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Connections: The Poetics of Structure

Connection Concepts
Represent the greatest opportunity for architectural expression of structure Literally are a point of energy transfer, as well as figuratively, metaphorically

“God is in the details” — Mies van der Rohe

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Connection Concepts
Most vital aspect of a structure

Lose a connection, lose everything it’s responsible for carrying

Transfer of force depends on how structure was modeled

Roller Pin Fixed

Schodek Fig. 2.15

Illustrations: Daniel L. Schodek, Strcutures, 5th ed., 2004 Pearson/Prentice-Hall

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Schodek Fig. 3.9

Illustrations: Daniel L. Schodek, Strcutures, 5th ed., 2004 Pearson/Prentice-Hall

Connection Concepts
Design details depend on type of material “Ideal” connection types are only approximated by actual construction

e.g. bolted connections in steel normally considered to deform under load, ∴act as pin connection. Very hard to achieve true fixity!

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Roller & Rocker-Type Connections
Image © University of California, Berkeley, Godden Slide Library: http://nisee.berkeley.edu/jpg/6257_3021_0122/IMG0033.jpg

Image © University of California, Berkeley, Godden Slide Library: http://nisee.berkeley.edu/jpg/6257_3021_0122/IMG0018.jpg

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berkeley.edu/jpg/6257_3021_0122/IMG0022. Godden Slide Library: http://nisee.jpg Rome International Airport Image © University of California. Berkeley. Godden Slide Library: http://nisee.jpg 5 . Berkeley.Image © University of California.edu/jpg/6257_3021_0122/IMG0029.berkeley.

Godden Slide Library: http://nisee. Berkeley.Rome International Airport—Overhanging Beam Roller Joint Image © University of California.berkeley.edu/jpg/6257_3021_0122/IMG0023.berkeley. Berkeley.jpg Pinned-Type Connections Image © University of California.edu/jpg/6257_3021_0122/IMG0060. Godden Slide Library: http://nisee.jpg 6 .

Godden Slide Library: http://nisee.edu/jpg/6257_3021_0122/IMG0062.jpg Renzo Piano—PA Technology Centre. NJ 7 .berkeley. Princeton. Berkeley.Image © University of California.

Oakley 8 .Santiago Calatrava—Milwaukee Art Museum Addition Image © Deborah J. Oakley Santiago Calatrava—Milwaukee Art Museum Addition Image © Deborah J.

Various Knife-Plate Connections — Cutler Anderson Architects 9 .

Washington — Bohlin Cywinski Jackson.Gates Residence. Bellvue. Architects 10 .

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WA — Cutler Anderson Architects 12 .Grace Episcopal Church. Bainbridge Island.

WA — Cutler Anderson Architects 13 .Capitol Hill Library. Seattle.

Truss Pedestrian Bridge 14 .

WA & Osoyoos. Orovile. BC Cutler Anderson Architects 15 .Joint Point of Entry.

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English Channel Tunnel Nicholas Grimshaw & Parners 17 .Continental Train Platform. Waterloo Station.

Traversina Footbrige. Switzerland Conzett Bronzini Gartmann. Engineer 18 . Viamala Gorge.

Original Mt. Palomar Observatory Telescope Mirror Tension Hanger Connection Corning Museum of Glass. Architects 19 . Corning. NY Smith-Miller & Hawkinson.

Framed Beam Connection: Steel to Concrete Using Embedded Plate 20 .

Fay Jones Architect 21 .Thorncrown Chapel. Arkansas.

Maryland — Smith Group. Architects 22 . Annapolis. Chesapeake Bay Foundation.Philip Merrill Environmental Center.

London. Skidmore.Broadgate Office Building. Owings & Merril 23 .

berkeley.jpg Concentric Bracing Lines of Action in a Truss Illustration Source: http://www.jpg Concentric Bracing Lines of Action in a Truss — No Moment in Joint 24 .ce.edu/~boza/courses/cee122/lectures/lecture2/connect-brace.ce.edu/~boza/courses/cee122/lectures/lecture2/connect-brace.Illustration Source: http://www.berkeley.

Hartford Civic Center Roof Failure 25 .

e 26 .

Design of Bolted Connections Shear Connections in Tension Hanger rods Cable anchors Diagonal braces 27 .

Riveted Connections — Traditional Steel Construction Connection Method 28 .

Red Hot Rivet Clamping Force Developed as Rivet Cools and Shrinks Rivet Installation 29 .

Tension Hanger Connection Corning Museum of Glass. Corning. NY Smith-Miller & Hawkinson. Architects 30 .

. 2004 Pearson/Prentice-Hall Bolted Connection Failure Modes 1) Shear Failure of Bolt 31 . 5th ed. Strcutures.4 Illustrations: Daniel L. 16. Schodek.Schodek Fig.

2) Bearing Failure of Connected Material 3) Tensile Failure of Connected Material 32 .

33 .Block Shear Failure 4) Tearing (Block Shear) Failure of Connected Material Full Moment Connections Fixed connections that do not allow rotation Reinforced concrete is naturally fixed Steel can readily be made fixed Wood is almost never used in full moment connection—achieve fixity in wood by knee bracing.

2001 FIXED 34 .Illustrations: Barry Onouye and Kevin Kane: Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction. Prentice-Hall. second edition.

01 rad = 0. Cent e rline Rigid connection Stays 90º Pinned connection allows free rotation Conclusion: It takes a VERY small amount of rotation to make a connection pinned! Schodek Fig.09” ≈ 2.3 mm (θ in radians) 0. 2004 Pearson/Prentice-Hall 35 .. 3.What Makes a Connection Fixed and When is it Pinned? End rotation of a simply.43º ~ 0.supported beam with a uniform load: 3 θ= wL 24EI Example: For a 20’ long W 24x104 with w=4. Schodek. 5th ed. Strcutures.43º 12” d = 24” θ Bm .2 k/ft load: θ = 0.9 Illustrations: Daniel L.

Illustrations: Barry Onouye and Kevin Kane: Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction. Prentice-Hall. 2001 Illustrations: Barry Onouye and Kevin Kane: Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction. second edition. Prentice-Hall. 2001 36 . second edition.

2001 37 . Prentice-Hall. second edition.Illustrations: Barry Onouye and Kevin Kane: Statics and Strength of Materials for Architecture and Building Construction.

Flanges must be connected for fixed joint to occur! 38 .

K.. Inc. Ching: Building Construction Illustrated. John Wiley & Sons. 2001 Stockley Park. third edition. Middlesex.Illustrations: Francis D. UK Norman Foster and Partners 39 .

Middlesex. Architects 40 . UK Norman Foster and Partners Corning Museum of Glass. NY Smith-Miller & Hawkinson. Corning.Stockley Park.

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CA Image © University of California. Corning. NY Smith-Miller & Hawkinson. Palomar Observatory Telescope Mirror Base Support Frame for Tension Hanger Connection Corning Museum of Glass. Berkely.berkeley.Original Mt.edu 42 . Palo Alto. Architects Office Building. Godden Slide Library: http://nisee.

Connecticut — Chan Krieger Sieniewicz Architects 43 . Bridgeport.Discovery Museum.

Washington. Miller | Hull Partnership 44 . 1998. Mercer Island.Michaels / Sisson Residence.