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WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL
ENERGY
A mega size
power plant project
Constructing two 215 MW dual-fuel
plants on the same site
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A new service
agreement solution
Preventing the unexpected
for peaking power plants
Assessing competence
A new insight into professional skills
management
MARINE
Introducing the
Wärtsilä X82
Better fuel efficiency
for VLCCs
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COVER STORY
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in LN
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 fuel handling
DEAR READER
issue no. 02.2013

in detail
E-mail and feedback: indetail@wartsila.com
2  in detail  
Constructing a mega size power plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Emphasising flexible power generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
A future market design for European systems . . . . 12
Flexible energy eases the integration
of renewables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
A new service agreement solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Enabling fuel efficiency with the Wärtsilä X82 . . . . 30
Increasing flexibility in LNG fuel handling . . . . . . . . . 42
How do we know what you know?
A perspective on professional skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Effective implementation of SEEMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Wastewater treatment in the marine industry . . . . 61
Publisher: Wärtsilä Corporation, John Stenbergin ranta 2, P.O.
Box 196, FIN-00531 Helsinki, Finland | Editor-in-Chief: Marit
Holmlund-Sund | Managing editor and editorial office: Maria
Norrlin-Asplund | English editing: Tom Crockford, Crockford
Communications | Editorial team: Patrick Baan, Marit Holmlund-
Sund, Christian Hultholm, Dan Pettersson, Minna Timo, Marialuisa
Viani, Tarja Vuorela, Virva Äimälä | Layout and production:
Otavamedia Ltd., Helsinki, Finland | Printed: October 2013 by
PunaMusta, Joensuu, Finland ISSN 1797-0032 | Copyright ©
2013 Wärtsilä Corporation | Paper: cover Lumiart Silk 250 g/m²,
inside pages UPM Fine 120 g/m²
ENERGY
MARINE
Contents
Emphasising flexible power generation
Wärtsilä’s gas fired combustion technology is capable of solving
power system stability problems (see page 9).
THIS ISSUE OF IN DETAIL is also available on iPad as a
Wärtsilä iPublication app from Apple's Appstore, as well as in a
browsable web version at http://indetailmagazine.com/.
WE AT WÄRTSILÄ take great pride in the fact that our company is
an acknowledged innovator and technology leader, and that our
strong in-house know-how is used to constantly improve the value
proposition we offer our customers.
PRIME EXAMPLES of our pioneering technology achievements
can be seen in Wärtsilä’s Smart Power Generation concept for
land-based power plants, and the development of solutions that
have helped facilitate the use of gas as a marine fuel. In both these
areas, and more, Wärtsilä continues to lead the way to a more
economically and environmentally sustainable world.
IN THIS EDITION OF IN DETAIL magazine, further evidence of our
technology accomplishments can be found. Each of these articles
points to a path that offers a shorter and faster way to customer
profits, and it is for this that we strive day after day. For it is by
optimising the lifecycle efficiency of Wärtsilä installations around
the world, be they on land or at sea, that we build trust and
reputation and become the preferred partner of all our customers.
WE ARE UNIQUELY POSITIONED to combine this technology
leadership with our global experience, our world class service
support network, and the operational data that has been gained to
reduce and control operational costs. Our work towards implementing
an effective Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) is
just one good example of this, and you can read more about it in
this magazine. In fact, each of the articles illustrates, in one way or
another, how Wärtsilä helps its marine and power plant customers
to achieve fuel cost reductions and important efficiency gains.
I wish you good reading.
Roger Holm
Senior Vice President
4-Stroke
Contributing editor
to this issue of In Detail
iP
ad
W
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WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL | WWW.WARTSILA.COM
in detail  3
INCREASING FLEXIBILITY
IN LNG FUEL HANDLING
The LNGPac™ ISO fuel gas handling system offers a new and flexible approach
that expands the possibilities for LNG as a marine fuel. PAGE 42
Effective
implementation of
SEEMP
Wärtsilä’s new offering
combines SEEMP with service
agreements for greater
customer benefits.
Wastewater
treatment in the marine
industry
Wärtsilä continues to develop
state-of-the-art wastewater
treatment systems for ships
while awaiting regulatory
enforcement.
A future market
design for reliable
electricity systems
in Europe
The changed market
environment requires a new
approach to electricity market
design.
MORE ON PAGE 54
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MORE ON PAGE 61 MORE ON PAGE 12
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Power demand in the Caribbean island of
the Dominican Republic has been growing
at around 5 per cent per annum. At the
same time, the transmission system is weak
and overloaded. Despite its best eforts, the
government has therefore long struggled to
bring uninterrupted power to the island’s
industry and 10 million inhabitants.
To help ease the situation, the
government has allowed independent power
producers to set up projects that will help
meet this growing demand. Meanwhile,
some industries have taken control of the
situation by opting to install their own
power plants in order to secure supply.
Against this background, Wärtsilä is close
to completing one of it’s largest installations
at a site in San Pedro De Macoris, 70 km
east of the capital Santo Domingo.
Under two separate engineering,
procurement, and construction (EPC)
contracts, Wärtsilä is supplying and
installing two almost identical power plants,
known as Quisqueya I and II, with a total
capacity of 430 MW for two separate clients.
Te frst project is a captive power plant that
will power the Pueblo Viejo gold mine
operated by Barrick Gold, while the second
will be an important generating asset for
local independent power producer EGE Haina.
Constructing a mega size
multi-fuel power plant
AUTHOR: Seppo Ti ensuu, Seni or proj ect manager, Power Pl ants
Wärtsilä is close to completing two
215 MW combined cycle power plants
on a single site in the Dominican Republic.
Although a huge undertaking, projects of
this size are fast becoming “business as
usual” for the company.
Fig. 1 – Aerial view of the Quisqueya site in March 2012 when site works had been started.
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
5 in detail
Power from this plant will be sold to the
national grid.
Neither company is a stranger to Wärtsilä,
as both have purchased Wärtsilä plants in
the past. Tis time, each plant will consist
of twelve Wärtsilä 50DF engines and a steam
turbine in combined cycle confguration.
Almost identical
Quisqueya I is located some 100 km from
where its output will be consumed at
the Pueblo Viejo gold mine, northwest of
Santo Domingo.
Barrick Gold holds a 60 per cent interest
in the mine and is the operator, with
Goldcorp owning the remaining interest.
Te mine achieved commercial production
in January 2013 and is expected to ramp up
to full capacity in the second half of the year.
Having invested some USD 5 billion
in the gold mine, being self-sufcient in
power supply is a smart move for Barrick
Gold – both practically and economically.
Currently, Barrick Gold is buying
electricity from the grid, but by building
this new plant it will both ensure an
adequate supply and achieve considerable
cost savings.
Te fact that these two projects are almost
identical and located next to each other is
no coincidence, despite the fact that they
have diferent owners and functions. EGE
Haina had an existing relationship with
Barrick Gold, and initial discussions between
Wärtsilä and Barrick ultimately led to the
same confguration being selected for
the EGE Haina plant. EGE Haina will also
operate the Quisqueya I plant on behalf of
Barrick Gold.
Flexibility is key
EGE Haina is an important operator in the
country and its new power plant will play a
key role in the island’s network. Considering
the size of the total Dominican grid,
the project’s size is signifcant – big enough
to provide frequency support.
Operational and fuel fexibility were big
considerations in the selection of Wärtsilä
technology for the project. In addition to
ofering frequency control with its fast start-
up, the plant ofers high electrical efciency
and can run on gas and liquid fuel.
Fig. 3 – The Quisqueya site management crew.
Santo
Domingo
Caribbean Sea
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
Atlantic Ocean
San Pedro
De Macoris
Fig. 2 – Quisqueya I and II are located in San Pedro De Macoris, 70 km east of the capital
Santo Domingo.
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Introduced in 2007, the new Wärtsilä
50DF with its multi-fuel capability is the frst
large engine to ofer such fexibility.
Te Wärtsilä 50DF allows for fuels to be
switched whilst the engine is in operation.
Tis is a huge beneft in terms of giving
plant owners options as fuel prices fuctuate.
Initially, Quisqueya I and II will burn
HFO until natural gas is available. Although
some gas is available on the island, currently
there is not enough gas for a facility of
this size. Tere is an import terminal but
no pipeline. An installation of this size
requires a separate import terminal and
its own pipeline from the port to the site.
As this could require an investment in the
region of USD 1 billion, it may be some
time before the projects run on gas.
In addition to fuel fexibility, a big plus
compared to gas turbine plants is that
overall plant efciency can be maintained
across a much wider load range by simply
shutting down engines according to power
needs. Since the engine’s introduction, it
has been selected for several projects ahead
of gas turbine-based solutions, and the
Quisqueya plants further verify Wärtsilä’s
strategy for the large power plant sector.
Plant configuration
Apart from some minor diferences on
the fuel treatment systems, the scope of
supply for both plants is almost the same.
In addition to the power generated by
the Wärtsilä 50DF engines, waste heat will
be recovered in a heat recovery steam
generator (HRSG) to generate steam that
is used to drive a single pressure steam
turbine for additional electricity.
Wärtsilä’s scope of supply covers the
engines, auxiliaries and combined cycle
equipment. Te steam turbines were sourced
from Shin Nippon Machinery (SNM) Co.
Ltd, of Japan, while the boilers were
sourced from Aalborg Boilers. Wärtsilä has
responsibility for installing the steam
turbines and boilers as well as the engines
and auxiliaries.
Each Wärtsilä 50DF engine has a power
output of 17 MW, while the contractual
output of each steam turbine is 16.5 MW,
i.e. almost 10 per cent of plant output.
Te steam turbine, however, is designed
so that it is capable of producing 20 MW
if more steam is available. Steam is fed
into the steam turbine at a pressure of
15 bar and a temperature of 335°C.
Cooling is provided by means of
radiators for the engines, and a cooling
tower for the steam turbine.
For each plant, there are two engine halls
each housing six engines. Te steam turbines
are located in a separate building and the
HRSGs are located outdoors. Ofce buildings
are located in a row on one side of the plant
and the tank yard is on another side.
Each project has two fuel storage tanks,
each with a capacity of 14,300 m
3
. Tis is
sufcient storage to allow each plant to run
at full load for around 700-800 hours.
Adapting the schedule
Te site for the two plants occupies an area
of 480,000 m
2
. With such ample space,
achieving the optimum plant layout was
rather straightforward.
One of the major challenges in executing
the project, however, has been the sheer
size of the power plants and the pressure it
placed on the scheduling and contractors.
Te contract for Quisqueya I was signed
in August 2011, while the contract for
Quisqueya II was signed in December.
Te initial plan was that there would be a
4-month gap between the two projects, but
Fig. 4 – The Wärtsilä 50DF offers excellent operational and fuel flexibility.
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
7 in detail
delays caused by factors such as
environmental permitting, meant that both
plants had to be constructed on a very
similar time schedule.
Under normal circumstances, a typical
sequence would be to carry out the
engineering, followed by procurement and
shipment. Foundations are then constructed,
mechanical and electrical equipment is
installed, and then the plant is commissioned.
Te shif in schedule, however, meant that
a large number of tasks had to be carried out
in parallel. For example, two or three engine
halls were worked on simultaneously during
installation works. Tis created a more
crowded site, which put a lot of pressure
on site supervision and the constructors.
Building such a large project on an island
the size of the Dominican Republic was also
a challenge for local contractors, but it did
have its benefts.
During the peak of construction in
the spring of this year, there were around
1400 workers on site. With the total number
of man-hours expected to reach 3.5 million
by completion of the project, the construction
has provided local jobs and boosted
the economy.
Logistical challenge
In addition to supplying and installing the
engines, Wärtsilä’s contract also covered
soil improvement and foundation work.
Although no piling was needed, soil
preparation required the excavation of as
much as 300,000 m
3
of soil, which then had
to be flled with caliche, a type of sedimentary
rock that was brought in from a nearby
quarry.
As both plants are designed to withstand
category 4 hurricanes, building adequate
foundations was another major challenge.
Due to the potentially huge wind loads,
foundations and steel structures had to be
much bigger than usual. Te foundations
required 18,000 m
3
of concrete to be
poured, while the installation of 1700 tons
of reinforced steel, and 3000 tons of steel
superstructures were also necessary.
With site preparation and foundations
complete, the task of delivering equipment
to the site could begin.
Te engines were shipped to Boca Chica
Port in Santo Domingo and then transported
by road to the site. Roads between the port
and site are relatively good, so equipment
delivery went smoothly without any hiccups.
As all materials had to be available on site
when needed, the entire project has been
a huge logistical challenge. Total shipment
volume consisted of more than 1200
containers and 33,500 m
3
of various break
bulk. Getting all the equipment in the right
place at the right time required careful
planning and good coordination of transport
activities.
Responsibility for transportation was
assigned to one main contractor who was in
charge of the collection and ocean transport.
Local transport and coordination was then
subcontracted to a local company.
A storage yard was also rented at the port
so vessels could be unloaded immediately on
arrival prior to the goods being transported
to the site.
Business as usual
In spite of the challenges, construction has
proceeded extremely well thanks to
successful site management, excellent
cooperation with the clients, and fexible
subcontractors.
Despite the challenging schedule, extremely
good health and safety conditions were
maintained, with the LTI < 0,06 (loss time
Fig. 5 – View of the plants showing the four combined cycle units on the left and storage tanks on the right. One of the six-cell steam turbine
cooling towers can be seen in the foreground.
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injury) rate being clearly better than
the target value.
Te fact that such a large project has
progressed smoothly is evidence that
constructing these big combined cycle plants
is no longer a daunting task. Years ago,
reciprocating engine-based plants were
signifcantly smaller. Today, building 200+
MW power plants is in many ways now just
‘business as usual’ for Wärtsilä.
Processes have been put in place and
working methods have been established that
allow power plants of this size to be built
quickly and on schedule.
Quisqueya I and II are further evidence
of this. Site works began in February 2012
and performance tests started in September
2013. With the plants scheduled to be ready
for handover for simple cycle operation this
autumn, this means that from the start of
excavation to simple cycle operation, just 18
months will have passed. Combined cycle
handover is planned for November/
December 2014 , i.e. just 22 months from
the start of site works.
Tis is quite an achievement for a project
of this size, especially when considering
the shortage of resources on the island.
Clearly, Barrick Gold and EGE Haina have
overall been happy with Wärtsilä’s handling
of the projects. In spite of the demands of
the project, communication and cooperation
with both companies has been excellent.
Tese are old clients of Wärtsilä, which
may have been one of the reasons why
Wärtsilä was contracted for the projects, but
their smooth execution reafrms that
Wärtsilä is a good contractor for large or
small projects and provides an excellent
foundation for future cooperation.
Fig. 6 – Impressive Quisqueya site in September 2013, just 18 months from the start of site works.
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
9 in detail
Te share of wind and solar power in many
grids has increased rapidly during the last
few years, especially in Europe and the USA.
Tis trend is sometimes causing severe
problems in stabilising the power systems.
As a result, it can be foreseen that in the
future all electricity generation, with the
exception of nuclear power and power from
renewable energy sources, will need to be
run on a completely fexible basis, responding
rapidly to the prevailing needs of the grid.
Undoubtedly, the business of power production
is profoundly changing.
Wärtsilä's gas fred combustion technology
has the fexibility to enable maximum use of
fuctuating wind and solar energy, while
ensuring optimal power production with
the highest total efciency. While other
thermal power generating systems typically
need to be started an hour or more
beforehand to reach full load, advanced
power plant solutions can reach full load
for power generation in just a few minutes.
For several years already, Wärtsilä's R&D
activities have focused heavily on developing
means to achieve superior fexibility in power
generation. As a result, the company is
currently the global leader in this technology
feld. Highly competitive cost efciency is
another major target of Wärtsilä's
development work.
Te aim is to continue to improve and to
fnd the most cost efective solutions for
power generation. Te company’s Research
& Development team, consisting of hundreds
of experts in diferent disciplines, is working
Emphasising flexible power generation
AUTHORS: Tuul a Franck, Seni or Manager, Medi a and Stakehol der Rel ati ons
Thomas Häggl und, Vi ce Presi dent , Power Pl ants Technol ogy
Developing superior flexibility in power
generation and highly competitive
cost efficiency have long been major
focus areas in Wärtsilä's technology
development work.
Fig. 1 – Wärtsilä's gas fired combustion technology is capable of solving power system stability problems.
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to constantly improve the technology and
to develop Wärtsilä’s ofering as a total
solutions provider. Furthermore, an important
area of research and development is the use
of new fuels. Tis work has resulted in
power solutions with market leading fuel
fexibility, making them extremely competitive.
When rapid up and down ramps of power
generation are necessary to stabilize the
system load, Wärtsilä's gas fred combustion
technology ofers the highest total efciency
on the market. Te essence of this fast-access
efciency is that the power generation can
be started and stopped so rapidly that one
could speak in terms of generating power
in pulses. Te length of such a ”pulse”,
containing one cycle of power generation,
could typically be from half an hour to
a few hours.
Te Wärtsilä system reaches full load
for power generation in just a few minutes,
while other thermal power generating
systems typically need to be started an hour
or more beforehand to reach full load.
Wärtsilä’s technology makes it possible to
achieve fast ramps up and down that take just
one minute, while providing very high total
efciency for the cycle of power generation.
Te shorter a single cycle of power
generation is, the greater the importance
of a quick starting time to reach full load
and total efciency during the cycle. For
example, when running a 60 minute cycle, a
Wärtsilä gas power plant can operate well
at full load for more than 50 minutes.
With a net electrical efciency of over
45 per cent at full load, the efciency for
the whole cycle thus exceeds 44 per cent.
A short ramp up time, together with high
total efciency, further implies that the
exhaust emissions are minimized. Emissions
from power generation are generally
measured at full load, since they vary and
are difcult to measure during the start-up
phase. With short up and down ramps you
save in fuel costs and reduce emissions.
Speed and flexibility needed in future
Coal combustion is not suitable for use as
fast regulating power, while to get the full
efect from combined cycle gas turbines
(CCGT), the system has to be started at least
one hour before power is needed. As a
consequence, when used as back-up, turbines
in these power plants are continuously
spinning and thus lose a lot in total efciency.
Furthermore, conventional plants have to
run for many hours at a time to make power
generation proftable. In order to generate
a positive cash fow, today’s high efciency
gas fuelled power plants need to be run for
more than a couple of hours at a time.
On the spot market electricity is
normally traded by the hour, but in fact
the fuctuations in both demand and
price are a lot faster than that - and are
accelerating. Clearly, the business of
power production has changed radically
and is becoming ever harsher. For a
power plant that is not fast enough, yet is
working as back-up to the growing load
from renewables like wind and solar, the
situation is getting more and more difcult.
It is not just a question of levelling out the
peaks and valleys in the fuctuating power
output from renewables. Te real challenge
is that at any point in time the decision
must be made as to when is the right time
to start up or shut down diferent power
units. At the same time, one has to take
into account the fact that the power plant
is slow in starting, and once having started
it, one must be able to sell the electricity
over a period of several hours, and not to
produce it at a loss. Forecasting the daily
load pattern is no longer sufcient, since
the production of wind and solar power
needs also to be taken into consideration.
It is, therefore, predictable that in the
40,000
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Fig. 2 – Variable wind.
Wind Power output major wind energy countries Europe,
January 2012
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
11 in detail
future all power generation, with the
exception of nuclear power and power
from renewables, must be run completely
fexibly, according to the prevailing grid
needs. Such a power generating system
has to be extremely fast and fexible.
Problems in stabilizing power systems
predicted
International energy policies are changing,
and the European Union, for instance,
continues to persuade its member countries
to increase their share of energy production
from renewable energy sources. Tis trend
implies severe problems in stabilizing
these power systems.
For example, within a very short period of
time Germany has installed a large amount
of photovoltaic systems feeding solar power
into the grid. Additionally, Germany had
previously invested in extensive wind power
installations, which now produce some eight
per cent of the country's electricity. As a
result, there are indications of increasing
instability in the German grid and, as
a consequence, a need for fast regulating
power generation.
Production of electricity with wind
turbines is not stable since it fuctuates all
the time with occasional rapid changes.
Adding electricity produced with solar
panels makes the generation of electricity
even more unstable – even though the daily
and annual rhythm of solar conditions
should be easier to forecast than wind
conditions. To this should be added the fact
that the storage of enough electricity to
level out these fuctuations is very difcult,
if not impossible, to achieve.
When peaks and lows in energy
production from renewable energy sources
are local, a grid covering an extensive
geographical area can level out the largest
fuctuations. However, occasionally not
even an all-European grid is large enough to
balance the fuctuations. Te study of some
historical data shows that the fuctuations
in the combined wind power output
from three leading European wind power
countries – Spain, Germany and Denmark
– are not necessarily levelled out, but are in
fact somewhat reinforced. (see Figure 2)
Fast and fexible balancing power is
needed, not only to enable more renewable
energy, but also to enable adequate use of
today's fossil fuel power plants. Without
fexibility, the benefts from renewable
energy are lost in lower efciencies and
higher emissions from the existing plants.
There are several features that contribute towards achieving a fast start-up, and
the technical solutions are continuously being further fine-tuned. An example of
what can be accomplished is the two power stations that Wärtsilä has supplied
to Elering AS, the Estonian transmission system operator. The plants are under
construction at Kiisa, near Tallinn, and will have a combined output of 250 MW.
The Kiisa installations are intended to secure the availability of Estonia's
electricity supply in case of sudden drops, and are capable of compensating
for a system failure within 10 minutes. The 27 Wärtsilä 34DF engines
involved will operate individually on average for 200 hours per year.
Heat pumps and efficient insulation are used to keep the temperature
inside the engine hall relatively high during stand-by. In that way the loss
of heat in the engines during stand-by can be reduced and, consequently,
the need for pre-heating prior to starting can also be lessened.
Pressure air speed up the engine (starting air), and when defined speed reach
the fuel supply start and followed by ignitions. Using compressed air makes the
procedure fast, and no electricity is needed to start the system. When the engine
is warm at start, it reaches full speed in 30 seconds, after which it is individually
synchronised and connected to the grid. Adding load and ramping up the
engine to full load takes approximately two minutes with a warm engine.
Also ramping down is a fast procedure, normally taking about one minute. While
compressed air is used to get a rapid start, letting off the pressure from an engine
by opening a valve is an efficient way to instantly stop the engine, if needed.
During the ramp down, preparations are made at the same time for the next
cycle of power generation with, for instance, residual gas being vented out.
Within five minutes the engine is ready to start again and the heat remains in
the engine for quite a while. The number of starts and cycles of operation is not
relevant since the engines are not affected by how often they are started.
FULL SPEED IN
30 SECONDS WITH
A WARM WÄRTSILÄ ENGINE
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Market situation in the EU
Reliable operations in electric power
systems having increasing amounts of
Renewable Energy Sources (RES) require
increasing balancing capabilities. Tis
is because the output from variable RES
generation is never fully predictable
(forecast errors), and has variability that
adds to the normal variations in electricity
demand. Since RES production generally
has feed-in priority, the remaining power
generation capacity has to adjust its
output in order to balance total electricity
production and demand. Electricity
demand, as well as the output from RES,
can change rapidly and not necessarily
in the same direction. System operators
therefore need to have capacity available
that can respond quickly to these changes.
Te impact of RES deployment on
electricity markets is severe. Variable RES
generates electricity at very low marginal
costs and thermal capacity is, therefore,
pushed higher up in, or completely out
of, the merit order. Tis means reduced
operating hours and less revenue for
thermal capacity. In addition, subsidized
RES output depresses electricity prices,
which makes the feasibility of thermal
plants even more challenging. Termal
Future market design for reliable
electricity systems in Europe
AUTHORS: Matti Rautki vi , General Manager, Li asi on Of f i ce, Power Pl ants
Mel l e Krui sdi j k, Market Devel opment Di rector Europe, Power Pl ants
De-carbonising the energy sector is one of
the main objectives of the EU. To meet this
objective, significant amounts of variable
renewable capacity have been installed
already and a lot more will be deployed
by 2020. This development raises the
need for more flexible generation in power
systems, and a new kind of electricity
market design to reward flexible
generation.
This article is based on a paper that
won the best paper award in Power Gen
Europe 2013.
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
13 in detail
capacity is still needed in systems with high
levels of RES to balance the system, but the
proftability of these assets is jeopardized.
Several EU member states have raised
a concern that, as a result of plant closures
and the lack of investment in new
capacity, there may become insufcient
capacity available under current market
arrangements. Tere is a potential market
failure that is associated with the perceived
political risk of allowing prices to reach
high levels at peak times. Such high
prices would be required to remunerate
plants running at lower load factors, so
that they are able to recover fxed costs
whilst operating for only a small number
of hours per year. Tis issue has been
termed the “missing money” problem.
However, there is another issue that
must be addressed since it is not simply
“capacity” that is required in high RES
systems. Consideration must also be given
to delivering the “right types” of capacity,
and in particular, that a sufciently fexible
mix is available. Without appropriate
price signals, there is an equally important
concern around “missing fexibility”.
The value of flexibility
If more intermittent renewable power
sources are to be implemented into
power systems, more fexible generation
capacity has to be added to the mix as
well. Tough this has been recognised
among transmission system operators
(TSOs) and market players, the value
of fexibility has not been quantifed or
identifed in the market arrangements.
To identify and quantify the market value
of fexibility, Wärtsilä has developed
several studies around this topic with
the approach summarised in Figure 1.
Te savings that fexibility in power
systems can provide has clearly been
demonstrated by two recent studies
commissioned by Wärtsilä. Te frst
study, carried out by Redpoint Energy and
London Imperial College concerning the
UK market, is covered in another article in
this magazine (See article "Flexible energy
allows efcient and cost efective integration
of renewables into power systems"). Te
analysis demonstrated that, depending on
the wind scenario, fexible gas generation
could save UK consumers
Fig. 1 – An approach for defining the value of flexibility.
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Optimize
the operation of
capacity mix to
minimise costs and
emissions
Required inputs
available
Capabilities and features
of technologies
Weather and load data
System requirements
Cost optimized
system operations
for each hour
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Objectives of future
energy system?
CO
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reduction
Reliability
Cost
Available
technologies
Capacity scenarios
Physical system
layout
STEP 1
Smart
Power
System
Affordable
Reliable Sustainable
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System operating costs
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Reasons behind
results
How much savings
and CO
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can be achieved
through more flexible
generation?
STEP 3
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ENERGY MARKET FLEXIBILITY MARKET CAPACITY MARKET
Purpose
Optimal utilization of assets
to generate electricity
Purpose
Efficient provision of flexibility
to meet system requirements
Purpose
Ensure capacity adequacy
Objectives
• Low cost of electricity
• Low CO
2
emissions
Objectives
• Reliable system in all
situations
• Low cost of system balancing
• Maximum utilization of low
cost generation assets
Objectives
• Adequate capacity
• Bankability of new
investments
• Keep competitive generation
assets in the system
Market setup
• Liquid short term markets
• Efficient competition
• Balancing responsibility
for all market participants
• Transparent price formation
Market setup
• Transparent price for
flexibility
• Flexibility traded in short term
• Efficient competition on
electricity and flexibility
market
Market setup
• Central capacity market
• Competitive auctions
• Competition on equal basis
• Efficient market entry
and exit
Investment signals
• Electricity price
• Electricity demand
• Merit order
Investment signals
• Need for flexibility
• Flexibility price
• Flexibility capabilities
Investment signals
• Required capacity payment
to support investments
Approach to market design for high RES system
Fig. 2 – Market design for high RES power systems.
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
15 in detail
between GBP 380 million and GBP 550
million per year by 2020 through reduced
balancing costs. Te modeled savings
are estimated to be signifcantly higher
in 2030 (GBP 580 million to GBP 1,540
million) since the system’s volume of wind
generation is anticipated to increase further.
In another paper, KEMA DNV analyzed
the Californian system for 2020 with
a 33 renewables penetration [http://
www.smartpowergeneration.com/spg/
downloads]. In this context two alternative
scenarios were modeled. Te frst
scenario covered the additional capacity
requirement of 5.5 GW with traditional
gas turbines, and the second with Smart
Power Generation (SPG). Te study shows
that by introducing 5.5 GW of SPG instead
of 5.5 GW of gas turbines in the system,
Californian consumers could save around
900 MUSD per year, representing some 11
savings in system level operating costs.
Based on the studies, it is evident that by
including SPG into the generation portfolio,
total system operating costs in systems
with high penetrations of RES are reduced.
Tis is due to the specifc characteristics of
SPG, such as ultra quick start-up, that allow
this technology to provide fexibility to
the system at much lower costs compared
to other thermal generating technologies
that have to run part-loaded. In addition,
by adding SPG to the capacity mix of a
power system, other thermal plants no
longer need to run part-loaded and can
produce electricity at higher efciency,
which reduces the overall generating costs.
A system without SPG can provide fexibility
by running plants at part load, but such
actions signifcantly increase the cost to
consumers, as is shown in the studies.
Te value of fexibility in the examined
60 GW (UK and California) peak load systems
having high RES penetration is analysed as
being more than EUR 500 million per year.
Translating this to a European size system,
the value of fexibility is approximated to
be more than EUR 5 billion per year, already
in 2020. Consequently, fexibility should
be one of the key parameters of future
power system and energy market designs.
Current market challenges
Lately, there has been an active debate
regarding capacity mechanisms in many
European Union member states. In
February 2013, the European Commission
asked for input from stakeholders on
potential ways to secure capacity adequacy
and system reliability in a future system
with high amounts of RES. However, such
a power system also calls for fexibility,
not just capacity. As clearly indicated in
the studies mentioned above, in high RES
power systems fexibility is no longer an
invisible and low cost side product of
power generation, but is a key factor in
power system design and optimization.
Tough the studies presented earlier
clearly show the beneft of having
fexibility in the capacity mix, current
market arrangements do not refect the
value of fexibility, nor do they incentivize
investments in fexibility. Tere are several
issues within current market setups
that “hide” the cost of infexibility into
consumer bills, and consequently prevent
investments in new fexible capacity.
Simultaneously, energy-only market setups
are struggling to keep capacity adequacy
at healthy levels in this new reality.
The electricity market vision
Wärtsilä studied several electricity market
models with the aim of developing an
electricity market model that will incentivize
fexibility and ensure capacity adequacy for
systems having high levels of variable RES.
Te market model should secure capacity
adequacy, incentivize the right type of
capacity, and lead to lower costs to the
consumer. Te overall market model design
that will deliver this is shown in Figure 2,
and is based on two markets existing next to
each other. Te Energy Market, consisting
of the wholesale electricity markets (day-
ahead, intra-day, and the balancing
market), together with a Flexibility
Market establishes a competitive market
environment where all market players can
compete on an equal basis. A competitive
Capacity Market would be introduced only
if needed, to secure capacity adequacy.
A competitive Energy Market forms the
basis of the market model. Te objectives
of energy markets are to provide low cost
electricity and low CO2 emissions in all
situations through competitive short term
markets. Cost refecting imbalance prices
will increase the imbalance exposure of all
market participants (where all participants
are responsible for balancing), which creates
the incentive to be in balance at gate closure
(when the market trading is closed and TSO
takes control of the system). Supply and
demand for energy closer to gate closure is,
therefore, expected to increase because each
market player, in order to reduce
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out-of-balance penalty risk, will take
eforts to be in a balanced position at gate
closure. Tis will be done either through
changed positions within its own portfolio
of options (changing outputs from their
own power plants, DSR, etc.), or through
trading. Tis development enhances the
liquidity in intra-day markets, and provides
additional income for fexible assets
through balancing and intra-day markets,
because these units will be in a position to
supply energy shortly before gate closure.
However, it would be hard, or even
impossible, for providers of fexibility to
capture the total value of fexibility through
energy prices only. Terefore, in addition
to the Energy Market, we propose the
introduction of a market place for fexibility.
A competitive Flexibility market would be
a day-ahead option market for having the
fexibility to increase/decrease energy the
following day. Te fexibility market would
replace the existing procurement strategies
of TSOs, and would make the procurement
of system services more transparent to
market players. TSOs would procure the
required fexibility (reserves) to satisfy the
system needs for the following day from
the fexibility market, when the volumes
are not locked away under long-term
contracts. Te fexibility market would also
be open for market participants to procure
fexibility to hedge against intra-day prices
and imbalance exposure. Te key features
of the fexibility market are as follows:
Buyer of fexibility: Voluntary
procurement of market participants. Te
TSO would always procure fexibility for
the system needs, but the procurement
of market participants could reduce
the amount procured by the TSO.
Volume: Market participants determine
their own volume requirements, depending
on their willingness to hedge against price
risk, and the TSO provides the backstop in
the Day Ahead (DAH) auctions to ensure
that the system has the fexibility needed.
Te total volume requirement of fexibility
is known through the TSO procurement
strategy, which provides stable volumes
and liquidity in the fexibility market.
Products: Multiple products (e.g. 5 min
ramping, 30 min ramping etc.) defned
by the TSO in consultation with industry
players, to ensure the needs of the system
are met. All products require an option to
deliver, and increase or decrease in physical
energy within a future settlement period.
Timeframes: Te DAH timeframe
aligns (or allows co-optimisation) with
the energy market, and provides a daily
reference price for diferent fexibility
products. A secondary within-day market
for market participants and the TSO to
trade their options as more information
emerges. Clear DAH reference prices can
allow long-term fnancial contracts to
be struck between fexibility providers
and market players or the TSO.
Delivery: Te option holder (market
participant or the TSO) may exercise the
option by calling for energy to be delivered
prior to gate closure. Self-provided
fexibility must provide information to
the TSO during the day as to whether or
not it will be exercised. Afer gate closure
any unused options would be exercisable
by the TSO in the balancing market.
Cash fows: Flexibility cleared through
the DAH auctions (other than self-provided
reserve) is paid a market clearing availability
fee (per MW) for the contract period (next
24 hours or hourly products). A utilisation
fee (per MWh) is paid upon exercise.
Unused fexibility must be ofered to the
balancing market at the fxed utilisation
fee, for dispatch and payment by the TSO.
Cost recovery: Te option holder
pays the availability fee to the fexibility
providers. Availability fees incurred
by the TSO could be recovered via an
information imbalance charge levied on
out-of-balance market participants.
Monitoring: Te TSO would certify the
physical capability of capacity providers
seeking to ofer at DAH auctions. Any
options exercised would be notifed to the
TSO in the same way as physical energy.
A central Capacity market would be
established if the Energy + Flexibility
markets are not delivering investments, or
are not able to keep existing plants in the
system. Te purpose of the capacity market
is to ensure capacity adequacy by providing
so-called administrative capacity payments,
which compensate for the “missing money”
from market operations. Te future markets
(Energy and Flexibility) are volatile by
their nature, while investors may require
stable cash fows to be able to fnance
their new projects. In this case, a capacity
market could enhance the bankability of
new projects. A capacity market (like any
capacity mechanism) should concentrate
on securing adequate capacity, rather
than specifying what type of capacity is
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
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Criteria Description Evaluation
Impact on
capacity adequacy
Delivers adequate peak capacity to mini-
mise risks to security of supply
If required, the introduction of market wide capacity
mechanism ensures capacity adequacy
Transparent and competitive market provides market
based investment incentives
Impact on
flexibility
Enables the value of flexibility to be trans-
parently revealed, supporting the required
volume of new investment
Transparent market for flexibility at the DAH stage can
create a liquid reference price to support investment
Reduced imbalance exposure provides strong incentives
for market to procure flexibility
SO provides a backstop to ensure that the system needs
are met, and to aid liquidity
Facilitates
competition,
entry and exit
Encourages efficient competition and new
entry, as well as retirements where this is
economic
DAH flexibility market with clear reference price could
encourage new entry from flexibility providers
Capacity mechanism may encourage older less flexible
plant to remain on the system. Therefore essential to
implement flexibility market before capacity market.
Impact on
financing
Long-term bankability for investors, and
ability to attract diverse range of investors
and sources of finance
Flexibility market revenues allows flexible capacity
to be more competitive in the Capacity Market,
enhancing bankability
Investment on project finance basis may not be viable
Strong cost targeting could encourage joint venture
opportunities, for example between wind developers
and flexible capacity providers
Impact on
affordability
Consumers pay no more than necessary
to deliver decarbonisation and security
of supply
All costs visible for market players
Competition in all stages
SO may be more risk averse than the market with respect
to both capacity and flexibility, increasing overall costs to
consumers
Reliance on
well-functioning
wholesale market
Importance of a liquid and well-function-
ing wholesale market to the success of
the model
Within-day liquidity likely to be important to facilitate
secondary trade in flexibility
Reliance on
central decision
making
Extent to which investment decisions are
made by a central body
Central determination of adequacy requirement
Cost of flexibility visible to market players and flexibility
market providing market based tools to hedge against
imbalance risk
Complexity
Complexity of the market arrangements
and the subsequent investment decision
Complexity in central determination of adequacy
requirement
Definition of SO role as backstop flexibility provider
may be difficult to design, monitor and enforce
Need clear mechanism to reduce imbalance exposure
for hedged market participants if flexibility option hold
after gate closure
Table 1 – Market model evaluation.
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needed. It should be technology neutral
and treat all forms of capacity (demand
and supply) on an equal basis. A well
functioning energy market, together
with the fexibility market, would reward
capabilities when the capacity market
only provides the “all-in price” required
by investors to make the investment.
Evaluation of the proposed market design
An optimal power system provides
afordable, reliable, and sustainable
electricity to consumers. Te electricity
market structure should provide incentives
to investors to invest in new power
generation that meet the set system
objectives. It is relatively easy to design
a market model meeting one or two of
the set cornerstones of an optimal power
system, or that favours some technologies
over others. To assess the feasibility and
compatibility of the proposed market
model, evaluation criteria have been
developed for this purpose. Tese criteria
assess the market model from diferent
perspectives, taking into account the most
relevant stakeholders. Te developed
evaluation criteria and the high level
impact assessment are shown in Table 1.
How to make the market work
Today, the capacity mechanism is at the
center of the EU electricity debate due
to the risk of capacity shortfalls. While
continuously trying to ensure capacity
adequacy, adding fexibility to the system
should be higher on the agenda. Tere
are potential market based approaches
to incentivize investments in fexibility,
which do not require administrative
cash fows, but call for a reallocation
of system costs from the TSO to the
market, making the cost of fexibility
visible for market players. To develop a
reliable, afordable, and sustainable power
system, several actions are needed:
Firstly, understand that the energy
market environment has dramatically
changed due to increasing amounts
of variable RES generation, and
that this new environment requires
increased services (fexibility).
Next, recognize the value of fexibility
and make it visible for market
players through cost refective
imbalance prices and by developing
short term energy markets.
Ten create a transparent market place
explicitly for fexibility so as to enable
the efcient procurement of system
services, and to provide clear market
signals for investors in fexibility.
Finally, ensure market entry for
new players and the bankability
of new projects by introducing
a Capacity market, if the Energy
and Flexibility markets are not
delivering the investments.
To avoid the risk of “locking-in” a wrong
type of capacity, it is important to note
that the above steps are implemented
prior to this latter step can be considered.
Many market players are calling for a market
based approach regarding the EU electricity
market structure. It is possible to design an
electricity market that provides investment
signals for the right type of capacity, while
also ensuring capacity adequacy at the
same time. However, this requires a new
approach to electricity market design,
since old tools are no longer suitable in
the changed market environment.
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
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Flexible energy allows efficient and
cost effective integration of renewables
into power systems
AUTHORS: Matti Rautki vi , General Manager, Li asi on Of f i ce, Power Pl ants
Mel l e Krui sdi j k, Market Devel opment Di rector Europe, Power Pl ants
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A recent Wärtsilä study in UK study provides strong evidence that by introducing
flexibility into power systems that have increasing levels of solar and wind sourced
generation, system efficiency can be increased and consumer costs can be lowered.
The changing energy market environment
Te generation mix in electricity markets
around the world is changing. Governments
are putting policies in place that address
the energy ‘trilemma’ facing their countries,
ofen in response to national or regional
targets that mandate a change in one or more
areas. Tis trilemma is widely accepted
to consist of:
Environmental sustainability:
countries need environmentally
sustainable ways of generating electricity,
without long term dependence
on burning fossil fuels that have
associated carbon emissions.
Security of supply: countries are seeking
ways to ensure that ‘the lights stay on’
in the midst of either growing demand
or old generating capacity shutting
down, which can be exacerbated by the
intermittency of renewable generation.
Afordability: increasing electricity
prices are a concern for all consumers,
and have the potential to disrupt economic
growth and throw households into fuel
poverty.
Eforts to de-carbonise and improve security
of supply ofen need to be balanced with
afordability. Policies for supporting
domestic industries, especially in times of
economic downturn and recession, are ofen
necessary. Renewable and low carbon forms
of generation have a vital role to play in the
sustainability efort, and, ofen, in security
of supply. Te key focus for the deployment
of renewables in a 2020 timeframe is wind
and solar generation. In 2010, wind and
solar’s contribution to the world’s gross
electricity production stood at just under
3, and the IEA estimates that wind and
solar would have to grow by 16 and 21
respectively by 2020 in order to follow the
pathway required under its 450 scenario
1
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The increasing need for flexibility
Wind and solar forms of renewable energy
are intermittent by nature since their
output fuctuates as a result of weather
conditions. Te output from wind turbines
fuctuates with changes in wind speed,
while solar PV output fuctuates as varying
cloud cover impacts light intensity.
Without fexible forms of energy to balance
increasing intermittency, the system
could become unstable and insecure. It
could lead to the system operator taking
actions to curtail power from wind, solar
or other infexible generation in order to
maintain system security, and in extreme
cases could also lead to black-outs.
Flexibility can be defned as the ability to change the level of
electricity output (or consumption) in response to an instruction
or another signal. All forms of electricity production or
consumption are fexible over certain timeframes. For example
a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) can fex from producing
no electricity at standstill to full output over the course
of a couple of hours. Similarly some industrial processes take
hours or even days to entirely shut down to bring their
electricity consumption to zero. Response time is the critical
diferentiator for evaluating fexible forms of energy in
the context of balancing intermittent renewables. Flexible
forms of energy must be able to ramp their output at the
same rate that wind and solar output fuctuates, so that a
balance can be maintained. Systems need to respond across
diferent timeframes, from seconds to minutes to hours.
Tis presents an increased challenge
for parties responsible for managing fows
across the electricity networks, especially
where the output of many wind and solar
farms are correlated within an area as a
result of regional weather patterns. In
most countries this is a role carried out by
the transmission system operator (TSO).
However, it is also a challenge for energy
companies looking to ensure that the
energy that they buy or generate is sufcient
for the electricity that their consumers
need. Electricity storage technologies are
either not yet commercially developed,
or are not available in all areas (such as
forms of hydropower), so levels of thermal
generation output need to be made to
balance with levels of consumption on a
second-by-second basis. At present this
is mostly achieved by fexing the output
of controllable sources of electricity
generation, such as gas, coal, oil and hydro.
System operators hold fexibility in
reserve already to cover disturbances in
the balance of supply and demand, such as
surges in demand, or for back-up in case of
the failure of a large plant. Te impact of
large amounts of intermittent renewables
on systems will need to be handled in a
similar way, though it is widely accepted
that in future the task of balancing wind and
solar generation will be far more signifcant.
Tis will mean that system operators may
have to hold signifcantly larger volumes of
fexible reserves than they do at present.
How can flexible energy be provided?
Flexibility in electricity markets is not a
new concept. Tere is already a range
of existing technologies that can provide
fexibility within the short timescales that
will be required. Some of the common
forms of fexible energy technologies are:
QUESTION: WHAT IS FLEXIBILITY?
Storage: Includes hydropower, batteries,
fywheels, pressurised gas, and other
developing technologies. Apart from
hydropower, the other technologies
are still struggling to be viably
demonstrated on a commercial scale.
Interconnection: Networks linking
adjacent electricity systems to enable
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
21 in detail
cross border trading of electricity –
fowing to where prices are highest.
Termal generation: Includes
conventional turbines and reciprocating
engines, with either simple or combined
cycles. Termal generation provides
fexibility either by running at part load
(CCGT and coal) or from stand-by mode
(gas engines, open cycle gas turbine)
Demand side response: Energy
consumers reducing their consumption
in response to an instruction or signal
(causing demand to fall to match
the available supply of electricity).
Hydropower and interconnection ofer
fexibility where they are available, and
Demand Side Response (DSR) could
have signifcant potential in the medium
to long term. However, it is widely
accepted that thermal generation will
still be required in most systems for
providing fexible energy in the future.
The traditional way of providing flexibility
from thermal sources
Many systems rely on CCGTs, or existing
coal plants, to provide fexibility. As these
plants cannot typically provide fexibility
from standstill, they ofen need to be
part-loaded. Part-loading is the practice of
turning down generating units that would
otherwise be running at full load, so that
they can be turned up again to provide
fexible energy if needed. Similarly,
generating units that are not running can be
turned on to produce low levels of output
as a form of standby. It is a way of creating
reserves of fexible energy, as demonstrated
in Figure 1.
However, while this may have been
practical in the past for providing small
amounts of fexibility from existing generating
resources, it is questionable whether such
practices will have the efciency needed for
integrating renewable generation in the future.
Te practice of part-loading conventional
power plants to ensure that they can provide
fexibility is a cause for concern where the
associated costs are inefcient, as these
costs will be passed on to consumers.
Tese costs arise for a number of reasons:
part-loading a generating unit that is
already supplying energy to customers
means paying another (probably one
with a higher cost of generation)
unit to replace the energy;
part-loading a conventional power plant
from standstill incurs large start-up costs
owing to the time and fuel required to
Fig. 1. – A way of creating reserves with plants in the spinning mode.
Normal running schedule
E
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After part-loading
Generator
A
Generator
A
Generator
B
Generator A
at full output
Potential energy
held in reserve
for flexibility
Generator B paid to
turn on and part-load
to replace energy
from Generator A
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get the unit running at a stable level, and;
part-loading of conventional power
plants, which also reduces fuel efciency
since such plants tend to be most
fuel efcient at maximum output.
It can be shown that these costs may be
signifcant in some systems, and that they
could constitute an increasing proportion
of consumer bills as the level of intermittent
generation grows in electricity systems.
Countries, especially those with a high
share of renewable capacity, will need to
enable more efcient generation solutions
for providing fexible energy to reduce
these unnecessary operating costs.
A new way?
Instead of focusing on part-loaded
conventional generation to provide
the increased fexibility requirement in
the future, we believe that electricity
markets need to embrace new forms
of fexible generation, such as forms
of Smart Power Generation (SPG).
SPG fulflls a set of requirements that
Wärtsilä believes the future generators
must be able to deliver to enable the
transition to a modern, sustainable
power system. Tese requirements are:
very high energy efciency,
outstanding operational fexibility, and
multi-fuel operation.
As SPG has an outstanding operational
fexibility characteristic, it can provide
the required fexibility in a new way.
Instead of running thermal plants at part
load to provide the required fexibility,
SPG could provide fexibility from
stand-by mode, due to its fast response
time and superior ramping capabilities.
Where SPG is providing the required
fexibility instead of part loaded thermal
generation, the costs listed in the previous
chapter can be avoided, and consumers
are not paying extra for fexibility.
Value of Flexibility - Great Britain case study
Wärtsilä commissioned Redpoint Energy
to undertake an analysis of the potential
savings to be derived from using SPG for
fexibility in the GB electricity system in
2020 and 2030, by which time the GB
electricity system will contain a signifcant
share of wind generation capacity. Te
analysis looked into the cost diference for
providing fexibility from a version of Smart
Power Generation technology compared to
the current practice of using part-loading
in the Great Britain electricity market.
Te GB electricity market is using
increased levels of wind sourced generation,
and the UK Government is aiming for 31 of
electricity to be generated from renewables
to meet its 2020 renewable energy targets.
Modelling of the GB market in 2020 and
2030 considered two scenarios for the
trajectory of wind generation deployment
- ‘base wind’ and ‘high wind’. In each of
these scenarios, 4.8 GW of new build CCGT
generating capacity was replaced with
4.8 GW of SPG. Te modelled capacity
mixes with SPG are shown in Figure 2.
PLEXOS, a power market simulation
tool, was used to determine the least cost
dispatch of generators in the GB market,
and also to simulate the actions that
the system operator would have to take
to create the fexible reserves of energy
needed to integrate wind (known as reserve
creation). Constraints caused by the GB
network confguration were also taken
into consideration. Tis allowed the costs
of these actions using SPG compared to
the costs of using CCGT to be compared.
The results of the study
Taking a typical business day in 2020
from the base scenario as an example, the
chart on the lef of Figure 3 shows how
the GB system operator would need to
take actions throughout the day to turn
down coal powered generation (the red
area), while simultaneously replacing this
energy with gas CCGT (the blue area) in
order to provide fexibility
2
. Te chart to
the right of Figure 3 illustrates the system
Fig. 2 – Capacity mixes of modelled scenarios.
SPG
Other
Offshore Wind
Onshore Wind
Pump Storage
Hydro
Peaking
Gas
Biomass
Coal
Nuclear
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
G
W
Base Base High
2020 2030
High
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
23 in detail
operator’s actions in part-loading terms.
By comparison, Figure 3 and 4 shows how
the volume of part-loading is reduced when
SPG replaces CCGT in the market. Te need
for fexibility has not disappeared, but rather,
because SPG can be quickly dispatched from
standstill in response to fuctuations in wind,
there is a reduced need to take actions to
prepare fexible sources of energy through
the part-loading of conventional generators.
In a conventional plant, high volumes of
part-loading are still required across peak
periods of the day (07:00-11:00, and 15:00-
21:00), partly because market prices at these
times are driven to levels where it is
economic to sell SPG output on the market,
which means it is unavailable to provide
fexible energy. Tis is shown in the dispatch
of diferent generating technologies on the
market across the typical day in Figure 4.
Te proportion of fexible reserves
provided by SPG across all the modelled
years and scenarios is shown in Figure 5.
Where SPG is included in the system, it is
the single biggest provider of fexibility, and
the most economical option in all the years
and scenarios modelled, thus mainly having
the impact of displacing the use of gas
CCGT and coal for providing fexibility.

Fig. 3 – Actions taken for flexible reserve creation without and with SPG.
Normal running
schedule
E
l
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p
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After
partloading
Coal
generation
Coal
generation
Gas
generation
Gas
generation
Coal
generation
running
at full
output
Coal
generation
part-loaded
to create
flexibility
Gas
generation
turned on
to part-load
to replace
energy from
coal
Flexibility
made
available
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
G
W
Gas
Coal
0
0
:0
0
0
8
:0
0
1
2
:0
0
1
6
:0
0
2
0
:0
0
0
4
:0
0
Normal running
schedule
E
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p
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After
partloading
Coal
generation
Coal
generation
Gas
generation
Gas
generation
Coal
generation
running
at full
output
Coal
generation
part-loaded
to create
flexibility
Gas
generation
turned on
to part-load
to replace
energy from
coal
Flexibility
made
available
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
G
W
Gas
Coal
0
0
:0
0
0
8
:0
0
1
2
:0
0
1
6
:0
0
2
0
:0
0
0
4
:0
0
Actions taken for flexible reserve creation (no SPG)
Actions taken for flexible reserve creation (with SPG)
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Savings in the provision of flexibility
In GB, the costs of reserve creation are
recovered as a charge collected from
market participants, which are passed
on to consumers. AS SPG reduces the
need to create reserves by part loading
thermal plants, it produces considerable
savings, which are set out in Table 1.
Tis modelling indicated that signifcant
savings in managing the costs of
intermittent wind output could be possible.
Compared to using current practices,
we estimate savings of between GBP 381
million to GBP 545 million per annum in
2020 under diferent scenarios, and the
modelled savings are estimated to be as
high as GBP 1537 million per annum in
2030 by when the GB system will contain
more intermittent renewable capacity.
As consumers are the ones to ultimately
carry the costs of power system balancing,
using SPG results in signifcant savings
for consumers. Also, the study shows
clearly that the amount of savings
increases rapidly with increasing wind
penetration. As the share of intermittent
renewables is bound to grow according to
the current policies in several countries,
the value of fexible generation must be
understood when forming future energy
policies and market design principles.
[1] The IEA’s 450 scenario outlines an energy
pathway that would limit the concentration
of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
to a level of 450 parts CO2 per million.
IEA 2011 , “Deploying Renewables: Market
development for RE technologies”. IEA 2012,
“IEA statistics: Electricity Information 2012”.
[2] The modelling assumptions were such
that electricity produced from coal was
calculated to be lower in cost than electricity
produced from gas, meaning that coal
was already on the market and available
for being turned down to part-load.
Table 1 – Costs of creating flexible energy (reserve) with and without SPG.
Fig. 4 – System generation with SPG.
Fig. 5 – Proportion of system flexibility provided by different technologies.
G
W
Interconnertors
SPG
Other
Offshore Wind
Onshore Wind
Pump Storage
Hydro
Peaking
Gas
Biomass
Coal
Nuclear
Demand
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10/03/2020
04:00
10/03/2020
12:00
10/03/2020
20:00
10/03/2020
08:00
10/03/2020
16:00
10/03/2020
P
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o
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S
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s
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b
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No
SPG
No
SPG
No
SPG
No
SPG
Base Base High High
2020 2030
With
SPG
With
SPG
With
SPG
With
SPG
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
SPG
Pump Storage
Hydro
Peaking
Gas
Biomass
Coal
Balancing costs
– flexibility provision
(£ mn per annum, real 2011 )
2020 2030
Base Wind High Wind Base Wind High Wind
Cost – No SPG 692 1008 834 2781
Cost – With 4.8 GW SPG 311 464 256 1244
Cost Saving due to SPG 381 545 578 1537
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
25 in detail
A new service agreement solution
for peaking power plants
AUTHOR: Ki m Li ndqvi st, Suppor t & Devel opment , Servi ce Agreements, Wär tsi l ä Servi ces
Stefan Mal m, Product Sol uti ons & Engi neeri ng, Wär tsi l ä Power Pl ants
Fig. 1 – Condition monitoring and maintenance planning enable optimisation of lifecycle costs.
A service agreement is more than merely
an effective way for ensuring the certainty
of operations. It signifies the long-term
co-operation of both parties in working
towards a shared goal. Wärtsilä works
hard to develop service agreements that
meet the specific needs of customers.
A service agreement enhances business
With a tailor-made agreement, the
customer signs up for not only a long-
term partnership with Wärtsilä, but
also to achieve improved reliability and
availability. It also means maximised
lifetime for the installation and reduced
operational costs in a safe, reliable, and
environmentally sustainable way.
Technical expertise – locally and globally
around the clock
Only a company with a global service
network has the capability to employ local
people to execute the agreement wherever
required. In terms of customer relations
it is important that the personnel speak
the local language, understand the culture
and build trust among customers.
An agreement also minimises the points
of contact for maintenance calls. Individual
equipment suppliers need not be contacted,
since Wärtsilä co-ordinates all maintenance
requests and provides easy access to
Wärtsilä’s local and global knowledge base.
A service agreement ensures certainty
of operations for peaking power plants
Owners of peaking power plants expect
trouble-free operations from the facility.
During the frst three years of operation, the
new Wärtsilä service agreement solution
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Fig. 2 – With a Wärtsilä customer support engineer on site, operational support is immediately available.
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
27 in detail
Please check Wärtsilä
Services Solution Studio,
Condition Monitoring:
www.wartsila.com/en/
solution-studio
provides onsite customer-support personnel,
scheduled and unscheduled maintenance,
as well as condition monitoring to
optimise the performance, availability, and
reliability of the asset. In short, the added
value means that the operator can focus
on his core business. A partnership with
Wärtsilä provides that peace of mind.
An investment in a peaking power
plant is mostly derived from the need
to occasionally compensate for a lack of
available electricity. A Wärtsilä service
agreement solution backed up with a
prolonged warranty, valid from the frst day
of commercial operation, provides reduced
risk for the customer’s investment and
operations. Ensuring certainty of operations
also provides several other benefts, such as
increased efciency and cost predictability.
An agreement is a sound investment
Tere are ofen signifcant seasonal, weekly
and daily variations in power demand. In a
multi-unit power plant the units can be
started and stopped as per power demand.
Tis means that the annual average unit
running hours, depending on the actual
load profle, can be considerably lower than
the annual plant running hours.
Especially in case the load profle varies
signifcantly, the infuence on the maintenance
costs is considerable. In a multi-engine plant
the units can be dispatched, so that the
running hours are unequally spread on each
unit. Tis concept allows for scheduling the
maintenance one unit at a time, thereby
maximising the available power generation
capacity at any given time. Ideally, the
maintenance is scheduled at periods of
lower power demand. A Wärtsilä service
agreement is a sound investment since it
can directly impact the overall operational
efciency of the plant. Moreover, this type of
agreement brings several other considerable
benefts. Tese include optimised and fxed
operational costs; improved operational
reliability; maximised uptime; dedicated
technical expertise and support from a
global network of skilled service experts;
minimised downtime through proper
maintenance and co-ordinated schedules;
online condition monitoring; and the
availability of OEM parts and consumables.
The right solution for peaking plants
Tis new solution is designed with the needs
of the customer in mind. Not all peaking
power plant customers are familiar with
Wärtsilä technology, nor do they all have
experience of working with the company.
Tis new service agreement solution is,
therefore, aimed at ensuring that the
customer's investment is secure and
predictable. By building a strong and
trusting partnership with the customer,
operational costs can be accurately estimated
and additional costs avoided. Te service
agreement extends the warranty period of
the equipment and ensures that the
customer receives the highest level of support.
In short, the availability and reliability
of the plant will be maximised. All technical
support, maintenance planning, and safety
spare parts management planning is
customised according to the customer's
specifc requirements.
On site operational support
A peaking power plant may operate for
many hours a day or for only a few hours
per year. Whatever the case, it is vital that
the plant has the ability to quickly reach
full capacity under all conditions. With
a Wärtsilä customer-support engineer
on site, the operator can be assured of a
reliable plant start-up. It also means that
fast and efcient communication with
Wärtsilä’s technical expertise is maintained.
Te onsite customer-support engineer
also serves to minimise the number of
contact points for maintenance calls.

Maintenance planning to support
the operating profile
Wärtsilä specialises in customised
maintenance agreements designed
specifcally to meet the operational
requirements of individual power plants.
Te company’s new agreement for peak-
load plants features prolonged warranty
coverage and a multi-portfolio services mix.
Te improved forecasting of maintenance
needs, and the overall function of the
system, are achieved through the remote
monitoring, measuring, and analysis of
engine parameters. Wärtsilä’s technical
support and maintenance planning teams
ofer unrivalled resources and know-how
for keeping equipment online and reducing
downtime. Data is analysed and trends
and changes in operating parameters can
be identifed well before they might
compromise the performance of
the installation.
A cost-predictable future
Although savings are always important, it is
cost predictability that becomes even more
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vital when dealing with long-term business
performance. With OPEX predictability over
a longer period of time, lifecycle costs can
be forecasted accurately, and maintenance
expenses for the coming years can be
accurately budgeted. Part of this is achieved
through the inventory management of the
customer-owned onsite safety stock, which
is there to support the operating profle.
Preventing the unexpected
Tis service agreement is available for
new gas-fred peaking power plants in,
among other places, the USA, Europe, and
Australia. Te service agreement is valid
from the frst day of commercial operation.
A Wärtsilä service agreement is a proven
way of preventing the unexpected, and
keeping the installation productive and
proftable – throughout the entire lifecycle.
A peak-load maintenance agreement
provides optimised performance, and
includes a long-term warranty, an onsite
customer-support engineer with OEM
expertise; OEM services, inventory
management and remote monitoring to
improve reliability; OPEX predictability;
maintenance planning; and optimised
maintenance and logistics.
Te basic idea behind a maintenance
agreement for peaking power plants with
Wärtsilä is long-term cooperation, where
both parties work towards a shared goal,
namely the company’s continued
productivity – and proftability.
What are the specific needs?
With more than 17,600 MW under service
agreements, and more than 500 installations
covering a wide variety of land-based,
marine and ofshore installations being
operated and maintained by Wärtsilä, the
company is widely recognized as being
the preferred service supplier by customers.
Tese agreements ensure the availability and
cost-efcient operations of their installations.
Wärtsilä ofers four types of standardised
agreements, ranging from supply agreements
to technical management, as well as
maintenance agreements and complete
asset management support. However, all
agreements are customised to fulfl each
customer’s specifc needs.
Highlights of a maintenance agreement
for peaking power plants
Long-term warranty coverage.
Available for new gas-fred peaking
power plants
Dedicated technical support. Customer-
support engineer with OEM expertise
ensuring fast and efcient communications
Condition monitoring to enable trending
and optimization of equipment
performance
Maintenance management. Maintenance
planning to support the operating
profle. Management of customer-
owned onsite safety stock.
Fig. 3 – Wärtsilä offers four types of standardised agreements.
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
29 in detail
EXAMPLE
– A FLEXIBLE POWER PLANT WITH A MAINTENANCE
AGREEMENT: THE STEC RED GATE POWER PLANT,
SOUTH TEXAS ELECTRIC COOPERATIVE
Powered by 12 Wärtsilä 50SG engines running on natural gas
having a total output of 225 MW
Flexibility, quick start-up capability, superior load following,
and favourable lifecycle costs
High efficiency engines result in fewer emissions of CO
2
than
simple cycle gas turbine solutions
High simple cycle efficiency achieved with minimal water
consumption
Maintenance Agreement
The agreement provides a number of benefits:
Optimised maintenance for long-term plant availability,
reliability, and efficiency
Technical and operational assistance with maintenance planning,
technical advisors, spare parts, and an on-site inventory
Technical, parts and risk sharing support
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The tanker M/T Samurai.
Improving VLCC propulsion fuel
efficiency with the Wärtsilä X82 engine
AUTHOR: Hei nri ch Schmi d, General Manager Appl i cati on Devel opment , Shi p Power
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
31 in detail
With fuel costs currently responsible for
70 to 85 percent of the total costs of operating
vessels, it is hardly surprising that owners and
operators are demanding greater fuel
efciency. From an average HFO price of
some USD 150 per ton in 2001, prices steadily
rose to an average close to USD 700 per ton
in 2012. Clearly, in order to keep running
costs at a justifable level, greater fuel
efciency is needed.
In addition to having to meet the
challenge of high operating costs, owners and
operators are also increasingly confronted
with environmental compliance requirements.
Despite the maritime industry’s claim that
shipping is the most environmentally
friendly mode of transportation it is,
nevertheless, under considerable pressure
from policy makers, regulatory bodies, and
even the general public to reduce emissions.
Since the level of emissions is directly related
to fuel consumption, it is essential that
today’s marine engines achieve the greatest
possible fuel efciency.
Te Wärtsilä X82 engine ofers parameters
that meet this need.
The Wärtsilä X82 engine
Te Wärtsilä X82 engine is the upgraded
version of the RT-fex82T engine. Te
X82 engine was previously also known as
the RT-fex82T-B. Te RT-fex82 engine
series was introduced in 2006; the short
stroke version as the RT-fex82C, and the
long stroke version as the RT-fex82T.
Following the accumulation of positive
service experience with the 82T version,
the X82 (RT-fex82T-B) engine was
introduced in 2011 as the upgraded version
with the following adaptations:
Mep increased from 20.0 bar to 21.0 bar
R1 + speed increased from
80 rpm to 84 rpm
R2/R4 speed reduced from 68 to 65 rpm
R4 power reduced to the same mep as R2
Te physical shape of the engine is
characterised by its slim appearance, with
the fuel supply pumps arranged with
convenient accessibility close to the engine.
Te electronic fuel injection and exhaust
valve control system is based on
Table 1 – Parameters of the Wärtsilä RT-flex82T and Wärtsilä X82 engines.
RT-flex82T X82
Bore 820mm 820mm
Stroke 3375 mm 3375 mm
Stroke/bore ration 4.12 4.12
MCR power 4520 kW 4750 kW
MCR speed 76 - 80 rpm 76 - 84 rpm
R3 speed 68 rpm 65 rpm
Mep 20.0 bar 21.0 bar
RT-flex96C
RTA96C
RT-flex82-C
RTA82-C
RT-flex68-D
RTA68-D
RT-flex50-D
RT-flex60C-B
RT-flex50-B
RT-flex48T-D
RT-flex58T-E
RT-flex58T-D RTA58T-D
RTA48T-D
RT-flex84T-D
RTA84T-D
W-X82
RTA82T-B
W-X35
W-X40
W-X62
W-X72
W-X92
80,000
70,000
60,000
50,000
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
8000
6000
4000
3000
Output kW Output bhp
Engine speed, rev/min
60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180
100,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
20,000
10,000
8000
6000
Fig . 1 – The Wärtsilä two-stroke engine portfolio.
In order to reduce operating costs, fuel
efficiency is essential. The new Wärtsilä
X82 engine with its 65 to 84 rpm speed
range is perfectly suited for optimal VLCC
(Very Large Crude Carrier) operations.
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Fig. 3 – The rating fields of the Wärtsilä RT-flex82T and Wärtsilä X82 engines.
5000
RT-flex82T
4800
4600
4400
4200
4000
3800
3600
3400
3200
3000
2800
60 65 70 75
Speed (rpm)
P
o
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p
e
r

c
y
l
i
n
d
e
r

(
k
W
)
80 85 90
X82
R1 4750kW
4520kW
R1+
R1
R1+
Fig. 2 – The Wärtsilä RT-flex82T engine.
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
33 in detail
the highly efcient, simple and reliable
common rail technology. Te common
rail platform, with its fuel injection and
exhaust valve actuation elements, is
arranged to provide good accessibility
at the engine’s upper platform level.
Te rating feld is characterised by the
R1+ / R2+ rating points, which ofer the same
power as at R1 & R2 but at a higher speed.
Te R1+ rating point features a 2 g/kWh
lower specifc fuel consumption than the R1.
Tis R1+ rating feld allows shipyards greater
freedom for propeller tuning (see Figure 3).
Te Wärtsilä X82 ofers an engine speed
as low as 65 rpm at R3 / R4 with a moderate
stroke to bore ratio of 4:12.
Wärtsilä’s common rail engine
operating system
Electronically controlled fuel injection and
exhaust valve timing enables optimum
combustion under all circumstances.
Te common rail system allows the fuel
nozzles to be individually activated. Tey
can be either sequentially operated so as to
infuence NOX emissions or, alternatively,
one or two nozzles per cylinder can be
switched of to achieve an efcient and clean
combustion for low load operation. In single
nozzle mode, a stable engine speed of about
10 – 12 percent of the nominal engine speed
is possible.
To date, approximately 1000 Wärtsilä
RT-fex common rail engines have been
ordered, of which some 600 are already in
operation (Figure 4). For Very Large Crude
Carrier (VLCC) ships, the RT-fex82T engine
is reputedly the most popular choice of
engine.

Fig. 4 – The common rail engine operating system.
Fig. 5 – The VLCC "Crudmed" is powered by the first Wärtsilä RT-Flex82T engine.
Crank
angle
sensor
Control
system
Exhaust valve
actuator
Fuel
injectors
Volmetric
fuel injection
control unit
Exhaust valve
actuating unit
up to 1000 bar fuel HFO / MDO
200 bar servo oil and control oil
30 bar starting air
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Fig. 8 – Definition of the propeller design point.
Fig. 6 – Impact of propeller speed on the propellers optimal diameter and propulsion efficiency.
Fig. 7 – Selection of the optimum propeller speed.
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106
Engine/Propeller speed (%)
99.0% 100.9%
P
o
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(
%
)
Nominal propeller curve
CMCR power
CSR = 90% CMCR power
CSR = 85% CMCR power
Propeller curve with 4.5% LR margin
Propeller design points
4.5% LR margin
Opt|mum
propo||or spoou
|ropo||or u|amotor
||m|tat|on uuo to
uraugbt (ba||ast)
rostr|ot|ons
|
r
o
p
u
|
s
|
o
n

o
m
o
|
o
n
o
y
|
r
o
p
o
|
|
o
r

u
|
a
m
o
t
o
r
|ropo||or spoou
|
r
o
p
u
|
s
|
o
n

o
m
o
|
o
n
o
y
|
r
o
p
o
|
|
o
r

u
|
a
m
o
t
o
r
|ropo||or spoou
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
35 in detail
Fig. 9 – Typical open water propeller efficiencies for different propeller diameters.
Fig. 10 – The wake fraction and thrust deduction correction as a function of vessel length
and propeller diameter, as proposed by S.A. Harvald.
Propulsion aspects
Te efciency of the daily fuel consumption
is defned as a result of the efciency of
the propulsion system, and the specifc
fuel consumption of the propulsion
machinery, i.e. the engine’s efciency.
Propulsion efciency is defned by
the following propulsion factors:
Open water propeller efciency (η0)
Relative rotative efciency (ηR)
Hull efciency (ηH = (1-t)/(1-w)
Mechanical efciency (ηM)
Propulsion efciency ηP = η0* ηR* ηH* ηM
Propulsion efciency is infuenced by
the propeller speed and diameter
(Figures 6 & 7).
It is assumed that the relative rotative
and shaf efciencies are not infuenced
by variations in the propeller speed and
are, therefore, neglected for this study.
Te engine’s fuel efciency (specifc fuel
consumption) is infuenced by the ratio
between the maximum and mean efective
pressures. Te higher the ratio, the higher
the fuel efciency, i.e. increasing the pmax/
mep ratio results in lower specifc fuel
consumption. Reducing the engine speed for
a defned power increases the mean efective
pressure and, therefore, also increases
the engine’s specifc fuel consumption.
Te following must be considered when
calculating the best propulsion efciency:
Any variation in propeller diameter
(and speed) afects the open water
efciency of the propeller.
Variations in the diameter of the
propeller afect the wake fraction
w and the thrust deduction t and,
therefore, the efciency of the hull.
Variations in the engine / propeller
speed afect the engine’s specifc fuel
consumption.
As mentioned earlier, the combination of
propulsion efciency and engine efciency
decides the daily fuel consumption. In
order, therefore, to achieve the best fuel
efciency, it is important to take into
consideration changes in the propulsion
parameters (η0, ηH, BSFC) resulting
from variations in the propeller speed.
Propeller design point
It is assumed that the propeller is
optimised for light running conditions at
CSR power (see Figure 8). With that, the
propeller design point becomes roughly
the CMCR speed of the main engine.
Open water propeller efficiency
Te open water efciency of the propeller
is basically afected by its speed and
diameter. As a general rule, the larger the
propeller diameter, the higher the propeller
efciency and the lower the propeller
speed. Since there is usually a limitation
in the diameter of the propeller due to
the draught of the vessel, the optimum
propeller speed is defned by the maximum
possible propeller diameter (Figure 7).
Te diference in the open water efciency
of the propeller can become as much as
5.3 for a VLCC, such as when comparing
a 10.9 m propeller running at 60 rpm and
a 9.4 m propeller running at 76 rpm.
Te alpha-factor expresses the relative
power at a constant ship speed to
variations in the propeller’s speed and
diameter. For the reference case below,
the alpha-factor has a value of 0.23 within
a relevant propeller speed range of 60 –
76 rpm for VLCC propulsion. (Figure 9)
Te open water propeller efciency
calculation is based on the following:
CMCR power = 24,000 kW, CSR = 85,
w = 0.316, t = 0.265, 4 blades,
BAR = 0.45, 15.5 knots service speed,
5.5 LR margin.
Hull efficiency
Hull efciency (ηH) is defned by the wake
fraction w and the thrust deduction t.
ηH = (1- t)/(1-w)
Wake fraction and thrust deduction can be
infuenced by the diameter of the propeller,
as proposed by S.A.Harvald (Figure 10).
O.49O
O.5OO
O.5IO
O.52O
O.53O
O.54O
O.55O
O.56O
O.57O
O.58O
O.59O
O.6OO
|ropo||or spoou at CVC| (rpm)
||amotor IO.9m
|
r
o
p
o
|
|
o
r

o
m
o
|
o
n
o
y

o
t
a

O

(
°
)
5.3°
56 58 6O 62 64 66 68 7O 72 74 76 78 8O 82 84 86
||amotor IO.6m
||amotor IO.3m
||amotor IO.Om
||amotor 9.7m
||amotor 9.4m
-taotor = O.23
(|I/|2 = ¦nI/n2J )
0.10
0.10
0 W
3
t
3
t
W
0
+ +
0.10
0.10
VLLC Range
0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
D/L
0.07
Propeller diameter correction
36  in detail
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Due to the larger propeller, the wake fraction
becomes slightly lower and the thrust
deduction slightly larger. Tus, the larger
the propeller diameter, the lower the
hull efciency becomes (Figure 11).
Te Hamburg Ship Research Institute
(HSVA) has also studied the impact of
variations in propeller diameter on the
propulsion parameters. Contrary to
Harvald’s suggestion, HSVA proposes that
the thrust deduction is not afected by
changes in the diameter of the propeller, but
only by the wake fraction (see Figure 12).
For further study, the mean values from
both Harvald’s and HSVA’s proposals shall be
taken into consideration. Te impact on the
change of propulsion parameters relative to
the propeller diameter is shown in Figure 13.
To ascertain the total propulsion
efciency one should, therefore, not only
Fig. 11 – The impact of the propeller diameter on the propulsion
coefficients according to Harvald´s proposal.
Fig. 12 – Impact of the propeller diameter on the propulsion
coefficients according HSVA´s proposal.
consider the efect of the propeller diameter
on its open water efciency, but the product
of the open water and hull efciencies η0*
ηH, should also be taken into account.
With the propeller diameter adapted wake
fraction and thrust deduction, the alpha
factor becomes only 0.13, (Figure 14). Tis is
considerably less than the 0.23 alpha factor
found for the open water propeller efciency
alone. Tis shows that the negative efect of
a smaller propeller at higher rotation speed
is not as large as one would conclude when
considering only the open water efciency.
Engine specific fuel consumption
Te engine has a defned specifc fuel
consumption at its maximum power R1.
When the engine is derated within the
rating feld, the BSFC can be reduced. Te
cylinder pressure remains constant within
-2.O°
-I.5°
-I.O°
-O.5°
O.O°
O.5°
I.O°
I.5°
2.O°
|ropu|s|on Coomo|onts
H3vA va|uos rovA
|nüuonoo ot wako |raot|on I/)I-w) anu 1brust |ouuot|on (I-t) on otaH
|ropo||or u|amotor (mm)
(I-t) u|ñ
(
I
-
t
)

u
|
ñ
,

|
o
|
t
a

I
/
(
I
-
w
)

u
|
ñ
.

,
o
t
a
H
9.2 9.4 9.6 9.8 IO.O IO.2 IO.4 IO.6 IO.8 II.O II.2
I/(I-w) u|ñ otaH
-3.50
-3.00
-2.50
-2.00
-1.50
-1.00
-0.50
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
Propeller diameter (mm)
Comparison of wake fraction 1/(1-w), thrust deduction (1-t) and etaH
(as proposed by S.A.Harvald)
Delta (1-t) [%]
D
e
l
t
a

(
1
-
t
)
,

D
e
l
t
a

1
/
(
1
-
w
)
,

D
e
l
t
a

e
t
a
H

[
%
]
9200 9400 9600 9800 10,000 10,200 10,400 10,600 10,800 11,000 11,200
Delta 1/(1-w) [%] Delta (etaH) [%]
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
37 in detail
Fig. 13 – Mean change of propulsion parameters.
Fig. 14 – Propeller diameter corrected propeller efficiency.
Fig. 15 – Impact of specific fuel consumption on engine speed.
the rating feld, and the BSFC is similar with
the same ratio (pmax / mep). Since the mep
can be reduced through engine derating,
a more favourable ratio (pmax / mep) is
achieved, thus making a reduced specifc
fuel consumption possible (Figure 15).
With an alpha-factor of 0.13, the power is
24,830 kW at 65 rpm and 25,340 kW at 76
rpm, representing a power increase of 2.0.
Te specifc fuel consumption increase
from 76 rpm (156.4 g/kWh) to 65 rpm
(159.6 g/kWh) is 3.2 g/kWh or 2.0 .
Tis means that the gain in propulsion
efciency with a lower propeller speed
and larger propeller diameter is ofset
by a loss in the engine’s fuel efciency.
However, at 65 rpm a propeller diameter
of about 10.5 m is required while at
76 rpm, a propeller diameter of about
9.7 m provides optimum conditions.
No diference in daily fuel consumption
can be seen, regardless of whether a
speed of 65 rpm or 76 rpm is selected.
Instead, the installation with
the 10.5 m propeller
Requires more af draught for ballast
voyage
Requires the bunkering of more
ballast water
Increases the investment cost
Might become critical for the required
vessel visibility distance
Ballast operation
It is assumed that the forward ballast draught
is 8.5 m. Te af ballast draught depends
on the diameter of the propeller. Assuming
a minimal propeller base line clearance of
0.2m and a minimal propeller
-3.50
-3.00
-2.50
-2.00
-1.50
-1.00
-0.50
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
Propeller diameter (mm)
Comparison between the wake fraction 1/(1-w), thrust deduction (1-t) and etaH
(mean values S.A.Harvald / HSVA)
D
e
l
t
a

(
1
-
t
)
,

D
e
l
t
a

1
/
(
1
-
w
)
,

D
e
l
t
a

e
t
a
H

[
%
]
9200 9400 9600 9800 10,000 10,200 10,400 10,600 10,800 11,000 11,200
Mean Delta 1/(1-w)
Mean Delta (1-t)
Mean Delta (etaH)
Diameter 10.9m
Diameter 10.6m
Diameter 10.3m
Diameter 10.0m
Diameter 9.7m
Diameter 9.4m
0.500
0.540
0.530
0.520
0.510
0.550
0.560
0.570
0.580
0.590
0.600
0.610
0.620
0.630
0.640
0.650
Propeller speed at CMCR (rpm)
3.0%
56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86
-factor = 0.13
(P1/P2 = [n1/n2] )
20,000
21,000
22,000
23,000
24,000
25,000
26,000
27,000
28,000
29,000
30,000
31,000
32,000
33,000
34,000
35,000
60.0 65.0 70.0 75.0 80.0 85.0
Speed (rpm)
P
o
w
e
r

(
k
W
)
7X82
R2+
m
e
p
=
10
0
%
m
e
p
=
7
6
%
R1
167.0 g/kWh
R1+
165.0 g/kWh
167.0 g/kWh
R3
159.6 g/kWh
at 85% load
156.4 g/kWh
at 85% load
160.0 g/kWh
R2
160.0 g/kWh
R4
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immersion of 0.5m, the af ballast draught
becomes a function of the propeller
diameter. It is further assumed that by
increasing the ballast draught by 1.0m,
3.0 percent more propulsion power is
required for the same ship speed. Tis is a
consequence of the increased draught and
trim adding ship resistance (see Table 2).
Since a typical VLCC operates for 30 to
50 percent of the time at ballast draught,
the impact on annual fuel consumption
with the large propeller can become
signifcant. It can be assumed that for 1.0m
more af ballast, 9000 m
3
more ballast
water must be bunkered (Table 3).
Te amount of ballast water that needs to
be bunkered is an operating cost factor.
Ballast water needs to be treated and handled,
both of which take energy and time.
Visibility distance
Te visibility distance from the bridge over
the bow must be 2.0 times the length of the
vessel, or at least 500 metres, whichever
is less (SOLAS Chapter V, Regulation 22).
More draught af due to a larger propeller
reduces the visibility distance. For 1.0m
more af draught, the visibility distance
increases by some 50 m. It might, therefore,
even be necessary to raise the wheelhouse
should a large propeller be applied so as
to ensure the correct visibility distance.
Table 4 – Daily fuel consumption comparison.
Service speed
CMCR power
CMCR speed
CSR load
CSR power
BSFC
Daily fuel consumption
Difference
knots
kW
rpm
%
kW
g/kWh
tons
tons
24,000
65
20,400
156.8
76.77
0
15.5
7X82
15.5
7G80ME-C9.2
24,370
73
20,715
154.5
76.81
0.04
23,750
60
20,188
160.0
77.52
0.75
24,190
69
20,562
155.6
76.78
0
24,000
65
20,400
158.2
77.45
0.69
85 85
Table 2 – The effect on propulsion power and aft ballast draught resulting from different
propeller diameters.
Table 3 – Ballast water bunker versus propeller diameter.
9.4 m
9.7 m
10.0 m
10.3 m
10.6 m
10.9 m
10.1 m
10.4 m
10.7 m
11.0 m
11.3 m
11.6 m
0.0 m
+0.3 m
+0.6 m
+0.9 m
+1.2 m
+1.5 m
0.0 %
+0.9 %
+1.8 %
+2.7 %
+3.6 %
+4.5 %
Propeller
diameter
Aft
draught
Difference
Additional
propulsion power
9.4 m
9.7 m
10.0 m
10.3 m
10.6 m
10.9 m
0.0 m
3
+2700 m
3
+5400 m
3
+8100 m
3
+10,800 m
3
+13,500 m
3
Propeller
diameter
Additional
water bunker
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
39 in detail
Case study
Te lifecycle fuel consumption of a VLCC
having the following data is to be studied:
CMCR power: 24,000 kW
CMCR speed: 65 rpm
CSR load: 85
Service power: 20,400 kW
Service speed: 61.6 rpm
Vessel service speed: 15.5 knots
Propeller diameter: 10.5 m
Main engine options (Figure 16):
7- cylinder Wärtsilä X82
CMCR = 24,000 kW at 65 rpm
CMCR = 24,200 kW at 69 rpm
CMCR = 24,400 kW at 73.2 rpm
7G80ME-C9.2
CMCR = 24,000 kW at 65 rpm
CMCR = 23,730 kW at 60 rpm
Te specifc fuel consumption for the
various engine options is shown in Figure 17.
Te fuel consumption characteristic is the
nominal consumption without tolerance.
It is based on an air temperature of 25°C
and a cooling water temperature of 25°C.
Te benefts provided by the new FAST
fuel injectors are taken into consideration
concerning the X82 engine’s consumption.
Table 4 shows the daily fuel consumption
for the various engine options.
Tis case study clearly demonstrates
that, in the case of VLCC propulsion,
a variation in propeller speed and
diameter has no practical infuence
on the daily fuel consumption.
Lifecycle fuel costs
Daily fuel consumption gives an indication
of a vessel’s fuel efciency. However, this
dimension does not give an indication of
the annual or lifecycle fuel costs. Ballast
operation and the vessel’s operating
profle are not taken into consideration
as regards the daily fuel consumption.
For the lifecycle fuel cost calculation,
the following conditions are assumed:
6720 operating hours per year (280 days)
50 loaded, 50 ballast
Operating profle in accordance
with Figure 18
HFO price of USD 700/t
It is assumed that the vessel operates at
the same speed in both loaded and ballast
conditions. It is further assumed that during
ballast operation, about 1.5 knots more
Fig. 17 – Specific fuel consumption comparison.
Fig. 18 – Assumed vessel operating profile.
Fig. 16 – Engine layout.
55.0 60.0 65.0 70.0 75.0 80.0 85.0 90.0
Speed (rpm)
18,000
19,000
20,000
21,000
22,000
23,000
24,000
25,000
26,000
27,000
28,000
29,000
30,000
31,000
32,000
33,000
34,000
35,000
P
o
w
e
r

(
k
W
)
CMCR =23,750 kW
at 60rpm
Dprop =10.9 m
Const speed V = 15.5 kt Alpha = 0.13
CMCR =24,000 kW
at 65 rpm
Dprop =10.5 m
CMCR =24,190 kW
at 69 rpm
Dprop =10.1 m
CMCR =24,370 kW
at 73 rpm
Dprop =9.7 m
7X82
7G80ME-C9.2 Design point
CMCR = 23,750 kW
at 60 rpm
Dprop = 10.9 m
CMCR = 24,000 kW
at 65 rpm
Dprop = 10.5 m
CMCR = 24,190 kW
at 69 rpm
Dprop = 10.1 m
CMCR = 24,370 kW
at 73 rpm
Dprop = 9.7 m
7X82, 24,000 kW at 65 rpm (Delta, FAST)
7X82, 24,370 kW at 73 rpm (Delta, FAST)
7G80ME-C9.2, 23,750 kW at 60 rpm, High Load
7X82, 24,190 kW at 69 rpm (Delta, FAST)
7G80ME-C9.2, 24,000 kW at 65 rpm, High Load
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
Engine load (%)
Nominal Specific Fuel Consumption
S
p
e
c
i

c

f
u
e
l

c
o
n
s
u
m
p
t
i
o
n

(
g
/
k
W
h
)
35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100
160.0
158.2
156.8
155.6
154.5
O
p
e
r
a
t
i
n
g

h
o
u
r
s
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
15.5 knots
2500
14.5 knots
3000
13.5 knots
1220
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Fig. 20 – Difference in lifecycle costs.
Fig. 21 – The open water propeller characteristic with different numbers of propeller blades.
Fig. 19 – Loaded/ballast power/speed assumption.
Propeller speed (rpm)
0.53
0.54
0.55
0.56
0.57
0.58
0.59
0.60
O
p
e
n

w
a
t
e
r

p
r
o
p
e
l
l
e
r

e

c
i
e
n
c
y

e
t
a

0

(
%
)
54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88
3-blade, 10.0 m 3-blade, 10.6 m
4-blade, 10.0 m 4-blade, 10.6 m
5-blade, 10.0 m 5-blade, 10.6 m
Speed (knots)
Power / speed characteristic
Loaded
1.5 knots
12.5 13.0 13.5 14.0 14.5 15.0 15.5 16.0 16.5 17.0 17.5 18.0
0
5000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
P
o
w
e
r

(
k
W
)
Ballast
A
n
n
u
a
l

H
F
O

(
U
S
$
)
7X82
24,000 kWat 65 rpm
dprop =10.5 m
7X82
24,190 kW at 69 rpm
dprop =10.1 m
7X82
24,370 kWat 73.2 rpm
dprop =9.7 m
7G80ME-C9.2
24,000 kWat 65 rpm
dprop =10.5 m
7G80ME-C9.2
23,750 kWat 60 rpm
dprop =10.9 m
11,700,000
11,750,000
11,800,000
11,850,000
11,900,000
11,950,000
12,000,000
12,050,000
12,100,000
12,150,000
0
-41,300 $
-81,200 $
+257,600 $
+124,600 $
+176,400 $
ship speed is achieved than when in loaded
condition at the same power (Figure 19).
Te lifecycle fuel cost calculation in
Table 5 clearly demonstrates that opting
for a lower propeller speed in combination
with a large propeller diameter does
not bring any operational cost beneft
(Figure 20). On the contrary, solutions
involving a very large propeller result in:
Higher total fuel costs
and higher investment costs
More ballast water bunkering
and visibility distance problems
Tis case as described can be considered
as being just one possible scenario.
Depending on the actual hull lines, the
actual result might be diferent. However,
the statement that the propeller diameter
has an efect upon the propulsion
parameters is valid for any VLCC hull form.
Variations in the number of propeller blades
Traditionally, four bladed propellers
are used for VLCC propulsion. Either
5-bladed or 3-bladed propellers could
also be considered. Open water
propeller efciency calculations show
the following results (Figure 21):
A 5-bladed propeller has an optimum
propeller speed at about fve
revolutions fewer than a 4-bladed
propeller. Only a very slight efciency
improvement can be achieved.
A 3-bladed propeller has an
optimum propeller speed at about
six revolutions more than a 4-bladed
propeller. An efciency improvement
of up to 1 might be possible.
Model tests made by HSVA showed
promising results. Somewhat more
cavitation and higher hull pressure pulses
were experienced, but these were still
within acceptable levels. Since the optimum
speed for the 3-bladed propeller is higher
than that of a 4-bladed propeller, it can
therefore also proft from better engine
specifc fuel consumption. A 3-bladed
propeller could well be an alternative
for tanker and bulker propulsion.
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
41 in detail
Table 5 – Lifecycle fuel cost calculation.
Service speed
CMCR power
CMCR speed
CSR load
CSR power
BSFC
Daily fuel consumption
Difference
knots
kW
rpm
%
kW
g/kWh
tons
tons
24’000
65
20’400
156.8
76.77
0
15.5
7X82 7X82 7X82 7G80ME-C9.2 7G80ME-C9.2
85
CMCR power
CMCR speed
Propeller diameter
Vessel speed
Loaded operation
CSR load
CSR power
Operating time
BSFC
HFO consumption*
Total
Ballast operation
Power penalty
CSR load
CSR power
Operating time
BSFC
HFO consumption*
Total
Total
Difference
Difference**
kW
rpm
mm
%
kW
hours
g/kWh
tons
tons
%
%
kW
hours
g/kWh
tons
tons
tons
tons
$
24,000 24,190 24,370 24,000 23,750
65 69 73.2 65 60
10,500 10,100 9700 10,500 10,900
15.5 14.5 13.5 15.5 14.5 13.5 15.5 14.5 13.5 15.5 14.5 13.5 15.5 14.5 13.5


85 70 56 85 70 56 85 70 56 85 70 55 85 70 56
20,400 16,701 13,478 20,562 16,833 13,585 20,715 16,958 13,686 20,400 16,701 13,478 20,188 16,527 13,338
1250 1500 610 1250 1500 610 1250 1500 610 1250 1500 610 1250 1500 610
156.8 155.6 158.2 155.6 154.4 157.3 154.5 153.3 156.6 158.2 157.2 160.0 160.0 158.9 161.4
4216 4110 1371 4216 4110 1374 4218 4111 1378 4253 4152 1387 4257 4153 1385
9697 9701 9708 9792 9794
0.0 -1.2 -2.4 0.0 1.2
64.4 51.8 40.9 64.2 51.6 40.8 62.9 50.6 40.0 64.4 51.8 40.9 65.2 52.4 41.4
15,462 12,430 9862 15,398 12,378 9785 15,324 12,319 9738 15,462 12,430 9862 15,485 12,448 9840
1250 1500 610 1250 1500 610 1250 1500 610 1250 1500 610 1250 1500 610
156.3 159.1 162.7 155.4 158.6 162.0 154.7 158.0 161.6 158.1 161.2 164.2 159.6 162.2 165.1
3185 3128 1028 3154 3105 1019 3124 3078 1012 3222 3169 1038 3257 3193 1045
7341 7278 7215 7428 7495

17,038 16,979 16,922 17,220 17,290
-59 -115 183 252
-41,083 -80,797 128,061 176,470
CONCLUSION
Te open water efciency of the propeller
is afected by its speed and diameter. As
a general rule, the larger the propeller
diameter, the higher the propeller efciency
and the lower its speed becomes. However,
the propeller’s diameter has an infuence on
the hull efciency. With a large diameter
used to achieve low propeller speed, the
hull efciency is lower than with a smaller
propeller diameter in combination with
a higher propeller speed. Considering
this infuence, the impact on propulsion
efciency becomes moderate when
varying the propeller speed and diameter.
Furthermore, the engine efciency
(specifc fuel consumption) is lowered
with a reduced speed at the same power.
As a result, the gain in propulsion
efciency with a lower engine/propeller
speed and a larger propeller diameter is
ofset by a loss in the engine’s fuel efciency.
No diference in daily fuel consumption
can be noted when varying the propeller
speed and diameter within the available
speed range of the Wärtsilä X82 engine.
In that respect, it needs to be noted
that the moderate propeller diameter
solution provides better conditions
for ballast operation. Tis solution,
therefore, provides a concept that ofers
the lowest annual fuel consumption.
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Wärtsilä’s fuel gas handling system,
LNGPac™, has aroused huge interest, and
many customers have already selected the
LNGPac™ system for their new-buildings
or gas conversions. However, while
conventional fuel gas handling systems
with stationary tanks (LNGPac™) are, and
will remain, the most popular choice, they
might not be best suited for all ships.
A fuel gas handling system utilizing
removable LNG fuel tank containers is
an option worth considering in many
diferent cases. For small and medium
sized vessels, which do not require a large
LNG capacity, such a solution ofers a viable
alternative to conventional stationary LNG
tanks. If LNG bunkering facilities are not
available or bunkering is not possible,
using LNG as fuel can still be realised by
using LNG fuel tank containers. Tese
containers can be transported by road to
the nearest LNG terminal for reflling, and
then loaded onboard the ship with no
bunkering procedures required at the port.
Te LNG container can also be used as a
cost efective and standardized LNG fuel tank
Increasing flexibility in LNG fuel
handling – the LNGPac
TM
ISO
AUTHORS: Jonatan Byggmästar, Devel opment engi neer, Fuel Gas Handl i ng, Shi p Power
Sören Karl sson, General Manager, Fuel Gas Handl i ng, Shi p Power
The option of having LNG as fuel for
a variety of different ship types is
already available. Emission reduction
requirements and cost competitive gas
prices are the main driving forces behind
this increasing trend towards LNG. The
LNGPac™ ISO, a fuel gas handling system
based on removable LNG fuel tank
containers, is a new way of making LNG
fuel available when a stationary tank
solution is not possible.
Fig. 1 – LNGPac
TM
ISO layout arrangement from LNG fuel tank containers to the GVU-ED
TM
.
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
43 in detail
Wärtsilä LNG fuel tank container Standard ISO tank container
Standard ISO frame
Compliance with transportation regulations
(IMDG, TPED, ADR, RID, CSC among others)
Compliance with rules for use as LNG fuel tank on board ships:
IMO Type-C tank
Water spraying system
Tank safety relief valves designed for fire case
Connection to external vent mast
LNG leakage detection and protection
Class approved equipment & design
Stainless steel outer shell
Dry disconnect quick couplings
Connections at end for connecting to ship
Connection to automation system on the ship
Connection to safety systems on the ship
for stationary applications. Te frame
standard size dimensions and the
modularised skid-based fuel gas handling
system make installation fast and cost
competitive.
LNGPac™ ISO
Te LNGPac™ ISO is a fuel gas handling
system based on mobile LNG fuel tank
containers. Besides the LNG fuel tank
container, the system consists of a docking
station and an evaporator skid installed
permanently on the ship. Te LNGPac™
ISO is intended to be installed on an
open and naturally ventilated deck.
Tank containers intended for the
transportation of cryogenic liquids, e.g.
LNG, are an alternative for use as fuel
storage tanks onboard LNG fuelled ships.
However, a normal tank container intended
for transporting LNG cannot be used since
it does not fulfl all the requirements for
marine LNG fuel tanks. Modifcations
relating to remote monitoring and safety
systems, IMO type C tank requirements,
and leakage & spill protection are a
few items that need to be specifcally
considered for marine fuel tanks.
LNG fuel tank containers
Removable and transportable LNG fuel
tank containers are used as fuel tanks in
Table 1 – A standard ISO tank container used for transport of cryogenig fluids does not fulfil the requirement of a LNG fuel tank on a ship.
the LNGPac™ ISO fuel gas handling system.
Te containers, which are designed to fulfl
all marine LNG tank requirements, are of
standard ISO frame dimensions (20 f, 40
f and 45 f) and can be transported by
road, rail and sea, although the maximum
gross weight may vary in diferent
countries for land transportation.
Te fuel tank is an IMO type C pressure
vessel enclosed within an outer tank. Both
the inner and the outer tanks are made
of stainless steel, which means that the
outer enclosure will act as a secondary
containment. Te LNG fuel tank container
is ftted with process equipment, namely
the valves and instruments required
for operational and safety purposes.
Te LNG fuel tank container is also
ftted with a pressure build-up evaporator
(PBE) for building up and maintaining an
operational pressure of approximately 5
bar in the tank. Te pressurized tank is
used instead of having rotating equipment,
such as pumps and/or compressors to
feed the gas to the engines. Having a
PBE on the container makes the LNG fuel
tank containers completely redundant.
If, for some reason, a container is
out of service another container can
be easily taken into operation.
Te connection points are located at
the end of the LNG fuel tank container
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unloading the LNG fuel tank containers.
Te containers are located on cassettes
and secured by twistlocks. On board the
ship the cassette is secured to the deck,
for example with twistlocks and lashing
as a secondary fastening arrangement.
Another possible fastening and securing
option is to directly secure the LNG fuel tank
container with twistlocks and lashing to the
deck. Tis would be a suitable solution for
container feeders and other vessels where
the containers can be lifed on and of. It
is also possible to utilize these containers
as stationary LNG tanks, which are not
removed frequently for flling. In this
case, a bunkering station can be installed
to allow the LNG fuel tank container to
be bunkered directly on the vessel.
for easy and smooth hook-up of the LNG
fuel tank container to the onboard fuel
gas handling system. Tese connections
consist of the LNG discharge, the vent mast
connection, heating media connections,
and a connection to the water spraying
system built onto the LNG fuel tank
container. For fuel tanks located above
deck, a water spray system is required
to cool the LNG tank in case of fre.
Fastening and securing
Te LNG fuel tank containers have to be
rigidly fastened and secured to the deck.
Te fastening and securing system has to
be designed for the maximum dynamic and
static inclinations, as well as the maximum
accelerations, of the vessel. A number
of feasible solutions exist. On RoRo and
RoPax vessels it is possible to use terminal
tractors with trailers for loading and
Docking station
Te docking station is the module
whereby the LNG fuel tank containers
are connected to the fuel gas handling
system onboard the ship. Te number
of LNG fuel tank container slots in the
docking station is defned according to
the required LNG capacity for the specifc
vessel. Te engine gas consumption, sea
voyage length, and the interval between
changing the containers defnes the required
number of LNG fuel tank containers.
All the necessary connections between
the LNG fuel tank container and the fuel
gas handling system are located in the
docking station for easy and practical
connecting operations. Flexible hoses
ftted with quick couplings are used to
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
45 in detail
Fig. 2 – Terminal tractor
loading LNG fuel tank
containers onboard a RoRo
ship.
attach the process connections. Te quick
couplings have a closing valve in both
coupling units to prevent any leakage when
connecting and disconnecting the hoses.
Te instrument readings and control
signals for the remote controlled valves on
the LNG fuel tank container are connected
to a junction box in the docking station.
Tere is a data connection and a hard wired
cable connection for increased safety.
Preparation of the gas
Te LNG is discharged from the fuel tank
containers via the docking station to the
evaporator skid. Te evaporator skid is the
module where the LNG is vaporized and
heated to the conditions required by the
engine (i.e. 0 – 60 °C). Te master gas fuel
valve, which is the last safety related stop
valve in the gas supply system outside the
machinery spaces, is installed afer the main
gas evaporator on the evaporator skid.
Te LNGPac™ ISO is controlled and
monitored by a control and safety
system. All modules, including the LNG
fuel tank containers, are monitored
and controlled by a single dedicated
PLC-based automation system.
Ship arrangement
Te LNGPac™ ISO is intended to be located
on an open deck where natural ventilation
is ensured at all times. Drip trays must be
installed under the skids, and also under
the hose connections between the LNG fuel
tank containers and the docking station.
Tis is to prevent possible LNG leaks from
damaging the deck beneath the skids.
Design and feasibility study
A design and feasibility study has been
conducted together with Germanischer
Lloyd (GL) for the conversion of a RoRo
vessel to gas using the LNGPac™ ISO as the
fuel gas handling system. Four LNG fuel
tank containers, the docking station, and
the evaporator skid were located on the
naturally ventilated af deck. Te LNG fuel
tank containers were located on cassettes,
and secured with twistlocks and lashing.
A second set of LNG fuel tank containers
would be reflled in advance so as to be
ready for switching with the empty LNG fuel
tank containers when the ship is in port.
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LNG fuel tank container 20 ft 40 ft
Frame dimensions (external)
Length m 6058 12,192
Width m 2438 2438
Height m 2591 2591
Tank
Geometrical volume (approx, room temp.) m
3
20 40
LNG volume (80 % effective volume) m
3
16 32
Other sizes on request.
Fig. 3 – LNG fuel containers loaded and connected to the onboard fuel gas handling system.
Table 2 – Typical characteristics of LNG fuel tank containers of different sizes.
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
47 in detail
In the area where the fuel gas handling
system was located, potential existing
ventilation inlets and outlets, as well as
the electrical equipment, would have to
be modifed due to the hazardous zones
around the fuel gas handling system.
For protection of the surrounding ship
structures, and for weather protection
of the equipment, the docking station
and evaporator skid would be located on
drip trays in naturally ventilated shelters.
Escape routes were planned from all
areas, especially from the docking station
where the fexible hose connections to the
LNG fuel tank containers were located.
As part of the study, a comprehensive
risk analysis was performed of the fuel gas
handling system. A risk analysis is required
for a gas fuelled ship where operational
risks and risks associated with physical
arrangements are indentifed and eliminated
or mitigated. Te major hazard for a fuel
gas handling system on a ship is LNG
leakage, and the subsequent damage to the
vessel. Where LNG leakages can occur, two
important things have to be incorporated
into the design. Firstly, no damage that
can harm the integrity of the ship can be
allowed to happen. Secondly, there has to
be a way to detect and identify the leakage
in order to stop and limit the leakage
and the consequences. Potential leakage
sources were identifed for the LNGPac™ ISO
modules and corrective actions were taken.
CONCLUSIONS
Wärtsilä is today recognized as a leader
in propulsion solutions for gas fuelled
vessels. Te company's strong and early
commitment to this goal has created in
depth knowledge of the use of natural gas
and LNG. Te Wärtsilä LNGPac™ ISO is an
addition to Wärtsilä’s portfolio of solutions
for the LNG fuelled ship market. It represents
further proof of Wärtsilä’s expertise and
knowledge of LNG applications, as well
as its dedication to make LNG available
for all ship operators and owners.
Fig. 4 – Environmentally friendly RoRo vessel sailing on gas.
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Sustainable Business is the current business
model that most larger global organisations
are following. But what is a sustainable
business model? Sustainable business is
how an organisation creates, delivers, and
captures value in a truly sustainable way. It
is a means of delivering commercial success
while also being aware of the environment,
and of delivering products and services
that improve people’s quality of life.
Integral parts of this concept include
energy savings, risk management, and
sustainable development. New technologies
and operational requirements bring
ever increasing importance on knowing
exactly the competence level of the people
employed, and their ability to perform
efectively and efciently. Te Wärtsilä
Instructor assessment of auxiliary systems simulator operation exercise.
How do we know what you know?
A perspective on professional skills
management
AUTHORS: Peter Lancaster, Manager, Trai ni ng Sal es Suppor t
Matti Ol l i , General Manager, Trai ni ng Servi ces
A regulated competence assessment
programme can result in operational cost
savings for ship owners or power plant
operators. Wärtsilä has in place solutions
to the question of how to assess the
technical knowledge and skills needed to
achieve company goals.
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
49 in detail
Land & Sea Academy (WLSA) has been
instrumental since 2002 in establishing and
developing internet based processes and
tools that aid Wärtsilä’s global technical
training infrastructure. Te increasing use of
Human Capital Development Management
Systems (HCDMS) and Competence &
Career Development Management Systems
(C&CDMS) by larger global organisations is
well known. However, an essential element
that is not usually included in the supply of
the sofware platform is an application for
assessment and, most importantly, the
content and methodology for carrying
out this assessment.
Assessment is an essential part
of the competence loop
To achieve business growth, the management
of people and their level is an essential part
of business growth.
As seen in the process diagram, the people
skills must match the vision and strategy goals
of the organisation. Competence
management systems enable an organisation
to administrate, develop, and monitor the
competencies of employees and the company
as a whole, so that business objectives can
be met. In short, such systems help both
the company and its employees to
meet future challenges. Competence
management is also;
A strategy based approach to identifying
the core competences of the company
A process to develop further competences
that support the implementation
of the company’s strategies
A way to focus the training budget
on the critical areas for success
Assessment is a critical factor in completing
this loop, and for minimising risk and
enabling the achievement of company goals.
Assessment in practice
Tere are various ways of carrying out
the assessment process, as shown below.
Being a truly global organisation, Wärtsilä
must select a way of working that will be
accepted by customers and in all regions
of the company’s global network. Te
assessment application must be equally
accessible regardless of the location, so that
an equitable and fair result can be attained.
Self Assessment
Self Assessment is an easy way to obtain an
estimation of individual competence, but it
is not reliable since, for obvious reasons, it
is very difcult for employees to present a
realistically valid report on themselves. But
it has a value in itself because of the
Fig. 1 – Standard Competence CIP Model.
Vision
Strategy
Goals
Competence and Career
Management Process
Position
Competence
Requirements
Individual
Competence
Assessment
Skill Gap
Analysis
Personal
Development
Plan
Individual
Competence
Development
Are gaps
closed?
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broad knowledge base that is available as
material for revalidation. If we have skills,
for example, that have been learned and
in use for some time already, then we
consider ourselves as having some degree
of current competence in the area. Tis
degree of current competence is usually
overrated, but nevertheless reported in
a self assessment as a current skill.
Testimonial Assessment
Te Testimonial Assessment is given by
a person having a working or personal
relationship with the individual, and like
the Self Assessment, is relatively easy to
implement. It generally has greater value
than Self Assessment when determining
the current and realistic competence of
the individual’s suitability for particular
positions. Tere is also a reliability issue
here because of personal relationships,
cultures, and career objectives that may
bias the testimonial to the advantage
or disadvantage of the individual.
Practical (and/or simulated) Assessment
WLSA usually covers this assessment
method by utilising the facilities of its
global Training Centres. Te practical
assessment is based on a series of task cards
and exercises that the participant completes
using the training engines, auxiliary
components, and calibration and measuring
equipment. Te WLSA instructor, or an
experienced service engineer, will supervise
the trainee throughout the assessment task
process. Te task cards cover all operations,
maintenance actions, and measurements
required for efcient plant operation.
Tis assessment can be carried out in the
Training Centre or on site. Te performance
of the trainee is evaluated by the instructor,
and a recommendation is made regarding
further actions for improving his/her level of
competence. Tis method is combined with
the theoretical assessment to give the most
comprehensive means of demonstrating the
knowledge and skills of the participant.
A simulated environment for engine
and auxiliary equipment where practical
Fig. 2 – 360 °Assessment Model.
Overall weighted
assessment
Self assessment
Theoretical
test/exam based
assessment
Testimonial
assessment
Practical/simulator
based assessment
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
51 in detail
Fig. 3 – Practical assessment exercise involving measurement practices.
exercises and design and function
concepts are assessed, is available at
selected WLSA Training Centres. Simulator
exercises for engine operation can also
be conducted remotely via the internet.

Theoretical Assessment
Probably everyone has been subjected
to this type of assessment in one form or
another. Tere are many points of view
about conducting this type of test and
many arguments against the use of this
method, but it is still with us in all spheres
of learning as a method of assessing
the knowledge of the individual. Tis
method is widely used, mainly because it
is practical and gives a reasonable result.
WLSA uses a form of this method as
part of its Assessment tool. Tere is an
application that uses the four choice/
multiple choice (4CMC) question
philosophy. Te collation of the question
database is the most time consuming part
of the process. Subject matter experts
together with technical writers compose
questions that confrm whether or not the
subject knowledge base is fully understood,
and that the learning objectives have been
achieved. Tese question banks or modules
are available for Wärtsilä products such as,
Gas engine 4-stroke portfolio
Diesel engine 4-stroke portfolio
Diesel engine 2-stroke potfolio
Engine electrical & automation
Steam plants
Auxiliary machinery
4CMC question modules can be made to
order for specifc customers or purposes,
such as a new power plant, as an adjunct in
the selection or training of operating and
maintenance personnel.
As a global company, access is also required
to the assessment tool by all Wärtsilä network
companies and customers. Tis needs,
therefore, to be operable via the internet.
Tis tool will in future be cloud based, thus
dramatically increasing the connectivity.
Te WLSA Assessment tool has a database
of thousands of 4CMC questions in
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Fig.4 – Assessment tool initial web page.
Fig. 5 – Example of assessment web page.
START YOUR BROWSER
Type Type http://wlsa.wartsila.com
Click TRAINING COURSES button
On the TRAINING COURSES
window, Clik Registered Customer
Login link
Step 1
TRAINING COURSES button
Registered Customer Login
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
53 in detail
Table 1 – Example of competence assessment result matrix.
diferent categories available for computer
random selection of those needed for any
individual assessment. Te compilation
of the question bank is the most work
intensive part of the operation. Experts in
the specifc felds of knowledge are actively
involved in the making and updating of
these questions, which are arranged in
diferent skill sets. At present these skill
sets cover Wärtsilä’s mechanical, electrical,
and environmental products. Development
of these skill sets can also be made project
and customer specifc to suit diferent
training objectives. Te whole assessment
process is easy and straightforward.
1. One applies for a specifc on
line assessment module.
2. WLSA will register the applicant in
SABA (Wärtsilä HCDMS sofware) and
allocate an individual ID and password.
3. Te applicant follows the opening
instructions and participates
in the assessment.

When the assessment is completed, the
result will be given in the format selected.
Te distribution and manner of the
result can be modifed to suit individual
requirements. Te result can be shown at
the time of the assessment to the trainee
as a percentage, as a pass or fail, or just as
a thank you message. Distribution can be
via an email to the trainee or other party/s
as agreed.
Tis assessment process, when used by
larger groups, can be a basis for selecting
further training programmes to improve
competence levels. It is highly cost efective
in targeting the major skill gaps within
the group.
WLSA has been co-operating with the PBI
Research Institute, the project consulting
company, to arrive at a suitable grading
system for the 4CMC question method, and
for presenting the result in a meaningful
way that quickly identifes where the
competence risks are. From this result,
WLSA is able to deliver a recommendation
to the trainee and/or customer on the range
of courses available to obtain the needed
competences. Benchmarking pilot assessments
have been conducted involving people from
diferent responsibility positions (support,
operational and management), as have
theoretical investigations and confrmations
by PBI.
Securing the correct personnel is made
easier by using the WLSA assessment. If new
employees are needed to fll positions as
operators, maintenance staf, and managers
for power plants or marine installations,
then this application can really help.
Assessment is a key element
of risk management.
A regulated competence assessment
programme for operation and maintenance
personnel is a wise decision for any ship
owner or power plant operator. If the plant
is operating properly there are savings to be
made in fuel and maintenance procedures,
while also conforming to all the environmental
requirements. WLSA recognises this fact and
has in place solutions to the question of how
to assess the technical knowledge and skills
needed to successfully compliment company
goals. Having people with the correct
knowledge and skills will ensure a meaningful
contribution to a sustainable business model.
W34SG ABB Equipment Safety Operations Management Control System TOTAL
Operator 1*, correct answers 50% 100% 60% 70% 100% 86% 70%
Operator 2*, correct answers 50% 57% 75% 56% 50% 100% 60&
Operator 3*, correct answers 36% 60% 60% 44% 33% 25% 43%
Operator 4, correct answers 14% 50% 0% 60% 67% 67% 40%
Operator 5, correct answers 43% 0% 0% 20% 33% 83% 35%
AVERAGE 39% 53% 39% 50% 57% 72% 50%
High risk Average risk Low Risk
0–60%
correct
answers
60%–80%
correct
answers
80–100%
correct
answers
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SEEMP in brief
At the start of this year, the International
Maritime Organisation (IMO) made it
mandatory for all ships over 400 GT to have
a documented Ship Energy Efciency
Management Plan (SEEMP). And although
there is as yet no requirement for ship
owners to actually implement their
documented SEEMP, it is likely that it will
be mandatory at some point in the future.
According to the IMO requirements,
energy efciency should be measured
quantitatively and an Energy Efciency
Operational Indicator (EEOI) can be
used, although it is not mandatory.
Each plan is ship specifc in terms of
planning, implementation, monitoring,
self-evaluation and improvement. Goal
setting is voluntary and achievements
are not required to be published.
However, the goals should be
measurable and easy to understand.
Tere are two principle ways of
improving a vessel’s energy efciency:
a) by continuous improvement through
operational and/or maintenance measures
and b) by incremental improvements
through retroftting solutions. SEEMP
mainly focuses on the operational side,
however, does not exclude the planning
and implementation of retrofts.
Improving operational energy efciency
can be achieved in several ways, including
optimising the trim, rudder and stabiliser.
Effective implementation of SEEMP
and integration with maintenance
management
AUTHORS: Andreas Wi esmann, General Manager, I nnovati on & Busi ness Devel opment , 2-stroke
Tage Kl ockars, Di rector, Suppor t and devel opment , Mari ne Agreements
There has already been tremendous
interest in Wärtsilä’s recently introduced
solutions and services supporting
ship owners in the implementation of
an effective Ship Energy Efficiency
Management Plan (SEEMP). The next
steps will focus on developing the package
further and integrating it into the service
agreements offered.
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
55 in detail
Fig. 1 – Ballast water management and reporting.
By continuously calculating a “combinator
curve”, the engine revolutions and propeller
pitch (in case of a controllable pitch
propeller) can be adjusted to meet changing
load conditions. Vessel speed and voyage
planning also play a very important part.
A Wärtsilä survey showed that some 40
per cent of ship operators were not aware
of the fuel savings that an SEEMP could
create. Wärtsilä has identifed savings
from operational improvements of up
to 9 per cent, depending on vessel type,
machinery confguration and condition
and the current operations. Its SEEMP
package is a data gathering, optimisation
advisory and management tool that helps
ship owners achieve these potential savings
and at the same time manage the ongoing
environmental performance of their vessels.
In response to the new requirement
coming in force earlier this year and
to the fndings of its investigations,
Wärtsilä set out its capabilities in helping
shippers to both meet and implement
the requirements. It introduced an
SEEMP package aimed at improving
fuel efciency, reducing environmental
impact, and optimising ship handling. Te
ofering will also be integrated into the
company’s marine service agreements.
Combining SEEMP implementation,
efficiency optimization and maintenance
strategies
Te mentioned tool is designed to obtain
data from ships and feed it into Wärtsilä’s
Optimiser platform, where it can be
analysed. Te company has developed
the system for the last two years, which
included ways of communicating with
ships and retrieving data in order to
enable data analysis for various needs,
particularly for two main directions:
continuous performance and efciency
optimization on one side and continuous
lifecycle maintenance cost optimization
through implementation of condition based
maintenance (CBM) on the other side.
Te aim of combining efciency
measurements with condition monitoring
and the maintenance systems is an
optimized overall asset management.
Tis integrated approach makes sense in
many ways. For example, monitoring fuel
consumption and making adjustments not
only allows savings in fuel costs, but also
provides an indicator of things such as
engine health, propeller or hull efciency.
Such indications in turn help to predict
when and what type of maintenance
will be needed.
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Fig. 2 – Weather routing application on dashboard.
When monitoring efciency, it can be
observed, if fuel consumption increases.
It then obviously makes economic sense
to do maintenance on items such as for
instance turbochargers or fuel injection
equipment, in order to reduce the fuel
consumption back to normal. Tis can
be a much cheaper option. Using even
two per cent more fuel on a ship can
equate to hundreds of thousand dollars
a year in additional fuel costs, which is
far more than the cost of maintenance.
Te integration also makes practical
sense. A big share of the data acquired
for making efciency improvements
is the same data that is used for the
evaluation of equipment condition.
Terefore, it simultaneously supports
the implementation of CBM. It is worth
mentioning that this synergy is achieved
without signifcant increase in costs.
With the help of this integrated tool and
the later described support services, ship
owners and operators will have the choice of
aligning vessel operation and maintenance
towards their business-specifc strategies
and key performance targets. If energy
efciency is the overriding target, it supports
an “energy efciency centred” maintenance
and operation management; if vessel
availability and operational reliability are
the number one focus, the ship manager will
use it for a “reliability centred” maintenance
and operation management; and if OPEX
reduction for the owner/manager is key
target, it will support implementation
of a “condition-based, cost centred”
maintenance and operation strategy.
Broad scope
One advantage of the system is that it does
not require the ship’s crew to take any
measurements, something that has always
proved challenging due to the administrative
burden it places on a ship’s staf.
Te Optimiser platform interfaces with
the ship’s automation system. It includes an
on-board advisory system where operators
can view indicators to see how a particular
piece of equipment or system is performing.
Te platform can be accessed by anyone
who can enhance the system’s value. Tis
means it is open to almost anyone in
Wärtsilä – technical services for engines,
propulsion, electrical and automation,
environmental, maintenance planners,
coordinators, and so on – as well as outside
companies, for example OEM suppliers of
other critical equipment that was not supplied
by Wärtsilä.
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
57 in detail
Fig. 3 – Operational performance focus Widget selection.
Wärtsilä can use it to produce reports
and ofer advisory services for things such
as propulsion and engine monitoring,
trim and ballast, advanced dynamic
planning, EEOI and other efciency
indicators, as well as energy audits.
Te system allows Wärtsilä to collect
a lot of data on its own equipment
products. And because Wärtsilä has
designed the equipment, such as the
engine or propulsion system, it is easy
to see from the ship’s operation whether
the equipment performance can be
improved by operational or maintenance
measures alone or an upgrade would
eventually provide larger savings.
Having all the efciency curves and other
data makes it easy to identify the corrections
needed, and to know what the equipment
should be capable of. Wärtsilä can then
either ofer advice or update the equipment
because the company has designed it.
Wide attraction
Te package will be attractive for ship
owners, managers and operators alike.
For example, both ship owners and ship
managers are interested in optimising
maintenance costs, but ship owners also
want to ofer attractive, energy-efcient
vessels to charterers. Charters on the other
hand pay for the fuel, thus have a high
interest in lowest fuel costs, but also in
operational reliability to best serve their
customers with reliable shipping of cargo.
While the SEEMP requirement is quite
general and does not address the specifc
business needs of the diferent stakeholders
in the shipping value chain, the solutions
and support services of Wärtsilä for efective
SEEMP implementation are fexible and
can be tailored to the specifc targets of a
shipping company. Tis makes the ofering
attractive for Wärtsilä’s customers.
Although only recently announced,
there has already been a great deal of
interest in Wärtsilä’s SEEMP ofering. In
fact, numerous quotations were requested
even before the package was released.
Integrating SEEMP into Services Agreements
Te combination of SEEMP with service
agreements is something new that Wärtsilä
is bringing to the table, essentially ofering
its customers more than is possible with
the company’s existing CBM contracts.
Guaranteeing items such as fuel
performance, fuel consumption, engine
efciency, etc. within service agreements
is an area that has long been discussed but
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one that has so far, not been efectively
implemented.
In order to be in a position to guarantee
performance and fuel efciency, an
integrated way of acquiring accurate
efciency data of individual equipment,
but also of total vessel efciency and a
wide range of ambient conditions and
surrounding parameters, all synchronized,
is required. Tis means large data trafc
and requires sufcient ship-shore data
transmission capacity. All this has only
lately become available in its entirety.
Wärtsilä’s Optimiser platform makes
such comprehensive data acquisition
and processing possible and as a result of
analysing this data, the company is able
to provide value-adding services and
the necessary guarantees on the equipment.
Everything can now be tied together, and
valuable advice for individual equipment or
the entire ship can be given in reports or
online to the operator’s ofce or
the vessel’s ofcers.
By integrating this data evaluation with
Services Agreements, Wärtsilä can
guarantee fuel consumption within a
relatively small range. Tis is something
that is only possible for a company that
is in the position to manage such service
agreement, perform the online performance
measuring and evaluation, execute CBM
and make the necessary adjustments.
Flexible agreements
With the new package, ship owners can
take advantage of a modular service
agreement ofering that can be tailored
to their specifc needs and key targets.
Te beneft of a modular approach is
that the scope can be customized according
to mutually agreed levels of outsourcing,
levels of responsibility and risk sharing,
operational relevance of equipment for
the customer or their budget. Te owner
can select just those system applications,
agreement deliverables, services or
guarantees that they specifcally need.
Tis fexibility is also needed on the
Optimiser platform side, because the initial
investment costs for sensors and enabling
certain applications on the platform can
be quite diferent. Not every ship owner
or operator requires the full scope that the
platform would be capable to provide, nor
are they prepared to take high costs for a
one-fts-all platform, if only a limited scope
of applications and services are required.
Te fexibility in the agreements also
enables dynamic maintenance planning and
services, where maintenance is based on
the condition of the equipment. Tis moves
maintenance away from fxed schedules,
which either don’t ft into the vessel’s overall
utilization schedule or which might request
maintenance to be done too early, although
the equipment’s condition would allow
trouble-free and efcient operation for
longer time.
In addition to issuing reports on the
performance and condition of the equipment,
it is also possible to provide online technical
support as data obtained remotely can be
used to advise the crew onboard.
Choice of contracts
Te contract defning the individual reports
and services for each ship is handled by
a competent and dedicated manager who
is responsible for delivering what has been
agreed with the customer. Tis manager
is supported by a centralized maintenance
planning team and by operation and
technical support experts.
Te agreements typically run for three
to ten years, depending on the ship owner’s
requirements and plans for the vessels.
Since it takes six months to properly
establish the entire system and baselines,
these are long term solutions.
Tere are diferent levels of contract
depending on the scope. Most marine
agreements are so-called ‘Technical
Management Agreements’, where a small
fxed monthly fee covers the management
and continuous core services such as data
evaluation, technical advisory and
maintenance planning. Spare parts and
onboard labour are covered by separate
supply arrangements and charged when
delivered. Such agreements have been quite
popular because the customer gets sufcient
information and advice to make the right
decisions for operation and maintenance.
Te next level is a Maintenance Agreement
where the ship owner outsources the agreed
scope of maintenance to Wärtsilä from
maintenance planning and management
to delivery of all required spare parts,
maintenance crews, workshop services,
etc. Tese agreements have either a fxed
fee plus a variable fee calculated according
to the running hours of the equipment,
or the total cost for the specifed scope
of covered equipment, deliverables and
services for the entire agreement period can
be evenly distributed as a fxed fat fee.
Please check Wärtsilä
Services
Solution Studio,
Condition Monitoring:
www.wartsila.com/en/
solution-studio
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
59 in detail 59 in detail
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Wärtsilä works with the customer to
assess which agreement is the most suitable.
Te aim is to set a budget with the customer
so as to determine whether, for example, a
fve or 10-year budget is the most applicable.
Tis kind of cooperation, combined
with the potential that the new package
ofers, will not only ensure that ship
owners are able to meet the IMO’s SEEMP
requirements, but will also allow them to
operate and maintain their vessels in the
most cost-efective and environmentally
sustainable manner possible.
Implementation
Te new package is available for ship
owners with existing marine agreements,
as well as for those looking to set up
new agreements. For those with existing
agreements, implementing the system
simply involves swapping the existing
computer used for CBM for one running the
Optimiser platform. All agreements ofered
afer July this year will have computers with
the new Optimiser platform as standard.
Te frst step is to undertake a baseline
study for the installation, where data is
gathered for 3-6 months to obtain an
Energy Efciency Operating Index (EEOI).
Tis establishes a baseline for planning
improvements. Once the improvements
are in place, onshore staf can carry out
continuous monitoring using the Optimiser.
Wärtsilä staf can then ofer advice, or
executes the necessary upgrades according
to the results of the continuous monitoring.
Tere is an ongoing evaluation process where
quarterly reports are produced and annual
reviews carried out so that new goals can be
set. Te basis of the SEEMP is that of a rolling
system, involving monitoring, evaluating,
and then fnding ways for improvements.
Taking SEEMP to additional efficiency
improvements
Te so far highlighted solutions focused on
the continuous improvements through
operational measures and smart maintenance
management.
Changes in the vessel speed and operating
profle and the availability of improved or
innovative technologies can ofer additional
opportunities to incrementally improve a
vessel’s efciency by retroftting solutions.
Particularly the merchant feet, and as a
forerunner the container shipping industry,
have substantially reduced the average
speeds. Although reduction of speed already
achieves by itself a huge saving on the
annual fuel bill, the vessels’ efciency is not
optimized in these lower speed ranges.
Two thirds of the world’s container,
tanker and bulker feet are younger than
10 years. Majority of these ships were
designed to operate at much higher
speeds than what is today the “new
operational reality”. Compared to optimized
vessel designs matching the new speed
requirements and having installed latest
technology equipment, so called “eco”
vessels, there is an efciency gap of 10-25
per cent on the existing feet. Wärtsilä
has identifed measures and solution
packages that could achieve 10-20 per cent
of additional fuel savings by retroftting.
One of the focus areas has, therefore, been
to put together a programme of “more
radical” fuel cost reduction upgrades.
Tere are a lot of specifc solutions
where smaller percentages can be gained,
but by combining several solutions
and tailoring such packages to the
specifc vessel and its new operational
requirements, far more can be gained.
Ship owners ofen approach Wärtsilä
for an individual solution, for example
an upgrade solution on the main engine,
or separately for a proposal of a modifed
propeller design. Wärtsilä’s combined
capabilities from engines and propulsion
solutions to system integration and
automation up to its ship design ofering
provide a unique opportunity for ship
owners to utilize the company as a
total, integrated solutions partner for
vessel efciency upgrading projects.
Te identifcation of the savings potential
and initiation of upgrading projects could
be an ofspring from the measurements
and evaluations through the Optimisers
platform or from the close collaboration
between ship owner and Wärtsilä under a
services agreement. However, it can also
be initiated separately by initial onboard
audits or desk studies and elaborated in
a joint project that evaluates diferent
options, selects the optimal package
scope depending on saving targets, actual
situation and available budget, and fnally
plans, delivers and implements the selected
scope. Wärtsilä’s professionals from various
functions and competence areas are
brought together into the diferent phases
of such end-to-end efciency upgrading
projects, in order to ensure successful
implementation and achievement of the
agreed targets and expected savings.
CONCLUSION
Te new ofering for SEEMP implementation,
for integrated performance and condition
monitoring and advisory services through
the Optimiser platform, the modular and
fexible scope of agreements that integrate
the advantages of the tools and SEEMP
implementation, and the wide capabilities
to take on end-to-end upgrading project
responsibilities for achieving substantial fuel
savings, makes Wärtsilä a very important
sparring and implementation partner for
ship owners and operators in achieving fuel
cost reductions and efciency gains.
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
61 in detail
Just about 100 years ago, the wastewater
treatment process was invented when our
aqua environment began to deteriorate.
Te science, engineering, and regulations
relating to water and wastewater have
evolved slowly but steadily ever since. As
a result, the eforts of municipalities and
land-based industries have led to signifcant
improvements in water quality, and the
way that it is treated. Te marine industry,
meanwhile, continues to explore means
of developing its methods in this area.
So-called ‘grey’ water is the efuent from
living areas, laundries, and galley areas,
while ‘black’ water is the output from toilets.
On land, these waters are collected from our
households and professionally treated in
wastewater treatment works (WWTW). On
a ship, black and grey waters are collected
separately, but ofen become mingled
during transport, storage and discharge.
Annex IV of IMO's MARPOL Convention,
adopted 40 years ago, set ambitious
standards for ship discharges in MEPC.2(VI).
But there are two shortfalls: 1) grey water
is not regulated, and 2) discharges from
ships have not been monitored.
Grey water pollutes.
On land, nobody expects the grey water
from a restaurant or laundry to be dumped
into a natural water body without treatment.
Tere are numerous wastewater engineering
text books that explain the scientifc basis
Wastewater treatment
in the marine industry
AUTHOR: Wei Chen, Head of R&D, Wär tsi l ä Water Systems Ltd
Over the past 100 years or so, wastewater
treatment on land has been successfully
developed. However, the marine industry
is still working to develop its means
of treating wastewater, and Wärtsilä
is actively developing the needed
technologies for ships.
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for such treatment. Grey water on ships
is just as polluted (Table 1), and Faecal
Coliform concentrations in grey water
exceed the discharge limits of black water
by 100,000 times. Grey water also accounts
for 80 of a ship’s wastewater organic (or
Biochemical Oxygen Demand – BOD5)
loading. Annex IV only covered 20 of
a ship’s wastewater pollution impact.
The technologies are available.
Afer Te U.S. state of Alaska established
that cruise ship discharges were of poor
quality, federal legislation expanding
Alaska’s authority over cruise ship
discharges was swifly passed in 2000.
Strict rules regarding both grey and black
water were then introduced. Tis led to
the development of a new generation
of Advanced Wastewater Treatment
(AWT) systems, which have subsequently
exceeded all expectations (Figure 1). Tis
success has led the USEPA to extend the
stringent grey water requirements to
other US waters (Vessel General Permit,
2008). Most importantly, Alaska has
established the Commercial Passenger
Vessel Environmental Compliance
Program (CPVECP), the one and only
independent monitoring and sampling
regime in the entire global marine
industry. AWTs that were ft for purpose
survived, and those not were weeded out.
Despite being endorsed by the USEPA
as being the Best Available Technology,
and while out-performing WWTWs ashore,
AWT has no clear defnition, nor can it
be Type Approved as such. It must do
what it says on the label, year on year,
under the watchful eyes of CPVECP. It
was not easy, but Alaska has provided a
show case of stakeholder commitment
to protect its pristine marine waters.
Wärtsilä has worked with cruise operators
to develop its Membrane Bio Reactors(MBR)
system. MBR works by segregating – or
‘splitting’ – the treatment of black and grey
water on the basis that the latter is less
contaminated and should be treated
separately. Te solution has proven to be
extremely successful in meeting all
the Alaska criteria.
The marine industry needs
universal regulations.
In addition to Alaska’s clean-up eforts, the
Great Lakes, US waters (EPA Vessel General
Permit, 2013), and inland waterways in
Europe (2012/49/EU) have also regulated
Table 1 – Characteristics of grey waters on ships (USEPA report, 2008)
Faecal Coliform
(MPN/100 ml)
BOD5 (mg/l)
MEPC.2 (VI) black water discharge limits 200 50
Acoommodation Grey Water 37,000,000 260
Galley Grey Water 29,000,000 1,490
Domestic Wastewater 1,000,000 to 100,000,000 110 to 400
Coliform – Geometric Mean
(count/100 ml)
10,000,000
1,000,000
100,000
10,000
100
100
10
1
2
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Average BODS (mg/l 02)
600
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Fig. 1 – Average performance of wastewater treatment plants on ships (Blue bars – cruise ships
with AWTS in Alaska; red bar – 32-ship survey in a European port).
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
63 in detail
grey water treatment in various shapes
and forms (Table 2), each afecting certain
shipping sectors. Tere are already four sets
of diferent type approval specifcations, and
more than fve diferent compliant regimes.
Tis assortment of legislation is a source
of confusion for both vendors and ship
operators. Te challenge is further
emphasised by the fact that some ports and
coastal waters ban all discharges, regardless
of the existence or type of AWTS onboard.
Ships ofen have to hold wastewater in
double bottom tanks, for discharge outside
the restricted waters, at the expense
of extra fuel costs and emissions.
Classifcation Societies also promote
grey water treatment by ofering greener
Class Notations. Almost all type approved
sewage treatment plants claim the capability
to treat grey water, while more and more
ship owners and yards are signing up to
these initiatives. For example, the cruise
industry some years ago voluntarily stopped
discharges of untreated grey water into the
Baltic Sea. Te industry saw what’s coming,
and is ready to meet new legislation.
However, the variations in requirements
in diferent parts of the world can create
confusion regarding equipment selection,
system design, and operations. For instance,
grey water is sometimes ‘treated’ only during
the very last stage of a type approved sewage
treatment system, which results in non-
compliant performance.
At the international level, the lack of grey
water regulations has started to afect other
IMO policies as well. One example of this
is that the positive eforts to accommodate
ballast water tanks for holding grey water
under certain operational conditions, has
been stalled. Attempts to address grey water
pollution along the Northern Sea Route
under the Polar Code have also faltered.
While the needs to control grey water in
the marine industry are just as great as they
are on land, Annex IV unfortunately provides
no provisions for monitoring discharges
from ships. Te discharge limits are only
applicable to a type approval test at a testing
facility.
Compared to the detailed specifcations
of the CPVECP, i.e. the overboard discharge
sampling point, logbooks, fow measurements,
sampling frequencies and procedures, etc.,
Annex IV lacks such monitoring requirements
totally.
Tis weakness has been exploited. Type
approved sewage treatment plants that
‘utilise the rich oxygen in the sea water to
Fig. 2 – MBR installations on a new built cruise ship.
Fig. 3 – MBR construction on a new built cruise ship in the ship yard.
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remove pollutants’ by drawing sea water
through them, at as much as more than 40
times the sewage fow, are installed on
hundreds of ships. Dilution is, alas, a poor
means of controlling pollution, and in 2016
constraints will be imposed via MEPC.227(64),
albeit with a lack of enforcement measures.
Even then, the practice will continue to
entertain the notion of marine water
protection without enforcement.
In 2012, one member state surveyed the
performance of sewage treatment plants
onboard 32 ships. It was found that ‘the vast
majority of the equipment did not meet
the existing sewage treatment standards
due to improper use of detergent, a lack
of maintenance, or not following the
operational instructions’ (MEPC 64/23).
Actually, none of the ships satisfed even
the most relaxed MEPC.2(VI) rules adopted
in 1973, and the average results missed the
targets by a long way (Figure 1). Tis
despite the fact that during the past fve
years MEPC.2(VI) has been tightened twice
(MEPC.159(55) and MEPC.227(64)).
Te fact that grey water is ofen
intermingled with black water in the tanks
and pumps makes it difcult to create
efective monitoring. Alaska's CPVECP, on
the other hand, deals with this problem
very well.
The industry welcomes science based
regulations
It is not always the case that laws become
more efective when made increasingly
stringent. An Alaskan State Law passed
in 2006, for example, demanded that
cruise ships meet the state’s water quality
standards at the point of discharge. Tis
made drinking water appear to be toxic
to the ocean. It took an independent
Science Advisory Panel to conclude that
this law should be rolled back since such a
requirement is not relevant, and is anyway
not applied to shore-based discharges.
Te process lasted three years, but at
least it reached a science-based closure.
Wärtsilä has achieved world leading status
as a technology provider of future-proofng
black and grey water management systems
for ships. Te situation is not, therefore,
that efective treatment is not yet available.
It is the will to ensure that this treatment is
carried out that appears to be lacking, and
the fact that 32 ships exceeded the IMO's
discharge limits by a factor of 1000 gives
cause for concern. Regarding the removal
of nutrients from ship sewage discharges,
the Baltic Sea has been designated by the
International Maritime Organisation (IMO)
as being a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area
under its MARPOL Annex IV. However,
passenger ships have contributed just 0.035
of the Baltic Sea’s nitrogen load,and even this
minute contribution hasbeen diverted to
port reception facilities, thanks to the cruise
industry’s proactive stance since 2009.
Nevertheless, this efort has failed to win
the hearts and minds of the Baltic rim
countries. In 2012, a proposal was adopted
to make the discharge levels of nutrients
from passenger ships more stringent than
equivalent standards ashore. Tis was branded
by industry groups as being ‘a sad day’
but there were, nevertheless, a number of
member states wanting to implement these
standards also for the Mediterranean, and
other sea areas. By the way, the Mediterranean
Sea is defned as nutrient-poor water by
the European Environmental Agency.
Had there been an independent Science
Advisory Panel or a monitoring regime,
this confusion could have been avoided.
Fortunately, more regulators, at least those
ashore, have recognised that environmental
initiatives can have an adverse impact by
consuming natural resources, and incurring
emissions that need to be justifed by the
tangible benefts they may bring. Having
science based rules is no longer a question
of the more stringent the better. Since it takes
more than aspirations to fnd a balance, the
rules can and should be science based,
practicable, and sustainable.
When it comes to black and grey water
pollution from ships, maybe it is time for
the marine community to do something
simple, and to do it right, such as regulating
both black and grey water - and having such
regulations enforced.
Fig. 4 – MBR retrofitted in-situ while the ship was trading.
WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL 02.2013
65 in detail
Table 2 – Key regulations on black and grey water discharges from the ships.
Standards
IMO MARPL Annex IV EU USA Alaska
MEPC.
2 (VI)
MEPC.
159 (55)
MEPC.
227 (64)
2012 (Inland
Water ways)
USC G
33CFR 159
Type II MSD
EPA
Vessel
General
Permit
USC G
33CFR159
Subpart E
GP No. 2009
DB0026
Continuous
(Underway)
Water
Quality
Standards
(AWQS)
Enter into force 2003 2010 2016 2013 1975 2013 2000 2009–15 2006–13
Applicable
streams
Black Black Black Black & Grey
Black
(Grey in
Great Lakes)
Grey Black & Grey
Type Approval IMO IMO IMO EU USCG N/A N/A
Applicable ships AII AII AII AII AII
100–499
>500
Passenger
> 500
Passenger
> 250
F. Coliform
(/100 ml)
200 100 100 200 20 20 14 14
TSS (mg/l) 100 35 35Qi/Qe 150 30 30 150 150
BOD (mg/l) 50 25 25Qi/Qe 25 30 30 30 30
COD (mg/l) 125 125Qi/Qe 125
TOC (mg/l) 45
pH 6~8.5 6~8.5 6.5~9 6.5~9 6.5~8.5 6.5~8.5
Chlorine (mg/l) 0.5 0.5 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
TN (mgN/l), Spe-
cial Area,
passenger > 12
20 Qi/Qe
or 70%
TP (mgP/l),
Special Area,
passenger > 12
1 Qi/Qe
or 80%
Ammonia (mgN/l) 28 (130) 1
Dis. Copper ( g/l) 87 (130) 3.1
Dis. Nickel ( g/l) 43 (43) 8.2
Dis. Zinc ( g/l) 360 (360) 81
Wärtsilä Water Systems Ltd is an innovative, market
leading company providing conventional and advanced wastewater
treatment systems in response to environmental needs and
marine legislations. During the past 40 years, the company
has provided over 8000 installations across all ship sectors.
Building on the success of its advanced Membrane BioReactor
technology, the company has developed a unique wastewater
management system that allows future proofing compliant
operation at low operational costs and with minimum skill
requirements. This system has been successfully implemented
on multiple cruise ships, many of them sailing in Alaska waters.
IMPROVING LIFECYCLE EFFICIENCY
BY LOOKING AT THE BIG PICTURE
In the current market situation, companies are focusing on improving efficiency and reducing
costs. Wärtsilä improves the lifecycle of ship and power plant installations by looking into three
areas. Preventing the unexpected helps guarantee performance and manage risk. Environmental
efficiency optimises environmental performance. And performance optimisation helps improve
business efficiency and reduce operational expenses. Please read more about improving lifecycle
efficiency at wartsila.com/services.
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WARTS|LA.COM
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WÄRTSILÄ NETWORK
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in detail WÄRTSILÄ TECHNICAL JOURNAL | WWW.WARTSILA.COM
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