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Chapter Three

Composite Classification

Composites are made by combining two or more materials to give a unique combination of properties .As apposed to metal alloys, each material retains its spread chemical, physical and mechanical properties .The two constituents are normally the reinforcements (fibers , or particulates , or whisker's) and the matrix may be metal (MMC), polymer (PMC) and ceramics (CMC). There are modern classification of composite into (CCC) carbon carbon composite and (IMC) intermetalic matrix composite. They used instead of various materials in the fields in different applications in medicine, civil engineering and military due to their specific properties such as strength and stiffness.


1 Applications of Composite Materials,

Composite materials have found applications in a wide range of industries. In this chapter we attempt to give an overview of the applications of composite materials.


1 -1 Aerospace
Airplane structures as shown in Fig. (3-1) .

3 -1 -2 Automotive
- Body panels in passenger cars as well as race cars are commonly made out of

composite materials. Other applications include composite leaf springs for suspensions and composite drive shafts.

-Tyre has a complex internal structure with multiple reinforcing plies at various
orientations. Reinforcement can be steel wires, polyester or Kevlar cords and the matrix is a synthetic Elastomer with carbon black as a particulate reinforcement as in Fig.(3-2)

Figure (3-1) Use of composite materials in Airbus A320 commercial airplane

Fig.(3-2) Typical structure of a car tire


3.1 -3 Civil Engineering:
New bridges are being built using composite materials bridge. Retrofit of existing bridges, underground pressure vessels, sport equipment, tennis rackets, golf clubs, water skis, baseball bats, bicycle are made of composites Also there are many applications in medical material and sports and agriculture applications. We conclude from the above section that special type rubber of can be used as a matrix composite .


2 Rubber composite

High elastic polymer composites are very important in the applications of rubber industries, such as tyres transportation belts, pipes for fluids and oils transmission, damping and support parts in the mobiles as well as diaphragm. Rubber composite materials with different type of rubber are used in dampers and supports application. Therefore it is occupied a wide field studies ,because rubber has good characterization in the high elastic strain damping which is obtained from the suddenly impact loading because of different acceleration of the system ,therefore a different modification of new type of rubber composite for loading resistance in addition to the interference of the usages conditions with the mechanical loads such as environment effects at high temperatures in the presence of oils and friction result in creation of blended polymers such as (NBR, SBR , NR , CR , ..Etc). Also a new type of polymers which is supported by thermosetting polymers type is developed for heat resistance purposes ,also different types of blended rubbers are improved by supporting methods such as by using particles and fibers for dynamic properties improvement for high loads purposes.


3 Composites for Damping Application

The uses of rubber composite materials in the damping purposes under conditions of heat and oil (leaks from the motor) require good mechanical properties for these products under similar conditions as well as the fixation methods for these products with other parts of supporting .There are various methods for fixation such as adhesion ,compression and bolts ,etc. The usages of adhesion method requires the study of adhesion theory including the mechanical link ,electrical attraction, chemical bond, in which composition material are linked to the coated and uncoated carbon steel with copper .



4 Introduction to Composite Materials.

Since the early 1960s, there has been an ever-increasing demand for newer, stronger, stiffer, and yet lighter-weight materials in fields such as aerospace, transportation, and construction. High demands on materials for better overall performance has led to extensive research and development efforts in the composite fields. These materials have low specific gravity that make their properties particularly better in strength and models Composite materials are constructed from two or more elements to provide a material that has different properties from the individual elements Composite materials that exist today can be categorized into five major classes, which include ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), metal matrix composites (MMCs), intermetallic matrix composites (IMCs), carbon-carbon composites (CCCs) and polymer matrix composites (PMCs) In this discussion, considerable attention is paid to the latter class of materials (PMCs), which include rubber matrix composite (RMC) specially Acrylonitril Butadiene Rubber ( NBR). There are three important kinds of reinforcement system of polymer matrix, particularly, short-fiber and continuous-fiber composites as shown in Figure 3 3


4 1

Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs)

Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) are the most common composites, and are also known as Fiber Reinforced Polymers (or Plastics) FRP. These materials use a polymer-based resin as the matrix, and a variety of fibers such as glass, carbon and aramid as the reinforcement. Matrix materials are thermosetting thermoplastic, elastomer, and rigid rod plastic, thermoelastic plastic polymers. Reinforcing fibers are either continuous or chopped. In general, polymer composites processing includes contracting of polymer and fibers, shaping, controlled heating and / or reactions, and


5 .Carbon Fig. cooling. (3 3): the Classes of composites materials. The technology of polymer composites has been driven to a large extent by aerospace arid military applications.Polymer PMC Metals MMC Vf Ceramics CMC Reinforcement IMCs Inter metallic CCCs Carbon .

silicon carbide. and promoting longtime stability with the candidate fiber materials. 3 4 5 Intermetallic Matrix Composites (IMC s). which are generally nonmetallic and are processed at high temperatures. and 6 . fatigue. and niobium. In CMCs. glass-ceramics. They can be made in a wide variety of forms. Alloying studies of these materials are aimed at increasing toughness. Common ceramic matrix materials include various glasses. including chemical incompatibility and CTE mismatch between potential reinforcing fibers and matrix materials. 3 4 4 Carbon . silicon nitride.temperature ductility. Composite fabrication and joining processes do not result in excessive fiber/matrix reaction or matrix contamination.They must however. creep. 3 4 3 Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) are used for very high temperature environments.alloy/aluminides for higher temperature applications. intermetallics and carbon. The reinforcements can include carbides. such as carbon. The definition of the ceramic matrix can be rather broad. glassceramics and ceramics. Common MMCs are aluminum based MMCs. borides and oxides . poor low. nickel.3 4 2 Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) Metal matrix composites can be obtained using either a primary liquid phase approach such as squeeze casting/infiltration or spray deposition. Several major problems limit the development of inter-metallic-matrix composites (IMCs). fiber reinforced titanium alloys. and NASA 3 Apollo projects Carbon-carbon materials are a generic class of composites much like graphite /epoxy family of polymer matrix composites. These aluminides are Ti3 AI and Fe3C for applications to 1000°C and NiAI and Nb. From one dimensional to n-dimensional using unidirectional tow tapes or woven cloth. compression. and oxidation resistance. The aluminum-based materials are the most popular for reasons of cost and ease of fabrication. ductility. and magnesium alloy-SiC particulate MMC. aluminides and oxides.Carbon Composite (CCC s) The development of carbon-carbon materials began in 1958 and was nurtured under the US Air Force space plan program DynaSoar. the ceramic matrix covers a wide variety of inorganic materials. be protected with coatings and /or surface sealants when used in an oxidizing environment. Because of their multiform. Carbon materials have high strength and stiffness potential as well as high thermal and chemical stability in inert environment . It includes inorganic silica-based glasses. titanium. The initial phase of the IMC program involves investigating available fiber compositions (SiC and Al203) in aluminides of iron. or a primary solid state processing such as powder techniques and foil diffusion. their mechanical properties can be readily tailored. crystalline ceramics. Candidate matrices will be evaluated using tensile. All of these have implicit unifying thread in that they are fairly hightemperature structural materials. and marginal high-temperature oxidation resistance of intermetallic materials.

Studied Encouraging results have been obtained on SiC---reinforced. and the volume fraction. and strain-controlled fatigue studies for temperatures up to 815°C . and alternative processing procedures. Dp according to the relation. Vf and the mean free path. based on tensile. The principle of its use is similar to that of dispersion strengthening because it prevents distortion of the matrix materials.(3 4 ).1 µm and the mean free path ranges between 0. 3 5 2 Particle Strengthening The particle size in this type of reinforcement is higher than 1 µm and the mean free path for the matrix material is higher than 1 µm. Powder-cloth fabrication processes have been developed to produce IMC materials. Rpc 1 Dp 7 .3 µm. thermal-cycle. 3 5 Principle of Particles Reinforcement Reinforcement by particle is divided into two categories depending on the size of the particles used for reinforcement in addition to the mean free path. (3-1 ) and to calculate the shear stress the following relation is used =Gmb/Dp (3-2) Where Gm the shear coefficient Dp the distance between particles b Burger s factor The relation (3-2) shows that composite resistance is inversely proportional to dispersed particles thus when distance between the particles decreases the movement of dislocations in the matrix decreases as in Fig. the two categories are :- 3 5 1 Dispersion Strengthening Reinforcement by particles causes increment in the resistances of the composite material against distortion and this depends on the way of the particles dispersion in the matrix material.01 -0. Measurement of appropriate thermal and physical properties is another planned task. (3 5 ) the yield resistance for particulate composite Rpc is inversely proportional to the square root of the distance between particles.oxidation tests. are being Ti3Al + Nb material.. such as thermal spraying. mfp one can calculate it from the following relation: mf p = 2 / 3 V f . In this type of reinforcement the size of the particle is less than 0. For analysis of this kind of reinforcement suppose the particles size. In addition it bears the applied stresses on the composite due to its large volume Fig.

and mechanical properties of the matrix. (3 6 ). The filtered polymers may be formed and molded in normal ways.(3 7 ) shows the increment in rubber tensile. When sand is mixed with polymer this will be much cheaper than in case of well arranged glass fiber in the same polymer. front windows bumpers. and for this reason they are manufacturing cheaply. Naturally the resulting particulate composite becomes isotropic instead of anisotropic as in case of fibring composites and this may be very beneficial in case of some applications which require isotropic characteristics. For this reason the slight increment in the hardness as a result of particles addition is economically important. and shield external pieces.Normally fillers are used to change the thermal. electrical. The following diagram in Fig. strength when reinforced with particles from different types of carbon black Fig 3 4 The path of the crack for particulate composites under tensile strength . they appear in the modern automobiles as dumpers. 8 . The coefficients of particulate composites near the minimum values of composites reinforced with fibers as shown in the fig.

Fig 3 5 The relation between the yield resistance cu Vs 1/(Dp)1/2 . FIG 3 6 The change in the elasticity coefficient for particulate composites with volume fraction change. 9 .

10 . In many cases. 3 6 Fibers The potential of fibers for approaching the theoretical strength of the materials from which they are made. so that their strength for a given weight can be four times that of the strongest steel. The modulus of resilience (indicating energy absorption characteristics) of fibrous glass. These substances have the added virtue of a low specific gravity. Also some of the crystalline substances that have the greatest theoretical strength are nonmetals such as graphite and alumina. the fiber strength may surpass the strength of the bulk solid material by a factor of the order of 10.Fig 3 7 :The increment in rubber tensile strength when reinforced with particles from different types of carbon black . forms the basis of much of the research in the inorganic fiber industry. can be increased a thousandfold over that of the bulk material. and the tensile strength a hundredfold. for instance.

(3 8 a) (suppose that matrix and fiber link are parallel) Fig. shape.4000 700-1 500 700-1 500 700-1 100 400-1 100 70-200 50-200 200-280 76-94 fused silica glass tungsten wire zirconia fibers steel Nylon 66 3 7 Principles of Fibers Reinforcement The mechanical properties of composites depend on several factors including the specific properties of matrix material and the reinforcement phase especially the volume fraction. When the analysis is for the stress and the strain behavior for a composite which contains cylindrical shape and continuous fiber exposed to stress parallel to axis No. the direction. and the fiber and the matrix have equal strain . Specific Tensile Strength of Fibers . Tensile strength of fibers at equal weight N/mm2(Mpa) 7000 . Under the applied load an equal elongation in the stress direction (01) occurs.20 000 1000 .1 as in Fig.(3 8 b). = m= f c = strain of the composite m = strain of the matrix f = strain of the fiber c (3-3) 11 . and the linkage force between the two phases.Table (3 Material silicon carbide beryllia Type A boride iron whiskers E glass 1 ).

. under tensile stress parallel to the axis 1 . the m1 12 .The continuous fibers along a composite material in which volume of any part occupied by fibers and the matrix resemble the volume fraction for each of them.4) 1 = Vf f1 + (1 where :1 = the stress applied in the axis (1) direction f1 = the stress applied to the fibers by stress 1 = the stress applied to the matrix by stress 1 V f = the fiber volume fraction in which V f +V m = 1 Vm = the matrix volume fraction When strain becomes as elastic strain . (3. Vf ) m1 . and the total stress of the composite is equal to the sum of the stresses in each according to its volume fraction (according to the mix base ) .

matrix ..relation between stress and strain for the fiber . note that the stress in the( 2-3) plane equals 0 (3 6 ) f2 = m2 f3 = m3 = 0 f1 it is noticed from equation (3 5 ) that with reinforcement by large volume fraction of the resins we get on elastic coefficient nearly equal to that of some metals such as aluminum (70 G Pa) as in Fig. and the composite obeys Hooke s law: =E f f1 m1 =E m m1 =E 1 1 1 E f. 3 9 Elastic coefficient for composite reinforced with continuous fiber. and composite respectively by substitution for stress value in equation (3 4 ) . and composite are equal.7) 13 . we obtain E 1 =V f E f +(1-V f )E m . matrix . E m . the elastic coefficient of the composite will be E 1= E f . matrix. 3 9 Fig. a) El in case of the stress parallel to the fiber b) E2 in case of the stress perpendicular to the fiber.. E 1elasticity coefficient for fiber . (3 . (3 5 ) because the strains for fiber. When reinforcement is by large fiber volume fraction.

V f) m After application of Hooke s law to the fiber and the matrix and substitution in equation (3 8 ) we get on E 2= E f E m / (1 V f)E f+ V f E m . Then the stress applied to the fibers is equal to the stress applied to the matrix which is equal to the stress applied to the composite.always it is to be E m<< E f It is noticed in such kind of loading .From that it is possible to say that composite can bear high force when the fiber is in the direction of the load and very low force when the force is perpendicular to the reinforcing fibers. in this case the tensile stress is parallel to the axis 2 (suppose that the matrix and the fibers link alternatively) as in Fig (3 10 ).5) and (3 9 ) are applied to composite of epoxy reinforced with glass fiber. The total composite strain value is equal to the sum of the strains of each of the fiber and the matrix. . it is possible to use fibers woven by 0 . the properties of which depend not only on the properties of the constituent materials but also on the geometrical design of the various structural elements Laminar composites and sandwich panels are two of the most common structural composites. 14 . the fibers play a second role in which it works to decrease the deformation quantity in the matrix. These may be of several layers of two or more metal materials occurring alternately or in a determined order more than once.8 ) 2 = V f + (1. In the light of use this material is considered anisotropic in mechanical properties To decrease this difference in order to get a strength in two directions.(3 . When equations (3 . When the stress has effect on the plane 2-3. It is not possible to achieve high strength materials unlike the fibre version. 3 8 Structural composites A structural composite is normally composed of both homogeneous and composite materials. and in as many numbers as required for a specific purpose. But sheets and foils can be made isotropic in two dimensions more easily than fibers.90°. 3 8 1 Laminar composites Laminar composites are found in as many combinations as the number of materials. a large difference is noticed in the elastic coefficient due to the change in the loading direction . See figure (3 10 ). (3 9 ) Notice that in such type of loading . the matrix in addition to its work as fixative material for the fiber shares the fibers in the resistance of the applied stress to the composite. They can be described as materials comprising of layers of materials bonded together.

Core has two functions: 1. separated by a layer of less dense material. fibre reinforced plastics. or a combination of both. titanium. 2.Laminations may be also deconstructed using fabric material such as cotton. paper. Hybrid composites are cost effective. and plywood. Figure (3 10 ) Laminar composite . 3. steel. or core. Separated the faces and resist deformations. The faces bear most of the in plane loading. consist of two strong outer sheets. Provides a certain degree of shear rigidity along planes. 15 . and also any transverse bending stresses. they include roofs. Allow greater energy absorption. floors. 3 8 2 Sandwich panels Considered to be a class of structural composites. with the addition of ductile fibers. or woven glass fibers embedded in a plastic matrix. Foils or sheets or their combinations along with fibers are also accepted as hybrid composites or combinations of different particulate composites. 2. Figure (3 11 ) shows honeycomb core sandwich panel. Hybrid composites have the following properties: 1. or faces. which has lower stiffness and lower strength. Typically face materials include Al alloys. Prevents breakage of structural materials. A popular core consists of honeycomb structure. and walls of building and in aircraft for wings. which helps in delay of the damage on impact. Sandwich panels are found in a wide variety of applications. A hybrid composite comprises more than one type of fibre reinforcement or one or more matrices. Enhancing the impact resistance.

10 ) c= muts (1. Properties of composite depend mainly on its composition and the way of mixture rule.( 3 12 ) when V f <V f min the composite strength will be .V f) where :resemble matrix ultimate tensile strength muts 16 .. thus it is possible to obtain preferred strength depending on the volume fraction of the reinforcing fiber. When increasing the volume fraction of the reinforcing fiber. the tensile strength of the composite increases. it is found that the strength of the composite material against the stresses depends mainly on the elastic modulus and the strength of the reinforced fibers. while in case of low volume fraction of the fibers . (3 .Figure (3 11 ) Honeycomb core sandwich panel 3 9 The Effective Factors on Composites Reinforced with fibers. the composite will behave as the matrix behavior as shown in Fig.

thus V f < V f min It is noticed that the composite properties start to decrease when fiber volume fraction exceeds the value 0.shear stress parallel to the fiber f .the applied stress on fiber . 3 9 1 Effective of Fiber Length In the composite of discontinuous (short) fibers.[3 13 ] we notice a lowering in the tensile stress normal 17 . lc =d f/2 where d fiber radius . (3 . then the properties of the composite will not obey the mixing rule.(3 12 ) Effect of fiber volume fraction on the tensile strength from the above equation we notice that the matrix behavior predominates the composite behavior. and the reinforcement becomes ineffective unless the length of the fiber is taken in consideration in which it must be longer than certain length called critical length which is possible to calculate from the relation . may be these fibers are exposed to cracking during loading to any action..8 due to the weakness of the linkage between the fibers and the matrix and between fibers themselves and the excess of voids in high percent reinforcement .11) When we test the creating stresses at the two ends of the fiber which is immersed in the matrix as in Fig.Fig.

the shear strength of the matrix In the cases in which deformation of the matrix is elastic .12) where :maximum applied stress on the fiber f . l c/2rf = f max /2 max (3 . the percent l c/2rf decreases with increasing fiber volume fraction an shown in Fig. Fig. while shear stress of the interfacial surface increases from the normal value up to the its maximum value.value up to zero at the fiber end (cracking direction ).(3 14 ) 18 . This fiber part in which this change occurs is Lc /2 which is considered as ineffective for bearing the applied tress on the composite . and the effective fiber length in the composite is that verifies the relation .(3 13 ) Diagram for composite under stress in the fiber ends .

and 19 .Fig. Fig. 3 9 2 Fiber Orientation Alignment process in short fibers reinforced composite is considered as an important factor . The fiber direction elative to the applied load has effect on the composite tensile strength as shown in Fig.( 3 . Fig.16 ) shows the fibers different arrangement and Fig. It is possible to obtain maximum toughness when the fibers are arranged in the same direction of the applied load.( 3 17 ) shows the toughness change according to these arrangement . It is noticed that the composite strength becomes maximum when loading form an angle between 0-8? with the fiber axis while it starts severe lowering at larger than 8? which resembles the critical angle. in which unalignment of the fiber occurs during manufacturing due to the fine short fibers which are difficult to align.(3 14 ) The effect of ratio L c/2r and v composite reinforcement with steel fiber . f on tensile strength aluminum We notice the effect of the ratio l c/2rf and the volume fraction on the composite tensile strength in which the tensile strength increases as the volume fraction increases l c/2rf when the composite obeys the mixing rule.(3 15) Effect of fiber orientation on composite tensile strength . (3 15 ).

while if the fibers are randomly arranged . 20 .16 ) The fibers in different arrangement.such orientation is used in the bars.( 3 17 ) The toughness change according to these arrangement. Fig. this kind of reinforcement is used in the building structure .( 3 . then the toughness are equal in all directions and this arrangement is used in making caps and bags .90?) with the applied load direction . Fig. and it is possible to obtain equal toughness in two perpendicular directions when the fibers are arranged in angel (0.

but randomly dispersed throughout a common resin matrix. or built up from dispersed fiber material. 3 10 1 1 Type A.Dispersed Fiber In the limit.3 10 Fiber Composite Hybrids The advantages offered by hybrid composite materials are often considered in terms of the improvement in a particular mechanical property resulting from the addition of a second reinforcement type. The existence of a positive or negative hybrid effect is determined by three factors : i) the relative volume fractions of the two fibers. It is usual. There are many types of structure. angled. core materials. C and D . Both skins and core may be made of unidirectional or angle ply materials of type A or B hybrids. this consists of an intimate mixture of two or more types of continuous fiber aligned. 21 . 3 10 1 3 Type C-Fiber Skin and Core This type consists of outer skins of one or more sorts of fiber laminate applied to a core made of another fiber laminate. B. and iii) the loading configuration. hybrids have been produced in forms in which the core is reinforced on one side only.g. e. it is proposed to split up these structures into four general types. and to have a structure which is symmetrical about a centre plane. ii) the arrangement of the fibers in the hybrid. if used.g. The fiber plies may be unidirectional. Another variant uses thin strips of reinforcement let into the upper and / or lower surfaces of the fiber core. A. type A hybrids. 3 10 1 Types of hybrids One of the advantages of hybrids is flexibility in the choice and disposition of reinforcements and. The thickness of successive layers of the same material is not necessarily the same. or dissimilar skins applied to both sides of the core. carbon fibers applied to the compressive side of an aramid reinforced plastic (ARP) core. though not necessary. nor does equal thicknesses of the different fiber types have to be used. to have the stiffer fiber in the skins (e. However. carbon fibers applied to either side of a GRP core).Dispersed Fiber Ply Basically this consists of a random or alternating mixture of two or more types of fiber ply. 3 10 1 2 Type B.

solid metal. The different hybrids are illustrated schematically in Fig.3 10 1 4 Type D-Fiber Skin. (3 18 ) Schematic diagrams of hybrid types all end view. other than the resin matrix. such as filled resin. It should be remembered that the carbon and glass fibers are continuous and aligned along the long axis of the bar. Non Fiber Core This type of hybrid. and the results are based on the work of Wells and Hancox . strips of reinforcement can be employed instead of skins. The structures are usually symmetrical about a centre plane. Examples of type D hybrids are antennae dishes (CFRP and aluminium honeycomb). 22 . In many cases an adhesive layer. is used to bond the skins and the core. It is helpful to consider a simple example of a practical hybrid which demonstrates some of the advantages to be gained from the construction. outhouses (CFRP and solid aluminium). and wood. though without high performance FRP skins. With some core materials.(3 18 ) Fig. A sketch of the specimen. The system is a symmetrical fiber skin and core. The skins may again consist of one or more types of fiber arranged in a unidirectional or angle ply form or hybrids of types A or B. but need not necessarily be so. is often referred to as a sandwich structure. stressed in 3 point flexural loading. (3 19 ) together with a load deflection characteristic for a sample containing 50 v/O CFRP and 50 v/O GRP. There are additional structures as other types of hybrid. Payen describes a construction for the aircraft industry in which CFRP was sandwiched between aluminum skins. which consists of fiber skins applied to a core of foam. have been employed extensively for some years. Materials of this type. type C hybrid. and storage tanks (GRP and end grain balsa wood). solid metal or wood. some type of honeycomb. is shown in Fig. filled resin.

This is especially important in metal / FRP combinations where clearances and close tolerances must be maintained. Electro-magnetic shielding.Fig. facilitating accurate reproduction of precision components without shrinkage or warpage. (1) Stiffness: Lager and thinner unsupported areas are feasible. Hybridisation must necessarily play a key role in the synthesis of composites with predetermined sets of physical. where differential stresses must be minimized. (4) Corrosion resistance: The incorporation of surface layers of carbon fibers on FRP mouldings greatly enhances resistance to environmental attack. (5) Conductivity (thermal and electrical): Hybrids can be formulated with accurate control of in-plane and through thickness conductivity. The addition of as little as 5% carbon fibers to a chopped strand GRP reduces the thermal expansion coefficient to that of aluminium. heat transfer characteristics and thermal transient effects can therefore be modified. and higher concentrations reduce the value to that of steel. The significance of hybrid systems is that they provide the practical means of access to intermediate property/cost levels 23 . (2) Thermal expansion: The coefficient of thermal expansion can be controlled to match design requirements. chemical and mechanical properties. (3 19 ): Load deflection curve for a hybrid beam . and in design with metal inserts. which bring more demanding applications within reach. (3) Dimensional stability: Relatively low additions of carbon fibers improve shape retention characteristics both in manufacture and service. 3 10 2 Advantages of Hybridisation Hybridisation offers several additional advantages in design and manufacture.

DGEPA) 24 . The material properties and cure rates can be formulated to meet the required performance. Because they do not cure permanently. One of the constituents of epoxy resin is epichlorhydrin. and hand lay-up. 3 11 1 Epoxy Resins Epoxy resins are a range of compounds.3 20 : The chemical structure of an epoxy (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A. pot life and final material properties. The long chain polymers do not chemically cross link. they may be worth the cost when high performance is required. The chemical structure of an epoxy is : Fig. This characteristic makes the thermoset resin composites very desirable for structural applications. The high viscosity in epoxy resins limits it use to certain processes such as molding. Conversely. The most common resins used in composites are the unsaturated polyesters. The right curing agent should be carefully selected because it will affect the type of chemical reaction. It melts when heated and solidifies when cooled. Although epoxies can be expensive. a thermosetting resin will cure permanently by irreversible cross-linking at elevated temperatures. which can be cross-linked with various other chemicals to give thermosetting compounds. the least common ones are the polyurethanes and phenolics . automotive. The epoxies used in composites are mainly the diglycidyl ethers and amines. generally polymer. They are long-chain compounds.3 11 Resins A material. which is usually referred to as bisphenol . Epoxies are generally found in marine. Most epoxy resins are based on the reaction between epichlorhydrin and a chemical. filament winding. The two classes of resins are the Thermoplastics and thermosets. they are undesirable for structural application. Resins are used as the matrices to bind together the reinforcement material in composites. crosslinking takes place without the liberation of water. electrical and appliance applications. epoxies. A thermoplastic resin remains a solid at room temperature. and vinyl esters. which has an indefinite and often high molecular weight and a softening or melting range and exhibits a tendency to flow when it is subjected to stress.

they are resistant to thermal oxidation. dielectric properties. the efforts lead to development of a new series of low viscosity phenolic novolac resin systems processable at high speeds with excellent mechanical properties and outstanding fast strength tensile characteristics. and electronics. These hydroxymethylphenols are then reacted to form the prepolymers. which produce networks with numerous voids. di and trihydroxymethylphenols . Second. There are three core reasons for the broad application range of these materials. dimensional stability and resistance to moisture. and excellent chemical resistance. For more details see reference. these networks are highly aromatic and thus. The phenolic resins are made from phenols and formaldehyde. good thermal stability. they are also known to be quite difficult to pultrude due to their high viscosities. This results in materials that lack the toughness necessary for structural application. it was not until the 1970 s to 1980 s that much effort was made in the reinforced composites industry to use these resins. construction. The resoles are prepared under alkaline conditions with formaldehyde/phenol (F/P) ratios greater than one. including fields such as aerospace. 3 12 1 Resoles Resols are prepared under alkaline conditions with an excess of formaldehyde. retention of properties after long-term exposure to high temperatures. the synthesis of phenolic prepolymers by electrophilic aromatic substitution is relatively simple and inexpensive.The mechanism of the phenol formaldehyde reaction is a base catalyzed electrophilic aromatic substitution to form a combination of the mono. slow cure rates leading to slow pull speeds. First. and they are divided into resole and novolac resins. Phenolics are particularly suitable for electrical applications because of their good.3 12 Phenol-Formaldehyde (PF) The 1940 s to 1960 s brought about much development in the chemistry of phenolic resole and novolac resins. (3 21 ) below. Therefore. especially in chlorinated solvents. Novolacs are cured when reacting chemically with methylene groups in the hardener. Finaly Polymeric phenolic compounds have a wide range of applications. smoke. Phenolic resins are well known for their excellent fire. The approximate tures of resols is shown in Fig.The phenolics are also rated for good resistance to high temperature. the common procedure for curing phenolic novolac resins uses hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and releases volatiles during the cure. methods for their conversion into thermoset networks are well established. The ratio of phenol to formaldehyde ranges from 1:1 to 1:3. Resoles are cured by applying heat and/or by adding acids. On the contrary. The prepolymers are heated to promote cross linking of the resin by further reaction of hydroxymethylphenols. and fast smoke toxicity properties (FST). and high porosity content. However. However. and low smoke generation. Third. 25 . excellent electrical resistance. novolacs are prepared under acidic conditions with F/P ratios less than one.

Fig (3 . An alternative to the HMTA. packaging. The approximate tures of novolacs are shown in Fig (3 .21): Approximate tures of resoles . are stable and require an external cross linking reagent to produce networks. 26 . Therefore. Fig (3 . Novolac oligomers. is to convert the novolac to an alternative type of epoxy resin that can be cured with and amine . electronic. The most common cross linking reagent for novolacs is hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA). textiles and consumer applications because of their excellent mechanical properties.22) below. about 75 % of the nitrogen from HMTA becomes chemically bound in the network. 3 12 2 Novolac Novolacs are prepared under acidic conditions with an excess of phenol. electrical.23) shows the formation of the phenolic novolac epoxy net work . to avoid the production of volatiles during the cure reaction. Novolacs are one of the most widely used engineering thermosets utilized in automobile. The volatiles released during the cure can create voids in the network. once formed. and the cured resin may contain up to about 6 % bound nitrogen. With this process a significant amount of gas is produced during the cross linking reaction which contains at least 95 % ammonia. Typically between 5 and 15 wt % HMTA is used to produce the nitrogen containing cross linked network. just as with the resols.

Fig (3 23 ): Network formation of Novolac .Fig (3 . 27 .22): Approximate tures of novolacs .Epoxy .

Low flexibility. 3. A small diameter with respect to its grain size or other microstructural unit. Organic and inorganic fibers are used to reinforce composite materials. Available in high quantity. figure (3 24 ). Plant fibers have the following properties: 1. While the properties of inorganic fibers are: 1. Can offer good mechanical properties. Have low fossil fuel energy requirements. Low elasticity. Glass fibers are the earliest known fibers used to reinforce materials. there has been an increasing interest in using plant fibers in composite systems. High modulus. A high aspect ratio (length / diameter. 3 14 Types of fibers Natural fibers (cellulosic and ligno cellulosic) have been used as structural materials since prehistoric times. l / d) that allows a very large fraction of the applied load to be transferred via the matrix to the stiff and strong fibre. to render composites stiffer and more resistant to heat. as they satisfy the desired conditions and transfer strength to the matrix constituent. 1. Ceramic and metal fibers were subsequently found out and put to extensive use. The strength of carbon fibre decreases as its diameter increase. High thermal stability. Influencing and enhancing their properties as desired. The use of fiber as high important characteristics: performance engineering materials are based on three 1. 3. for economic and environmental reasons. 2. Posses greater rigidity than organic fibers. 2. 2. 2. 2. Since several years. 28 . Low density.3 13 Fibers Fibers are the most important class of reinforcements. Cost effective. Properties of organic fibers are: 1. 3. Renewable.

Figure (3 25 ) shows three types of orientation reinforcement. Orientation b. Figure (3 25 ) Three types of orientation reinforcement 29 . Figure (3 24 ) Decrease in strength( f) of a carbon fibre with increase of diameter (d) 3 15 Fibre factors What factors contribute to the engineering performance of a fibre matrix composite? Among the most important are: a.3. the mechanical properties in any one direction become lower. Shape d. A very high degree of flexibility that is really a characteristic of a material having a high modulus and small diameter. 3 15 1 Orientation Fibre orientation (how the individual strands are positioned) determines the mechanical strength of the composite and the direction in which that strength will be the greatest. As fiber orientation becomes more random. planar (two dimensional) reinforcement. Composition of the fibers. and three dimensional reinforcement. Length c. There are three types of fibre orientation: One dimensional reinforcement.

which have uniform tensile strength as high as (10. could have substantially greater strengths than those made from continuous fibers. When relatively large fibers (diameters of 5 mils or greater) are utilized. continuous fibers are easier to handle but more limited in design possibilities than short fibers. Under an applied force it deforms and distributes the stress to the high modulus fibrous constituent. (3 13 ) * fd Figure (3 26 ) Schematic representation of: . The matrix serves two very important functions: 1.T.S) and fibre matrix bond strength ( c) as follow :2 c 2l= . This is particularly true of whiskers.3) Gpa. Because the shorter fibers can be produced with few surface flaws. Short fibre composite materials are used to make many flat and irregular shapes. Although continuous fibers are more efficiently oriented than short fibers. the fibre shape can be used to advantage. they are not necessarily better. In general. 2. they come extremely close to achieving their theoretical strength. since the fibers can aligned according to both their length and 30 .3 15 2 Length The orientation of fibers in the matrix can be accomplished with either continuous or short fibers. if they could be properly oriented. It holds the fibrous phase in place. Critical length of fibre c dependent on fibre diameter (d) and * f (U. Composites made from shorter fibers.(a) Continuous and aligned (b) Discontinuous and aligned (c) Discontinuous and randomly oriented fibre reinforced composites 3 15 3 Shape Fibre shape can have an effect on the maximum fibre packing fraction. See figure (3 26 ).

In a given volume. circular filaments can theoretically be packed to a bout 91%. can be generally described as very high in strength. While many organic fibers satisfy both the strength and elasticity requirements for structural composites. where as filaments having polyhedral cross section (if properly aligned) can be theoretically packed to 99%. graphite in recent years has become the most popular. dominate the field. heat resistant. rigid. The organic such as polypropylene fibers can be characterized in general as lightweight. notably glass. Figure (3 28 ) shows an application of fibrous composite. 31 . See figure (3 27 ). and heat sensitive. While a filament is any fibre whose length to (effective) diameter ratio. Inorganic fibers. such as glass fibers. Figure (3 27 ) Strength of carefully selected alumina whiskers as a function of size 3 15 4 Composition Both organic and inorganic fibers are available for fibre composite materials.cross sectional geometry. The inorganics. Fibre shape can also affect composite properties. namely a continuous fibre). (Note that a whisker is any material that fits the definition of a fibre and is a single crystal. elastic. flexible. and low in energy absorption and fatigue resistance. or aspect ratio. is for all practical purposes infinity.

(3 14 ) where cu. respectively. While composite strength for discontinuous fibre composite is:- c = 6/7 1 + (5lC/7l) f Vf + m ( 1.UH-60A. m is the matrix stress at the ultimate tensile strain of the fibers and Vf denotes fibre volume fraction. Black Hawk helicopter Note that for unidirectional continuous fibre composites the rule of mixtures assumes the following form:cu = fu Vf + m ( 1. fu are the U. the above equation is modified as: cu = fu Vf F (lC/l) + m ( 1.Figure (3 28 ) Application of composites: .Vf ) (3 15 ) where lC and l denote critical and actual fibre length. In the case of short fibre composites. is less than unity and: F (lC/l) = 1 ( lC/2l) (3 16 ) For the case of constant interfacial shear stress.S (ultimate tensile strength) of the composite and fibre.T. The factor F(1c/1) which takes into account the effect of fibre length..Vf) (3 17 ) 32 .Vf ) .

High stiffness to 2. Greater hardness and erosion resistance. High strength at elevated temperatures. 8. Improved oxidation and corrosion resistance. Improved fatigue strength. 10. density ratio. See figures (3 29 ) 33 . 9. 5. 7. 4. Toughness (impact and thermal shock resistance). High strength and strength 3. 6.Figure (3 29 ) Fibre composite technology 3 16 Potential advantages of fibrous composite materials to density ratio. 1. Low density. Controlled thermal expansion and conductivity. Improved stress rupture life.

w . particularly when calculating the density of the composite. The mechanical behavior of polymer composites depends strongly on the adhesion between the polymeric matrix and the filler. such as their diameter and length. This expression encompasses intrinsic features of the fibers. The appropriate conversion equations are: w f f = ----------------------------(3 18 ) w f + wm m f f w = -------------------------f f + fm m (3 19 ) where f . Although most calculations on composite materials are based on the volume fractions of the constituents.3 17 Fibrous Composite Properties The behavior of a composite material is more than the linear sum of the behaviors of constituent materials. as well as the volume fraction of fibers and their alignment and packing arrangement. m are 34 . fm are the volume fractions. to use weight fractions. it is sometimes important. This fact provides engineers with a remarkable opportunity to create new composite materials for various engineering applications Many composite properties are strongly dependent on the arrangement and distribution of fibers: the fiber architecture. wm are the weight fractions and the densities of the fiber and matrix respectively. f.

Textile glass fiber may be supplied in the form of thread. They are light and corrosion resistant. 35 . E-glass (E for electrical). twine. each of which has several hundred holes in its base. draws well and has good strength.Fiber composites combine lightweight with high strength and stiffness. C. which seeks out and gradually dissolves certain of the oxides present at the fiber surface. A disadvantage is that glass is very susceptible to surface damage. Most glass fibers are based on silica (SiO2). cut textile glass (approximately 6mm long) and milled short fibers(approximately 140 to 210 m long) . with additions of oxides of calcium. In some cases. but a lower strength. The most commonly used. electrical and weathering properties. transparency to visible light a composite therefore takes the colour of its matrix. having better resistance to corrosion than E-glass. boron. Young's modulus and temperature resistance. These glasses are usually amorphous. although some crystallization may occur after prolonged heating at high temperatures. iron and aluminium. One function of the coating size is to protect the fibers from surface damage. This can be caused by rubbing the surface or by the action of moisture. both during processing and after incorporation in the matrix. strong and (C for corrosion) is preferred. the strength of the fibers in use is always lower than that of a freshly drawn fiber (by a factor of 2 or more). because it's really cheap. Glass fibers are produced by melting the raw materials in a reservoir and feeding into a series of platinum bushings. S-glass (S for strength) is more expensive than E glass. leading to a reduction in strength. Finally. the viscosity of the glass (dependent on composition and temperature). The glass flows under gravity and fine filaments are drawn mechanically downwards as the glass extrudes from the holes. mat. Control of the fiber diameter is achieved by adjusting the head of the glass in the tank. roving. and have the highest structural efficiency of any material made by man: 3 17 1 Glass Fibers It is the most popular fiber. and isotropy for example thermal expansion is identical in axial and radial directions. As a result. The fibers are wound onto a drum at speeds of several thousands meters per minute. stiffness. the diameter of the holes and the winding speed. Three characteristics of glass fiber are advantageous in certain application: resistance to high temperatures the softening point is about 850 oC. Typical compositions of three types of glass popular for composites are given in Table (3 2). but has a higher strength. The diameter of (E glass) is usually between (8 and 15) µm . sodium. textile fabric.

7 0.6 C-glass 64.49 13 7.6 4. * the position of the fibers relative to the direction of the strain (orientation).2 3.3 0.4 17.4 25. Glass fiber reinforced plastics (GRP) are used extensively in commercial and aerospace components such as canoes.6 0.45 76.48 13 5.60 13 4.0 600 2.2 4. The strength and stiffness of glass fibers composite increase more or less proportionally to the fiber content.9 10.60 85.9 3.6 4. * the nature of the adhesive.3 S-glass 64. automotive parts and helicopter rotor blades.4 3.5 650 36 . * the length/diameter ratio(long fibers are more effective than short).8 10.3 9. * the degree of fiber degradation occurring. Table (3 2 ) Glass fiber compositions and properties E-glass 52. especially in injection moulding.1 13.4 14.30 69.The reinforcing effect of the glass fibers is influenced by several factors: * the proportion of glass fiber.4 4.0 Composition (%) SiO2 Al2O3+Fe2O3 CaO MgO Na2O+K2O B2O3 BaO Properties (Mgm-3 K ) (Wm-1k-1 (10-6k-1) * (GPa) (GPa ) Tmax ( C) o ) 2.0 550 2.

Kevlar is one of many synthetic polymers. Because it is five times stronger than steel on a same weight basis while still combining lightweight with comfort and protection. On contrary. Typically. Table ( ) shows some the properties of Kevlar fibers.phenyleneterephtalamide). Kevlar 49 fibers have high modulus anisotropic. The amides are the connecters between the aromatic groups. Fig. The aromatic components of the polymers have a radial orientation.(3 30 )shows the stress-strain curve under compression load of three types of Kevlar fibers. high stability. This gives it a high degree of symmetry and regularity. premium organic fibers with the low density. Kevlar long fibers are bundled together and interwoven to create a dense net. high tensile strength. 49 and 149 shows the first has the highest yielding stress of these fibers. The Kevlar fibers are woven in to a tight weave to reduce blunt trauma. The properties of Kevlar fibers show two drawbacks: (1) weakness in axial shear. Its basic configuration is a series of aromatic amides. The aromatic groups are the carbon atoms attached in ring. the Kevlar net is then coated with a resin substance and sandwiched between two layers of plastic filament. To increase the rigidity. 37 . This keeps a projectile from penetrating the body as well as spreading the force of impact over the whole vest. Its official chemical name is poly ( . Comparison between Kevlar 29. This crystalline like regularity is the largest contributing factor in the strength of Kevlar. Kevlar is the most well known material used for soft body armor. Kevlar 149 is the lowest. The compression curve of kevlar29 has a little up-swing shape. low conductivity and textile processability normally associated with conventional organic fibers. and (2) yellow coloration (it imparts this colour to its composites). the individual fibers are twisted to increase density and thickness at each point. the modulus of kevlar29 is somewhat smaller than 49 and 149.3 17 2 Kevlar Fibers The chemical structure of Kevlar is One of the most popular examples of modern body armor is Kevlar. the first organic fiber with enough tensile strength and modulus to be used in advanced composites.

Table ( Type K29 K49 K149 ): Elastic constants for Kevlar fibers Comp. Laminates made with aramid fibers are lightweight and stiff. They are resistant to impact and vibration and strongly resistant to abrasion.Ec(GPa) Tensile.(3 30 ): Stress-Strain curve of three types of Kevlar under compression load Kevlar 29 is used in the manufacture of bullet-proof jackets and off-shore equipment whilst Kevlar 49 is the fiber being considered increasingly for sports goods and sports vehicles. for aircraft construction and space technology as well as for general engineering purposes.EL (GPa) ( y.Strain Fig.MPa) y (%) 38 .

whereas for glass (which have similar diameters). carbon and ceramic fibers are almost completely brittle and fracture without any reduction in cross sectional area. the strengths are approximately equal in tension and compression. Glass. although the overall strain to failure is still small. elastic deformation (of the strong covalent bonds) only occurs to a limited degree before the weak vanderwaals forces between adjacent molecules are overcome and local fibrillation and damage occur. In contrast. (3 32 ). the fracture usually involves fibrillation of the fibers. (3 31a). Kevlar) Fiber Fracture In tension. Pronounced necking precedes fracture and final separation occurs after a large amount of local drawing as shown in Fig.33). aramid (Kevlar) fibers fracture in a ductile manner. This arises because of the structure of the aramid fiber. This can be seen in Fig. In compression. This leads to buckling and kink formation at low applied loads. which is shown in Fig. (a) (b) 39 . (3 . most fibers tend to fracture in a brittle manner.3 17 3 (Glass. (3 31b). The axial compressive strength of a unidirectional lamina made from Kevlar fibers is only 20% of its tensile strength. as shown by the micrograph in Fig.

31) SEM micrograph of fibers fractured in tension: (a) E-glass. (b) Supramolecular structure of Kevlar 49. depicting the radially arranged pleated system Fig.p-phenylene terephthalaminde molecules showing inter-chain hydrogen bonding.33): Scanning electron (SEM) micrograph of Kevlar 49 (aramid) fiber showing deformation bands on the compression side of a sharp bend 40 .Fig.(3 .(3 .32): Planner array of poly.(b) aramid Fig.(3 .

its strain at rupture will also be much lower . and pitch. gaskets. These silicate minerals are fibrous and have excellent heatresistant properties and tensile strength. durable. and resistant to heat and fire. this soft. The tensile stress-strain curve is linear to the point of rupture. asbestos fibers have been used in products before the Industrial Revolution. The carbon fiber is an anisotropic material. and its transverse modulus is an order of magnitude less than its longitudinal modulus. 1.Serpentine Asbestos Known for its snake-like. ropes. There are two main types of asbestos: serpentine and amphibole. Since its tensile strength decreases with increasing modulus of elasticity . insulator and binding agent in products such as thermal insulation. They have lower thermal expansion coefficients than both the glass and aramid fibers. 3 17 5 Asbestos Asbestos is the name for a group of naturally occurring silicate minerals that can be separated into fibers. cements. flexible serpentine type of asbestos can be mixed and woven into products that require high-tensile strength and flexibility. fireproof clothing. 2.3 17 4 Carbon Fibers The graphite or carbon fiber is made from three types of polymer precursors polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber. floor tiles. Table (3 4 ): Typical properties for different types of carbon fibers. they can be arbitrarily divided into three grades as shown in Table (3 4 ). Asbestos is the name for a group of naturally occurring mineral fibers found in certain types of rocks. rayon fiber. curly appearance.Amphibole Asbestos 41 . wallboard. Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties. During the 20th century. textiles. brakes and other products. asbestos was heavily used as a strengthener. Although there are many carbon fibers available on the open market. Types of Asbestos. The material has a very high fatigue and creep resistance. The fibers are strong.

(3 5 ) Some mechanical. and Crocidolite known as blue asbestos. 3 17 6 Alumina Alumina (Al2O3) is among the strongest and hardest of all ceramic materials and is useful at high temperature. 42 . of which three have been used for commercial applications: The most common types of asbestos fibers are Chrysotile known as white asbestos. Amosite known as brown asbestos. The colors refer to the minerals in their raw state. and high resistance to chemical and corrosion attack at room and elevated temperatures. amphiboles has a needle-like shape and a harder composition. Table. thermal and electrical properties of pure alumina. Their electrical resistance is excellent.A second form of commercial asbestos. Common Asbestos Fibers: There are several types of asbestos fibers. They also have a high dielectric strength and at elevated temperatures such as those encountered in many applications. high thermal conductivity. Alumina ceramics also feature very high mechanical strength.

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