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Modern Techniques in Concrete Technology

Seminar report by Kshitij Tare* 0101CE12ME05 *student M.E. 3rd semester University institute of technology, RGPV, Bhopal (M.P.)

Introduction Developing and maintaining world’s infrastructure to meet the future needs of industrializing and developing countries is necessary to economically grow and improve the quality of life. The quality and performance of concrete plays a key role for most of infrastructure including commercial, industrial, residential and military structures, dams, and power plants. Concrete is the single largest manufactured material in the world and accounts for more than 6 billion metric tons of materials annually. Initial and life-cycle costs play a major role in today’s infrastructure development. There have been number of notable advancements made in concrete technology in the last fifty years. There are many types of concrete, designed to suit a variety of purposes coupled with a range of compositions, finishes and performance characteristics.

Mix design

Modern concrete mix designs can be complex. The choice of a concrete mix depends on the need of the project both in terms of strength and appearance and in relation to local legislation and building codes. The design begins by determining the requirements of the concrete. These requirements take into consideration the weather conditions that the concrete will be exposed to in service, and the required

design strength. The compressive strength of a concrete is determined by taking standard molded, standard-cured cylinder samples.Many factors need to be taken into account, from the cost of the various additives and aggregates, to the tradeoffs between, the "slump" for easy mixing and placement and ultimate performance. A mix is then designed using cement (Portland or other cementitious material), coarse and fine aggregates, water and chemical admixtures. The method of mixing will also be specified, as well as conditions that it may be used in.This allows a user of the concrete to be confident that the structure will perform properly. Various types of concrete have been developed for specialist application and have become

typically using sand or other common material as the aggregate. 10 lb (4. 1/2 part water. Besides volcanic ash for making regular Roman concrete.High-strength concrete High-strength concrete has a compressive strength greater than 40 MPa (5800 psi). Many types of pre-mixed concrete are available which include powdered cement mixed with an aggregate. Roman concrete was superior from other concrete recipes (for example. • Typically.0 kg) cement. • Old concrete recipes Concrete has been used since ancient times. Regular Roman concrete for example was made from volcanic ash (pozzolana). Organic materials (leaves. 3 parts dry stone. Often silica fume is added to prevent the formation of free calcium hydroxide crystals in the cement matrix. which they made from volcanic ash and clay. and often mixed in improvised containers. those consisting of only sand and lime) used by other nations.35 or lower. which might reduce the strength at the cement-aggregate bond. To compensate for the reduced workability. super plasticizers are commonly added to high-strength mixtures. The sand should be mortar or brick sand (washed and filtered if possible) and the stone should be washed if possible. This would make 1-cubic-foot (0.5 kg) water. with lighter duty uses such as blinding concrete having a much lower MPa rating than structural concrete. the Romans also invented hydraulic concrete. which is particularly likely to be a problem in high-strength concrete applications where dense rebar cages are likely to be used.028 m3) of concrete would be made using 22 lb (10. a batch of concrete can be made by using 1 part Portland cement. etc. Such software provides the user an opportunity to select their preferred method of mix design and enter the material data to arrive at proper mix designs. The ingredients in a particular concrete mix depend upon the nature of its application.028 m3) of concrete and would weigh about 143 lb (65 kg). 41 lb (19 kg) dry sand. Low W/C ratios and the use of silica fume make concrete mixes significantly less workable. 1.known by these names. and hydrated lime. High-strength concrete is made by lowering the water-cement (W/C) ratio to 0. 2 parts dry sand. twigs. For example. brick dust can also be utilized. Regular concrete can typically withstand a pressure from about 10 MPa (1450 psi) to 40 MPa (5800 psi). 1-cubic-foot (0. The parts are in terms of weight – not volume. . as weaker aggregates may not be strong enough to resist the loads imposed on the concrete and cause failure to start in the aggregate rather than in the Modern concrete Regular concrete is the lay term for concrete that is produced by following the mixing instructions that are commonly published on packets of cement. needing only water. Besides regular Roman concrete. 70 lb (32 kg) dry stone (1/2" to 3/4" stone).) should be removed from the sand and stone to ensure the highest strength. Concrete mixes can also be designed using software programs. Aggregate must be selected carefully for high-strength mixes.

walkways etc. but not limited to strength. While all high-strength concrete is also high-performance. etc. up to and possibly exceeding 250 MPa. small steel fibers. Note that there is no large aggregate. The current types in production (Ductal. Ongoing research into UHPC failure via tensile and shear failure is being conducted by multiple government agencies and universities around the world. Professor Hajime Okamura envisioned the need of a concrete Ease of placement Compaction without segregation Early age strength Long-term mechanical properties .Stamped concrete • • • • • • • Permeability Density Heat of hydration Toughness Volume stability Long life in severe environments Depending on its implementation.matrix or at a void. In some applications of high-strength concrete the design criterion is the elastic modulus rather than the ultimate compressive strength.Self-consolidating concretes After identification. as normally occurs in regular concrete. 2. The wear resistance of stamped concrete is generally excellent and hence found in applications like parking lots. 3. After a concrete floor has been laid. the defects in concrete in Japan were found to be mainly due to a) high water cement ratio to increase workability. UHPC is characterized by being a steel fiber-reinforced cement composite material with compressive strengths in excess of 150 MPa.Ultra-high-performance concrete Stamped concrete is an architectural concrete which has a superior surface finish. After sufficient hardening the surface is cleaned and generally sealed to give a protection. not all high-performance concrete is high-strength. Taktl.High-performance concrete High-performance concrete (HPC) is a relatively new term for concrete that conforms to a set of standards above those of the most common applications. b) poor compaction mostly happened due to the need of speedy construction in 1960s–70s. Some examples of such standards currently used in relation to HPC are: • • • • Ultra-high-performance concrete is a new type of concrete that is being developed by agencies concerned with infrastructure protection.) differ from normal concrete in compression by their strain hardening. pavements. UHPC is also characterized by its constituent material make-up: typically fine-grained sand. and special blends of high-strength Portland cement. silica fume. 5. followed by sudden brittle failure. floor hardeners (can be pigmented) are impregnated on the surface and a mold which may be textured to replicate a stone / brick or even wood is stamped on to give an attractive textured surface finish. environmental 4.

or aggregate segregation Increased Liquid Head Pressure. 7. It is sometimes used for rock support. and viscosity modifiers to address aggregate segregation.Vacuum concrete Vacuum concrete. especially in tunneling. SCC represents over 75% of concrete production. pools.that is highly workable and does not rely on the mechanical force for compaction. typically between 650–750 mm on a flow table. selfconsolidating concretes account for 10–15% of concrete sales in some European countries. During the 1980s. As of 2005. Japan developed a concrete called Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) that was cohesive but flowable and took the shape of the formwork without use of any mechanical compaction. It is often used for concrete repairs or placement on bridges. Can be detrimental to Safety and workmanship SCC can save up to 50% in labor costs due to 80% faster pouring and reduced wear and tear on formwork. no bleed water. and on other applications where forming is costly or material handling and installation is difficult. A drawback is that the mixing has to be done in a mostly airtight container. The greatest advantage of the process is that shotcrete can be applied overhead or on vertical surfaces without forming. The idea is that the steam displaces the air normally over the concrete. SCC is characterized by: • 6. rather than slump(height) no need for vibrators to compact the concrete placement being easier.Shotcrete Shotcrete (also known by the trade name Gunite) uses compressed air to shoot concrete onto (or into) a frame or structure. This type of concrete is often used as a quick fix for weathering for loose soil types in construction zones. as it eliminates the need for formwork. is being researched. Shotcrete is also used for applications where seepage is an issue to limit the amount of water entering a construction site due to a high water table or other subterranean sources. 38 departments of transportation in the US accept the use of SCC for road and bridge projects. . Professor Okamura and his PhD student Kazamasa Ozawa (currently professor) at the University of Tokyo. SCC is known as selfconsolidating concrete in the United States. This emerging technology is made possible by the use of polycarboxylates plasticizer instead of older naphthalene based polymers. In the US precast concrete industry. Shotcrete is frequently used against vertical soil or rock surfaces. made by using steam to produce a vacuum inside a concrete mixing truck to release air bubbles inside the concrete. dams. When the steam condenses into water it will create a low pressure over the concrete that will pull air from the concrete. • • • • extreme fluidity as measured by flow. This will make the concrete stronger due to there being less air in the mixture.

wet-mix – the mixes are prepared with all necessary water for hydration. • Lime plaster is hygroscopic (literally means 'water seeking') which draws the moisture from the internal to the external environment. Lime enables other natural and sustainable products such as wood (including woodfiber. John E. wood wool boards). through carbination. when used with other lime products. The mixes are pumped through the hoses. This meant that lime could be used in a much wider variety of applications than previously such as floors. . wood and bricks to be reused and recycled because they can be easily cleaned of mortar/limewash. It is also considered to be more environmentally friendly because of its ability. This is because of environmental benefits and potential health benefits. to reabsorb its own weight in Carbon Dioxide (compensating for that given off during burning). • For both methods additives such as accelerators and fiber reinforcement may be used. • • Environmental Benefits Lime is burnt at a lower temperature than cement and so has an immediate energy saving of 20% (although kilns etc. to be used because of its ability to control moisture (if cement were used. The water needed for the hydration is added at the nozzle. Lime mortars allow other building components such as stone. One successful formula was developed in the mid-1800s by Dr. Over the last decade. 8. At the nozzle compressed air is added for spraying. there has been a renewed interest in using lime for these applications again. hemp. straw etc. Park We know that lime has been used since Roman Times either as mass foundation concretes or as lightweight concretes using a variety of aggregates combined with a wide range of pozzolans (fired materials) that help to achieve increased strength and speed of set. this helps to regulate humidity creating a more comfortable living environment as well as helping to control condensation and mould growth which have been shown to have links to allergies and asthmas. Health Benefits • • dry-mix – the dry mixture of cement and aggregates is filled into the machine and conveyed with compressed air through the hoses. A standard lime mortar has about 60-70% of the embodied energy of a cement mortar. are improving so figures do change).Limecrete Limecrete or lime concrete is concrete where cement is replaced by lime.There are two application methods for shotcrete. vaults or domes. these buildings would compost!).

They also used gypsum mortars and mortars of lime in the pyramids. earthquakeresistant structures and explosive-resistant structures. and .. ductility. 3000 BC: Egyptians Used mud mixed with straw to bind dried bricks. Strength and behavior of the FRCs are highly dependent on the characteristics of the fiber reinforced. • • History Time Line: The use of fibers for strengthening of brittle materials as reinforcement is evident from B.C. Fiber reinforced concretes are defined as concrete containing dispersed randomly oriented fibers. During 300 BC Babylonians & As Syrians used reed in asphalt to bind stones and bricks. the mechanical behavior of the concrete is critically influenced by crack development and their sub-sequential propagation. glass. in plain concrete alters and in most of the cases improves strength. In 476 AD Romans Used pozzolana 9. carbon etc. It is an effective way to increase toughness. resistance to splitting. therefore they do not contribute to indoor air pollution unlike some modern paints. To improve stress – strain related properties of concrete fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) have been developed. excellent permeability and frost resistance.Fiber reinforced concrete Concrete is a brittle material having high compressive strength but a low tensile / flexural strength and strain capacity resulting in shrinkage and cracking. etc. impact resistance. toughness. shock resistance. The major advantage of fiber reinforcement is to impart additional energy absorbing capability and to transform a brittle material into a pseudo-ductile material. Fiber reinforced concrete is a cement-based composite material that has been developed in recent years. mine strengthening and tunnel linings. FRC has been successfully used in construction with its excellent performance towards flexuraltensile strength. The behavioral efficiency of such compact mass is much different to that of plain concrete and many other construction materials of similar nature.• Lime plasters and limewash are nontoxic. Extensive research work on FRC has established that addition of various types of fiber such as steel. Fibers in cement or in concrete serve as crack arrestor which can create a stage of slow crack propagation and gradual failure. synthetic. resistance to plastic shrinkage cracking of the mortar. Chinese Used cementitious materials to hold bamboo together in their boats and in the Great Wall. Historically. Peculiar properties of FRC contributes its increased application during the past few decades and its current field of application includes: airport and highway pavements. post-cracking resistance. Concrete in service may exhibit failure through cracks which are developed due to brittleness i.e. bridge deck overlays. hydraulic structures and slope stabilization. The properties of concrete matrix and of the fibers greatly influence the character and performance of FRC.

used in permeable paving. and in the 1950s the concept of composite materials came into being and fiber reinforced concrete was one of the topics of interest. By the 1960s. There was a need to find a replacement for the asbestos used in concrete and other building materials once the occupational health risks (asbestosis) associated with the substance were discovered. Roman baths.1500: the quality of cementing materials deteriorated resulting in the scare use of burning lime and pozzolan (admixture). Application of masonry mortar and plaster reinforced using horsehair are quite common. Later few decades were to develop the quality of concrete. Italy to build the Appian Way. During 20 century air entraining agents were introduced to • improve concrete's resistance to freeze/thaw damage. In early 19 century Louis Vicat of France prepared artificial hydraulic lime by calcining synthetic mixtures of limestone and clay. In 1836 test procedure for the tensile and compressive strength of concrete were developed in Germany and in 1867: Joseph Monier of France reinforced flower pots with wire ushering in the idea of iron reinforcing bars (re-bar).cement from Pozzuoli. and can both remove the normal surface- . 1678: Joseph Moxon wrote about a hidden fire in heated lime that appears upon the addition of water. asbestos fibers were used in concrete. In 1985 Silica fume was introduced as a pozzolanic additive. This allows water to drain naturally through it. Following the research trends later in 1970 first time Fiber reinforcement in concrete was introduced. the Coliseum and Pantheon. steel. glass and synthetic fibers such as polypropylene fibers were used in concrete. Later in 1887 Henri Le Chatelier of France established oxide ratios to decide the proper amount of lime for portland cement.Pervious concrete Pervious concrete. In the year 1824: Joseph Aspdin of England invented Portland cement by burning finely ground chalk with finely divided clay in a lime kiln until carbon dioxide was driven off. During the Middle Ages 1000 . The "highest strength" concrete was used in building the Union Plaza constructed in Seattle. 10. In 1880 J. to allow air or water to move through the concrete. contains a network of holes or voids. Grant of England has chemically analyzed the key ingredients of concrete to show the importance of the hardest and densest portions of the clinker. Washington. In the early 1900s. This leads to the development of Super plasticizers as admixtures in 1980. 1992 The tallest reinforced concrete building in the world was constructed at Chicago and research into new fiber reinforced concretes continues today.

by allowing air to be squeezed between vehicle tires and the roadway to escape. easy to work.S. foamed concrete and lightweight or ultra-lightweight concrete. in some form. architect Christopher Alexander wrote in pattern 209 on Good Materials: Regular concrete is too dense. Is there any way of combining all these good qualities of concrete and also having a material which is light in weight. This product cannot be used on major U. When set. Buildings and Construction. has even just recently found a way of converting abandoned rice husks into Portland cement. It is heavy and hard to work. strong. or it will dry out prematurely and not properly hydrate and cure. And yet concrete. then screed off. state highways currently due to the high psi ratings required by most states. to level (not smooth) the surface. then packed or tamped into place. or nail into it. It is fluid. and hard in feeling unless covered by expensive finishes not integral to the structure. Pervious concrete has been tested up to 4500 psi so far. variable density concrete. It is available in almost every part of the world. which is manufactured off-site using an entirely different method. Kumar Mehta. • Installation of Pervious Concrete Pervious concrete is installed by being poured into forms. with a pleasant finish? There is. within 5–15 minutes of tamping. and relatively cheap. drilled with wood-working tools. cut with a saw. It is possible to use a whole range of ultralightweight concretes which have a density and compressive strength very similar to that of wood. They are easy to work with. and allow replenishment of groundwater when conventional concrete does not. In the 1977 work on A Pattern Language: Towns. And it's surface is ugly. We believe that ultra-lightweight concrete is one of the most fundamental bulk materials of the future. A University of California professor of engineering sciences. lightweight aerated concrete. cold. the concrete must be covered with a 6-mil poly plastic.water drainage infrastructure. The remaining large aggregate then is bound by a relatively small amount of Portland cement. easily repaired. • 11. not to be confused with aerated autoclaved concrete. can be nailed with ordinary nails. allowing water to drain at around 5 gal/ft²/ min (70 L/m²/min) through the concrete. P. It is formed by leaving out some or all of the fine aggregate (fines). Due to the low water content and air permeability. Characteristics of Pervious Concrete Pervious concrete can significantly reduce noise. clay aggregate or cork granules and vermiculite) is sometimes called cellular concrete. typically between 15% and 25% of the concrete volume is voids. is a fascinating material.Cellular concrete Aerated concrete produced by the addition of an air-entraining agent to the concrete (or a lightweight aggregate such as expanded . After it sets one cannot cut into it.

06 Applications include: • • • • • • • of foamed concrete 12. but cork dust may.0 3.66 1600 Modulus Elasticity (kN/mm2) 0.0 of Drying Shrinkage (%) 0.Cork-cement composites Waste Cork granules are obtained during production of bottle stoppers from the treated bark of Cork oak. All accomplish the same outcome: to displace concrete with air. lower densities and good energy absorption characteristics.0 1.50 – 0.22 – 0.5 0. The variable density reduces strength to increase thermal and acoustical insulation by replacing the dense heavy concrete with air or a light material such as clay. There are many competing products that use a foaming agent that resembles shaving cream to mix air bubbles in with the concrete.5 0.20 – 0.5 – 2.0 – 8.17 – 0.30 1000 4.38 – 0.07 – 0.30 – 0.0 – 1.The variable density is normally described in kg per m³.19 0.5 2.23 – 0.5 – 3.11 – 0.8 – 1.0 0.0 5.5 – 3.5 – 5.0 – 12.11 600 1.0 0.42 1200 6.5 – 4.18 – 0.35 0. where regular concrete is 2400 kg/m³. lower than most lightweight aggregates used for making lightweight concrete.0 0.0 0. compressive strength from 1 Roof Insulation Blocks and Panels for Walls Leveling Floors Void Filling Road Sub-Bases and maintenance Bridge Abutments and repairs Ground Stabilization .55 1400 7. These composites can be made of density from 400 to 1500 kg/m³. such as lower thermal conductivities. Variable density can be as low as 300 kg/m³.0 – 2.22 0. Cork granules do not significantly influence cement hydration.0 0.0 – 1.25 0. cork granules and vermiculite.5 2. Cork cement composites have several advantages over standard concrete.0 – 6.09 – 0.15 0.62 – 0.5 – 10.0 10. although at this density it would have no structural integrity at all and would function as a filler or insulation use only.07 0.10 400 1.[13] These granules have a density of about 300 kg/m³.23 800 2.5 – 1. Properties of Foamed Concrete Dry Density 7-day Compressive Thermal Strength (N/mm2) Conductivity* (kg/m3) (W/mK) 0.

is a low-cement-content stiff concrete placed using techniques borrowed from earthmoving and paving work. and is compacted in place using large heavy rollers typically used in earthwork. fly ash.Polymer concrete Polymer concrete is concrete which uses polymers to bind the aggregate. slag) as the manufacturing inputs resulting in up to 80% lower carbon dioxide emissions. as the low cement content causes less heat to be generated while curing than typical for conventionally placed massive concrete pours. The concrete is placed on the surface to be covered. Recent research findings have shown that concrete made with recycled glass aggregates have shown better long-term strength and better thermal insulation due to its better thermal properties of the glass aggregates. with bituminous materials replacing cement as the binder. Polymer concrete can gain a lot of strength in a short amount of time. sometimes called rollcrete. rubberized Portland cement concrete ("rubberized PCC") is still undergoing experimental tests. This greatly enhances the aesthetic appeal of the concrete.g.Roller-compacted concrete Roller-compacted 26 MPa.0 MPa. This feature has advantages such as removing the formwork early and to move forward in the building process at record time. with large scale research being carried out at Columbia University in New York.Rubberized concrete While "rubberized asphalt concrete" is common. asphalt is a form of concrete as well. are said to be . and flexural strength from 0.Rapid strength concrete This type of concrete is able to develop high resistance within few hours after being manufactured. but has also been used to build concrete dams. 16. Greater chemical and thermal resistance. Roller-compacted concrete is typically used for concrete pavement. a polymer mix may reach 5000 psi in only four hours. For example. Polymer concrete is generally more expensive than conventional concretes. 13. and better mechanical properties. 19. 14.Asphalt concrete Strictly speaking. I is made from inorganic aluminosilicate (Al-Si) polymer compounds that can utilise 100% recycled industrial waste (e. The concrete mix achieves a high density and cures over time into a strong monolithic block.Glass concrete The use of recycled glass as aggregate in concrete has become popular in modern times. 18.Geo-polymer concrete Geo-polymer cement is an alternative to ordinary Portland cement and is used to produce Geo-polymer concrete by adding regular aggregates to a Geo-polymer cement slurry.5 to 4. repair road surfaces that become fully operational in just a few hours. 17. 15.

Other institutions have identified magnesium silicate (talc) as an alternative ingredient to replace Portland cement in the mix. It is a flexible concrete impregnated fabric that hardens on hydration to form a thin. Concrete Canvas can be used to create waterproof. Similar concretes have not only been used in Ancient Rome (see Roman cement) as mentioned but also in the former Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s. fiber-reinforced thin concrete forms across a range of applications: water management. while hydrophilic fibers on the opposite surface aid hydration by drawing water into the concrete. bund lining. cable protective covering. durable. fireproof. and sand • Innovative mixtures On-going research into alternative mixtures and constituents has identified potential mixtures that promise radically different properties and characteristics. and floor leveling. Materials may include calcium-aluminate cement. It is a mixture of gypsum. mining applications. Buildings in Ukraine are still standing after 45 years so that this kind of formulation has a sound track record. containing a specially formulated dry concrete mix. Gypsum concrete Gypsum concrete is a building material used as a floor underlayment used in wood-frame and concrete construction for fire ratings.Concrete canvas A recent innovation is a material called concrete canvas. concretes based on Portland cement can be damaged or destroyed by elevated temperatures. slope stabilization. Portland cement.1% point at which failure occurs.Refractory cement High-temperature applications. rapid track way or landing surfaces and rapidly deployable emergency shelters. 20. fire clay. pipeline protection. One university has identified a mixture with much smaller crack propagation that does not suffer the usual cracking and subsequent loss of strength at high levels of tensile stress. such as masonry ovens and the like. Concrete canvas is known as concrete cloth in the United States. This avoids the usual high-temperature production process that is very energy and greenhouse gas intensive and actually absorbs carbon dioxide while it cures.achieved for Geo-polymer concrete at both atmospheric and extreme conditions. generally require the use of refractory cement. Researchers have been able to take mixtures beyond 3 percent strain. It consists of a three-dimensional fiber matrix. A PVC backing on one surface of the Canvas ensures the material is waterproof. sound reduction. and fire resistant and water proof concrete layer. but refractory concretes are better able to withstand such conditions. 21. erosion control. ground re-surfacing. past the more typical 0. . ganister and minerals high in aluminum. ditch lining. radiant heating.

Conclusion The Concrete is a boon to human kind.L. The environmental aspects are also considers and hence the modern techniques of concrete are helping us to fly new heights in the concrete industry. Shetty 3. References 1.S. Concrete Technology by M.Gambhir 2. A number of researches going all round the world are helping to improve and achieve new landmarks in the sustainable development by innovating various new types of concrete.the Free Encyclopedia . Wikipedia. Without concrete one cannot imagine any construction in today’s world. Concrete Technology by M.