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# Visuals

GRAPHS, ABOUT WRITING AN D TABLES DIAGRAMS

Gabi Duigu

Ph:02 94376330
email:g.duigu@unsw.edu.au

Distributedby: Melting Pot Press 10 GraftonStreet NS\( 2008 Chippendale Australia Ph: (5r) 29212 1882 Fax:02 9 2 1 11 8 6 8 email:books@elt.com.au

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Part1
t. The Purpose of GraphsandTables .. .. .. .2

Part 2
2. \WritingaboutGraphsandThbles 2 . 1 \ W r i t i n g t hI e ntroduction 2.2 TimeExpressions 2.3 Expressions of Measurement ......9 ......10 .......13 . . . .15

Part3
3. \TritingtheReport 3.1 Contrast.... 3.2 Tiends 3.3 Correlations ......25 ...,.25 ......32 ......35

Part4
4. Using the Right sryle . 4.1 Modifiers 4.2 Using the CorrectSryleand Avoiding Errors . . . .39 ...39 . . .48

Part5
5. Diagrams 5.1 VocabularyandGrammar 5 . 2 U s i n g a g o o d s r y.l e AnswerK"y.. ...55 ......55 ......56 ...59

Many of the graphs and tables in this book are basedon visualsfrom various issuesof the UNESCO Courier.and for her enduring patience and encouragement. to which very worthwhile publication grateful acknowledgment is made. .\With thanks to Maryanne Sheafor making the book possible.

.2o/o. while Europe and the most deuelopment experienced they already started being more probably because North America show lessincrease are attrdcted t0 urbanised.orhand better opportunities in heahh and education.For Asia the annual urban grou.Tables and Diagrams Writing about Graphs.5o/oin annual 1995.3 Understanding TASK3. Asia and Latin America.tthrate is expected the auerage annual urban groutth rate wasjust ouer3o/o in 1970 and 1995 and it utas auerage annual urban to be about 2o/oin 2025.In Latin America tlte auerage urban groutth rate utentfrom just under 4o/oin 1970 to just ouer2%oin 1995 and it annual urban tuill probably bejust ouer 1o/oin 2025. and decide which one is the most suitable. Africa had about 5o/oauerage annual urban grozuthrate in 1995 and in 2025 rate in 1970 and ouer 4%oauerage to bejust ouer3o/o.5% in 1970 and it went down to about 0. Try to explain why you think so. According to the graph. The most continentssince 1970 and that it is expected tbesecontinentshaue dramatic grouth is in Africa. but this rapid urbanisation is causingmany problems and needsto be connolled. becAuse and industrialisation since 1970.tlte auerage expected groutth rat€ was only about 1. In deuelopingcountriesmary)peoplefom the countrytside the cities to loohfor u. b) Looking at the graph lae cdn seethat urban {ouath has happenedon all 5 to continue right up to 2025. Visuals: the Purpose 1.. In North America the auerage groluth rAte uAs about 1o/oin 1970 and 1995 and is ffiPectedto stay tlte samein 2025. by contrast. and in 2025 it utill be lessthan 0. Look at the following graph and the descriptions given underneath. In Europe. Growth Rates Annual Urban Average ltsto-ts T--l 1995-2000 ffiil 2020-2025 Asia Europe North Latin America America annualurban groluth rate of 5 continentsfrom 1970 a) This gdph showsthe auerage annual urban groutth to 2025.

a. a) 'What features do the following graphs have in common? . expected to decrease p.8' F-. but Asia remained tlte same.1 =Plastic 8% Middleincome counldies4. ouer the to maintain its groutth rate of 1o/o Mennuthile North America is expected entire period. Latin America just ouer 4%oand Asia ouer3o/o. Asia and Latin America experiencedtlte most dramatic growth rates in 1975.:::--.a( 1980 a Beef/Buffalo u Poultry / 1950 1960 1970 1990 b) Vhat features do the following graphs have in common? How are they different from the previous ones? Percentage of distributionof Internet-connected July1999 by income of countlies.---'-+/ R .. The deuelopingcounnies of Afica.7 / Low-incomecounti reso.4 Understanding \7e now need to look more closelyat what graphs and tablesshow.the ratefor eaclt continent ltas not beentlte same.90 1950 World MeatProduction.Visuals:Writing about Graphs. computers. with Afica hauing around 5o/oPer Annum. Million Tons in China Consumption Cigarette billions: 2000 t Pork 1500 40 30 20 't0 0 -ta .ts_+ .5o/ogrowth rate is to reducethis to only about 2% by 2025.z Metal 6% Glass 8% Other'l l% . continentspresented and that this trend is expected Houteuer. hauing started theperiod at about 1.s to continue at least until2025. Waste1999 Household Paper & 21% Carboard Food& Garden Materials 46% High-income countries 95. Tablesand Diagrams urban grotuth in all 5 that since 1970 there has beenconsiderable ) The graph shou. In 1995 theseratesdeneasedto just ouer 4o/oin Afica and doun to about 2o/o for Latin Anterica...A' . This grouth rate is by about 1% for all three continentsbjt the year 2025. expected a Ansuer Ke! and Tables typesof Graphs different 1.. tahile Europe.. and the differencesberween them.

1 4 y e a .000 56. What is the purpose of the graph or table? .000 12.218.1981-1999 1987 1988 '1989 1990 '1991 1992 1993 1994 r 09s 1996 1997 1998 1999 28.908 32.000 36.864.000 2.432 43.000 19. \f.626 37.r sw h o w o r k 1 9 9 5 World Water Consumption: Europe Annual 150 120 Africa tuia Latin America & Caribbean Oceania ffieoys Icitlt 9o Thousands of Litres 6o (percapita) 30 o 1950 1960 1970 1980 '.Republicof Japan Germany Greece Malaysia lndia Turkey Italy Morocco France Canada United States 115.174 s6.J r\$fhat 2" are the units of rneasufemeflt used? 3.629 36.749 a Ansuer Ke! Understanding graphs and rables involves understanding the following details: 1.515 34.739.000 1.159 39.5r+0.000 3.I990 2000 d) 'What kind of information do the following tables provide? How does this differ from the graphs? computers Internet-connected worldwide.736 62.000 159.642.000 of foreign students by country Thelargest number 1995 in the 50 majorhostcountries: of origin.280 27.881.000 617. \X/hat is the information or data in the graph or table abo :ut? [ This infarrnation is norma\$t suppheA uith ilte graplt or tabla. China Korea.136.000 313.hat is the time-scale involved ? 5.87'l 69.324 45.941 41. Visuals: c) 'What about these graphs? Percentaqe of all children 5 . \{hat is the area (place) involved ? 4.056.Tables and Diagrams Writing about Graphs.411 28.000 6.

and Diagrams Let us look at the graphs and tablesshown above once more.4. normally represented Thbles give detailed data and may be used to display changes over time or they may show distributions of variablesaccording to place. or rype.'W-hat is the area (place) involved ? 3. Look at these graphs and answer the questionsthat follow. \What is the purpose of the graph or table? After examining the graphs and tables above you will have noticed the following: In the caseof a line graph. Usually trends over a specific period of time are shown in this way.Writing Tables Visuals: about Graphs. They usually require more interpretation than graphs do. as percentages. Vhat is the time-scaleinvolved ? 4. TASK4 Region fromFossil Fuel Burning by Economic World Carbon Emissions Million Tons 7000 6000 s000 4000 3000 2000 1000 1990 1990 . Pie graphs show proportions. A bar graph shows the samekind of information but with the units presentedas bars or columns. and answer the following questions: 'What 1.1 it appearsto combine There is one kind of graph that can causeconfusion because the featuresof both the pie chart or the bar graph and line graph. are the units of measurementused? 2. Wedge-shaped Graphs 1. the horizontal and vertical axes provide most of the information. Another kind of bar graph (also called a histogram) may show numerical distributions rather than changes.

:.OOO ffi rrrop" ffi Asia/lacific I utinAmerica .'What was the amount of emissions from developing countries in 1950? 3. tVhat was the amount of emissions from industrial countries in 1950? 2.000 24ooo 11 I l J€4sog.::: North America 33-olO90 c282. Did the Latin American countries spend more or less than the European ones in 2000? a Ansuter Ke! 1. or it may be a possiblecauseand effect link. Did the European countries spend more or less than the Asia/Pacific ones on advertising in 1985? 5. starting on page 35. Tablesand Diagrams Visuals: l.r9l.Writingabout Graphs. A correlation is the way two setsof facts are related to each other.2000 from 1985 WorldSpending on Advertising (in5US millions) : : Total .:::.4.ooo 242. There is a section dealing with Correlations in more detail..This is usually done to show either a comparison.2 CombinedGraphs It is is very common to find two or more graphs presentedtogether. .::. The relationship may be a change over a period of time. or a more complicated correlation than can be shown in one graph..i: 4. How much did the Former Eastern Bloc countries emit in 1980? .

You must know the exact meaning and usageof the terms 2.e.Writingabout Graphsand Tables This section is going ro deal with selectingthe right approach and sryle.and becoming aware of the grammar related to this vocabulary. for convenience . you must know which expressions go together. and which are never found in combination 3. into: introductory expressions time expressions terms of measurement In Part 3 we will deal with: expressions of comparison and contrast expressions for trends correlations to keep the following points in mind: To use this languagecorrectly. YOU MUST CAREENOUGH TO BEACCURATE . You must know the collocations of the terms: i.it is necessary 1. You must know the grammatical featuresof the terms 4. The languageof graphs and tables is divided. learning to use the appropriate vocabulary.

. not referring to the text directly at all).1 What introductory expressions to use There are three possibleways to start.. 2. Instead of saying We can see fom the graph. it is necessary which refer to the text itself. like those below.since the instructions in the IELIS test will normally give you just this information. of the above expressions Several Tiy to identi\$' which is which by doing the next exercise.) also acceptable.Visuals: Writing Tables about Graphs.) Howeve! this method is not advisable. Do not forget that the secondway is also very acceptable(i.. As is shown by the graph / table. in the population ofAlia in the 20th century.1. it is better to use the passiveor impersonal constructions. One is to refer to the visual directly (e. and is often in thepopulation ofAlia to use used as a convenient way to start.g. a few fixed expressions.. tbat there utasa sharp increase The third way combines the two (e.)This way is Tltere was a sharp increase shows that you are able to recognisethe main concept or perfectly acceptable. since the examiner cannot assess from a copied sentence. can be followed by a noun or noun phrase. Severalof the above expressions must be followed by a main clause. In order to use this method. Most of the above expressionscan be followed by a clause starting with that. If you copy directly your English from the paper you are wasting time. As is illustrated by the graph / table. This graph shous thepopuktion ofAlia in the 20th centur!.g. as above. As can be seen from the graph I table. and m€ssage that the graph or table shows. The graph shouts 20th This is in the century.e.1.g. The secondway is to refer directly to the main message conveyedby the visual (e.2 Introductory Expressions The graph / table shows / indicates / illustrates / reveals / represents It is clear from the graph / table It can be seen from the graph / table As the graph / table shows.. From the graph / table it is clear Notice that it is best to avoid using personalpronouns. There will be more examplesof this in the following pages. and Diagrams 11 2.

/ as cAn be seenfrom the graph or as is shotttn 2. . it does not come from another source. This is becausethe phrase according to generally means that the information comes from another person or source. i" the 20th centur! I O1tltt groutth in the size of the I 4. It is clear from the table 3.h. | o Answer KeJt 'Warnings: 1. From the graph it is clear I populationofAlia 20th century I c) the PoPulation ofAlia grew in the 6.) In the caseof a graph or table that is shown. 7.also the reader.r. The word preserutrs an oueruiewof the summarising noun ro follow. the information is there right in 'knoJ it. 5. As the table shows. and. and not from our own knowledge. As can be seen from the graph. Avoid these if you think you are going to forget this unusual grammar' expressions is best avoided. It can be seen from the graph I a) that thepopulationofAlia greu'. Visuals: TASK5: Make all the possible matches between the expressions in the table on the left with those on the right: 1. According to my friend. As is shown/illustratedby the graph. (For example. Avoid using the phrase: according to the graph."*rir. lou cannot take the exdm more tltan oncein three months. since it requires a sophisticated 3.12 Iables and Diagrams Writing about Graphs. The graph shows/ indicates 2. . the essay question aas not too dfficuh. For example: ThegrdPhpres€nts population gotath of Alia in the last 20 years. That front of you. Note that the expressions illustratedby the table do not contain the dummy subiect ir.Accordingto tlte Handbook.and so you can both is.

c) Between1950 and 1990 meatproduction in the world rosesignifcantly for all sheep and goat meat. . . particularly those involving line graphs..1990 a) This graph sltotasthe changesin world rneatProduction betueen 1950 and 1990.4 1980 Sheep/Goats 1950 1960 1970 '... 1n€At rc Ansuter Ke! 2.2TimeExpressions you can start your description with a time fu you can seein the above exercise. hinds of meat excePt that in 1950 production ofpoulny and sheepand goat meat d) The graplt shouts was less than 5 million tons. a ' -.90 1950 WorldMeatProduction.r .Tables and Diagrams Visuals: Writing about Graphs. the time frame is given and is an important elemenr of the visual and will need to be mentioned.-.r Potk a Beef/Buffalo E Poultry . and that you revise that you know how to use the common expressions them from any normal grammar book if they causeyou difficulties. b) From this graph we cAn seethat most meatProduction is a lot higher in 1990 than in 1950. uthileproduction ofpork and beefand buffalo uas around 20 million tons. phrasein some cases: significant[t. . 13 TASK6 Which is the best introductory sentence for a description of this graph from the following? .n .:::€...in many cas€s.E . Million Tons 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 l0 0 ts-q tr e-. 1950 and 1990productionrose Betuteen Even if you do not begin your sentenc€with a time expression.. For this reasonit is important of time./ /. o . Here are the common ones: for in -and between during before from-to/until after .

during: During the first six months.. since: Since the 19th century there has beena steadyd. while imports increased. in: In 1999... over over a ten year period throughout the 19th century from that time on after that then in the 1980s .. the number of employes remained the same. In the 20th century..... production was slouing down. During the first half of this century. in production tltere was a significant increase for: For the first six months.. between -and: Berween1950 and 1960. During the remainder of the year.. For twenry years.6u afrcr 1965 t/tere utasa sudden increase. From 1950 to 1960. In the first ten years.ecline... byt By the late 19th century the rural workforcehad declinedsignificantQ...14 Writing Tables and Diagrams Visuals: about Graphs. tltere was no changein energl use.. around / about: Around / about l9B0 there was a changein the number offemale part-time employees... are: Orher usefulexpressions (in) the period from (in) the oeriod between to and in the first/last three months of the year to over the period the next years/ decades/ quarter ofa century etc.. at: At the end of the last century tltere utasa sharp increase in manufacturing.... from-to/until: From August tol until November. before I after: Before 1960 the number remained small. tltere uas no changein the rate offuel consumption..

) .2. tltere utasno changein mutton production).3 Expressions it is necessary for you to have a Since graphs and tablesshow measurements. and to show you the verbs that they are associated rypical phrasesused to describevisual aids. theproductionofpork rose and slowly productionincreased 3. knowledge of the most common terms used to describequantiry and related expressions. It is important to selectthe correct tenses. as always.) 7 TASK Look again at the graph ofVorld Meat Production (in Tirsk 6) and complete the following statements with a suitable expression of time: and goat meat remained almost unchanged 1. .That means using the present perfect tense. sharply.1Usingthe right tenses. ( The useof tlte Internet has risen enormouslysincethe 1990s.Tables Visuals: Writing about Graphs. Pouhry steady 4. and the familiar with. There is no apostrophe before the s. and Diagrams 15 Note that you can refer to a decade as the 1980s etc. c) \flith by you will often need to use the past perfect or the future perfect tense (\$t the end of the centur! tlte rate of urbanisation had doubled. and. 2. you may use the past continuous tense for one of them. rose dramatically. b) If you usesinceor recent(ly)it means that you are referring to events that have come up to the present. Theproduction of sheep 2. Beefand bffilo productionexperienced grouth a Answer Ke! of Measurement 2.to know how to use them CORRECTLY. If two things took place at the same time. The followins lists are there to act as a reminder for you of nouns that you are probably aheady with. (\Ylhilepoulny production uas rising during this period.Points to remember: a) For most visualsa specific time in the past will be given and you will need to use the past simple tense.

refersto the actual number itself.gure Note the combinations given in the table above (e.g. countable noun following: the number people. the uhole of theproduction for that year). in the last 20 years' The amount of production increased The number of cars on the roadsincreasedin the last 20 yearl However. This is becausein this casewe are thinking about the people rather than the number.The number of unenployedpeople ltas drcreased. thisf. tlte number of unemployed There is some confusion about whether the verb following thesephrasesshould be the noun in the singular or plural.g.g. Thewordf. not for abstract terms.gure ltas more than doubled in the last tuo years. / waste)it is generally safer used more widely (e.1 Quantities amount figure the total quantity the whole of the the majority the maximum quanuty the total the total number the whole amount the greatest amount the minimum number the total amount all of the the full amount the greatest number It is best to use arTount and quantity for uncountable nouns. the Amount of utealth / experience to use this word if you are not certain. so we should say: The number of carsbas increased. Visuals: 2. the whole of thepopulation. note that all of the can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns (e. However. although both are used for countable nouns as well. not the thing that the number refers ro: While tlte number of Internet usersu)Asonly 2. because number is itself singular. num'ber can generallybe safelyused for all countable nouns. It is clearly safer to useall of the.it should be singular.16 Tables and Diagrams Writing about Graphs. particularly quantity. iron ore. all of the people). : Thereare a number ofpeople But you may also come acrossthis kind of sentence taho ltaue ashedfor this book. Strictly speaking. .g. of cars. while the uthole of the can only be used with uncountable nouns (e. shares.g. However. you cannot say *The quantit! ofproduction increased. quantity is only used for items that can actually be measuredor This is because weapons). all of thepopulation. Sinceamount can be counted (e. the total amounr)' A more g the whole/ total amount is to say all of the or simple and idiomatic way of expressin the utholeof the.6 million in 1990.3. For number you must of course have a plural.

Remember also that many is used for countable nouns.2 OtherMeasurements (i) range €xtent Percent (ii) length altitude frequency rate scale percentage weight area duration distance volume height size level ProPortion degree ratio The words in set (ii) above (and the adjectivesrelated to some of them) are very restricted in use. "the tahole of energt used.of or tlte . and you will be unlikely to need them in the IELIS Academic \WritingTask 1. .and Diagrams Tables Writing Visuals: about Graphs. you will certainly know their meanings and use.k must be: All of the population. If you need them in universiry work. most of the words in se is what and that else. however. the utholeof the energyused. they refer to t (i) are very widely used because However. '17 Warning! A common error is to omit the after expressionsIike all.The expressions \07ith countable nouns (amount) (quantity) number all of the many (a lot o0 With uncountable nouns amount (quantiry) the whole (of the) a great deal of (a lot of) 2. changeof to the relationship of something to something graphs and tablesare usually designedto show. (For uncountable nouns a lot of can be used informally. whoh of Do not write Vll of population.3.These terms. while a great deal a/should be used for uncountable nouns.can present difficulties in usase.) Here is a summary of the in bracketsare the lesscommon ones: points made above. but it should be avoided in formal writing.

and rate by a line graph.3Usage Rnte is defined in the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English as: a quantity such as aalae. the groutth rate of the population. the rate of production.(Go to the section on Tiends for further examples. In all the examples given above. by a bar graph. tbe rate of expenditure. . So we can talk about the rate of grouth. cost. it is If you think of leuel6eing represented with the verb rise and rate goeswith the verb easier to remember that leuel goes increase. The Oxford Advanced Learner'sDictionary defines it as: a point or ltosition on a scale of quantity. unemPloyment rate.ount of something at a particuhr time. another very common and important term rspercentage. and also the leuel of unemployment. 2.e. The Cambridge International Dictionary gives this definition: a leuel of speedwith uhich sometbing happens or changes. the rate of unemltloyment (or the it is probably safer. Thus we can say that the percentage / proportion of uomen in the utorhforce has risen. measured hy its relation to sonxe other am. diuorce rate etc. the birth rate.18 Iables and Diagrams Visuals: Writing about Graphs. or speed.In most cases rateunless you especiallywant to refer to a particular point. The term proportion is also used to compare two things: The proportion of utomen to men in the uorffirce increased. Leuelindicates lteigbt. strengtlt.ass.3.) Most of the other words in the list are not quite so common. or. However. (i. or involving changesover time.therefore.ount. rather than to make a comparison. \flhile percent means lircrallyfor euery hundred the word percentage is used more broadly to mean proltortion. to use the word unemplolment rate). as in the leuel of utater in a gl.but it also has the meaning of amount. ualue etc. the word leuel could be replaced by the word rate. and you should not use them unlessyou are confident that you know them well. more commonly. These are all measurements consideredin relation to the rest of the population.or the number of times it happens or changes utithin a particuhr period. Thus we can talk about rhe leuel of production| the leuel of expenditure. Collins Cobuild English LanguageDictionary gives this definition: the am.

and can also be used in the passive. divide vb.5 Usage It is usually correct to use some form of the verb to be. Women madc up / constituted a signifcant Percentdge *comltrise nearly half of all householdwaste. total adj. Thepopulation ofAlia stood at 21 million at the turn of the centur!. . since it has several related meanings.. accountfor the majority of greenhouse ga.but here are some: The number of unemployedutas 10% of thepopulation.4 RelatedVerbs be constitute equal include stand at make up comprise account for record become consist of amount to represent reach The verbs that show change are given in the next section . On the other hand.Tiends. uas higher than in t/tepreuiousyear. / vb. Food and garden materials Paper and cardboard amounted to 2lo/o of the total householdLuaste. half n. n. equal / double n.3. It is best to avoid using this word. treble vb. However. partial adj. 2. 19 2. quarter n.3. adj.3. It is therefore Your above accurately. it is not good to keep repeating the sameverb. it is safer to use the sameverb repeatedlyand correctly than to use any of the other ones incorrectly. / vb I vb I n.6 MathematicalExpressions halve vb.es. Check your ESL Dictionary for examples.. triple n. best to learn to use at least two or three of the expressions ESL dictionary will give you more examples.Writing Tables and Diagrams Visuals: about Graphs. Thepercentageof uomen in the u. fraction n. Fossilfuel emissions The consumption offossil fuels reached the highest leuelsin recentlears. multiply vb.orkforce of the uorkforce. threefold adj. *Note: It is difficult to use comprise correctly. / vb. 2. unless you are very confident. average ad1.

3. to reaclt 80o/oof imports in 1990 As in thepreuiousledr tltree times as many users There zuere The number of usersincreasedf. Visuals: 2. u.ith 45o/oof the total production X was the largest tlte number remained steadyat 300 for tl'te next year Exports doubled. as they are very useful: production roseat a rate of 20o/oper yar / per annum / p.7 Phrases Note especially the use of the prepositions at. and certain nouns often occur. number amounr size degree I population I GDP I employees I unemployment l l quantiry rate | literary I production level I growth arms sales clgar€tt€consumptlon smokers income / expenditure years a Ansuter Ke! terms to avoid mistakeslike the Warning: Be carefulto usem€asurement Following: "In thepast 10 yearsthe carsrose insread of. in and.uith in some of the following. consumptionstoodat tlte sameleuel in thefollouing decade the annual increaseuas in / uithin the range of 10o/oand 20o/o by 20o/o / decreased production increased tbe innease taasuer! signifcant.uefold TASK8 Graphs and tables often refer to common situations. at 50o/o producer. . Test yourself to see if you know how to use some of them by making all the possible matches between the words in the first column and those in the second. In thepast 10 yearsthe numberof carsrose.. and try to learn these phrases.a.20 Tables and Diagrams Writing about Graphs.

it was reported in the UNSW suruey Of all the waste found that 2 uaspaper whicb 52o/oof the utaste found in buildings. a) made up b) included c) accountedfor b) most c) amounted to c) accountedfor t) f"ll number d) utas c) the highestleuel d) accounted for d) stoodat d) majority 3. of 4.22 Tables and Diagrams Visuals: Writing about Graphs. a) u. a) the krgest amount d) the biggestnumber 2. it is b) practically all of it Amount c) nearly the u. TASK9 Fill the gaps in the following description of the table by selecting any appropriate expression from those given. a) represented percentage 6. cardboard compostable material mar i compostaDte plastic packaging glass ferrous metal (building Skips wastecontainers) FoodOutlets 40% 15% 9o/o 30% 27o/o 30Vo 3% 3Vo in 1966. Both in outsideeating areasand in skips 3 4 compostable materials.. uhich 5 total. a) the most signifcant proportion d) the greatestpercentage..hole 7. a) the majority d) most of it b) uas b) utas b) total dmount could be recycled or re-usedin someuay. Consideringthe 6 clearthatT 1. a) consisted 5. proportion b) the greatest c) the majority of tuaste 40o/o of the of waste collectedin the uniuersity.hole . Note that more than one choice may be correct! in 1996 Types of Waste at the University of NSW Auditarea Outside eatingareas Inside buildings Waste type yoof total twastestream : : 3096 40% 22o/o 7o/o 520h 6% 30h A4 paper-used on one side ) A4 paper-used on both sides l paper other cardboard compostable material comoostable materials cardboard and paper ferrous metal .

and put a circle around the verbs.1996/97 ffio. and underline all the expressions of measurement.3o/o.Lesstltan half as muclt. and only the source.cant amount of 0. and Diagrams TASK 10 Read the following description of the pie chart given.tt coal ffi Brown I c"' N fl Blackcoal Hyd'o It is clearfom thepie chart that in 1996/7 bfo.Tables Visuals: Writing about Graphs. at 59o/o. leauing hydropowerat only 0. electricirygeneration in Australia at the time camefom fossilfuels. namely 26%o. tuas 15% Black and together accountedfor another of coal gas from brown coal. insignif. using as many of these expressions as you can.3o/ocamefom a reneuable energJt WorldEnergy Sources Coal 23o/o . generation in Australia Efectricity by fuel type. the greatestproportion of electricity produced wasgeneratedby oil. Then write a description of the graph that follows.In other utords.uirtually 100% of generatioru.

. then cover the description and try to fill the gaps in the version below. uthichproduced ouer 122 million tonnes. at just ouer 46 million tonnes. As producer of rice. Indonesia. the USA.Bangladesh. uAs responsible the third lnrgest for about one third of that Amount. Nine of the ten toP rice-producingcounties in the utorld in 1999 uere in Asia.e. i. tonnes.293 27. You do not need to use exacdy the same expressions as those given.r83 Thousands oftons Mne of the ten top riceproducing countriesin the world in 1999 tuerein Asia.t Just utasresponsibh .. which of rice. b tuasfollowed by India.w/tile producer. Indonesia.Viet Nam and Thailand had similar leuelsofproduction.It wasfollouted by India.600 12. uhile the . for Thailandhad similar and Viet Nam Bangladesh. 1999 TopRice-producing Countries The Ten China: lndia: lndonesia: Bangadesh: Viet Nam: Thailand: Malaysia: Japan: Philippines: USA: 28.The only non-Asian 8 million tonne.24 Tables and Diagrams Writing about Graphs. ouer46 m.53'l 10. between20 and 30 million tonn€seac/t. between20 and 30 million tonneseach. accounted for just ouer B million tonnes. Visuals: 11 TASK Read the following description of the bar graph given underneath. tonnes.&6 23.240 16.China was tonnes.uhile Malaysia. u. i.e.ith nearfit 193 million one utould expect. . the USA. but the meanings and grammar must be accurate. while Malaysia.China wds the greatest tonnes.000 8. Japan and the Philippines ranged between16 and l0 million tonne* The only non-Asian producer on the list. A. Japanand the Philippines Droduceron the list. As one would expect. tonnes.

.. :: :""::::::::: : r : : : .:::::t:::::::::::::::::.-::: '. ::i:ili.. 3.:::::.1::llll::::l:i::l:l:: .:::::::::::::::::::::...:::::...so implicit contrast is worth using at least from time to time....:::: .. : j j : : : : : : : : :: . placed next to each other. ::: : .. ' :: l j : : : : : : : : : " r r . differences...:.:j:..air. the contrast is so obvious. on trends. : ::: t: l::l:l::.contrastsor a variety of things are compared or contrasted.while in correlations. The sryle of writing is improved if By contrast..::::i::: .. :.:::::::::. will deal with changesover time.. For example: president.. This section will deal with comparisonsof different items..::::::::::i ..It is therefore enough to use corrlPare they may show a however. that a conrrast is implied because In some cases is. : i : : : : : : : : : :: j::::::::::::::l::..:.::i:i::: ..:::..:::. or even desirable.1 Comparison.....to use a connector such as In this caseit is not necessary. Betastan is a military Alia is a republic utith a popukrly elected dictatorship..:.. effect relationship. while to contrast means simply to reveal the There is. and Correlation Contrast 3..1. \7e will then look at how correlations are used and interpreted. Note that the verb to comParemeans to show both the similarities and the differences between two things. Writingthe Report Graphs and tablesare generally intended to show comparisons.:.i:..This will be discussed There are many ways of expressingcomparison.:. This is done to show orher cases movement or trends.: :l .. ':::::r.In some cases the same items are compared at different times..1lmplicitContrast of the way the ideasare juxtaposed.i:::i.:: ::::j::r::::*:::::::::::. . for both Purposes.. because connectorsare not overused....r:: : ::. :: t.i::: ...:. while the next section.. . :r:.a significant difference in looking at correlations because -often a causeand relationship between two things happening at the same time further below. ::..... . ..

More hss andfeuer do not combine with any of the nouns listed above. .1.in Alia than in Bestastan. More.2 Explicitcontrast Contrast is shown explicitly by using various parts of speech. More andfewer are followed by countable nouns in the plural: Tltere uteremore / fewer accidents last lear than tlte year before.26 Visuals: Writing about Graphs. 2.1.3 Usage To use thesecorrectly you need to consider the nouns they are usedwith. Tables and Diagrams 3.particularly connectors. greater.a. 3. Look again at the common measurementterms we have studied: amount rate Percentage a number level quantity size degree proportion greater larger smaller amount al greater lnumber larger higher smaller lower I I proportron percentage quantiry size degree rate level a greater higher lower l. higherand lzssare usedwith uncountable nouns and the singular verb: There is more / greater / lessgrowth in GNP p. The most simple comparisonsare expressed with the words: less fewer greater more lower larger smaller higher 3.

d) There uterefar more W receiuers in 1997 utas200o/o (three time) higher than in e) The outnershipof W receiuers 1970.Visuals: Writing about Graphs. in the utorld uas muclt greater than in b) In 1997 tlte number of W receiuers receiuers per 1000 inhabitants in the world zuas 1970. and avoiding repetition. Developed counfles ffi I rczo rcaT First consider the following ways of expressing the same idea for an introductory sentence: a) In 1970 the number ofW muclt lessthan in 1997. a Ansuer Ke! . 'W'rite a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. Which of the above do you think are the best descriptions? Vhy? Now try to describe the rest of the graph using the most appropriate expressions you can. in the utorld in 1997 than in 1970.000 inhabitants in the world in 1970 and 1990. in the uorld in 1997 as c) There were nearly tltree times as mdny W receiuers in 1970. Tables and Diagrams 27 TASK 12 The bar graph below shows the number of television receiversper 1.

also as.. equally in a similar way I fashion not only.... but also like x.... \7hich are these? rc Ansuter Key of Speech 3.28 Tables and Diagrams Writing Visuals: about Graphs..as. adjectivesand nouns: Verbs: compare (with / to) contrast (with) differ (from) differentiate (between) distinguish (bemeen) resemble Adjectives: compared (with / to) contrasting different (from) distinct (from) as distinct from same the sameas similar (to) Nouns: comparison rn comPanson wlrn contrast ln contrast to difference (between) distinction (bemeen) resemblance(to / with) similarity (with) variation (between) change (from) vary (from / between) change (from / to) . by using: Contrast -which is more common -can be expressed but however nevertheless yet on the other hand unlike while whereas although even though as opposed to in contrast to by contrast instead of aPart from except for 13 TASK Some of the above te conjunctions and are used within sentences.. y..while some are connectorsthat are used to join sentences..4Other Parts Contrast can also be shown by using specificverbs..'lfhich are the ones that are used to start a new sentence?Some arc ltrepositions and must be followed by nouns... likewise the same as well as too just as x. and.1.. y.. just as x. Similarity can be shown by using: similarly in the same way both... so y... to connect clauses...

mpared !: ! the srylistically.Sowe say: must referto someone doing the comparing Comparingx with y wefind that. people. Comparingwith x. it is normally sentenq€.e. y is morefficient.For a comparison within a sentence. y is morefficient. 29 WARNINGI!! are often usedincorrectly. are must be used.So the first two sentences then the passive form (corupared) correct. (by us)that.. Comparingx with y it can beseen If the personor peopledoing the comparingare not relevantto the ssntenc€.Tables and Diagrams Visuals: Writing about Graphs.. to say: X is than jt. wore fficient enough . Look at thesesentences: Cornparedand carnparing uith x.?"! efficientis grammaticallycomect. . is not a verygood sentence and actually of comparisonis not usuallynecessary useof an explicit expression should only be usedin more clumsy.If the activevoice is used(comparing)then it -i. Vithin a between sentences.. Two of tlre aboveare ceffect and one is incorrect Can you seewhich is which? Peoplecomparethings (or people). or longersections complexcomparisons. Compared Comparingx with y wef.nd that x is moreeficient.but not the lastone.Suchexpressions makesthe sentence of text..but it with But note also:Co. ^..

first 20 yearsof the reported ouer30 million tons. 1950 Million Tons 80 60 70 .. it increasedrelatiuely slowlyfor the beeJ/bffilo meat up to 1980.. . ortt. Pouhryproductionshowed Startingfom a lou baseofjust 5 million tons..90 WorldMeatProduction.. 4 Poultry 20 10 0 o Sheep/Goats 1990 1950 1960 1970 1980 in all typesof meat Worldproduction increased sheep and goats betuteen1950 and 1990. There was a shw rise in theproduction ofporh and afier thispork production nend. period. the and goat meat remained steadyt/trougltout the period at around production of sheep rc Answer Kel . Tables and Diagrams 31 TASK 15 .w' € &.:: -\$ --..t 50 40 30 n..Visuals: Witing about Graphs. sharply. until by 1990 it had reached 5 million tons. a increased morerdpidb.'/ n 6.../ ttt-4F Pork a Beef/Buffalo /1 ". that it increased .

Here are examples to show you the difference: Market resedrchers are interestedin identif. Iables and Diagrams 3.ing trmds in consumption.and it is easy to avoid them.32 Visuals: Writing about Graphs. However. Graphs and tablesoften demonstrate such changes.l"r*. steep(ly) dramatic(all)") Verbs: climb fall ""0 "o::* sharp(ly) high steady/steadily gentle/gently low plunge rise leveloff mount drop Thesetermsaregenerally usedwith thoseindicatingchange(see below). one describeschangesover time. They can soundstrange and exaggerated when not usedin the right way. Youngpeople in particular tend to follou the ktest fashions. NOTE: The noun nendis not to be confusedwith the verb tend although they have a similar meaning.Graphs often have a time axis. while tablesalso often show variations involving time or place apart from other factors. and you areconfidenrthat you can usethem correctly.2 Trends: Increaseand Decrease Graphsas Landscape Because of the appearance of graphs.. .the following geographic and descriptive er<pressions areoften usedt describe graphs: Nouns: peak trough rop bortom highest/lowest rever point/ l. There is also the noun tendcncyjust to confuse marters. A very common kind of comparison is when one comparessomething with itselfi in other words. There is a tendencyfor consuTners to follout fashions.it is advisable to avoid them unless your generallevelof Englishis quite high.

it is essentialto know the grammar of thesewords. a person or a vasecan fall down. In other words. shrunh although you can really forget it is hardly ever used in the past or present perfect tense. do not confuse rise The other rwo are:fell. 33 of some factor and so The changesover time normally involve increaseor decrease that have thesemeanings.1.1Verbs increase expand climb develop decrease decline lower diminish remain / stay fluctuate go up double gain escalate go down reduce contract level off rise multiply raise grow j. about the last one because Note that arise has the same forms as rise. raised).3. but not the value of the dollar! Also do not confirse grout with grott up! Only a person c^n grotl) up to become an adult. since only transitive verbs can be used in the passive. and their precisemeaning before it is safeto use them. fall. (rose.t*p accelerate fall shrink slow down drop lesse n deplete the same / unchanged / steady/ stable / constant vary Usage 3. 3. .Tables and Diagrams Visuals: Writing about Graphs. VARNING: ll dawnlThe latter is only used Pleasedo not confusefallwirh for physical falls. shrinh.As usual. but a very different meaning! Remember that it is very important to know which verbs are transitive and which are intransitive.3. Here are it is useful to know a number of expressions some of the most common ones.In particular. risen) with raise (raised. but not a whole population or an economy! Note: You must know the verb forms of the irregular verbs in the above Iist: rise. fallcn and shranh.

can show that tobacco is an indirect causeof illness from certain illnesses and death and death. it has not been illness in the sameway that one can say that a possibleto say that smoking caus€s many people smoke without becoming ill. Correlations can also be used to show economic or other activity where there is no one (as in the example about tourism causallink. In this caseit is necessary the rwo. but you are not expected to discussthe implications in any detail. For example.3Correlations One of the most interesting ways to use graphs and tables is to place two together that show a connection. because poison cAuses as the example below shows. Combine as many of the following as is possible: The number of The quantity of The proportion of The rate of The level of The percentage of The sizeof The amount of (the) workforce (the) banking sector (the) workers (the) consumption (the) production employment rose fell increased dzcreased dzclined geu) expandzd shranh dropped reduced fluctuated rc Ansuer Key 3. This is often used in the IELIS to understand what the link is that connects examination.Tables Visuals: Writing about Graphs. These are often interesting because to suggestfuture actions to be taken. and Diagrams 35 TASK 18 Note that it is very important to combine nouns and verbs correctly. or where the causeis a separate they can indicate trends and perhaps below). or a correlation. Correlations can often show an indirect causal link. . a strong correlation between smoking Nevertheless. In the IELIS examination it is necessary understand why the two visuals have been placed together. illness.

58 million.000 75. Europe.ith the second highestconsumptionof cigarettes uas theVestern Paczfc. You will find examplesin the model given below.530 2.369.000 200.000 51. China and theWesternPacifc.000 505.000 986. and that eachof theseregionsalso had b fn the largestnumber of tobaccorelated deaths in 1998. 1995 Africa TheAmericas Europe 5outheast Asia India Western Pacific China 125.3. Tobacco related deaths 1 998 Total Male Female Cigareftes consumeo percapita.945 1.36 Writing Visuals: about Graphs.000 332.000 383.000 900.000 413.. with the greatestconsumptionper head of cigarettes. also experiencedutellouer I million tobacco-related deathsbjt 1995.000 I. and it ako recordedthe secondhighestnumber of tobacco-related deaths. There are two grammatical forms which are more likely to occur in this context: the superlatives of quantiry such as the greatest number. the louest incidence / occurrence etc.uhich seems to be a reflection of thefact that in generalfar fewer raomentltan men smoke.etc..the higher the tobacco-related mortality rate.000 913. underline all the useful expressions you can find and use them in your own description of the correlation of the graphs that follow.800 There is a clear correlation betuteen the number of cigarettes smoked per capita and the number of tobaccorelated deaths. In all regionsexceptSoutheast Asia it can be seenthat the higher the consumptionof cigarettes.000 169..000 1. The region u.namely .at 415 per capita. nAmely ouer 2000for 1995.185. abhough in the Iatter the consamptionleuel was nearly tltree times as high. Tables and Diagrams 3.000 13.000 s82.000 480 1.000 580. . I 85 rnillion.000 I 12.. and the comparative form: the greater the. the mortali4t rate LUas as high as in the AmericAs.000 469. uith the htuest leuel of cigaretteconsumption. The table sltoutsthat the greatestconsumptiont cigarettes in 1995 uAs to befound in Europe.. the greater tlte.000 783. It is interesting that in SoutheastAsia.namely 1.1 Vocabulary and Usage There is no specialvocabulary to be used for describing correlatedgraphs and tables.. TASK 19 In the following description. with nearly 2000 per ltead..080 4't5 't.000 130..200 1. h is also interesting to note that in eaclt casetlte number offemale deathswas signifcantly lower than that of males. Clenly other heabh or economic factors must be inuolued.

37 20 TASK Now write a description of the following. In the IELIS test the question would typically be expressedas follows: The graph below shows the rate of women's literacy and population growth in selectedcountries from 1988 to 2000.Tables and Diagrams Visuals: Writing about Graphs. using as many suitable constructions as possible from the above model. 'Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. Afghanistan Mali Sudan Pakistan Dominican Rep. Jamaica Sri Lanka Colombia i Thailand 1 0 0 80 60 40 20 012345 Population Growth(06) FemaleLiteracy(70) rc Answer KeJt . YemenArab Rep.

revenue and spending.5 Is: fzt.s Austria ltz.a chinaI rz. The tasks below show the top 10 countries in terms of tourist desdnation.t f Italy f Canada ! r r .z united statesf ttatyI:+.s china fz+ Mexico lts.r polandI tg.+ France fzs.e United KingdomIzs.'Write about 150 words in no more than 20 minures. Now treat this as an IELIS'W'riting Task 1.or to.'Which countries made an overall profit on tourism. The relationship between number of visitors and amount of income. 3.i Germany !ro.st ro.o United Kingdom fzr. 1997 (USS billion) UnitedStates Germany Japan UnitedKingdom France 5l. : Austria I r r Netherlands! China ! ro.r canadaI Austraria Ie. 38 TASK 21 Study the following three graphs showing the top ten countries for W'orld Tourism and comment on the following in your description of the graphs: 1. The relationship between the top spenders and the top earners.g canada ftal t7.t Highest Tourism: Spending Countries.'Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below.Visuals: Writing Iables and Diagrams about Graphs.r z rc Ansuter Ke! .t spain Zzg.o +l. Tourist Destinations1998 (arrivals in millions) France fzo spainE+z.z s.zr r o. 2.3 Austria I Revenue fromTourisim (U55 billion) unitedstates ttaty I:0.

g. the present perfect tense. b fo.) For example slightly: slightly.Adverbs of degree or amount which can be used with verbs and often also in comparisons. scarcely) increased in the lastfeu years. Note: Avoid using a bit and a lot as they are used only in informal and spoken English.the passive). The following can only be used in comparisonsor superlatives: far by far very much ( fa. Thepopulation increased There utereslightly more doctorsthan dentists. uery much more raPid(b) ) Placement: The first three adverbs (hardly. The number is so small it can hardfu be considzred. sltould etc.Visuals:Writing about Graphs.It does not rnean the same as uery. The number hardly / barely / scarcely In the caseof verbs with auxiliaries (e. mort inhabitants.). The rest of the adverbs will eo after the verb (The numbers increaseda little / significantly etc.or with modals (may. the greatestnumber. Employrnentin indusny increased slightly more rapidb. . Tablesand Diagrams 41 . could. hardly slightly partly substantially dramatically mainly barely somewhat relatively particularly enormously largely scarcely marginally significantly exceptionally to some extent a little moderately considerably remarkably mosdy a great deal very much to a small/ certain/ largel greail considerable extent Note: Iargely means nearly the sameas maircly. (Many can be used in adjective form.) they go between the auxiliary or modal and the main verb: The number of utomen in gouernmenthas hardly (barely. barely starcely)go before the verb: increased in the nextfeu years.

.g. as present or past participles (e. *Nots You are unlikely to need to use t€a€rdl since it means rnore tltan afea bat not man! ^nd is so imprecise that it is not likely to be used when describing graphs or tables. The increaseoccurredfairly mpidly.e. quite highly rather extremely falLrly comparatively very relatively . hardly (any) approximately (just) under some most less than practically (just) over (several)* (well) under about almost exactly many (well) over around nearly precisely more than all For example: Hardly o-frfih of the uorkers tooh theirfull holidays. graph The uorld\ GDP per capita in 1995 was \$US 5.990. bigh b increased. 43 . Just under a quarter of all energt is produced by coal.Adverbials which are used with nouns and expressions of measurement.Visuals: Writing Tables and Diagrams about Graphs. to give precisefigures when discussinga Note: It is generally not necessary instead of saying: For exa-mple or table. aPproximately: There utashardly any changein the number of readers. Nearly all of thepopuktion watcltesteleuision. highly: Tltere utasa highb noticeableincrease in the number of complaints. it is better to say: The world\ GDP per capita in 1995 was about / around / nearly \$US 6000. to intensi&' them or tone them down. Tltere uere approximately 10 million inhabitants. For example: hardly an!. i. They can not be used with verbs or comparativ€s (unless the verbs are in the adjectival form.Adverbs which can only be used with adjectives or other adverbs. hrsb ly increasing) : For example.

1. 4. Tables and Diagrams Common Error! Note that it is a common mistaketo write *Someof wastecomes fom agriculture. if we being described. The modals. If theseare used. Many students make this mistahe. then the future tenseshould also be used. .. most and a//should generally be used without the word f Sorneenergtis supplied hy utind generators. Sorne.44 Visuals: Writing about Graphs. only that it may or could.many. In other words. and should be written as: population may increase It is predicted that the population utill innease to 6 billion. rather than may or could becausethe combination would be too weak. mAl. All cauntries ltaae increasedtheir use offox. rnan! or lnost af a patticular and knoan arnount is / are For example.3 Making Predictions.lfuets the To use these words wirh of it is necessaryto write af thebiecause meaning is that all. refer to mostof the students then it must be clear that a specific group of studentsis meant.. might or could are generallytoo vague and uncertain to be used. Most utastecomes from indusny. The most common expressions for discussingpossiblefuture trends are: it ispredicted / forecast/ expected / suggested / likely / probable that. however. Occasionallya graph showing trends predicts what may happen in future. *It is predicted that the to 6 billion is too uncertain. and so the definite article is necessary. In that caseyou cannot say that something uillhappen. Another possiblestructure is: An increasein the population to 6 billion is expected.

dramatic nzoretltan significant steadlr 3. Tables and Diagrams 2. After the year 2002 it is expected that the growth rate will decline a bit la.In fact the number of adult usershas doubled in that time. by 1955 the numberof suchmaniages to 50o/oand by the 1990s tltere zuas An euen trend azuay fom ananged marriages.46 Visuals: Writing about Graphs.While in 1950 the numberof louemarriages tuasonly ltad increased more declined to 22%. changing the parts of speech where necessary.rge significant steady a Ansuter Ke! TASK 23 Select the best words from the list below to enter into the gaps in the description that follows this graph. uhich had lessthan l5o/o. about dramatically nearly noticeably rather remarhably Now replace the words used above with other from the lists that would be just as suitable.) . JoponeseMonioges 100 90 80 7a Lovemorrioges o/o 60 EN 40 30 20 t0 1950 1960 197Q t98Q 1990 Arronged monioges 2000 Tltere was a changein the type of maniage common in Japan between1950 and the 1990s. (You will need a teacher or native speaker to check your work as there are too many variations possible to put in an Answer Key.

1981-1999 1981 1982 't983 '1984 1985 '1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 '1991 't992 1993 1994 '1095 't996 1997 1998 1999 213 235 562 1.as tlte rate continued to d.864.1 36000 2.739. Although the number more tltan doubledfom 1981 to 1983.Rememberthat not every Note: Many studentsorreruse to be modified. Another commonproblemis exaggeration. like to useth€ word.000 159.089 28.21 8.000 1. .evenwhen the changethey are describingis not very striking at all. connectedcomputers in the utorld had risen.000 19. and the word signifcant would be more surtable. .000 6.for example.0s6.&2.000 36.000 3. 213 to 552.ouble.024 1.000 Supply any suitable expressions for the gaps.000 617.Onlyafier slouterrate of expansionas the grouth 1996 uas therea by 1999 the number of Internetrate no longer doubled eacltyear.000 s6. tlte grout/t rate ruas.or €uenmore tltan double in the following years. rc AnswerKey and misusemodifiers. uithin a period of lessthan 20 years.000 12.881. goingfrom fgures at that stagewere Houteuer. computersbas risen The number of Internet-connected since 1981.only thosewherethe modifier is really noun or verb needs Sruden\$som€times meaningful. 47 TASK 24 puters Internet-connected com worldwide.Visuals: Writing Tables and Diagrams about Graphs. the small. rapid.drantatic. Neuertlteless.174 56.961 5.000 313.540.fro* 200 to 56 million.

informal expression.These should not be used. A big number don't realisetheret a problem. h) The weak adjective good is replaced by a more exact one: typical. do not. c) a sentencebeginning with And: You should also avoid starting sentences with But and So.A large number of studentsdo not realisethat tltere is a problem. shouldn't. there's. \Write here is. Can you see the additional improvements as well as the corrections? f) The repetition of d.and which should be auoided.) and for uncountable nouns usea great dral of (there uas great deal of expansionin the 1990r. .since there is no main clause. Note: It is better to be a little informal and correct than to attempt to be very formal and make bad errors. should not. b) a ht of :This is a very common.2 Using the CorrectStyleand Avoiding CommonErrors.. Similarly. And what they shouldn't do.48 Visuals: Writing about Graphs. but you need to be careful not to use the passive if the result sounds awkward. e) big is not a formal word: large is. Tables and Diagrams 4. redundancy and repetition. The above is a typical example of a style which contains a number of informal usages. use many ftuhat many students do.ois avoided. tltere is. Can you identify them? a) abbreviations: ltere's. First there are a number of stylistic errors to avoid: informaliry narrative style. Remember: walk before you try to run.. 4. An improvement of the above two sentenceswould read: This is a typical exampleof a style which many studentsuse. Y litth number of studentsshould oe A small number of students. d) an incomplete sentence:The last sentenceis not a complete sentence.1Avoiding Informality Here's a good example of what a lot of students do.2.For countable nouns. There are a number of common problems with style.This is a way of making the sryle more formal. vocabulary and grammar that we will discussin this section. (Seesection below) g) The personalpronoun (they)is avoided and the passiveis used. don't.

being more suited to story-telling or literature.3AvoidingRedundancy Redundant means more tltan is necessary.However. Here is an example of what to avoid: Here are two graphs. a changegradualfu happenedin the tuorkforce. asfarmers. uthile the other 80%o happen during daylight ltours.2Avoidinga NarrativeStyle. .2. thepeople ofAl. fn contrast.Here is an example: just the oppositeto that of men. when it is not necessary Comparisons ( p.theposition of uomen ruas (Omit the introductory phrase. Redundant statements include the following: a) those that provide information that is so obvious it is not worth stating. A report is not a story and so you should not use a story-telling sryle. ltouteuer. and there is no real information for the reader (or examiner) to focus on.in contrast). or to fill up they fear that they cannot produce 150 words about a graph or table. There are two important reasonsto avoid using more words than necessary: a) it produces an unacademicstyle. in agricubure.Tables and Diagrams Visuals: Writing about Graphs.) (see3. 49 4. it is better to write down more about details than to fill up your paper with statementsthat contain no real information.because as the test question requires. 25). Here is an example: Twentypercent of car accidentshappen afier darh. b) because any grammatical or vocabulary errors in your writing become very noticeable. and tltey continued in this utayfor manlt years.Later. (Only the first half of the sentenceis necessary. space.2. they are Students often use both redundancy and repetition either because translating from a languagewhere theseforms are commonly used. 4.1).a mostly did in the last centuryt. Thqt show that there taeremanJt cbangesin the kinds ofjobs In the 1920s mostpeople worhed. b) those that make a contrast explicit.

50

Visuals: Writing about Graphs, Tables and Diagrams

c) those that are used like topic sentences, but are actually empry of content. Here are some examples: Thereare somedffirences behaeentltesefiao countries. The trendsAre not tlte same. From the graplt we can seetlte uarious rates of change. (Suchsentences should simply be omitted.) In other words, you should aim to use the fewest number of words necessary to convey your meaning. If you feel that you are not writing enough (150 words for the IELfS exam) you should add more detail. Avoiding Repetition. Repetition is another very common form of redundancy and should be avoided for the same reasons: it is not academicin sryle. Moreover, if you have a mistake in a phraseyour are using, and you continue to use that samephraserepeatedly, your workwill look bad. Even if you use a phrase correcdy,you cannot gain good marks in a test if you do not show your abiliry to use a variety of expressions. There are examplesof repetition in the task given below. First, however,let us look at some ways to avoid redundancy and repetition.

4.2.4 Using a CompactStyle
Present Participle clausesare extremely useful for a compact style. For example: Between 1860 and 1900 the temperatureremained steady. During that time the temperatureroseand fe ll by no more than 0.1" Centigrade. This can be written as:

Between 1860 and 1900 the temperature remained steady, rising andfalling by
no more than 0.1" Centigrade. Another rypical expressionis seenin this sentence: The US had byfar the greatestshare of the information technologt marhet, accountingfor 44% of Internet connections. It is important to note that the present participle, ending in ing is active in meaning. It does not indicate the present tenseat all, and can be used for any tense. The past participle (ending in ed or rz) is used for the passiveand is very useful in academicwriting, but is not very likely to be neededin describing graphs and tables.

Visuals: Writing Tables and Diagrams about Graphs,

51

are also often used with prepositions and can include Presentparticiple clauses nouns and adverbs: the The deuelopingcounnies of Afica, Asia and Latin America experienced most dramatic growth, with Afica hauing around 5o/oper Annum. Other parts of speech,such as prepositions, and even punctuation can also be used to make your style compact. \When you are describing a graph or table, you need to make a generalstatement (e.g. carbon emissions signtficantly) and also give the specific details to increased increased to 6000 million tons).There support that statement (e.g. carbon emissions are a number of simple ways to combine this information. Here are some examples: (Seealso section 2.4.7 under Measurements, for other examplesof common phrases.) Note the use of the comma in the following: increased significantQ, to 6000 million tons. Carbon emissions increasedby 600%, fom 1000 million to 6000 million tons. Carbon emissions to 6000 million tons, an increase of 600%. Carbon emissionincreased The prepositions at and u.,ith are also useful. By fo, the greatest proportion of electricity uas generatedby oiL at 59%. Australia ctme next, u.,ith a total of 42,215 students. Indonesia uas responsible for about one third of that Amount of riceproduction, at just ouer 46 million tonnes. sectorremained constantat around 10o/o Bettueenlg20 and 1970 the business ofthe utorkforce. Parentheses, either by using bracketsor commas, are also yery common: (ouer2000) uas... per head of cigarettes Europe, utith the greatestconsumPtion The greatestproportion of electricity, 59o/o, utasgenerated by oil. It is also useful to give details by using narnely and that is or i.e.: The region utith the secondhighest consumption of cigarettesu)astlte Western Pacif.c, utith nearly 2000 per head, and it also recordedthe secondhighest number of tobaccorelated dzaths, namely 1.185 million. etc. Bangladuh and Viet Nam and Thaiknd had similar leuelsof production, i.e. betueen20 and 30 million tonneseaclt. Lessthan half as muclt, namely 260/o, wasproducedfom brozuncoal.

52

Visuals: Writing Iables and Diagrams about Graphs,

Note: A very common error is the use of such as instead of namely. The expression such as introduces examples, NOT a complete list. For a complete list, use namely. Look at the following examples: Thereare a number of utaysof auoiding redundancy,suclt as usingparticiple clauses and phrasesbeginning taith at. Therearefour tlpes of renewabh energ!, namely solar hydro, wind and biomass enerKy.

Improve the following statements by removing the redundancy in any suitable way. You will need to reduce the number of sentences. l. From the graphs we cAn seethat there has beena changein the rate of useof email in the UK. The rate of changeof email useis sltounfrom theyear 1998 to theyear 2004. Email utasusedbyfeu people in the UK in 1998 but it was used by many people in 1999 and the number kept increasing.In 1998 the number of people using email in the UK was about 10 million and fu the yar 2000 the number had d.oubledto become about 20 million. The graph showsthis nend continuing until2002 and then a slight reduction in growth rate to 2004. 2. The graph shous the trend in two 4tpesof marriages in Japan benueen1950 and 1990. The ttuo typesof marriages are hue marriages and ananged marriages. Thepercentageof arranged marriagesdecreased and at tlte sametime the percentageof loue marriagesincreased dramatically betuteen1950 and 1990. In 1950 only 22o/oof the popuktion had loue marriages,uthile 650/outerein ananged marriages,but by 1990 this proportion uas inuerted, utith 83o/obeing in loue maniages and only 15% hauing arranged marriages. tc Ansuer Ke!

:::l::... .. of connectorsshowing stages . :.:::::t. or the operational structure of a system... however.'. Diagrams Diagrams occur infrequently in IELfS Academic \Writing Task 1.r :i i l..tl.:tt: t: t t lli:rll j.l:.::::rtijti:i:i:.i:r:i::::1::lilr.:'] ::::r'l '. It includes three practice taskswith model answers. 5..1Vocabulary and Grammar The vocabulary will mostly be closely related to the specialsubject matter being shown.rl:::.lNrl.!. .t. The purpose of a diagram is normally to show a process.how a piece of equipment works.iii : )r:tl::t:t: iti. .'': :':':..:.:ritl::. There are.::]']..i::::.:r]]:]|]:'.i. b) \Wherea processor structure is being presented.'.::..you will need a variery or time..ii::i:ii:i:l :::iitirii::::i:::i. two of the languagethat you will require for describing most diagrams and aspects you should make sure that you know how to use them well: a) The verbs will normally be in the present tenseand the passiveform.. and so you cannot prepare for that. and as there is very little vocabulary and grammar that coversall rypes of diagrams this section is very short..

-Vrite a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below Career Paths in theTravel Sector CHIEF EXECUTIVE .g. instead of : The uater is then purifed write: Thepurifcation of uater is the next stageetc./ operations) rRevdlsalrs TRAVEL5ALE5 SUPERVTsOR 'sIPERVTSOR I (Commercial (Tourism) | Private Sector) PublicSectoror | Domestic Specialised \ | \ : TRAVEL / rnnvtcorusutteut CONSULTANT (lnternational Operations) .instead ofat the beginning.56 Visuals: Witing about Graphs. Afrer this. TRAVELCONSULANT (Domestic Operations) TRAVEL CLERK .XRX#* MANAGER + . stage..t" / SMALL /' BRANCH M^N^GER . Theprocess continues tuith .... You can also use then after the subject ofyour sentence. The uater is then transported. Next . d) Vary the use of nouns and verbs: e... c) Do not simply usefrstly secondlythirdly etc. Here are some other possibilities: In thefrst/ second / etc. b) Avoid repetition (seeprevious section) and try to vary your language.g.. Tables and Diagrams 5../ \l(tnternationa-l/Australianl.2+ TRAVEL 5ALE5 ASSISTANT a Ansuer Key . TASK 27 The diagram below shows career paths in the travel industry....There is no need for adjectivesor adverbs.2 Using a good style a) Do not attempt to describethe diagram in colourful or'interesting' language. or then to link different stages.. e.....rJo* \ \ \ TRAVEL MARKEflNG nfoo*rlfl*MANAGER TISENIORTRAVEL>/ \ICONSULTANT\.

ANIMALSand ANIMAL EXCRETA tc Answer Key .Visuals: Writing Tables and Diagrams about Graphs. 'W'rite a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. THENITROGEN CYCLE IN THE SOIL NITROGEN NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA IN NODULESOF LEGUMINOUs PLANTS DEAD PLANTS. 57 TASK 28 The diagram below shows the nitrogen cycle.

A GosCooled NucleorReoctor heol exchonger hotgos duct chorgefubes steomto furboolternotor fuelelemenis uronium grophite moderotors pressure vessel concrete shleld a Anstuer Ke! Note: Many text booksfor English learners dealwith the writing of of processes and you should refer to theseif you needmore descriptions practice.Visuals: U/riting about Graphs. Tables and Diagrams TASK 29 The diagram below shows the production of steam using a gas cooled nuclear reactor. 'Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. .

5 and 6 all go with c) only. 1 goeswith a) and b). and it is always necessary to comment on the significanceof the visual (d).it is more common in spoken English. which are much more graph. 4) More (\$31. Part2. especiallywith tables.187 million. Afier 1960 / From 1960 (on / onutards) 1950 and 1970 / fom 1950 to 1970 / for 20 yearsafier 1950.815 against\$9z. c) is possible. it givesa summary of the significanceof the 3. 4.Visuals: Writing Tables and Diagrams about Graphs. throughout the 40 years from 1950 / fom 1950 to 1990 / fom 1950for t/te next40 years.The following arenot the only possible 1950 and 1990 / fom 1950 to 1990 l. . In text a) the figures are simply expressed difficult to understand than the graph itself while b) was written by someone who is going well beyond what is in the graph and is discussingcaus€s. written English. sometimesfurther explanationsare given (c). and then/ afier tltat rose 4. 59 AnswerKey Part 1 1.Actually. c) and e). 2) Too small to identify 3)Just under 1000 million tons. Giving exactly the same information (b) is definitely not the purpose. a) cannot be correct. against\$27. but arethe most likely ones: 7. Again. 1) Over 1000 million tons. Generally. b) and d) are also correct! 2. Since the purpose of a graph or table is to make the text easierto understand. 5. 3.000 million.but often. Although c) is possible.avisual is used to assistin making a concept clearer. a). the purpose is to give more details. However.) answers. between 2. 5) Less (\$29.because in words. 6. . and it is better to use thatin front of the clause. c) and d). but it is better to insert thatin 2. c) is the correct answer.3 andT all go with a). benteen dramatically. 4.ooo million).

expenditure. unemplolment. within sentencesare: but. These must be followed by nouns. except 14. abhouglt. a) and c) GDP.Neuertheless. cigarene consumption. In this task there are three kinds of answers:a) those which are completely correct and which are. apartfom. production. tlte literacy rate. literacy. in fact. a) and b) and d) are all too vague. The following are the most commonly used combinations: the number of the amount of the size of the degree of the quantity of the rate of smokers. On the other New sentencesmust be started with: Howeuer. cigaretteconsumption. income. lears G!n. (Better is: the unemplolment rate. Iiteracy. and in a) the phrase inhabitants' is not necessary. 2. Conjunctions. a) and d) 7. not clauses. arms sahs. a) and b) 5. and c) those which are completely wrong.expenditure. 'per 1000 12. uthile.^) Part3. hand. the leuel of 9. instead of. employees. as opposed to. a) and c) 6.b) and c) and d) 4. rultereas. grouth. and as well as Houeuer except for / apart fom change/ dffirence Similarly . the most common expressions. Prepositions are: unlihe. literacy. expenditure the population unemplolment. b) 3.60 Visuals: \fdriting about Graphs. The best sentenceis c). b) those which are -they not quite wrong.but they are the most likely ones: uthile both While / Whereas uthile 15. an€mplolment. but not very usual sound rather odd to native speakers of English. in contrast to. production.income. the grouth rate). \fhile e) is OK. Yet. it is rather too formal. cigaretteconsumption production. euen tbough. The following ar€ not necessarily the only corr€ct answers. cigaretteconsumption unemplolment. for. By contrast. Tables and Diagrams 8.but they are the most likely ones: Houeuer exc€pt but similar for / apart fom Meanwhile / On the other hand. 13.The following are not necessarily the only correct answers. arms sales. grou)th. 1.

4o/o and 1. shranh. the banking sector. The bighestpercentageoffemale literacy wasfound in betuueen Thailand and Colombia. utasreduced 18. the banhing sector r increased.fluctuated the size of + the uorkforce. expanded 5. production.guresfor population grouth. consumPtion. Production. expanded. but are unusual or odd. declined.(the) utorkers. fell.guresfom selected 1998 and 2000. The graph shows f.j% population grotatlt. utith 3. production + rose. increased 61 2.decreased. is secondon the Republic. inneased. the number of + utorkers + all the verbs except: shrank.the number of shrank. These are the most idiomatic combinations. reduced the rate of + consum?ilon. The other coun*ies listed shouta similar Pattern.ith high rates. namely 4.8o/orespectiuely. literacy rdtesare Sri Lanka. /tas an enormousgrouth rate. rose 7. This is one possiblemodel answer: There is a clear correlation betuteenthe leuel offemale literacy and the leuel of countries population growth in the uorld. greu. grew 6.e.Tables and Diagrams Visuals: Writing about Graphs. each uith ouer 80%o female literaqt.consumption.narnely l. Afghanistan. and that higherfemale It seems literacy leadsto greater useoffamily planning methods. 17. fluctuated the amount of + consumPtion. grew. emplqlment + all verbs except reduced the leuel of + the same as above for the rate of thepercentageof + the utorkforce.. which also had among* the lowestpopulation grouth The otlter countriesnamed u. Others may occur which are not necessarily wrong. I. dropped.g. By contrast. declined.( the) uorkers. remained 4. reduced the quantitlt of + consumPtion + all the verbs except reduced theproportion + tlte uorhforce. Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. uery likely that this correlation is not accidental. with only 9o/oof utomen being Arab literate. has steadily decreased 3. + all the verbs except dropped. emPlqtment + all the verbs except reduced it is a transitive verb Note: reduced cannot be used in any of the above because and must have an object! It is possibleto use it in the passive. workersuas reducedafrer the business 20. dropped. and in eachcasethepopuktion groutlt rate is under 2o/o.the banking sector. with an euenlouer number of literate uaomen list. thosecounnies utith uery low leuelsoffemale literacy shotu extremely high f. decreased.Production.5o/oand the Yemen (8%). .

a great deal c) a great deal. they do not dPPearamong the top elrners. doesnot aPPearamong the top ten destinationsfor arriuals. while Ausnalia.so tltat uthile Mexico and Poknd receiued around 19 million uisitorseach (pkcing tltem aboueCanada and Ausnia). enormously. signifcantly.tlte correlation betuteen the top eArners and the mostpopular drstinations is not so direct. Interestingfit. slightly. L The top ten spendersand top ten earnersare nearly the same.62 Visuals: Witing about Graphs.Iables and Diagrams 21. noticeable. 22. uhich earned \$8. more tltan / uell ouer . l. The top destinationsin terms of numbers of visitors did not completely coincide with the top earnings. / drariaricallyi" uery/ extremely: just ouer. An enormous b) signifcantly. about rather 24.6 billion. Allthe top spenders excePt JaPan and the Netherlands uere also arnong the top 10 earners. 3. (dramaticalll / remarkably.enormous 2. NI except for Japan. enormously d) significant. While the US earned more than twice as much as France (\$74 billion as against \$29. a) significant. France actually had 70 million arriuals as opposedto47. UK. Canada and Netherlands earned more than they spent.abhough UK Germarytand Canada earned lessthan they spent.The following are suggested answers only: enormously relatiuelyI quite. xeadily 23. Houteuer. Germany.7 billion). 2. others. dramatic/ (noticeable)/ (remarkable). There is a strong correlation betuteentlte countries that were the top 10 spenders andthose utho ouere the top 10 earnersin tourism in 1998. Part4.1 millionfor the US. Here is a possiblemodel answer. more than 3. the costof tourism in somecountriesis clearly much higher tltan in Neuertheless.in the caseof haly and Spain the earningsand number of arriuals u)eremore closelycorrelated. signifcantly.

Note that in the first casethe last sentence 25. uith B3o/obeing in loue marriagesand on\$ 15%oinuolued in arranged marriages. Or: \$956 was spent by Latin America. . 2. In 1998 there were about l0 million email users by 2000 thisfgure had doubled. l. where it is acted on by dennifiting bacteria. so it cannot have an object!A correct version would be: The lowestamount tltat utassPentu)d. however. are: 26.Here the verb happenis inappropriate. 10. The verb spendis in the passivehere. and Nitrogen moues back into the air. since there is no redundancy th€re. It can. Expenditure cannot hauean increase. increaseasinsentence 5. information. The graph showsthat betu. This is not an incorrectsentence. 1950 and 1990 there uas a dramatic change 2. .Here are two suggested of the original is kept.and only around 22o/o had loue marriages. the ninogen is returned to the and plants die. The verb perform is incorrect here. Tlten. Diagrams. Tbe action of lightning and offee-liuing nitrogen-f. Whik at the beginning of this period about 650/oof the population uterein arranged marriages.Visuals:Writingabout Graphs.by 1990 this proportion taasinuerted. You can replace itby wasfound. Part5. 6. The graph shouls An enormousinnease in tbe rate of email usein the UK and betueen 1998 and 2004. The following are suggested model answers: 27. is correct. The nitrogen in the soil is taken up by non-leguminousgreenplants. and 4 arc correctbut 3 is not very good in sryle. 7. wheruthe animak their food.Both typesof pknts are consumedby animak. These returned to the air and the cyclecontinun. The graph showsthis trend continuing until 2002 and then a slight reduction in growth rate to 2004. You cannot spendexpenditure 9. 2.s \$956 million.the noun andverb do not go tog€ther. and in the second caseit is only slighdy modified. and this uas the louest Amount. You could sayNorth America was responsible for the highestamount of expenditureon aduertising.3. The incorrect sentences but it is an'empry'one: it conveysnot real 1. 8. wltile directlyfom the bacteria in their leguminous pknts deriue (get) nitrogeru nodules. in a cyclethrough the air plants and animals and the soil. by Latin America.xing bacteria carriesthe nitrogen into the soil. At tlte sametime somenitrogen-fixing bacteria in the nodulesof leguminousplants take the ninogen directlyfom the air.teen in the rate of arranged marriagesin Japan. Tablesand Diagrams 63 versions. or tlte animals excrete causethe nitrogen to be soil.

auelconsubantscan become senior trauel consuhants. an employee Beginning as either a trauel sales become a trauel consubantfor domesticolterationsand then bepromoted to international operations. sectorone In the tourism or branch manager.that of senior manager. Ti. They can abo cltoose direction of the commercialpriuate sector. Meanu)hile the hot gas sinks to the bottom of the heat excltanger and passes through a gas blouter uhich pushesit into a coolgas duct and back to the reactor.and this thenflouts turbo-ahernator.. A gas-cooled nuclear reActorconsists of the reactor itself and a heat exchanger. . \Vhile both small agenc! mdnagersand marketing managerscan moueuP to CEO leueldirectly for branch managersand trauel administration managers there is still another stage. The reactor contains uranium fuel elementswhich are surrounded by graphite and boron moderatorsand topped by chargetubesfor loadingfuel elements. 29. canfrst assistantor a nauel clerk.sthrough a duct into the heat exchanger. There From the reActorthe hot gasflou.but fom that position to moueeither in the there is no further direct promotion.or tourism and thepublic or specialised superuisorand In tlte priuate sectorthe next stePis to trauel sales domesticsector. concreteshield. by a uessel sunounded contained in a pressure The tuhole reactor is control rods. fom there to small agenc! manag€r can either bepromoted to nauel administration manager or marketing manager.From there it is possibleto mouein three directions. 28. out to the a pipe brings in water uhich is heated to stedm.64 Visuals: U/riting Tables and Diagrams about Graphs.to go through beforereaching the top. Tbprogressin the trauel industry there are tu)o careerpaths that can befollowed.