. and are accomplished by rightly taking. The wise person should surmount those. wife. (13) The path said to be does not fulfil. and the one who does train rightly. contamination s (dau. The Instruction with a second one is the subsequentone.e. solitude. is the fool." The Instruction of Morality is accomplished by rightly taking. c) and direct perception of the knowable. . Possessions are home. The way freeing from all defilements of the three worlds and finishing off the traces. both those are held to be wise (pa4{ita). (15) The taking of the Instruction is threefold by way of a) renouncing possessions.both those are held to be fools (bate. (1a) The one who trains and the one who doesn't train. The trnstruction of Morality does not have a defined meditative object.360 Buddhist Insight less realm. the Instruction of Mental Training.b) elirninating contaminations. word. not without the two. The versepoints to the three Instructions in their order.

Having eliminated the two extremes. he should be possessed of the vow. (18) His morality should not fall away from the Instruction. and should also purify his life. But.rity."Asanga's Treatiseon the Three Instructions of Buddhism 361 The Instruction of Morality is single.he should reject the (wrong) aspiration.constitutes merely the pure Instruction of Morality. (19) when he regrets that he cannot again sin.iateit. The two extremesare indulgencein sensedesiresand ascetic auste. should be involved with the discipline (uinaya). not lose it even for life's sake. (22) one should not at all hanker after natures that create obstacles. should always be stationed in the endeavor. he is neither overreiaxed nor overly spirited (in mind).take the "points of instruction. He should view fearfully the major and minor sins.the Instruction of Mental Training needs a second one. and he should avoid flve places. (21) one should purify his former vow. he should not condemn good behavior. for this . His pure conduct (bral'rmacarya) is purified by the main part and threshold (of . and rightly . He should reject the (wrong) aspiration for heaven. the rnstruction of Morality. (23) with mindfulness always present. The Instruction of Insight shourd not lack those two. he should rise with no regret. The vow is the prdtimokqa. Not condemning good behavior. staying in it .. one should rely on the Instruction and practice therein sincerely.oniinuously. The Instruction is that of Morality. butcher shop. house of outcast. liquor shop. firmness of morality." (20) one should not repud. . one should not acquiesce in natures that have already arisen that disturb the mind. These in order are the four o'roots" : permanenceof morality.a)and the Arhat have surmounted those three Instructions. prostitute quarters. to wit.the four Dhydnas). no interruption of it. the royal palace. he does not lose good behavior. The one "beyond training" (aiaik. The monk adheres to proper resort by avoiding five places.

sins. etc.2. When what was received came righteously (with dharma). (26) He should abide the amount. future. One should not cling to views that over-emphasize or under-value. (25) He should be reserved about his virtues and confess should not reveal those merits by signs in terms of desired objects. as thoughavaiatpsiyat.T One should not uselessly bear the begging bowl and religious garb in excess. or induce' someoneto say it.s. The fi. (27) He should be possessed of dignified posture. 4. Staying close to heedfulness shows distinguished purification of the Instructions. (28) One should not say one's own merits are real. both Tibetanand in the agree on the members of heedfulness are of 1. he should in no case ever assume artiflcial postures. Rightly adopting the virtues of a purified man. (31) One should not adhere to the meaningless mantras of the Lokiyatas. . action (with from previous (striving). whether inferior or fine. (29) One should not ask for alms forcefully in the presence of others. and should be judicious in acquisition.G (30) One should not hanker in any way for receiving things. one should not speak badly of what was received. practice in conformity striving).362 Insight Buddhist Q$ He should begin his striving and always have a steadfast forward step by staying close to heedfulnessthat is well based in five members.ti). 3. such treatises (grasping aggregates). be satisfied with his religious garb. 5. referred to in the gatha as "meaninglessmantrA. even small. On that account. ?Asariga in the ancient docsnot employthe nameLokdyata sense of the but ratherin his commentary school. Besides. Striving means the kind that is armored and does not retreat from the praxis. or for respect. hereas a term of disrespect materialist that are bad (kuiastra)with bad views for authorsof worldly treatises (kudr.While this readingis definitely Sino-Japanese it shouldbe understood manuscript. past. present-time. 6Asto "should speak badly"for the reading satncayet." To adhere to preventsthe disciplefrom getting rid ofthe five upddanaskandha. he should eliminate defllements for the purpose of calming. even inferior. and abide it.

of Buddhism Asanga's Treatise on the ThreeInstructions 363 One should not wear the religious garb and begging bowl in excessso as to receive material things and respect. he is not oppressed by secondary defllements such as "fading" (laya) and "scattering" (auddhatya) (of the meditative object). (32) One should not associate with householders. he should contemplate virtuous natures. one should apply the appropriate Dharma (right act). with steadfast forward step of striving. (34) One who has lost his vow should not utilize in any case what is to be gained by faith. 28. One should not tolerate the defilements that have already arisen that generate suffering.para. have longBThe phrase "not in the range of logic" is a frequent one in Buddhist scriptures. (39) Should he be dwelling in solitude. he has solitude of body and mind.s (The gatha-s 18-38 present various aspectsfor purifying the Instruction of Morality). (33) One should not make residence rvith friends who cause grief and distraction. who promote defilement. This is a special means of the Instruction of Mind Training. discarding the old lineage (paurdltam dgamam) regarding the profound doctrines (dhsrma) which are not in the range of iogic. starting with the Brahmajala-sutta. he should reflect upon his own stumbling fault and in turn confess it. having been without longing. one should never blame by noticing faults. One should associatewith the nobles. One should not repudiate in any case the illustrious Dharma. (35) Should one have thoughtless pleasure in a stumbling fault of others. (36) According as an offence has occurred. (37) With faith in the power and teaching of the Buddhas and their disciples (irduakas). So as to fulfill the praxis. . Contemplating only virtuous natures. The wise person should involve himself in duty for the matter concerned. (40-41) Should he. using a resting cot in the outskirts. who purify knowledge. (38) One should not adhere to one's own view. a resting cot concordant with his samadhi.

4. a generality for the process of addictionmay also have been intended. . 2. be blaming. not abiding with calm. 3. the generator of sensuouslust (kdmaraga). 2. sensual climax (porama-snehana) is what is at the time of sexual discharge (paramosnehanahf J)o dsrauiuipramok. sensuouslust. eWhile this sequence ofeightisexplicitlystatedintermsofsexual attraction and union. 8.-he should get yoked in every way at all times. (42-43) "stirring" and "awakening". been without regret. grasping sign-sources (naimittika) apprehendsvarious pleasant signs in precisely that object (naimittikas tasminn eua uastuni uicitrqiublrunimittagrdhakah).rpidana)is rvhat is at the tirne when two unite the two sexual organs (ni. passion (snehana) is the clinging to this object when it is obtained (snehanaltprapteh tasmin aastuni adhyauasanasorylprayuktalt). 6. at this time sleepy.andndntukhapraurttak). possessed of the right praxis. given to multiple pleasures (uilasana) is the engagement from various sides in multiple sensuous enjoyment in that object (uilasanai ca tasminn eua uastuni uicitraparibhogdbhild. also given to multiple pleasures. There are eight kinds of such imagination : 1. This means he must purify his mind from the five hindrances : 1. now regretting. and 5.7. This a wise man should thoroughly eliminate. doubt.rpidanal1 yo duayaduuyendriyasamdpatt ikale)."and sensual climax-are called "irnagination" (kalpa). now lusts.akale)s. being 'opressed. likewise being fettered. "stirrin g" (nudana) is any imagination that instigatesthe mind along with an improper mental orientation in a sensual object Qtudanouikalpah yo rafijaniye uastuni / ayoniio manaskdra sanxprayuktai ca cittasya prerakalr). being fettered (satTtyojana) is the seeking for precisely that object (samyojanas tasyaiu(t uastunaitparyeSakal). been without lusts. ill-will. "awakening" (bodhana) is the being attended with awakening enrvrapment oi lust toward precisely that object (bodhanalryat tasminn eua uqstuni prabuddhardgaparyauasthdnasaryxprayuktait). 4. mental wandering and regret. being pressed (ni.364 Buddhist Insight ing arise. torpor and sleepiness. having not blamed. 5. grasping sign-sourcesand passion. been not sleepy. 3. This right praxisistheright Instruction of Mental Training.

because they do not satisfy. They are like a borrowed ornament.Wayman. but left in place. Having recognized desiresin this way. whoever is engagedin eliminating the contamination of defilement ! Should he analyze the sign-source. whoever would ponder it and cultivate it ! First one should be calm and farsighted.rtd). because they are frequent and common and occasion wrong conduct. now Tson-kha-pa's in theSravalcabhumi. The verses48B to 51 shorvthe pure Instruction of Insight in terms "reaof the seven mental orientations. like a torch of hay. Desires are based on conditions (pratydya). because they are the stagesof heedlessness. and have many cohorts. like a poisonous snake.inA. (Commentary indicates that one sees the trouble of desires and avoids them by the eight identifications of the verses 44-45).Asanga's Treatise on theThreeInstructions of Buddhism 365 (44-45) Desires are not satisfied. because while promoting craving. University Press. like a poisonous snake. and are the stagesof heedlessness. like a dream. like a peaked fire. Like bones. translator. likewise cause bad conduct (adharma) and promote craving (tf. like a peaked fire. they dry one up. like a borrowed ornament. New . is shown 10See discussion of thesesevenmental orientations. like a piece of meat. one should not hanker' after them at all. and continue on up to single certitude. would attain Nirv6{ra in the present life. (46-48A) Desires are like bones. lizatiot of the characteristics" (laksaua-pratisarytuedt). the fruit of tree. like a torch of hay. Rejoice.They should be avoided by illustrious persons and quickly brought to destruction. They are like a dream. because they are based on conditions. He would bring about the clear realization of truth and the dispassion toward everything. they burn one up. because they are to be avoided by illustrious persons. because they quickly perish. the first o11e. and would erase the (remaining) basis. They are like. (48B-51) Listen to the illustrious Dharma. pp. like a piece of meat. exposition based on Asanga's Calming the Mind and Discerning the Real (Columbia York. 165-169. like the fruit of tree. He would eliminate desire of the desire-realmand eliminate desireof the form-realm.l0 Of these. he would become uppermost in the praxis. 1979). becauseif not hurled away.

"fruit of the final stage of application. is shown by "would become uppermost in the praxis. and the supramundane fruit. is shown by "should he analyze the sign-source.ra with remainder.366 Buddhist Insight by listening to and pondering the illustrious Dharma. This seventh mental orientation (manaskdra)." is the mundane fruit. Nirvdqa without remainder." The seventh." The fourth. The second. is shown by the expressions"calm" and "far-sighted. would bring about the clear realization of truth and the dispassiontoward everything. "final stage of application" (prayoganis(ha). Nirvdr. namely. . The third." The fifth. "fruit of the final stage of application" (prayoganislhaphala).'oattraction of rapture" (ratisarygrahaka) is shown by "continue on up to single certitude. n'made of conviction" (ddhimokSika)." The sixth. "orientation with comprehension" (mimar.nsa-manaskdra). is sh'own by cultivating this Dharma. "seclusion" (prduiuekya).is shown by "He would eliminate desire of the desirerealm and eliminate desire of the form-realm.


intriguing maxim.absolute truth. such as "conventional truth" and . and turned the citation to my own purpose with the implication. It should be acknowledgeclthat the findings of this article differ rather strikingry from the generarity of tie surveys of Indian philosophy and religion. althongriot in terrnsof truth and silence.iii.. becausetruth is superior to silence. rn this study I shall attempt to clarify the two traditions called 'otruth" and .. it turns out that there are trvo Upanisadic traditions.silence. Also.. the celebratedIndian raw book had something else in mind with this.Now is the time to speakout. and to show that they borrow from each other but maintain sufficientcontrast to allow the later philosophical schools to treat them as though distinct.1 However... . 3-4(1972):r92.. the juxtaposition of materials from diverse traditions of rndia requires u .'.nos.Jevoted first to the silence and then to the truth which the Laws of Monu takes to be superior.As a conseqllenceof these main findings. .." in Indo-Iranian Journal14. admittedly. take their l"observationson Transration from the crassicar Tibetan Language into European Languages. To justify that these traditions of trutrr and silence can be treated in contrast.and that some later philosophical formulations..yate ("Truth is super:ior to silence.t9 TWO TRADITIONS OF I}. tr have prepared individual sections .Jorgu' izationfrom the original order of discovery for communi cation purposes.{DIA_ TRUTH AND SILENICE Elsewhere I cited the Laws of Manu : maundt satyarn t.

State of beinga muni" translates . for only after finding the self by the pure practice.370 BuddhistInsight inceptions in the old Upaniqads. this beilg in the group our word "mantic" (giftedwith prophetic of wordsincluding"mania." and he adopted for his order (the Sangha) the soiled yellow hue of dress that was alluded to in the Vedic hyrnn. which is the northern Buddhist expansion of the Dhammapada. 5. I athayan maunam hy evd 'tmdnam anuvidYamanute /. 136: "The munis. but asolutioncannctbe found the word muni with the verb n? deem. affiliated of this vowel a justification it requires for alone.27): being a munia derived from himseli understands in this place to ManfredMayrhofer(Kurzgefasstes zTheSanskrit word muni. with the state of chapter (xxYI. It has been ntaentis. in the course of its progressive expianation of breltmqcarya (the pure practice of the 'oNow. This shows a sensein lvhich later Indian philosophy developsfrom the early religion and mythology.. VIU. They. follorving the rvind's swift coufse.The Indiangrammarians "to think." The word muni is important in Buddhism. wear garments soiled of yellow irue. accatding Heidelberg:Carl Winter. used in the &gaeda hymo X.and this cannot be doubted. The tlddnauarga. Unides Altindischen Worterbuch etymologisches pp." the verb meaning moi.t-." from the weak gradeof the Indo-Germanic in many Dictionarysaysis represented whichthe OxfordEnglish root mert. The Buddha is called "gtaatmLtni. volume 1963.has an important muni verse in its lt{irudrya "According as the Muni.ate z. emotions. the higher self. mauneya A. go rvhere the gods have gone before. etc. Tnr Mtnu TnaotrioN For "silence" the word used was mauna (PAli. girdled with the wind.z The Chdndogya {lpanisad. 2. says: is really the pure practicc (brahmacarya). what they call 'silent asceticisrn'(tnauna) student). wordsreferringto mentalstates. followingFranklin Edgerton. or contemplation of."3 This passageapparently explains mqunt (ascetic silence) as a thinking about. does one think about it. be this would In Sanskrit etc. versitdts-verlag. where the founder has the title Sakyamuni (muni of the Sakya clan). the Greek to is related it is not settled-that arguecl-butthe matter powers). o'mllte"through Greek words. mona). is cognatewith our word 654-655) 2. context Indian the within languages' in the early Indo-European change evatat / brahmacaryena brahmacaryam ity [caks. related to the word muni (one rvho has the vow of silence).

"0 Also. and mind. sFraru Bernhard. those of speech. having come to iully understand by myself. having reached omniscience. the Uddnauargahas these verses iir its Tathagata chapter (XXI. The one cailed magical abiiity (yddhi) purifies the acts of body. ed.1953). from all suffering. (Pali : tiyti moneyydni) : muted body.the memory of former lives and the vision of the passing away and rebirth.Aryadeva statesin his Catul#ataka. have comprehended enlightenment as a revealer by myseli. teacher of gods and men. then to ward off the self. am forever unstained by the dharmas. of the Dighanikdya. III) allows me to use the word "muted" in the sense "rendered mute.vith the powers. who can teach me ! I am the Tathagata. 359. the divine hearing and knowing the makeup of others' mind. then is he freed from form and formless. ol-ouis de La Vall6e Poussin. am free from all fear. Udanavarga. those of rnind. in NirvdTa). 54 chaften in Gottingen Philologisch-Historische (Grittingen.p. he is the sage(buddhimat). speech. and mind. stems from the muni tradition. am endowed i. 1-4)-the words attributed to the Bilddha intmediately r. Conn. speech. Abhandlungen der Akademie der WissensKlasse. as cited in the Prasannapadd: "He who knows how to ward off at first sin. incomparable and unequalled. rvho can teach me ! Buddhist Hybrid ^\anskrit Grainmar and Dictiorcry (New Haven. 1965). have eliminated everything. have overcome all.rpon his enlightenment (my transIation) : I knorv all. As to how a muni describeshimself..muted mind. p." Elsewhere I cited Vasubandhu's commentary on the Daiabhumikasutra on how to classify the five supornormal faculties (abhijfrfl by their respective purification of the acts of body. it appears that the ubiquitous Buddhist terminology of body. ?See Chapter 7. 441."s Along the same lines.e.T Therefore. Third Series.: Yale University Press. this is the theory of supernormal faculties consistent with the muni tradition. but not using the words muni or muted speech. . Milla-Madhyamaka-vrtti-prasannapatld. silent.l. muffied" in this entry among the threefold items : "There are three states of being a muni. and firrally to ward off everything..Two Traditions of India-Truth and Silence 371 (i. The Recital Sermon (sangtti Suttanta.

Ayuqmat Gautama.' he answered. to what sect do. Woodville Rockhill."'e This practically adrnitsthat the only person r. 209-210."'S Sir Jotrn Woodroffe cites the Hindu tradition about the word 'The Veda muni to the same effect : "As the Mahdbharuta says. your senses(appear) composed. I am fully awakened. none can be my instructor (acarya).312 Buddhist Insight I am the Arhat in the worlds . W. differ. and in the worlds with their gods I ani the Victor (jina). I am incomparable in the worlds.' So Bhagavat started for Vardfasi. you belong ? In what doctrine do you find pleasure ?' Then 'I he answered.' 'The Jinas are all like me. you say that you are the one). humbly begged of him to teach the dharma. 'Where Jina ?' are you going. He says : I translate the following lines to show how very nearly the Commentator follows the received Pali version of the events. and so do the Smriti. No one is a muni who has no independent opinion of his own (nasau munir yasya nmta. who is your master (upddhyAya)? Ayusmat. 1952). complete enlightenment. a muni. Brahmd the lord of the universe.p na bltinnem). have attained the ultimate. your complexion is clear. 'Ayusmat Gautama. an Ajivaka saw Bhagavat. and said to him. The lvord muni is uncterstoodas "the capable one" in Tibetan sUdanavarga : A Collection of Verses from the Buddhist Canon (London. and on his w&y. or must have beerr..cites the commentary preserved in the Tibetan Tanjur. . 'I Then he thought. As there is no one like me. "When he (Bhagavat) had obtained perfect enlightenment.vhocould start a new religious movement in India must be. p. 30. Ayusmat ?' 'I am going to Vard4asi. am the Jina who has conquered Mdra (the evil 'Then. 'To whom shall I first teach the law ?' Rudraka had died seven days before that moment. 1892). pp. Alara Kaldma had also passed away. will teach the five.the' ionqueror of the Maras. in the appendix to his translation from Tibetan of the Uddnauarga. that occurred shortly after Gautama had become a Buddha. your garments clean. alone in this world. Then the great Muni thought. slntroduction to Tantra Shastra (Madras : Ganesh & Co.

p. "The l." and for this reason the place is called gsipatana (the falling of the Rlis). the Buddhist Tantra had heroes called {aka or khecarin (sky-walkers).Two Traditions of India-Truth andSilence 373 translation.dkarapa. and vow. The Bhagavat. "Buddhism." pp. pledge. . and the ashesfell to the earth. in this unique self-existenceof sky having loAlex Wayman. 397. "The munis arepratyekabuddhas. r. there lived on that hill flve trundred Pratyekabuddhas. J. rrrasheard by me on a certain time extraordinary."to This explanation is consistent with tho account about the Sanskrit name Rsipatana (Pali. as mentioned in the vedic hymn. Isipatana). they are the capable ones (muni1.Buddhaguhya's p:rssage is from his commentary on the Sarvadurgatipariiodhana-talxtra in the Tibetan Tanjur. Brill. 2.{qis have fallen.wirh the supreme pledge of the triple uajra. 1971).ri. Hence. the Reality. vol.thereare the silent persons called munis.pratyekabuddha and a Sanskrit passageI have edited from the Pradipoddyotana manuscript : Thus.72 That the association of the munis lvith the sky or spacervasnot forgotten in later times is apparent in the SaiTtditiul.vas contained by otirer names. By their magical power they soared up to the sky and equipoised themselves in the element of fire (teiodhatu).' becausethey have their own religious practice. It was said. and are capable by themselveswhile lacking a master. The fire that issued from their own bodies burned their material bodies. and who are also callecl Bqis or seers. diamond lord of mysteries. 11Wayman. Was dwelling as the l\{ahamuni (great silent one) in the pure heart of the worlcl. in considerationof this silence. another name of the Deer Park where the Buddha gave his first sermons :11 Formerly when the time approached for the Buddha Kdsyapa to appear in the world. They learned from a message given by the devas that the Buddha was to rnanifest himself.Also." Historia Religionunt(Leiden: E. According to Buddhaguhya. rzrhis flight of the asceticis shown in later rndian art by beings called vidyadhara(holders of the mystic science)."Buddhism. who are called pratyekabuddhas since they are enlightened by thernselveswithout depending on another teacher. afl explanatory tantra of the Guhyasamdjatantra.The association of the munis rvith flying. 397-399.

Dandekar has well described.. seeespeciallyp. then upon his enlightenment. A$avakra Satnhita." This is often misconstrued as having doctrinal implications. In fact.374 BuddhistInsight the modes of omniscient knowledge. XVII. the Aslduakra Saryhitd. the great Advaita Veclantin. which afforded and stiil affords individuais an opportunity to leave society for seeking divine knowledge in solitude. 1969)."ts All th. trans. reCf. ll4.nj fl ini // aydtlte asthdnasthit sadasaCubh ikdSaikasvabhave'sminsarvajfiajfldnabhdvini / jagaddhrdi viSuddhnkhye vrjahira mahdmunih ll 1a"Hinduism. 2. A certain Buddhist sect had a tenet "The Buddha never said a word. the Hindu oppora / evar.ever'enjoysbeing alone (ekakt1.n tattvam ekasminsamayesphule/ trivajrasamayottama(D bhagavdnguhyavajreSas II sarvatathdgatejfldne acintyaguqasampadi/ isar.r4although this Saivitic incorporation apparently takes place after the advent of Buddhism. l5Swami Nityaswarupananda. when he hesitated to teach. with a selectivesilence. who."13 While the foregoing has been mainly basedon Buddhist which Aqtavakra says(chap. Les sectes du Petit Vdhicule(Saigon: Ecole bouddhtques . There are severalforms oi the Buddha's silence. His followers use. contented andwithpurified sensgs." in Historia Religionumvol. Bareau. 1): "Hehas gained the fruit of knowledge as well as the practice of loga."16 Of course. it should be observed that the ruuni tradition is part of the great ascetic non-\redic tradition tirat becameincorporated into l{induism with worship of the god Siva. (Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama. 247. he sometimes refused to answer certain questions dealing with ultimates. called "place of no location. It is well known that Sar:rkara. as R. was a follower of Siva and insisted that knowledge (jfiAna) is the main thing for liberation (mokga).3d ed. non-existence and both.n mayi Srutar.nkara-that he was a "Buddhist in disguise. p. N." in the all-Tathagata gnosis having the inconceivable perfection of merits. Later. First there was his ascetic silence. among other gives a new complexion to the Hindu opponent's challenge to Sar. beyond existence. the criticism was a rejection of Sarykara's monastic retreat system. A. deeming his doctrine too profound for people at largc.. this was the first withhoiding type of siience.

rz Also the buddhas were said to help chosen disciples of a progressed nature with adhiglhana (blessing. and so ri. and another body.thinking they havepronounced jov. such as the Nirmaqakaya of the Buddha.The Englishtranslationby G. 1968). 60. Satya is the truth of men and gods. and a new deity by Vilnu. but beings. Varu4a's supremacy faded. but that this does not furnish validity for the Buddha's teachings.hat proof is there that the teaciring itself reflectsthe omniscience of the silence ? Presumably it was through such attacks that Buddhism was forced into its multiple-body theory. chap. since he would have to renounce the ascetic silence in order to teach.vhichhave respectively a subjective and objective referenco. amongthe thecries of the Maha1955). presumably becausetheir lies constituted a violation of the world order. in the of Santaraktitarvith the Pafiiikd commentary of KamalaTattvasarytgraha the senses" the entity that transcencls Sila. in Mahdydna Buddhism.a). and in time the supreme spirit was generally p. the Buddha came to have a role tantarnount to the solar deity.The text has beenreedited by Dwarikadas Shastri in two volumes (Varanasi:BauddhaBharati. For satya arrd rta. Francaise d'Extrdme-Orient. because sanghikas: wotds. 3l. the-universal order. "Examination observing (atindriyarthadarii-partk. 17Thismatter is set forth at length. r. a kind of silent power. leap frorn contemplation. In time. empcwerment.Two Traditions of India-Truth and Silence 375 nents of Buddhismwould notlosethe opportunity to argue cogently that it is a fine thing to know through asc'3ticsilence. doing the teaching. or spiritual support). The named Indra camo to the foie. and it was believed that liars incurred his punishment in tfueform of dropsy. to be succoeded latter two deitieswere not especially asscciated with preserving the rvorld order. with the Dharmakaya remaining silent and omniscient. to me at present.which is the last chapter.of courservith Buddhistdeflense. trt is well recognizedthat in the ancient Vedic tradition the deity Varula was in charge of the rta. Jha is not available . Thus. they rernain eternally in The Buddhasneversay a word. Tsp Tnurn TnlntrtoN o'truth" the ancient Indians generally employed two words. and rta is the truth of the universe-that the sun will rise and set and that seasonal characteristics wiii recur.

after being said. let a brcThma4ta. and so.Instead. S*ppressions of the breath are the best austerity. Truth is superior to silence." the acljectivc to wit.. it is easy to seethe struclsRgvedaMa4(ala VII (Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavair. by the word. thought.II. indicates that what is true is not in vain.u. bound to happen. That is. who is as he is. The wholc verseof the Manustnrti (Laws of Manu.376 Buddhist Insight .r{ala seveir of the $g-ueda.l silence). the state of a brdhmana. live as a child.le we shall observe that this meaning continues into the chanclogya (i:elorv)... 19d3).trlle. the expressionmr. After being satiated with childhood o. lct h. .dvdda was used. After being satiated rvith non-silcnce(cmatma)as well as i. With all these changes of terrninology for divinity. like the word satya." My commcntarial edition does not help rnuch. It observes that "truth" is verbal. r) provi. shtya continued unabated. g3) rllns: "The mcnosyllable (i. . Kahola Kausitakeya held his poace Qqararatna).. that is. .rad(rrr. he is just the same in that manner.let him be a brijltmana. D. veiankar of the university of Bornbay who explained the word in the introduction to his retranslation of Mar. it means a fact that is productive.iv-x. om) is the highest Brahman. relt is of interest that a different way of expressing .Truth is superior to silence" : "Therefore. the prestige of "truth. by the sanskrit word a-vitatha 'onot untrue" (that is. or done by someone. after being satiateclwith learning. . 5. is claimed to be superior to the state of a muni.called Bratrman..e." "In what manner (kena) is that brdltriia4ia?" "rn rvhatevermanner he be. has a secondarymeaning "not vain or futile". for lying. I follow the late H. Accordingly. one should reject the frequent transiation be a nitmi (one vowecl t. satya meant the "genuine." rvhat is simply a the Laws of Manu rneant by saying. every thing else is afflicted.a prohibition of the ancient five Buddhist layman vows. But nothing surpasses the Savitri.Jes the first answer to wh.ith silence(maiina). The Brhaddrspyaka [Jpani..f satyakdmdit in this upanisad as "real desires.. However. the adjective. rn contrast.' Thereupca." as though the word. For the rneaning of satyd.l8 This satyti is the undeniable. but this is the obvious part. rather than a negation of the word satya.ll as with learning. "not contrary to the fact").

. then let this or that happen.ho rvould be inspirecl by or would command the deity. At the same time.inary mankind. 2rSee Chapter20. one dces not speak-and tiiis is the best aasterity.rlative performance of the person's duty (dharrna). 3 (June 1972): 252-268." It is precededby the mantraom in the later editions.l0) is translated approximately as follows: "we meditate on or may we attain. the verse shows the pre_ ference for the Brahmans rvho recite the Gdyatri over the munis and other asceticswho engage in sucrr austerities as suppressing the breath.. when the breath is suppres$e. if such-andsuch be true. This truth act is well known fro:n the Hindu epic Rdmdyana and. is. I-{islatest articleon the subject is. namely-as we have observed-the undeniable that is not in vain. The tradition of . anr:ther name of the Gayatri.up.from Buddhist sources.'Two Traditions of India-Truth andSilence 377 ture of the verse. . of the god savita. and so this is a verbal truth that is superior to silence.such-and. And so truth is s. would rise to a status beyond ord.truth.rfr. according to w' Norman Brown's herpful explanation. this person must in addition command the aid." in Proceedings philosophicat of theAmerican sicrety ll6.Duty as Truth in Aqcie't lndia. "truth" is follov.this or that" is what the gods are commanded to bring about as a miraculous interve'tion.zedby trrose *. o't of their own resources. And certainlv 20"The Basisfor the Hindu Act of Truth. the . that a person deservesto be aided by the gods is not sufficient. but it rvas also necessaryfor the person to verbalize this fact.the great glory. The Giyatri (!?g-uecra. that he may inspire or who inspires...perior to silence. The tradition of "silsnca" is followed by thosc who..2lIn short. and this mantra is designatedas '.62." in Review of Religion (Nov. iro. our thoughts or works. and . especiallythe solar deity.2' In tire following essay ipoint out that it lvas not suficient for the pcrson to have been extraordinary in fuifilling iris duty.-such. It has a traditional forrn: the performer announces.J.. Tiie prececiingmakes one issue quite clear. 1940): 36-45.Ianurvoulcl equalry appry to what is often cailed the "Act of Truth. . the cerebrated mantra recited by the Brahmans at tireir morning and eveningdevotion_ als. Bui superior to this is the savitri.'. That remark in the Lows of A.

meaning the persons. Incleed. like the Buddha. to be enlightened just prior to dawn. it is also to be fully known. the path is to be cultivated or contemplated. even though early Buddhism opposed the old Veclic ritual. I-4) and the brief isa {Ipanisad (15-18)." This amounts to what is often called the lcarma' kdryda (section of rites). and this kind was observed above as intended in the magical function of truth. for example. the Tathigata who becameenlightenedwithout reliance on another teacher. what he talked about was satya. the cessation of the origin is to be directly experienced. however. That it was already used in the more philosophical sense of truths that are understood or realized. who hearkened to his doctrine and became disciples in contrast to ordinary people (the prthogjana) who do not hearken.its origin is to be eliminated. This frequently cited verse about truth is the flrst of four verses that appear both in the Brhaddranyaka (Y. are the "undeniables"-that there is suffering. . And sort of analogous to the Vedic and Upanipdic usage of the word. The Marusmfii definitely insists that the Brahmans who appeal to the sun deiiy at dawn are superior to the silent ascetics who try. as though by magic. The satyas. "truth"' means the verbal kind. One comolication comes. and so command divergent allegiance. Then he moved to the other side as the Teacher who inspires the disciples. that "truth" (satya) was employed in the old upaniqads solely with this verbal sensewhen. illustrated in the "Act of Truth. as a legalistic text. there is more to it. it was ctrear enough in the celebrated Pfllan vefse. this is the tsuddhist senseof the Four Noblo Truths. The Buddha mentioned four kinds oi satya of the dryas.378 Buddhist Insight these routes are distinct and in vivid contrast. Sufferingis not only undeniable. So the Buddha in the first sermon (Setting into Motion the Wheel of the Law) made explicit this somethingmofe. 15. This is not to insist. tsut when the Buddha did decide to teach and gave his first sermon. which are the announced truths of Buddhism establishing the norms of conduct. and there is the path leading to the cessation. there is the cessation of the origin. and are sometimes inexpressible (aniruacaniya). likervise. there is the origin of suffering. in the development of' Buddhism. In the case of the Lqws of Manu. as was already exposed. lvhere the Buddha began on the muni side.

and "truth as duty. literature. so that I who have trutir as my duty (satyadharma) may see it !" This verse foreshadows. 577. for example. of absolute and con. and Path are conventional truth.pp. 36-37: / sbyorba phuntshogs la sfiinrje chenpo danldan pa'i ganzaggi thogmar ran flid bdenbZi'i gnas lugsmnon sum du rtogspa mthar thug pa la mnon par sbyorba'i brtson 'grusmdzadrigs te byun 'brasbu'i / thabsrgyu'i bdenpa gflis dafl thabs pa gfiis gyur pa'amsion du gyur kyanblo mi gsalba'i lhagma bden lkog tu pa /. "Buddhism. in Dharmakirti's Pramdnaudrttika (II.. expands this verse in his brief work "Guidance on the path of ga) :25 authority" (p r amdpa-mdr As to the perfection of application:-the person possessed of great compassion at first himself comprehends directly the ultimate condition of the four truths. Radhakrishnan mentions. Thus the Mddhyamika commentator Candrakirti in chapter 5 of his Madhyamakduatdra explains why the truths of Suffering. The later formulation of view distinction is found. the distinction between direct (parok. on the one a dying person.zentional truth (p ararndrt ha andsarytu (praview and on the other hand. ooEvento-day they are used by the Hindus in their funeral rites. S.ra) and the out-of-sight In Buddhist both approaches are explainable in terms of the Four Noble Truths.Two Traditions of India-Truth and Silence 379 and which constitute the prayer to the sun god."22 The first verse can be translated: "The face of truth is covered by a golden bowl. CNew z3Wayman. to explain thern is difilcult. Rgyal-tshab-rje.n ll 26Tshad ma'i lamkhrid(Varanasi reprint)."2a The eminent Tibetan commentator of Buddhist logic..a). lus na gtan la phyinci ma log par 'chadmi nus Zes . zaI daydvdnduhkhahdndrtham updyegv abhiyujyate / parok. When the goal (: cessationof suffering) and its cause (: the means) are out of sight." conventional practice of a distinguished type. Unveil it. 423-424.1953). and in conclusion properly strives in the York : Harperand Bros.z3 In the case of the Upanisadic verse. the "face of truth" would representabsolute truth. while the Truth of Cessation is supreme truth. O PDsan." pp. tyak.opeyataddhetos taddkhyanary hi duskarar. the later terminology r t i saty a) . Source. 132): "The compassionate one applies himself in the rneans so as to destroy suffering. Principal Upani. But when the two truths of the causal means and the two truths of the fruitional goal 22The p.

rvhile the tr. and all sects have their silence. as has been done with truth and silence. His followers never depart frorn this. eventually-although centuries later-naking much of trvo truths.tdct. the karrnakdt. And again. there is no capacity to explain them completely utio in errorless manner to others. and o'silence"as the attainment of tlre r. Holvever. Tsp Two TR. it should have already become apparent that the two traditions called "truth" and "silence" are roughly equivalent to the vedanta classification. place the Brahmanical lineage-faithful to the four stagesof life-in tlie . thus to attribute a limitation of action or view to an adversary.vo of the fruitional goal must be the cessationof suffering and the path leading to the cessation.380 Buddhist Insight are out of sight or are not eariier clear to the intellect.reness.. the two truths of the causal means must be the truths of suffering and source of is tempting to list various sectsunder one or another column. the Brahmanical linea-ee has its emphatic visionary side. This runs into the immediate difficulty that the Buddha. . it may be principally the opponents who classify one or another school under a particuiar heading. rvho is calied "great silent one" Qnahdmuni)and "gteat ascetic'. Expounding the Sar. one can. the karma-kdnqla and the jiidnakrlt. the jfianakaada (those which declare the nature of ultimate . Indeecl. we see that only when a person first has truth as duty can he subsequentlycommand the exposure of the face of truth.s. r.nkaraposition. Here.trJa(those dealing r. conventional and absolute.'column.truth'.vith the injunctions relating to the performance of duties and actions).announces the four tirya truths and is held to be the teacher of gods and men.qorrroNsoF TRurs aNo SneNce In setting forth two traditions of India. lvere intended for inferior types of aspirants. and the asceticgroups (muni or sramana) in the . where "truth" in its sense of the magical verbal truth anrounts to the karma-kdn{a..r'ithdrawnascetic amounts to the jiidna-kdatda.blumn.Interpreting the PDsan verse along the same lines. Surendranath Dasgupta says: The teachings of the other parts of the vedas. for exarnple.vhereas the teachings of the upanisad.(mahdsramarya). even r'vhen merely exclusi.silenca.

ru But the Laws of Manu takes the opposite point of view. while my main purpose has been to expose two traditions in 26Histor! of hdian philosophy 5 vols.2? Natu rully. there is a competition as to what properly constitutes the verbal truth (: korma-kaqt(a) as well as to the content of silence (: jfidna-kdat(a). rather it i'sists that the dha. l:436. it is comprehensible that these Indian systemsrvould not and do not treat themselves in the manner that the opponentsdo. It has been called to my attention that Kumdrila-bhatta (the seventh-century A. this observation is quite consistent with what has been pres.Not This. Univer_ sity of Bristol. were intended only for superior aspirants who had transcendedthe limits of sacrificial duties and actions. the Hindu cod. no.(cambridge: press. declaring that the ritual performance of the savitri at dawn is superior tJ the silence-rvith whatever its knowredge (iiiana)-of the yogi meditating during the night.. and who had no desire for any earthly blessing or for any heavenly joy. consequently.e of duty. . Not This'. The colnes from the Buddha and has its authority (pramdrya) accorciingiy. At the same time.1961):gg_I14." Philosophy Eastand LV'est.nt.In illustration.'. the dharma and the Buddha. at the university 1932).. Buddhism does not separateitself into two connection with my article. comrnentator on the Mimdrysd). that one can indeed separatethe two book is forced into this position by its defense of dharma.lecturer in AsianReligicns.2l.i. is authoritative.ll-14). 2Tcommunication from Fred lllorgan.4(Oct. Buddhisrn not onry presentsan alternative dharma. Tlln UpaNrgADrc DispurB Oven .TRUEDESTRES.The Buddhist. when discussing the nonorthodox systems as authority lpramd4a) for dharma (ad Jaimini-sfitraI 3. being as it is a prq)oga-iastra (statement of norms for proper performance). Therefore.Two Traditions of India-Truth and Silence 381 truth and reality). asks whether the Buddhist dharma. and thus deals with the Buddhist dharma as an alternative to the brdhmalical karma_ kdrtda and not as an alternative to the upaniqads.. namely.D. especially from how commentators treat the opponent. but an alternative enlightened person (the Buddha as the MahdmunD.

wfuo appear in the one Upanishad as the highest autfuorities. oocuty only a subordinate positicn in tlie otirer.. for examplo. Brhaddra0yaka. irrespective of how in reality. Thus. Now. which is shown. zsHistor!of Indian Philosophy. he finds and achieves all desires-which that text qualifies as "true". p. System 1972). there was no intention of bringing the Brhaddraryyaka and Chandogya into conflict-but this is exactly what happened.but take the toxig independentlyand separatelyand determine their neanings. 42."2s A disagreementbetvreen the Brhaddraryyaka and the chandogya was long ago noticed by Paul Deussen : "Betlveen the two great Upanishads.)'2s The present essaydefiles tlie polemic in terms of the attitude torvard tire desires (kanta) that are "true" (satya). Within this city of Brahman is contained all creatures (bhuta) and all desires (kama). while collecting materials. Banarsidass. . l. my anaiysisagrees with Dasgupta's advice: "It vrill be better tbnt a modern interpreter should not agree to the claims of the ancients that all the Upaniqads represent a connected system. though keeping an attentive eye on the context in lvhich they appeaf. 146-147. Johnston (Delhi: Motilal zsThe trans. and Chindogya. ushasta.382 Buddhist Insight terms of "truth" and "Silence. on this topic. Charles of the Veddnta. but side by side with iirese." I must acknowledge that such a classification may imprison the mind in categories and lead to a kind of game in which different schools and sects are mechanically placed within this and that categorY. ate tc be observed Inany. Categories should not be those schools are constitr-rted just for the sake of making them. rvhich servesfor the students of the Samaveda. . which servesas toxt-bock for the studentsof the (white) Yajur-veda. The meaning of the word satya as the undeniable is continued into the well-known chapter 7 oit the "City of Bratrrnan" in the Chandogya. certain traces of a thorough-going polemic.when one finds the self.pP. as previously organized. . among other things. when one finds the self. often Verbal agreements. lie overcomes ail desires. according to the Brhqdaraltyalca. The importance of formulated a classification is what one learns or brings forward in the course of making it. and the Upaniqad says. Indeed. by the iact that teachers. According to the Chandogya.

said he. their desires are unclr-niable(satya). for they are carried av/ay by untrutli. being sa1)a. "Yajfiavalkya.. has a significant opposrtion to the chdndogya's and ttte Mur3r. tire undeniable) alone is (III 1. undeniable)desires." "Yajfiavalkya. and so with tire worlcl of friend. of food and cirink. of song and music. and fnally the world of r.laka's emplrasis on reahzing desires : Norv l(ahola Kausitakeya asked him. But the Byhaddraqryaka (III. This has political overtones and rich slogan-connotation rvlr.e. is in the Brahman-world. The brdhmanas. "explain to me the Brahman tirat is directly experienced and not indirectly experienced." Likewise. according to the Chandogya. with a covering of the false (anrta.. oorhesesaffre are true (i." That is. disorder). the negation of rta).entaken out of its context : "Truth (i. 6).e. of periumes and gariands. having recog- . the world of brothers.ia's motto "Trutir alone conquers" (satyam eua jayate). This chdndogya position v/as not forgotten in subsequent Upaniqadic literature. rvhich is the self (dtinan) rvithin everything." This shows that the creatures are carried away by disorder.'. fathers arise. Then. rvhen setting forth progressive renunciation as the way to know Brahnlcn. "If he desires the worid of the fathers." "This is your self which is within everything.vomen. f. "The one which transcends hunger and thirst. coming after the rise of Buddhism. since snrta is the negation of the objective truth of regularity and universal order." This treasure." And it goes on to illustrate what is meant by the false : "Just as those who do not knolv the field walk again and again over the hidden treasure of gold and do not flnd it. are bound to happen. not untruth (artrta. the world oi the rnothers. as illustrated in section 2 of the chapter 7.urnishes modern Ind. i. rvhich one is r. having found here the self (annan) and those desires (koma) that are satya-for ttem in all worlcis there is engagernent with the desircs.viihin everything i'.vhereis that supreme treasure. 5. in section 3."TwoTraditions of India-Truth andSilence 3g3 "Those who depart hence. the upanisad continues. even so all creatures here go day after day into the Brahman-ivorld and yet do not flnd it. His desires.s. old age and death. l).e. upon being thought. sorrow and delusion. The Mu'qt{aka Upani. the rvorld of sisters. By truth is laid out the path feading to the gods by which the seers (rsi) who have their desires fulfllled prooeed to r. by his very conception.

then the mortal becomes immortali he here attains Brahman. only by death was this covered. having overcome the desire for sons. The answer appears to be : their creation myths. and the desirefor'worlds (loka). where it was said. The Chandogya.g-ueda "Hymn of creation" (x.sat). l.BThadoraryyaka. sec.or worlds.'.e. what rvas the silver.esire f.. answers. the bond of being in non-being. what was the inner membrane (i. The Brhadarapyaka would not recommend getting back to the original state because(chap. rY.394 Buddhist Insight nized (uidituO that Self." The Chandogya (chap.. a desire for wealth amounts to a d. 3.'r. The sun is Brahman-so it is taught. drives home the point." Then the question arises: Does one attain_ the highest state by reverting to the beginning condition ? The Brhaddranyaka. and Buddhism as well.e gold that is the sky. The two positions of those upanisads probably both have in their background the S. 2) it says : .Bo And if that passagedid not sufficiently castigatedesires. tire arnnion) is the mist with the soThis passage precedes immediately the previous citationof Brhadara4yaka Il I." But the question immediately arises : what is in back of this disagreement.There was no particular thing here in the beginning. .. It lay for the e.tent of a year.It changed into an egg. This has an explanation: In the beginning this (worid) was non-existent (asat).r. A desire for sons amounts to a desire for wealth. the Brhaddragyaka eschewing all desires.e. and inferentially any other treatise that lines up with it. After mentioning forcefully that the man who desires (lrdmayamdnal) is simply reborn. sec. 6-7. called '''The Cosmic Egg. for hunger is death. v/hat rvas the outer member (i.yes. that is this eartir. trn the egg-shell there were the silver and the gold. 1. 5. 19) has a different story. what was the life of rnendicants (bhiksr). the desirefor wealth. answers. it gives this verse for the man who does not desire : "when all the desires(kamQ that abide in his heart are renounced. the chorion) is the mountains. for both of these amount only to desires. "Desire enterecrthe one in the beginning : it was the earliest seed. 4. and the chdndogya pushing for true desires.No. It grer. It became existent (. or by hunger. 129). It burst open.

and they would gratify him. is one to whom welldisposed shouts would be directed. gratify him. it rnight be the case that the Bhagauadgtta was attempting to reconcile the Upanisadic dispute exposed earlier rvith a formula that nonattachment to the desirable is eventually rewarded by all desires.. and the Bhagavadglta p.. As he was being At least once Budclhism says nescienceis the father. upadhyaya regards "disinterested action" (nipkama-karmq\ as the "crux" of the tshegauadgitd's may be simply due to the fact that they failed to acknorvledgean upanipdic dispute which the Bhagauadgtta might try to bridge. He who knowing it in this way. About the true desires. History of Indianphilosophy. at his rise and at his every mother (per LankdstEarlyBuddhism (Delhi. And Buddhisrn heads its formula of Dependent origination with nescience(auidyi)-a word.\. N. However. the Bhagauadgtta(III.If this possibility has not hitherto been recognize. 2. s2Surendranath Dasgupta. all desires. it is an appropriate aim to return to the original condition. As to schools affiliated to the BThadararlyaka. and may this be for you the cow which grants desires (i$akfunaclhuk. vol. p. yea.he said : 'By this may you bring forth. repeatedly meditateson the sun as Brahman. Therefore.. men with sacrifice. as were also all creatures and.becausethe tsuddhist goal of niruiina is also beyond desire.l. what was the fluid of the membranous sac is the ocean.l by interpreters of the Bhagauadgitd. 49g.e Bhagauacigfta. as are also all creatures and all desires. . Thcrefore..and craving(tr. shouts and cries rvere directed toward him. shouts and cries are directed toward him. namely. Ancl that which was born. it is yonder sun. to be as the sun when it was being born. what were the veins are the rivers.Two Traditions of India-Truth and Silence 385 clouds. make bold to point to Bu<ldhism. to find in the city of Brahman all creaturesand all desires. which is not found at arl in th.IgT1. in the chandogya lineage. K.kalpaurlcsa (the wishing tree in Indra's paradise). i0) says in appareat agreement: o'of yore when the Lord of Creatures created. There were other rvords in Indian literature : cintdma4ri (the fabulous gern which grants all desires to its possessor).slTherefore.

would satisfy the Laws of Manu use of the word "truth" (satya).33but the commentary on "the (Iddnauarga says nescienceis the mother. 3bWayman. TheLankavatara p.lats again an ovelsimplification that becomes strained when one examines the facts. and the word "Chando gya" means singer of these chants. the over-all inclusion of the upanilads in the jfiana-kaAqla intends the emphasis or principal object of the Sutra (London. The Brhaddra7yakq has a mantra section and many other topics that are not easily subsumed under a single rubric.. saCf. but this belongs to the karma-kc14(a. trans. pp." . Consequently. The Chdndogya naturally exemplifies the previously exposed connotation of "trLLth. 428-430. our previous observation that Buddhisrn and the Upaniqads fuave a rival jfidna-karyqlashould be rnodified to admit the possibility that Buddhisrn shares to some of the Brhadararyyaka. requirement for adding knowledge arrived at in samddhi attainment.386 Insight Buddhist uatdra-sfitra).so has negative procedures-removal of deflling conditions-for but also a positive reversion to a superior plalle of consciotlsness. by their proper The Buddhist genesismyth in the Pdli and other scriptures starts out with the sentient beings in bodies made of mind that are wherever they wish to be. Their fall begins with greed stemming from delusiol. and who feed on joy (compare Vedic creation hymn)..'oBuddhism. and finally hatred due to stealing. This Upaniqad is therefore ooncerned in part with the Vedic meters rvhich. PP. it should be noticed that the categotizing of the old Upaniqads as the jiidna-kdncla in contrast to the preceding Brah' malla ritual literature categorized as the karma-ktiltc.At least this is a extent the jiiano-kaat(. l93Z). Holvever. The Vedintic currents that stress knowledge (ii. ssDaisetzTeitaro Suzuki. Presumably. 210-211.ta partial breakthrough in the mystery of the Buddhist relation. l2l. next there is lust arising from Buddhism not only eating. so it is by no means to be thoroughly qualified as a ifiana' kduda. if any. to the Upanisads. note 8 herein.dna) as the main requirement for liberation QnokSa)thereby agfee on this particular point that one does not simply return to a primordial condition." because it is an appendage to the sdma veda (rneaning the collection of vedic hymns to be chanted).

.vorst tendenciesin man. His remark about disliking the tantras is consistent with what I consider to have been a serious cleavage between the Brhsdaranyaka and the chdndogya following. in particular. Snellgrove.An Essayon the History of sanskrit studies in china andJapan(NagpurInternational Academy of Indian culture. and sc of r. 37The HevajraTantra: A criticat study (London:oxford universitypress. who finds it easier to mount a "refutation" by tieating somelvhat 36R. CoNcrusroxs In the foregoing I have attempted to set forth a rivalry of two traditions. people clo not know what thev dislike. and of the terrible existenceof these tendencies we have ample experience in every generation. 1956).esires. they enumerate what desires can be granted by reciting this dhdrapt and how many times it should be recited. and precisely by passion it is rereas ed'. "truth" and "silence.. 42." while admitting that the traditions becorne distinguished especially by the opponent to a sect. 1959)."By false desire the world is bound. Because-even ii modern scholars do not transfer their dislike of the tantras to the Chdndogya Upanipad_the fact still remains that the chdndogya theory of desiresin the hearr could be paraphrased.Two Traditions of India-Truth and Silence 3g7 upanipads. van Gulik.'s6 But this recitation of dhdraqtis. D. siddham. the part of the Upaniqads which most interests the Advaita Veddnta. is in the ample category of ritual utterances. snelrgroverefers to such lines as the citation in the Dohi commentary. The subsequent Tantric currents-mainly of Saivitic or of Buddhist character-also have their two sides. The Heuajra Tantra. p.vhat else should they tell ?"37 By removing like by like. in the introduction to his work.77. certain rites are required to accompany the reciting in order to obtain the fulfillment of certain d. which the Laws of Manu plainly counts as 'otruth". and. as often happens.including the sdvitri. and precisely by true desire it is released. As van Gulik writes : "Above all." so.part I p. (rdgerya badlryate loko rdge\aiua hi rnucyare). "To dislike the tantras. L. is but to dislike the r. says. The tantras claimed to remove like by like.whether incantations or spells.H. "By passion the rvorld is bound.

disordered and a lie. An Autobiography : The Story of My Experiments with Truth (Boston : BeaconPress.388 Buddhist Insight artificially. do agree on stressing a Self. It insimrated that the produce of the spinning wheel was satya. while the British stuff was anrta. The wornen doing the spinning-for the most part illiteratewould not have read the Upaniqads. the power of the term dependsin part on its not being rationalized or intellectually explained.1965). . one can immediately find a plausible solution for the term satydgraha in the modern movement associated with Gandhi. especially as concerns this theory of dtman. the meaning of satya as explained by Velankar is its usage in ritual and politics. The Upani. For example. such as the role of desire." The traditions thus made salient appear more fascinating than what T. the same investigation shows that the Upaniqads are indeed distinguished by the attitude to "true desires. impermanent self. R. and therefore the sure loser to satya. A value of exposing the Indian traditions in the manner of the present article is the readiness of the classification for problem solving. sBGandhi . while acknowledging that the Upaniqads themselves are not distinguished by the two ffaditions.38 In the light of the rich connotation of such words as satya and anrta. In fact. Murti's classification is faithful to the usual commentarial style of distinguishing the orthodox and the non-orthodox among the Indian schools. the precious book by Max Picard. The World of Silence. Gandhi did not really have to deliver a learned exposition of his term satydgraha (adherence to the truth). even though obviously disagreeing about some matters. Then. Therein Buddhism is characterized as rejecting this permanent dtman in favor of a changing. a single aspect of an opposing sect. to wit. Murti sets forth in The Central Philos* ophy of Buddhism as the "two traditions in Indian philosophy"the acceptanceor rejection of the permanent dtman or self of the Upaniqads. and therefore victorious. 318-319. while the meaning in the Plqan verse turns out to be its philosophical usage in subsequent centuries. for explaining in contrast to simple portrayal. V.pp. Of course. Buddhism does have its positive disagreementswith the Upaniqadic position. undeniable and not in vain. to wit. Finally. They were raised in a culture steeped in the connctation of the word satya. that is.

Picard also writes.Two Traditions of India-Truth and Silence 389 reminds us of the spiritual resources that develop in silence. "Languageis more than silence because truth is manifestedin language." . consistent with the Tibetans' translatingthe word muni by the "capable one" (thub pa). in agreement with the Lows of Monu.

. "The Act of Truth (Saccakiriya) : A Hindu Spell and its empioyrnent as a psychic motif in Hindu Fiction. 36-45.vas teaching a class in Aryastrra's Jatqkamald*hi+ it r." There is an obviously different approach in those two articles_ BuRrwcal. and for the process involved he goes no further than to assert.. and as such.rn is more interested in the Truth Act and the results credited to it as elements in stories than he is in real life masic. fulfils his personal duty.20 THE HINDU.In this way ihe individual achievespersonal integrity and fits the cosmic purpose." BnowN decidesthat"inevery casethe basis of the Trutir Act is the singlenesswith which the performer. 194A.. Eunxenu r." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1917. Life then becomes a sacrificial act." Reuieiu of Religion. 429-467. "The Basis for the Hindu Act of Truth. it can accomplish any wish. when perfectly executed. as we are taught in the vedas and the Brahmarlas is possible through the sacrifice. accolnpanied by a command or resolution or prayer that the purpose of the agett shall be accornplished. Nov. Norman BRowx.vasmy privilege to attend-and during the reading of the Siuijataka called attention to two articles : (l) Eugene watson BunrrNcaME. "An Act of Truth is a formal cleclaration of fact. compelling even the gods.BUDDHIST RITE OF TRUTI{-_ AN INTERPRETATION some years ago at the university of california professor Murray B. a rite (kriya). or some other person used by the performer as a dynamic reference. (2) W. The contribution of BunTTNGAME is to collect many examples oi this motif.

g2.. our present word kriya also conforms to her view : one of its standard rneanings is "rite. whereas in the case of the Truth Act. Ludo RocHrR. into the rite. while certain social rites. the Hinciu clharnta. the emphasis is not on ascertainrnent of the truth however unpleasant. BnowN was aware that there is more to it than this. In the Pali expression saccakiriyd. whatever it may be--as. vyavahdracintamani listiscle Eljdragen: Gent. not becausespeakinglessens the sin. Themis. It is of interest that thc spoken appeal is also to varrina in the case of the four ordeals-the balance.. that is 'truth'. while related in stories. In the "real life" approach. but because it brings exactitude. cosmic truth or order. ancl poison. r.vho is the vedic custodian of the rtq. which. of a courtesan." And he continues. zJane Ellen HAnnrsoN. (Gentse orienta- . kriya) is the doing that is here the ritual speaking. vacaspati Miira. 1956).392 Buddhist Insighr BnowN treats them as miracles.. one then lvonders why the people think such events might occur. pp." Magical aims are certainly behind the performance of many rites in ancient times.nq of a king. of a wife. are neverthelessgrounded in the religious outlook of the people who therefore regard these miracles as possible even though 'exceptionally rare. s'y. at the varunapraghasas. Meridian Books.rt is essential for her to speak. becausethat person doing the Truth Act must verbalize the fact of his superhuman performance of dharma. and Greek there are nominal iormations based on the verbs o'to do. the dha.2For the case of sanskrit she cites the word kytya. water.. tbe lciriyd (skt. superhuman.when the priest asks the sacrificer's rvife rvith whom she consorts other than her husband.ritual operations of a magical character. So Bnowx rightfuliy brings into the discussion "the confession ritual perforrned. Sanskrit." but provides no textual references. may also have had in an1Dr. . And it is significant that she speaks out before varuna.l But in the casesboth of the varunapraghdsas and the ordeals the object is the ascertainment of the unknown truth. such as those of marriage. but on teiling the truth that is extraordinary. HrnRrsoN states that in Latin. fire. 320 ff. and Bnowx well states the case in terrns of the person u'ho so succeeds : he has been superlative in doing his duty. p. make " that have side meanings of .

and by Truth bring about the desired extra-normal results. H. 1963). This doctrine was elaborated with vak as a group of phonetic powers. This tenet of the verbal component acting as an intermediary between mind and the objective lvorld is worked out in a variety of ways in old Indian lore and classicalIndian metaphysics. { | "May my Truth and my Faith bringlabout (the wish) through . 3r€ fr 3r* 1l. p. +cf. The classicalsourcesof the Rite of rruth are the Hindu Ramayqrla and the Buddhist Milindapafiha. especially in these two passages of the Atharua-veda and the yajur-veda : It (Td-qeqqrTl( tq f.a The verbal form of the Rite of Truth is not a tradition al mantra. 3cf.phon6matique". ? | "That becameTruth.'. However. an intermediary between the Divine intellect and the created r. and Kashmir Saivism as well as the Tantric 'schools wrote extensively on the emanation process of these mediating phoneme mothers. or power. for the lord to reveal himself in the world. J.rarTq( il"{o 1{.3The latter passagedepicts the method by which man may duplicate the primordial achievement : by sacrifice he will copy the plan of the Divine intellect. 1.sacriflce!" The former passage posits Truth in a way comparable to the doctrine of the Logos. 132.vorld. Publications de I'institut de civilisation indienne Fasc. v.'The Hindu-Buddhist Rite of Truth-an Interpretation 393 cient times some magical associations.L 'dmanation .we need only recall the role of vak (the female personification of speech) uttiog as the iqkti.Recherches sur Ia syrnbolique et I'dnergiede la parole ." l1l q q'i. the mdtrikd. by That was produced (the world).io mtrf. Andr6 PAooux. It is rather analogous to the upanisadic expressions called vidyas. the vedic literature already sets forth the creative nature of truth.. especialry chap. Rosr. . by Faith convince himself of the eiticacy of the procedure. 21 (Paris. .r{ rrqojc.dans certains textes tantriques. Therefore I employ the ' rendition "Rite of Truth. HarperTorch-books..Religion in Greece andRome.

progressive liberation. large drums (dundubhi) of the gods sound forth with deep pleasing sounds-the former and latter sounds suggestingthe first and Indra last of the five andhata sounds going with yoga success. and (3) Krarnamukti. indicatitrg that he is in meditative retirement-his "blindness" suggesting allegorically the blindfold of the candidate for initiation. later on. the destroyerof the darknessof the world.1949). Arya6Dra'sformulation of the Sibijataka around fourth century. in AryaSfira's Jdtakamdld the first categoryis exhibited by the Rite of Truth in three jdtakas. A. i. The to K.6 there are three fruits of these Vidyd-s.. No. XVI. to turn a ship back frorn its perilous position near the fabulous Mare-mouth. of Truth achieves for King SiUl the divine eyes. Narayanaswami Aryan points cut. II. 247. (2) AiSvaryaprdpti. not only employs the Upaniqadic trptisana aspect of the rite but also contains elements of considerable interest and relevance to an understanding of this R.T There is the humming of a swarm of bees (madhukaraganopakujita). V. Thirty-Two Vidya-s(Adyar.ite of Truth. the Sibilatat<a. zCf. The Story of the Fish. Painted Tucct. 1962). No. the warding off of calamities.394 Insight Buddhist which are really updsand-s or meditative exercises. 1905).s sCf. . the King is seatedwith crossedlegs at a lotus pond.For example. The Shiva Sanhita (Allahabad. IVladras.. Narayanaswami 2nd ed. after this by the gradual practicc of Yoga. XV.5 As K. then of aharp. when the King obtains two eyes of divine sight. No. namely (1) Duritaksaya. p. In the second part. XIV.D. elbid.. p.Chap. V. wherein the Rite. 9. to call down the rain.Giuseppe (Rome. The second category is exhibited in No. he hears the sounds of ringing bells. RacnavaN's introduction Atutx. Dr.which the King with great delight gives to the beggar. tr. to turn back a forest conflagration. In the first part of the story. The standard examples of the Rite of Truth e-xhibit fruits falling within the first two categories.. bee. Indra appears in the form of a blind beggar before tire generous King Sibi and asks for the King's eyes. site of the submarine fire. The Story of the Quail's Young. next verse2T : "The first sound is like the hum of the honey-intoxicated that of a flute. thus averting the calamity to the fish in a lake almost exhausted of water.e. The Story of Supdraga. Tibetan Scrolls sSriSaChandra VASu. gaining of the Siddhi-s or occult powers.

ite of Truth is done before the sea-traders(visible witnesses)and the gods in the sky (invisible witnesses). so Buddhism is here preserving a bit of the old Indra religion for the goal of AiSvaryaprapti. the porverful one of the Gods (Deuendra). and the story continues with a eulogy by Sakra. which are certainly expressions of mendicancy. no sooner had he expressed those words. it is done before the fire-god.simply go ahead and restore the eyes ? As a preliminary answer to this question. are as pleasing to me as if made of benedictions.. it is done before the King of the Devas (deuardja). "Then. Indra becomes the one who tests the satya and besiovrsappropriate reward or punishment. It could be expected that after Indra dethroned Varufa as the chief Vedic deity. we observe that the Rite of Truth is conducted before Indra. Why cannot Indra. XV. XIV. Agni. in the three stories Nos. then soundslike roar of thunder. In No." The word updya is used for this w&y. by the king's power of truth blessing (satyddhislhdna) and by his outstanding accumulation of merit (pu4yopocaya). "Hence I shall endeavour to have his eye produced by showing away. XVI. While Varula was the upholder of the rta and satya. and XVI. the mendicants' words. than one eye appeared.. the R. Later. Indra is now made to say. suggesting that the answer will remove the condition of blindness." The narrative continues. which turns out to be the Rite of Truth." The original Sanskritof this text wasnot available to us at the time of writing. . XIV. AryaSura will give a Buddhist dogmatic answer in terms of the requirement of two causes (hetu and pratyaya) fot a thing to arise.In No. However. In No. XV. Indra asks Sibi why he still has his mind on the mendicants. so may one eye of mine appear. Indra among the deuas. who in this case is probably Indra incorporating the function of the rain-god Parjanya. But. First of all. Devendra.The Flindu-Buddhist Rite of Truth-an Interpretation 395 decides it is time for the King to get his eyes back. pray lend ear ! Just as at that time and at this time. for the goal of Duritakqaya there is an indiffflerentrelation to Indra.. The King replies : "Why is there this urging of your honor that I be made to boast ? (ko yam asmdn uikatthayitum atrabhauato nirbandhalt). Indra would have to carry on in some fashion certain functions formerly the business of Varula." Let us consider the implications of Arya5ira's account. or approach.

" Indo-Iranian Journal. which rong gFromtheMs. 1lcf.vord. we observe that the basic cause (hetu) of the eye is the accumulation of merit.ecreative agency of vak incorporated by Truth. .trhanaprovided by the deity. 50. our "studiesin Yamaand Mara. which proceed from mountains. p. constituting the updya as well as the anu5thdna for a corresponding adhislhdna. consistent with early Buddhism's rejection of the necessity for an Isvara or lorcl. The blessing (adhis{hane by the deity is rhe conditional cause (pratyaya) and constitntes a sort of daiua dispensation. Finally. by Rev.The Hague. This is entirely puruSakdra. l96g). pp.vralls. Nagasena rejects any need for the adhi. as is the situation in the Rite of Truth. auth. LsssrNcand Arex wayuaN of Mkhas grubrje'sFundamentals of theBuddhist Tantras. Nagasena'smeaning of the word for "truth" implies th. (Mouton. GEnrN. included by tire Buddhists in the "accumulation of merit. 10Paul DnussrN. (Edinburgh. III (1959). as is also the Rite of Truth." but has in addition a metaphysical implication of "reality" as the word scfiya is translated in Upanisadic contexts by Deussen. trees.. ThePhilosophy of theupanishads. This is the implication also in the category of Buddhist scripture said to be promulgated by "mind truth-force.lo In the oldest vedic literature Nagasena'sposition would be untenable becausethe first mortal to become exemplary in dharma u'as the celebrated yama and so he received the title Dharmaraja. S.s of the doctrine (dharma)."396 Buddhist Insight Next. tr. through the force of having been uttered by the Bhagavat rnentally with the power of truth (satya-bala). but in the old tradition he did not become a god : he was tantamount to a deua with the commensal relation of drinking with the gods. tire successful performer of tire Rite of Truth is himself the deity. "the r.D. ff. 437. the Buddhist monk N6gasena holds that through the Power of Truth and no other cause. there is the explicit element of boasting."s In such case. 1906).1l and presumably also with the interlocutory relation of talking to the gods. A. But note that in the Milindapaiiha account set forth in BunrmcAME's article. 162." for exampie. which professor BRowN's article enables us to identify as a substitution for the Hindu dharma. translation by F. Eng. ancl so forth. and truth is not simply the ethical kind. Chapter Two. obvious acts of men. p. King Sibi received heavenly eyes.

125.n jdyate priye I mantrdh pumdevatih prokti vidyah stridevatdh smrrah //. p." As long as men believe in gods. when it is uttered in the Rite of Truth. the goddess vdk boasts (RV."rs and confirm an individual in a new group.ra in this caseVak. In a negative way.For example.The Hindu-Buddhist Rite of Truth-an Interpretation 397. him a brahman. the Rite has some feature . him I make mighty.o incorporate of rvhat is called a "rite of passage. whomever the man I love. The Mystic Rose. . 14cf.available in Englisir translation.5) : "I myself announcethis thing favorable for gods and men. university of chicago press. But holv can puny man claim such superhuman action except with the hurnan fault of boasting ? AryaS[ra suggeststhat boasting ceasesto be a fault. It is a feature of r4any vedic hymns that the deity proclaims his prowess in a boasting manner or the poet boasts on the deity's behalf. a Phoenix Book. lsArnold van GBNNTp . the classic exposition by cn. the Truth of himself. Les rites depassage. The performer has an interrnediary. The Rites of Passage. and hence becomes divine. Yoginitantra(venkatesvarapress. in this casethe society of the gods. x. the uidyd-which is a goddess (strtdeuatd). and Tantric rites with their striking indulgence in foods and sexual partners-seem to be more appropriately char acterized. certain ones. because they are believed to perform in fact the acts as stated.q. him a wise man. Meridian Books. him a seer.1962). Inc. such as the Holi festival in its older form.Bombay.thereby than is the Rite of Truth. If it is permissible to apply this description to Hindu rites or festivals.wtnv12 uses this terminology for marriage breaking the taboo involved in segregation of the sexes. ago attracted my attention. In a pcsitive way. a meditative utterance. they are not held in vain to boast or have their deeds boasted of. l2Ernest CRAwLry. For example. 40r : mantravidyavibhage tu dvividhar. the latter Rite exhibits a weak aspect of taboo breaking. producing the desired reification. This feature of boasting seems to have an eiernent in common with what anthropologists call "the breaking of the taboo" in the case of "primitive" societies.

Annualof Orientaland Religious (original title in Japanese).2l SIGNIFICANCE. 1 (1964). which has a Gerrnan translation. psychological rrrritings. it is certain that in the fact of clrearning itself.l lDreambibliography for the Vedicliterature is referred to in an articleby the Japanese Sanskritist N. we find a common bond of mankind. some treatisesrepresentedby title to be devoted entirely to dreams. Indian dreams No. The allusions to drearns and the recording and classification of thenr in India (by the word suapna) and in Tibet (by the rvord.Les songes et leur . whether or not we accept a certain western theory of dream archetypes.. and their interpretation have a briei popularizingsurveyin French by Anne-MarieEsnoul. There are. pre-eminently Jagaddeva'ssuapnacintdmar3i.ream book in English which one can purchase from sidewalk book displays in large Indian cities. Buddtrist and Tibetan tantric iexts. in that an individual culture attributes significance to it and makes consequent use of it. Mahdyd. 41. There are undoubtedly such brief tracts on dreams in all the vernaculars of India and of course in the ubiquitous Gypsy d. Stuclies p. rmi-lam) usually occur in brief passagesin biographies. and the suapnauicdr. or at most in chapters cf rvorks on medicine and astrology and in Jaina omen books. in Sanskrit with Hindi translation. OF DREAMS IN INDIA AND TIBET Dreams exert a perennial fascination on the lvaking mind. "on the Adbhuta-br6hma4a" (in Japanese). as well as the brief works such as suapnddhydya. Tsuji. . and in general literature.

Dr. are attributed the dreams by which Tson-kha-pa was regarded as all three bodhisattuas.aIn this connection the Tamil classic Tirukkural (No..Dmigs brtse rna. Drew.1934).' tionsdu Seuil.. Raghavan. Avalokitesvara. Rev. the SuapnaudsauaCatta. beginning vrith the white elephant). and Vajrapdti. 207-47. Psychology : Perception 2These dreanrsare in the brief biography calledZur ltdebsrnam thar legsbiadkun hdus. as well as to the mother of Gautama Buddha (e. and dreams of seeing Visavadatti and talking to her. U. founder of' the Gelugpa sect in Tibet. It would be difficult to prove that a different social order (polyandry) is responsiblefor the fact that to both the father and mother of rson-kha-pa. Indian philosophical. Rev.e.895. The identification of Tson-kha-pa with the three bodhisattvas poemof the Gelugpa is in the well-known secitradition. Thereis a psychological treatment from rnedical. H. cit. Ellis (Tirunelveli. Lhasa edition. cited in Bhoja's Srngdra Prakdia.with translations in Englishby Rev.1. 226-27. Bhoja's. but there in fact she happens not to be dreaming. it only being necessary that people at large think so. .Maffju6ri. the white elephant entering her womb) are of this type.s fn the work attributed to Bh6sa. pp. A. pp. F. illustrates the capacity of a dream to breed love and thus serveas a literary theme. the fourteen. 1216)rnay be cited : And if there tvere no waking hour. the king goes to Padmavati's empty Tson-kha-pa's Gsunftbum(Collected Works). aV.pp. . Thus the dreams of parents establishing sacred mother-son or father-son relations.g. and Abhidharma Buddhist in a chapterby Jadunath sources Sinhain his Indian (Lonclon. 738. W. my love In dreams would never from my side remove. 306-23.962).reamswhose importance is independent of whether they were really dreamt.and Mr.iyngara Prakasa(Madras : publishedby author. W. G. the dream theme of literature depicts dreams in roles that may or may not have occurred in reality. 1963). falls asleep on it. DREAMS POPULARLY BELIEVED AND AS THEMES IN LITERATURE we may cite first the d.s interprOtation Oans l'fnde. 3Esnoul.400 Buddhist Insight. The dreams attributed to the mother of Mahavira. Pope. historical founder of the Jaina sect (i." in Les songes (Paris: fAi et leur interprdtation pp.2 Again. op. iTirukkural.1959). This example. John Lazaras. The parallel dream is illustrated by the tale in Kathdsaritsdgaraof how king Vikramaditya and the princess Malayavati first met in dream and were flnally united in reality.

39-40): "If one seesthe sun or moon devoid of light or the asterisrns and other stars tumbling down.2-4):"rf a man seesa crossingover of a stream or body of water." This work begins the good dreamsby saying (s1.p. The simplest division is into auspicious (iubha) and inauspicious (aiubha). or the Pald6a tree in full bloom [apparently all of red blossoms]. with Hindi commentary (Bombay : Venkatesvara Steam Press.).8 Esnoul points out that the key words for good dreams and bad dreams stayed fairly constant from the earliest lists down to the tv. in a d re a m . 221. 'ohaving desirable effect."It begins the bad dreams (Sl. Seealso the words used in N."6 The ominous drearn appears in the Shilappadikoram. the Indian genius for classifying comes into play.. Jaina. Alain Dani6lou (New York : New Directions. 126. CLASSIFICATION OF DREAMS with regard to dreams in general. chap. Kalaprakaiika (Tanjore : Lawley Electric Printing Press. and Buddhist works as well as much in common. a mounting in palaces or to the summit of temples. sTsuji. toSvapnddhyaya. P.. 41.. cit. or sees the ASoka tree. There are some differences between the Hindu."having undesirable effect. cit.. 79. the sun rising into the sky. he attains sorrow. trans.n caiva prajvalar. I saw thee in a dream caressingsome woman or other. l9I7). he attains success.." and anisyaphala.. op. Subramania Iyer (trans. The Cloud Messenger."lo eKdliddsa. zllango Adigal.eThe Suapnddhyayais based on this twofold division by the words i. op.n tar.I saw the rainbow shining in the night.trans. the vision of moon-disk among the asterisms and. xlii. The division is seen to be very ancient by the words sDapna and dultsuapnato mean good and bad dreams and also much later in a chapter of mundane astrology.Significance of Dreams in India andTibet 40I As also Kdliddsa's The Cloud Messenger : "Wretch.n hutd1anamll2ll .th e n i g h t d e v o u ri ng the sun. 1965). Shilappadikaram by Prince llango Adigal.Alas !"'? B. eEsnoul. the Oleander.. 1964).elfth-century work by Jagaddeva. p.' "The Pdndya queen spoke : 'Al a s ! I s aw. 1927): yathd / / nadi-samudra-taraqamakdSa-gamanarn / bhiskarodayanar.laphala. planets. a blazing fire... p. Franklin and Eieanor Edgerton (Ann Arbor : IJniversity of Michigan Press.p.

"wind.p. lzDurgadeva. 466. To see snakes. of nature in splendor and burgeoning life.:atramtarakddim6ca vd Vadill39ll a6okaln karaviram v6. The other (viz.tasantuccaya. for the sanguine. Gopani (Bombay : Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. Different dreams are attributed to such persons respectively: for ttre bilious. One is that which is told by the god and the other is a natural dream. dreams. void of worries and well-poised body and r. of arid land and of burning objects.ave the temperaments bilious (fiery). a natural dream) occurs when one.. . Ri. Oracles and Demons of Tibet ('s-Gravenhage : Mouton & Co.12 The expression "lacking well-proportioned humours" suggests the threefoid division rvhere pathologicai disorders are explained in the medical works to involve imbalance of the three hurnours.. 1lRene de Nebesky-Wojkowitz. .. girls with a pale-blue skin. for the phlegmatic. for example.op. paldSamvdtha pulpitam / svapndnte yas tu pa5yetanaralt Sokamavdpnuydtll40ll. and sanguine (windy). That drean is a dream told by a god vrhere a mantra (sacred formula) is recited. pp..veli-proportionedhumours. 1956). gets [it]. for example.islasamuccaya says : In the QuesI graha-nak$atra-tdrdndrncandrama4dala-darsanarnI pi va ll3ll / harmyelv irohanam caiva prdsada-Sikhare / evam ddini samdrttvd naral] siddhim avdpnuydtll4ll adityarn vdtha candram vi vigatacchavikamyathd ll patar. and mountain-meadows.l1 The Jaina work R.are mirages caused by the klu [naga]. A.frogs. dreams. ." "bile. li3.402 Buddhist Insight Nebesky-wojkowitz reports that in Tibet it is believed that various deities and demons produce dreams : "If one saw a snowy mountain or a soaring white bird. of racing clouds and of forest creatures running in terror. 56. and if one trembles with terror and fear in the sleep." In the sixty-eighthPariSista of the Atharuu-Veda men are said to h. . then the lha fdeua]caused this dream. 1945). 13Esnoul. 215-17. .nta cdtha nak." and "phlegm. for exampie. Dream is twofold. dreams. this is due to the influence of the bdud [Mara]" (to mention only those due ro spirits identifiable with Indian deities). S. phlegmatic (watery).. cit.p. without (muttering) a mantra (sacred formula). indeed. trans.

"^i"iia :"1"Tr"'iokli.]"gilq ff. but here again the basic classification is three-fold by the three "poisons.o j *uu..'iF-[31.tlinlii.A' tr' . The text adds tlat only the last-named dream is true.l'] srnels I t. *xIIl. hehas rost I "{i?. tsAngavijjd (Prakrit Text society No..?. ancl delusion (:incapacity).."ning i.5.p. -auyakta-clr..?d pcrfumed g. . because the text gives a sampledrearn for each of the three in termsof each of the r*r.". I "i:lf'.t.u... the usual five plus the mind as the sixth sense.1. (5)'those who dream under influence of their The basic Jai'a classification in the wonderful book of omens. Jr I uoon iori. ioI!+' a..o.i:1 | l?:^1. ro_ething und..?|:! Tiu:r: ] rnat he haslost .ream : the foregoing three. bocly with iandre_ ." lust (:atftaction).inscrut_ ably seen" (or both seen and unseen). t^hq ctinging 't. muii.l"g^_ 1.r"'fv yi:lreilnue. tdO_gt.. l) [Banaras: prakrit Text society.i:.?lg" tffii'['ff. I i.i. and (6) those with prophetic dreams...: i .h"*5-_::. pp. the waist i d. o.'" i. . 232-33.oi'' ony I | dersrand the -.{". bene of pLinrpkiri-. 51.'5 .T lame'tation I Hror.| tqeating tire seeds I voryfood i rouching tix*.lky oto-rotyo photographic reprint of Tibetan-canon).:'."r. pp. music or theberre of the land I I pleasantthing ritrr..rt'. (4.#tl *i. 16 Pit rputrasamaeain-mahali rrtt iir.1[r". sub I I snake of _dog.t'.oot1s'rn:":l.r.i . I -^?. hatred (:repuision).illrenomv Isc"r]nnerTrt """" "' fffi T."illt1llmgn!{ I yop" _"ih.'i--affi. Afigauijjd.ui.. "unseen".. rta_di1tha.:rr.'J'* o." "opp.)those under influence of a . I | . i*i.diYl magrclan tslbid.".? -^i^1il. is into cliitrha.I.1s Various lists increase the number of sense organs invoived.?il6r.J?.b i . and texi. ro un- smelling t.. Trre tsuddhist Mah ayana text "Meeting of the Father and son" (pityptrtrasamdgama) gives 'dreams based on all six senses.i| gourds and other (disagreeable) seeds hl.-^r_"i' rasre "f of theI ing r#[.i .t{a).'i:".. | orher I^9.Significance of Dreams in India and Tibet 403 tions of King Miltndo. satratronvery sa.i. there are said to be six men who d. and auatta-dillha (sanskrit : .li:il..']:.seen..T.rl.i.ii. ^^.lir "ili". .q4: ana | I i":f" j Empr.i. shown in Table 1. ir.16 TABLE I sEEi-i f Hearing wrt. 19571j Introduction. i i and beine confused wit[ fear I Hears .*i*.i-ce.g}#..if. I rasting .11.

1965). and some are prophetic (bhauika). women.962). 1922). 314-15. and the category as mere imagination (kalpita)' though based on memory data. zsSinha. 54."'Toda Dream Songs. Rouse (London : John Murray.asamuccctya. and Sanskrittext. "Therefore in all his births he loses not the thought of' enlightenment. 196l). L. we see the reason that the Adbhuta-brdhmana. C. No. n ? ? nArtgaviia (cited in n.p. p." Journal of the American' Oriental Society.1. (3) reptiles.Atharva-Veda-Sarphita (Delhi: Motilaf . Santideva quotes the Sirphapariskdrapdtraua). and the sexless. p. 15). is stationed in the south. Banarsidass. 22Tsuji. Vaidya (Darbhanga : Mithila Institute. zoMurray B. (4) aquatic creatures. (5) insects. requires that one divine the dream while facing south..z2 Caraka and Sudruta both describe certain dreams as prognostics of impending disease or death. The Buddhist category of recurrent dreams seems to amount to the VaiSesika "dreams due to the intensity of subconsciousimpressions" (tornAccordingly. 41."18 The Jaina text has a classificationof the beings in the dream.1' prccha. Even in dreams he has this thought : much more if he be awake.op. Sik.39-44. Under "gods in dream" are gods and goddesses.23A similar view l?Sinha.leThe category of dead persons is consistent with Emeneau's study. the living.z1 Yama. op. D.). Bendall and W. PROPHETIC ASPECT OF DREAM In the Atharua-Veda it was said that the dream comes hither from Yama's world. pp. . II. H.. the principal category in the Western Freudian classification. showing that in Toda belief' only dead men sing in the dream. trans.op. as analyzed by Tsuji. Emeneau. In human variety are the dead.. LXXXV. zrWifliam Dwight Whitney (trans. P. Some dreams are wish fulfllment (prarthita). men. (2) four-footed animals. the lord of the dead. Therefore. cit. 321. rsSdntideva. I (January-March. cit. 993-94. the unborn.Under animals there are five : (l) birds. "Toda Dream Songs". ed.2o C.q4 Buddhist Insight The Indian medical text Carakasarnhitd adds the category of dreams as mere past experience (anubhuta) though immediately apprehended. cit.

soArya-Tard Kurukulle-kalpa (Kyoto-Tokyo photographic reprirt of Tibetan canon).and mind. op. Md. p. he should not relate it to anyone. an. s. cit. 2sMrtyu-vaficana (Kyoto-Tokyo photographic reprint of Tibetan . cit.op. Malinivijayottara Tantram (Bombay. p.p.showinghowthe dream of lust... 315. speech.cthree of mind : /so . The suiruta-sam. fol. xxxi.Significance of Dreams in India and Tibet 405 was held by Aristotle. Fortunately. the author states several portents of death of the dreamer himself. Thesecretof Dreoms (westminster.He will then be delivered from the bad dream. J."26 rn the Malini school of Kashmere Saivism.nvdcd. the dream that a shepherd is wandering at night without a companion and is unable to see the moon or stars. the merit and demerit (dharmadharma)of the dreamer. p. fntroduction. cit.. the position is taken that the psychological poison first shorvs in the dream and subsequentlyin actions of body. zTPandit Madhusfidan Kaul. 'To counteract such a portent one performs the ritual of Amitayus. rhe Indian view is that the prophetic 'character of the dream is the adyg{a(the unseen agency). 225. . I21.. trividham manasa /..nrajyate / samrakto rigajam karmdbhisaryskaroti. if the worshipper seesa good dream he may express it to his disciples 'and if otherwise he should perform the homa (burnt offering. for example. Sanskrittext.B0This agrees with other Buddhist tantras. 2: / rmi lam mtshan ma ston zin 7 onos grub ran flid hbyun bar hgyur /.n kayena. because palliative measures were indicated. 1960).canon).hita says : "If one has a sinister dream. caturvidhar. the siddhi [occult power or success]will arise automatically. "when the sign appears in the dream. 19. namely. one such dream with the stanclardremarks was cited by sdntideva. LXXXVI.. p. zsSinha.. four of speech.2e similarly. where auspicious dreams that come true indi2aPedro Meseguer. r20. establishes a propensity leading to three bad actions of the body..bhiniviftal: san' anuniyate/ anunitah sar.vol. op.zz rn the Buddhist work Mrtyu-uaficana ("cheating Death").. 1922). the Buddha of "Eternal Life. but should pass three nights in the temple to honor the pretas (the deceased). 135. 26Esnoul. p..: Newman Press..2b Prophetic dreams (bhauika) did not imply a fatalistic belief."28 rn the above-cited Buddhist text classifying dreams by the three poisons and the six senses. zeThisremark occurs in an almost invariant formula after each dream example. trividhar. becausefor the while believed in. the tantric work Arya-Tdra-xurit ulle-kalpa says.

34H. 2 : "Methought little tiny trees and shrubs burst through the soil.3lHere the dream.reamto go to the great Tirthika city called Mukhena in the neighborhood of srMkhasgrub rje. Francisand E. op. the brahmins maketheexpiatoryoffering (prayaicitta arghya). especially the one with psychologicai poison.s3 sixteen dreams are attributed to the King of Kosala in the Mahdsttpina-Jdtaka. . For example.Bb The life of AtiSa. VIII ['s-Gravenhage : Mouton & Co. 237. especially in the earlymorningalongwith the gayatririte. the great Indian pandit who debated the invitation to teach in Tibet. and when they had grown scarcea span or two high. cit. The dream attributed to a king in the time of the former Buddha Kdsyapa in the Buddhist Sarvdstivddin vinaya about eighteen men pulling on a piece of cloth and unable to rip it.s2 Prophetic dreams are well known in the traditional life of Gautama Buddha. and Buddhism in common with Hinduism always maintained that one need not follow a portentous jnclination because both religions have their regular ways of purifying pollution. 33Esnoul. shingHouse. cast in the role of a dream oracle. This contrasts with the set meaning of a symbol in lists of good and bad dreams.406 Buddhist Insight cate approach of the tutelary deity and successin the meditative process as contrasted with the bad dreams indicating that the deity stays far away as does the succes s (sidcthi). 32rnthe Hindu case. vol. 35One of the talesin Mkhasgrub rje.BaHere also we see the metirod of dream interpretation : tiny tree of dream equals young girl in actuality. op. as a prophecy of Gautama Buddha's doctrine.T.1957). JdtakaTales(Bombay: Jaicopublip. shows him worshipping Tdrd to receive a dream advice : o'His tutelary gods directed him in a d.. p. 1966D. cit. J.. The Pali text Anguttaranikcya relates the five dreams Gautama had as premonitory of his full enlightenment.Mkhasgrub rje's Fundamentars of the Buddhist Tantras. is obviously fabricated after the rise of the eighteen Buddhist schools. Thomas. they flowered and bore fruit. trans.F..' Then the Buddha. which hopefully coull not pull Buddhism apart. interpreted in context by the dream oracle. D. explains the dream as foretelling the degenerate times when men wjll be shortlived and young girls will cohabit with men as mature women do and so conceive and bear children. Lessing and Alex wayman (Indo-Iranian Monographs. No. 48. reveals the tendency. The Buddhist monks have confessional and meditative procedures.

Tson-kha-pa's biography contains many prophetic dreams.this portends happinessof oneself and country.y halfrealized. at the centre of which there stood on a hillock a small Buddhist temple. p.. TheEpic of Gesar 1965)' Appendix. Indian pandits in the Lancl of snow (calcutta : Firma K. cit.. p. Among the ominous omens.Bs It was also a prophecy about Tsonkha-pa. is an auspicefor movingupward in society. In some caseshe first saw in dream a teacher later to be important in his life. L. 217. he (found him to be) identicalwith (the monk) of the dream. dreamt by a second person.).'hite Umbrella Lady). . it soundedan unfathomably great sound. those of the secondlvatch in six months.Significance of Dreams in India and Tibet vikrama Sila. and both had dream omens. 465-664oEsnoul. cit. op. "The Emperor. Tsha-go-pa saw in dream two great white conchshellsdescendfrom the sky and fall into his coat flap. while those of the third watch are alread. as in the caseof the aged larna Khyunpo-lha.fasted and worshipped near the Jo-bo statue of Sirkyamuni in Lhasa. says : "The effect of sosaratchandra Das. If one dreams of hearing tales of praise while surrounded by a retinue of servants. Instantly they merged into one. if one dreams of the sunrise and dispelling of darkness. (Delhi : sper khan. one fears for men and others in the house and should call upon Sitatapatra (the v. written much later when the night was divided into quarters rather than thirds. op. 66. portrayed(the dreammonk) on the wall of his hall. if one dreams that a house cavesin or is ruined by fire. This was an auspice of a great spread and enhancement of the Buddha's teaching. once he and a disciple" Tsha-go-pa. Among the auspicious ones. when shan-wu-woi arrive<l. applying the paints himself. Lessing call attentionto the story that the Emperor Hsuan-tsung dreamed that he hadmet an eminent monk oi unusual appearaoce. repository of the Yoga tantra.. pp. The card files of the late F. He rvas told that there he would meet witir a female ascetic who coulcl tell him all that he wished to know. seeaisothelistin Nebesky-wojkowitz.a' The Kdlaprt kaiika. In the Appendix to the Tibetan Gesar epic there is a page devoted to each dream analysis in terms of good and bad omens. sTManuscript of Tson-kha-pa's biographycompiledby Arex wayman. when he took that in hand and blew upon The Atharua-veda tradition holds that dreams in the first rvatch of the night bring their fruit in the year. 1965)."36 Also.' s8Manuscripi of Tson-kha-pa's biography..B. selohponTcnzin Namcak(ed. Mukhopadhyay.

Sinha adopts the Western terminology "presentative theory" and o'representative theory. whether in the first part. 'dreamsbefore dawn will be realized in twelve days.cit. in each. In the Indian philosophical context.408 Buddhist Insight 'dreams during the first quarter of the night will be realized in a year. 30-33.understands passage. the influence of dreams in the 3rd quarter will be evidcnt in a month. Prabhdkara's representativetheory comes in for weighty blows f.op. the great Veddntin.rom many quarters.op." The Nyaya-VaiSeqikaschool mostly held to the presentativetheory wherein a dream cognition is explained as a perception of the mind itself in retirement when the external sense organs have . the Sanskrit azAfigavijja.II. Then he woke up and his dream vanished. THE NATURE OF A DREAM philosophical treatment of the dream is especially interesting.p. If the eye as a sense organ enables perception of forms."Ea The classical schools of Indian philosophy took two basically 'different interpretations of a dream. or last part. dreams before sunrise announce their effects in a day. middle part. the Afigauijjd claims it is important to notice whether the dream occurred in the increasing phases of the moon or decreasingphasesand. 236. a3Ram krishna. that of dreams of the 2d quarter. including Sankara. Mylapore : Sri Ramakrishna Math. A man dreamt of a tiger. The viewpoint is well stated by Ramakrishna : "ft is not easy to get rid of illusion.amount to sixty degreesof lunar motion. which each . 190. and not sounds. 'The .. The Mimarysakas with Prabhakara as spokesman held to the representative theory that dream consciousness amounts to a false recollection. It lingers even after the attainment of knowledge.e two positions clear. 44Sinha. Tales and parables of Sri Ramalcrishna (2d ed. Mahdydna Buddhism and Hindu Vedanta compared the world to a dream in the sense that it is unreal but works regardless of whether we understand it. in'six months. 1947). cit. pp... p.aa To make th. I should say that they just involve the belief or disbelief in the rnind as a sixth sense.ceased to which the Buddhists generally believed. But his heart continued to Palpitate. which require an arThis is the wayIyer."al Again. 308-10.a2 D.

'dreamless sleep in the heart. Abhinavagupta. aeMircea Eliade. they teach that the '"person" (puru. 9.ering. through the five outer sensesbut also displays the revived. 1935). N.ream in the neck. Yoga : Immortality and Freedon (New york : pantheon .traces (satytskdras) "at the time of free imagination. thus perhaps similar in regard to dream as the wandering soul of so-called primitive peoples.eprdrtamaya (vitar). Pandey.hist manouiiiidna as a kind of body that can detach itself from the coarse body . 47K. so also the mind-"because it is a senseorgan like other sense organs. 252.' The philosophical interpretation of dream in India began espe'cially rvith the upanisadic formulation of four states : waking. conceived of as mirrorlike because it not only reflects external objects as perceived.a8This subtle body of Hinduism agrees with the Budd. c.a6 Hence this manouijfiana is equivalent to Kashmere Saivism's buddhi.the d.a) has those four states when dwelling in the four places. Parts I-IV (1962). XLIII. Thus. d. and uijiidna (intellectual) sheaths(koia) ali taken together. asBhdvav iv eka. elements of the 46Ibid. 9z. and the fourth in the head. having become equivalent to th.and wander. and 'dream." as Bhdvaviveka stated itab-would have its own partite reality of object not shared as object by the other senses. . when it retires into itseli in sleep. waking state in the navel. ntanomaya (mental). Bhavaviveka explains that th.(Benares : Chowkhamba."a? Dandekar explains that in the Ftrindu view the subtle body (silk.Tar kajvaIa (Ky oto-Tokyo photogra..rma-iartra)is the basis for dream consciousness. Dandekar.'ae rhe Buddhist tantras explain that the white and red. xcv r. hence a presentation of that perception alone. p. 1958). certain later upanisads took a metaphysical and rnystically physiological rather than philosophical turn and gave rise in time to the special viewpoints of the tantra.lSignificanceof Dreams in India and Tibet 'ear.Therefore. "Man in Hindu Thought.phi c reprint). namely.e perception that is based on the sixth-sensemind (manouijfrdna) and that has the dharmas ("mentals" or "natures") as 'object is what perceives the dream. although the texts I have seen do not spell out the 'owand. 128. to which the five external sense organs cannot contribute... p. an Historical and philosophical study . remembrance. p. and a state that is the first three all in all. dream. 48R. deep sleep.Bocks." Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute.reamis its own object.

Tantrasection. These methods are rnuch practiced by Tibetan lamas." saChen-chi Chang. (1973). is believed to be pronounced or told by a god. szMkhas grub rje. op. Indeed. This formulation of the situation rationalizes the abovementioned correspondenceof dream to dissociated speech.El It makes us recall the Jaina verse above cited about the dream being told by a god when a mantra is recited. the sound with this life of self-sounding is the dream condition of sound. y. So. as also in a work by Tson-kha-pa showing his standpoint. 88-94. the production of an artificial dream state Kriy6 and caryd. | (1962).ream and. N. . prevalent in the Buddhist tantras and in certain ones is called "purifying or exerting the dream" (rmi lam sbyan 6a). In fact. SeealsoA.. sarson-kha.. 7963). This theory of creating a dream state by repeated incantation. as things. implies that the bulk of Lamaist iconography-those fierce and mild deities-amounts to sets of controlled dreams.outlinesof Indianphilosophy (Madras : Adyar. p. 1909).410 Buddhist Insight bodhicitta passing up and down the o'centralchannel" of the body generate those respectivestates and hence stay in the neck at the time of dream. states of dream. thus to evoke a deity.-pa. This alludes to the state when the constant repetition of a mantra rcaches the point where it seems to sound by itself The above cursory survey of the subject should attest to (l) a spirited interest in dreams.onames. being imagined as independent of the mind. dhist Tantras(SamuelWeiser. cit. Furthermore." the madhyamd "middling" form correspondsto d. or. 51P. the tantric machinations aim at a mixing (sre ba) of the. in the southern Saiva formulation. in regard to their nature and purport and (2) to the attempt to use them widely in literature and even in some techniques of yoga. in the theory of four forms of vdc. and waking to attain the fourth state. vor. Srinivasa Iyengar." Historyof Religions..b' There were also numerous speculationsin corresponding terms. is the kind of speech dissociated from consciousness. : UniversityBooks. Dmar khrid (Kyoto-Tokyophotographic reprint). g4. wayman. and the method of one of thesesectsis well set forth by chen-chi chang. meditation of' "dwelling in the flame and in the sound. T.Teachings of TibetanYoga(New Hyde park. deep sleep."FemaleEnergyand symbolism in the Buddhist Tantras.. or "speech. both in India and ribet. soAlex wayman. No. CLIX. I could have.Budrr.New york. pp.

has a distinct tradition of its own. perhaps affiliated with the rest of the Flimalaya area as well as with china.Significance of Dreams in India andTibet 411. . but enough has been presented to suggest that Tibet. stressed more the differences between the Indian and Tibetan traditions. despite being swamped by Indian Buddhism in its classical and late forms.

244-295. I find it possible to treat the principal issues in even briefer compass. I. zSuRrNoReNarn DescuprA. The old word mantra came in time to have specializedusages. FROM THE VEDA DOWN TO BUDDHIST TANTRIC PRACTICE The subject of mantra is of course too vast for a single article. especially in terms of secondary sources. although Gondal in one essay has an excellent coverage. An OId Indiqn Theory The old Indian division of the Veda was into Mantra and Brdhmalta. The Indian Mantra. and also the power of sacrifice which could bring about the desired result. . Cambridge. 1963. Pdlini also U. while the Mantra is the sacrifice itself. Dasgupta writes. duly performed sacrifice. "The word Brahman originally meant in the earliest Vedic literature. GoNoa. our procedure will be to lay a foundation of the theme in the old Brahmanical literature. and finally to venture conclusions in the disputed topic of the meaning of mantras. the Brdhmallas are texts dealing with the actual performance of the sacrifice. mantra. 1932.22 THE SIGNIFICANCEOF MANTRAS.. in "Oriens". then show that the performance of mantros is in terms of varieties. Yol. 2ll. in the standard division of the Veda. p. A History of Indian Philosophy. in Buddhist literature."z Therefore.and. to be paired with dharapi and sometimes to overlap this latter word.pp.

London. GaNcaNarHA Jua. pp. and that theBrahma\ds arc norr-nxantrA literature. Acnawara. 4. aJ. 6.2ded. and these two fires are speech and mind. 723'124. it was she wxro yielded his d. 3V. speech reminded him that. 263-266. 22. 319-320. Satupathabrahmarya. 8Cf.. 1911. Satapathabrdhmarya. TeraNc.mentions for this story particularlyAum prajapataye svaha Idam Prajapataye idam na mama.. PartI.brd.G The Anuglta of the Mahdbhdrata expands upon the story?.. Section 21. XII. GaNca PnasanUnaoHyaya. Vdc yielded Prajdpati's desires. saysthat for Palini the mantrameansa sacred formula whethera vedic stanza (rich)or in prose(vajus). Anrsun BsRRrnoaLE KElrn. Vol. . 1969 reprint."s . citesprabhdkara for mantraas including. 180 : "Speechyields all desires.Also both "Mantra" and "Brdhmelxa" are referred to as . A|vamedhaparva. The Aitareya Ara1tyaka. part IV. Tlte Bhagavadgitawith the sanatsujatiya and the Anugitd. XLIII.. EccsrrNc. when he picked mind. 5. M.s a dispute between speechand mind as to which was the better of thetwob.. being dismayed. since the Goddess of speech refusesto speak out on these occasions. However.Indiaas Known to pdryini. "making the parents young again.'_the young parents.1. they appealed to prajdpati for a decision. 1963. 3. 6Pt. pp. 130-131. . from VIII.oall thosevedic passages to whichthelearned menapplythat name'. the eleven Rudras to inhabit the intermediate space. 318. Satpatha Brdhma4am.Speechyields all desiresto him who knows this". 2.8-12. the twelve Adityas to inhabit the sky..'41'4 Buddhist Insight opposes the terms "Mantra" and "Brahmzila. SBE. from I.Critical ed. pp. Thus. 1969.Iaimini. SBE. 163-164. 5J.hmanastates4: rhe Satapatha- "Make ye Agni's paths to lead to the gods !"-as the text so the meaning. II.The Siltras saythat the name"Brahma4a" is appliedto the rest of the veda. VlI.vidhi". tr. as on oblation spoken silently. after Hence. T. the injunction is general in the yajiia. Allahabad. StsE. S. when Prajapati chose the mind. But the Satapathabrdhma\taalso record. Also.. speech. 7K. So from I. saying speech was only its imitator. 'omiscarried" and refused henceforth to be Frajipati's oblation-bearer. Vol. Banaras. are speech and mind. YI.pp. and the All-gods to inhabit the quarters. The purva-Mimarytsd-sutras of . Sotapathabrdhmaila. for by speechman expresses all desires.Vol.Vol. in the sacrificefor prajapati the performer speaks in a low voice. Z. sets forth Prajapati's union by his mind (manas)with speech(vac) to createcreatures. pp.EccnrrNc. to wri the eight Vasusto inhabit the earth. doubtless. 3. Inagreement with the other passagethat these two are paths leading to the gods. Delhi.p. p.

" Also..qiva gariyasl ll rc. The rnoving.. 16 : gho. speech was a fire when it was a duly performed sacrificerr. 13K. there is the practice of reciting certain formulas three times. one can separatoout the instruction.yalr syad uparlciur daiabhir gu1taift I jihvajape Satagu4ahsahasro manasah. Ksrrn. uThe tradition is alluded to in h[anusntrti.mind.Y. . veda and Buddhist Tantric practice 415 Prajlryati mollified the goddess by declaring tliat there are two " kinds of. Svadhd. 2d.g. 1. and thrn Brhadaranyaka. II.d nityam eva pravartate I tayor api ca gito. g5.p. a fourth one. ArvAR." These two kinds are apparently the trvofold flowing. points out that there is no vidya devoted to vik itself.4. the stationary $thauara)and tle moving (iangama).is presumablyAnugitas."The significance of Mantras. This calf.inyor nirgho.moving" mind.from rr. or letter (uarna). p. from speech fire". Her bull is pr64a and calf Manas. The AitareyaAraltyaka. In the later refinement of thi Agnipurdna.ilndredfoid inerits (superior). Thus the Anugttd sayss: "rt (speech)always proceeds aioud. or sound (suora). the manas. random action. Taking the two metaphorical referencesas a guide.Fromthe mouth carne speech. r: o. (the btja-s) svdha and vafat. uThe Indian Mdntra. a h. Madras. by mind a thousandfold. 267.r.the pitrs.4. roAnanddsrama ed. from whom comes the twofold flowing. there woutd be a . uny mantra. to ouit. The foregoing is instructive of the ancient metaphorical language. feedsmen. Two of her udders. in Buddhist nongCritical ed.g.. In agreement. Goirdala cites the Maitrdyaqtisaryltitdr. a third Hanta. 14. The stationary was his own. 58. ed. Adyar. 1962.. 12cf. was in the dominion of the cowlike goddess.. N. p. and of these two. verse 2g). the noiselessone is snperior to the one aloud. trn the case of recitation by tongue.fourfold flowing"ro ' The traditionll is that one uttered in a low voice is superior in the recitation by tenfold merits that loud ones have. fecd the Deva-s. smrtak ll 2. for the meditationon speech "iti. Thus. The Thirty-two vidyd-.becausethe gods are three times in accordance with truth. leading to the gods. 47I : uccair japad viii. ior thc gods cannot b