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INTRODUCTION TG A$f;Gs
1.1 Typesof ASICs

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Problems Bibtiography References

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1.2 \ Design Flow 1.3 1.4
1.5

C a s eS t u d y Economics of ASICs
ASIC Cell Libraries

An ASIC (pronouncecr "a-sick";botd r.r.peraie defines a new rerm)rs an apprication_ at the acrcrnynr standsfor- Before wr, answerthe question of rvhatlltal rn*. first look at the evolurion .f'the silicoir chipor intcgrated circuit(IC). Figurel.l(a) showsan IC packare(rhis.i.s a pin-grittarrav,or pGA. shorvn upsidedo*,n; rhepins. will toles in u print.,t_".;r.uir boartl).peopleotrcrr ry rhrough call the paci<age a chip buti as you can see..in Filure t.l(b), the siliconchip irsclf (rnoreproperlycaileda tjic) is mounred in the cavity underrhe seared li(r. A pcA packageis u.sually made from a cerarnicmatcrial, but plestic packapes are also cC)mmon,

F I G U R E1 . 1 A n i n r e g r a r e d (lc). (a) A pin-grio array 9l9rjl (PGA) package. (b)Thesiticon dieor chipis under thepackage
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c.ll:.''.i].':1':1t^.r.ji.1.I' I H'..r. oi.:.pol-r.t by rhc nurnbcrot. A l t h o t uglr invcnredbeforcl ar transisror. and t The senriconductor in'Justry has cvorvccr frorn thc first rcs of (lltj: c w r thc carrr.o-. ne'er cMoSl iJnotogy.j.(ULS nl.\t(r€-sutcon (Ivl(r5) transislor nr iIIi.conv.:'".* islor)inrprinled .r.:: "r lll1"1*l rilngc tog'c avaitabtc ro_rou1llcn-r_ard sirnilar.ron-anlounting to r lcrr I1". S. The inrro<Jucri.1. o _ i n p u tN A N D r : a r c s .rl" rnt"grrtio. logicgares or rrrc number of rransisr'rs rhaur.oiir.trrg".rr.btenrs wirh rheoxicte intert-acc.| culc.offi"ii:i: . .T. iri. antsc.'l dl"t' i s t ii -2r : . ". tespcci._.oi in"i1l"l .'. ur ..a rs:y^oullimcrenon_a.EKffi J1.-.*. lhe term..shtlld moref":lii.r dirnensi'rrs u.. ::.n.i.r inst.sic-a-l size. NMOS) tegfuology devetoped in irrergl0s.?:.. Thc I nc e era ra o of l rhed-iifrl :. il.r... F = Tj'lrorrcn *clusr u*c rhcrcil-l."rc ..t'ora given perfomrance. I : Bytheearll'lgS0srhealuminumgl(esol'thc-rralsistorsu.nlf O*..T.. d f r ) r s r u r s ..l']':1"::. ::t..a|gnt corrc{eldltr] a Iwo-inpuI.?#**i.'. rhe metal-oxiae-siticonl rrrsrar-rr. t.. NOR grr"t." .1rr."u ts t I ia ge o r" piy. thc sSmeIC-a comprementary MoS (cr{os..ii'iSffi ill. . graduatty sotved. 1 i. Thc ph-v.i'ir"d.."Li"g n-chlnnel Mos and 7r-charri"r lros tr'nsislors.-g:rrc equiv:r.r..|Y.Ltand IC.cs.1"".n.. rncas-uring chip siz-e-not to bc confused with the tate ternrirr:rlol a trattsislorI : o r c x a r n p l c ..nutog1.o_inpur @. unitof measurc . silicongates..': lerm ullralarg.'bur rhe nameMos remained.ffi irnpr'r.fr.:.i.np o..VLSI: otherw rds.1:11f..wasdenser.rr.t*"il@una" rrii. . ( x x ) t w .glq1g11cr bur initeaa w"Tfr".grqc. il . it easier to nrilke two types of transistors."..sisr.g " h oite.o[a s{ggXg" varies frorn..l"''r' '*... advantage of CMOS ovei NMOS is lc devicesro be scaled {gwnll-sizg..y' to'A l/ ."r.:'cltApTER 1'liviiioDudiroit.ns.".0r *.. s. As thcse problents weie . r*.. lents whcn wc arc t.'ll (vLSt) now offcX 6a_bir-ni cra of t:I_vl3lg9-scaleintegrarion qoating-poinr arirt'-ffi ro rnanulaqturc because of pr.1l.r*.c w( | ro l0) logic sarcst9j. an MoS rc wascheaper ftian a bipolar lC and led lo invesrmbnr f andgrowth of the MOS lC market... 'l"^n.irruiliiiirutriply Ygs--_"t).. measuEl-hc ljtt-tLon-s-sidc.plc..I''!_lT..]. \-\ thc IC. ." (u]"ffi logicfuncrion..{ H i..p"opi" .g a t c t C c o n r : r i n s t h c e q u i v a l c n to f . :au l\ rt)7()s r f:tilrnrl 11 r. rhe nunr[_rc_r or gates b -smallest featuresizeqrn..! rJ . There rt.a l f i ) k .n of:porysiricon as :r s:rrc materiatwas a ntajor improvement in cMoS t.cr irr nricr.r..:::" l .erereplacedbl..i.:*r and morc trun. gatc-e_qg1r. iJ-l?i!li.ad o..logic furrctions ked cven rargcr .r. ! i '..-". rnerat-sare .r so ro.unred rcsspower thanequivarent bipotar i ICs' This mearr( thar.: lcns of u lransisrors. l ( x ) . s *. Tran.. rransisrors conrinue ro gersn'r||er fe*'er misking steps.nu. The princi_ pal.'rc pc.:rlll:1.rn.n"nn..re inres' i:j .t.rt"'. Thc earliesrlCs usedbipotar tect eirhcrtransistor-transirlo Ltt logic ) .

t.sraadOrd_rnemg.i.il ..1_u]9.for_. iiil'...ur.i..::."d.p theproGeedipgs theproGeedipgsofrthisi qqnfeienceio.!rr ' ' i .use. ..example. lirncurt.cV...:.il.rrn..r:-:.. cars....-.:i::.f"e.fr 1j. ICs and then implemenring rheremaining rogicfunctions isometimes cailed gtue logic)with oneor morecustom ICs.tvhichtit is..drere.o . tclephone'circuits'..Jrti'tt-.: ..- .'te* ."irniiuie.t: ffi. . i..----j....of.s-vstem-wirhlfe*"r\d.t*g"n ... rvhatpeoplein the IC industry ".:.varieiyriLlii.:t."pprOpriate.ICs.mory...a.' .:*:::S....f.. Buitding-a'microerecnonic. i.lrri.... .'t.:.'oi S teci st'#oardICb." rr.nof...to the:IG'iindusrrywasy!rer..111..fo'..eplace rs now Just volumt thh'iiany other 'cost the of CMOS'fcs MOS'ICs traub'bstauiiJn-il?doiti iriiinr Bjpg!3l nology bipolii so on'...eitber M (S*4M.reliability. .. o'pes'' .rr':rr.Jt.....advanragis ^r...ri.t't. .itl.r:..: .rcourse.. ...it. drie ffiiu*"rr...\r:l...".#r?d'..dse theSiirtre'siindeid''parr iii'!.: .iloJ ...i ment. fro.::.rig"'ih-: becomes a ma(rer of defining rhefunctions rhatyouibii ir"pj*"n.corivbnErsl (anAlog/digii*t j idiiddidtci : Yoriia'n' se .t.llu:1:1..r.in.ost.ilCs. n1'":the rfrffi t n reraqi iqtar ai ri C *i[r rr.w.. ..tiiroeteirronitlsrri. 1 f ly :I..Of.ynq needu.customJCs: As._i.:.il'..t9.rap ior segrqent tug.As vt-st ug9am9 po.ii sr.:!i:.: . .vr.ffi..pr f.3: I :: : :... .i.. to..sraridard IC$info a few custom-ICs...::j::....are:manyisituationsr.trsefql tO the."i:.ffiL'X.. a fevotcd. . *f .lmerg s.^:'jl.r^_ . xi"g.ii::.. su CMOS 1'Mifr'orfthe same reasonsi.d. t9: *tbrY . :*::::' :f1 l ::ry weshari ioorar.' rorAs llrrHooucriofu rcs dravfrngs in rlris kiok risb a a scalebn d'map.. and ..r'._::....l ez i--i.coirtmiraagrarad:circuiitians".r.riut" ycu.differcntjypes...refe rd ?ha.ri: tion ratherthdir iising'siandard rcs alone.tj!.#....i it is:sti[ iestifo.:.. r i.Lswruir\.r. .a of rthisiinnrial.il -n.tronic system..."ld designers iari.3: :.ir$e::8 custom..:o..larg" amounbgfinie. innudlrqonfeience useful :referenoe .elop bc rrti y. undersrand by the term._courd buird_a system from a smaller nuffii?f6iiponentsty i6niui. :..ffi .microptec. : .' for examplel':iri ati iiddrd i i -.inftnarw.'."i.Crf.. . in iHe'|980s inffi'ri began rcireatizcrthe.. 2 ! svsteinS'(sfst'6hrsrtratusdmiciodldciiorricsbrlCs)-..".IGfor:cach and_ev9r):part of an....aiilil.of cusrotn..andimprore..frd m Dt trer | .tlltld..ff.iLSI of desigriin[ ah'rc:rhat vai:ciistomi"Eaortairordd reducef..:l.

. nstir""':ttc .CHAPIER 1 lNrRoDucrCIilE. roy "..:Jlnli.e{e CPU: and togcrhcr .!."J.i.l1::::^l':".r[:mffi* wirh orhcr.. betr wires u. circular silicon wai -.U .i *i*.-".::.'#.0"*zing the "i"r.#H "n.o tothe incrude rC l-iqor exampre. fon..ijJ:::']I [ : H"Ih:ir:I'i:..il::: ..: I *".l.:[I *jrc ffi :Ti'l:'."'ff ro...:" . ".i ^r.[ pnysicalcharacreristi .i:*: .trd*fr .d.::j:^:.r.fl?[f f.T:Iy.jn.r"processor rs probably to re :'._1-g1 gli# *" *" ff.fr. 1.. somerimeiE Proccssor fo.1 T-- I ypesof ASICs -&v-!gdrsa mr ic&. tasi-61p.1* ir ina dara "ur nncl asa cerr . r"rr ..:: Xrr*j[li1 ^:.{'rl. noi ASiCs cr..fft:'t119 ". '''u"^:il1.Trrttrtrs *n'"n "n' :::"il. ofmicroproc"::1."..a.. be "".uri roor. .il#i""1".?llJillll tfi'...'":ffi *tt****.didffih" _:ij:l€Er prurar 0 ''s rftnsrStoT. describe .r1rT'ili.'.iili:'ff::lou : nor an n nrc. r"ffi *oJ-t."fl'ltf jTrff ff lt.5fr:31'"S' Ifie'frrst tl.ffi+*. # .hrJ ".'"11..ii.iTg[1.'J:L1!.ri::::':" 3o ASICbv rr.{. .H':t"i:'li*ff.l'Jii*i.u ir".'. I".iii'.. @'""u"nn..:i.xT"" il#niT###$if:].. "o*t-'li!.f.."..: Tr-ving to 699. m6i*.rJ.'"" .lRguca'lion-spe nor.":l.ps sold .#. bc^consioerea Forexarnptc.i.'u*.u : a standard tr 1#ti-tt"'.j. cXCcPItons.i"."J. ri..:rrG Examples of IC . "9...*d -t :..il:'.T#ffi * * ^io5lii"..1iffi. reatures in .-"...iio" T"gr T"9l ."[]l." a.::::.. T.t:::*.. ---rx-tr'\ x categorize rhetc'famii1.suchracrors-..riil'"i1".. :i'icron lo'J.o'.iil1 ffi lii:l: ? I I ... a *ork.

"r-*ii..*.1 Fufl-CustomASlCs slc an. ilffi .nTisansistorsareairttre depending .ngin.l'in .-"...n. aslc i' 'o sp"'i'il '"*"''"0 fe .a"r..-.#:'....i f if*#. * :i **i1*Hm <- lm. tn.." &!=g{g..:ffiff.. r*:Fl*:.]#.r.1. jor precisir analog or @mponentchara f. :: " : "..l i..lTldl1ii"lrT..a -t .rir._ i"t'"ffi ff:':"7 '.'..*^_lt*. *".":**::' 'i.'::.?::: cannconrarn renlor hurrdreds or chips . u"..ffn.. *- 'v'| aspecIric app'i : rtre -p.o'e'"i.Tl..:'" cnaracrerisri"..:. j :I l-> +f H ." ".: r*tween .'::. ized._u:* functions' tn att'inteJrai.." fi e ra n" *J.. o^ *. 1 TYPES OFASrc- I . * * il."11.ff "'u th T::i a t..:ffi.. !j :t ..l'li':..".*Jl. ns ce rrribrar"'^' "' .flni{}:*fl*:::ltii:'ffi"'1=1s""d...-1g dt"t E-1 ' 11 : l -l __e).o.r.i"r:'rr"r'i'inli.I I I 1 .1*rTi.X.I..Yll'"1T"T:T":ilil.* rechnotogy hashisroricallv I jl"^': are somefundarnenrar.t*Ur:ittffi *un.H "'' i::.:ffi vice iln il.l lt'*.T$ffi 1. "i ""' "illiu fi:ij... and.

.T: ' I '.. ]ljlT.n^ clifferent s:c" lcs from r'aferlors witi manyanarog marchverypooiry.. b...o*i 1. v . lor *iU not *ut.il: I..lldqt "po.JI.qt ffi-i.y 13on a o"'"I:It..rors."fr:nilj crever "" anaros cMos circuirs rhar can ilTJ:::J:J.1.i=% CHAPTER1 .ori"*i"*i"rs gf trans.ffi.Ti rc rrh c'.h . . J . i --' -gg9g$fil[..1..2 ni *rat t."l'il:"Jil'.]#i. j A t-based ii i.. the rr n'ur.. T. rlff Tran..::... ..I I I I f I . Transisrors on lCs f.n.''a-'. . .*ir ol-rransistors i a. ! r ..stomblocr. ns as tandard_cet tandard-cet t-.SIG If we were (o and 13 *" . v .eil.a- I .ivc.j. f-kgeglc("'ir uses iE.bur lCug.""1 '.r. ."?.I:ll i.o: : :ri srh #*.uisfi iE 1""t : '.'.i..:::1. ..:ff i *."l'. .*"":: 19"" afersin the same wafer ---'-7 .. Transisrootjl rc. rhc crosema operarion.' .l...:.NTRODUCTTONJO=.:1":::::r characrerisrics _ . .sisror T3 witt match transistorsTl a_.'i. .. .!t'et.1.#.T. ti ^^^_o:.jnd 13 will nrat fairlvwellu'irlt tra^^'-' '-' uL.E.ig.re"r r"iiiluedflexibre hrn^Lr .ke measuremenrs of the characteristics . il ffi::lfii: .t*.F*:.:.:l'"11"" same $.il:}.r.Trl T2.."j-._ ^*. For rhcse..ffi f processors.J...'tl apan rhc. cu..t *Ti'lt::lt.. Me-eacells .i#.. f_*.ransisro.:. . Jr a ( c n ro12bnihe same wellor thc tracking exccllent.i#"J1r:.'-_ not as closel. "..s"tn"i"''atchin8 each other' Device "i:::ll -'-iiqji'l . a r " ry p rec r'!-qe{s ise."n O"u"i*:..l:JCl?.. . accsnle4..:":.1i.

: ffi arTays custsmjeedr{q-s _ f i T &r .*fr i .F .tf eSd *l -j: il:..* lr.

ii.." vu*agc. .f lsi.:rhr.'. anEpR uligy in lighr (UV-irasablepROt"t.*.r.. ) .. N parrerns.*"i fit":il ".i.. :exfcising: eiiiricih.:^:i_l.aiiorher. An iiibc?-ded m-- ljt-q9g'"".atei le Arrsv Ii.. pro 1 1. .o ociooEEooooo t . a r t c dev u cvlc e ^ ultraviole( __i1e [o -'t'r't applying a high volrage youcan .llm!:piggranrma!1e'_t"btln-ffi f t^nt n ex. " ' r j : 1. .it. _ .i._.r"I "i. i rc a difference between a ..1.-by ..-. . i."ipn 1ri.. t Wy ! B q M l i l .-or E*BpjoMt orbv or.*F ll. macrocell by'using. ..lpi..i r-.l age (an electrically glasable _"ilhtr PRoM.ffi' Hff*." med using "ili custommask aced on any ASIC_a eqi anllftl.. v J r r r t a 11.. By qqi!gih...i*" *o il ..ffi ? e.1 TypEsorasics 15 '. t progra mmabte tosic device (pLD)die il9 _t"A I ne Yl5^1 macrocells typioally_consist ol frogrammable array bya. rr art)tJt\Jl t:tl:(rcs are alrcredby friffi .rarcnlrn-e nrr"rocerrs l1s]! l"]lpry"d connected usinq a large programmable "re inlerconnecl trlock.i.:*^ _ ^ t . o.r g.i t e.ftip-ftop o..u n.:.1u.. .. you "'t>q canerase crase "'|.g. mmabIe #. o.

m**ff::i*&r.r" fe"rurc.:ffi .n -:r"::..8 t 1.I r t t6 qJAPTERfu I t I I I j:y: T#*^. mm*ffrl'*"6r:-*" ' programmabte nrer@nnect t .: ::1.:lT.. -)-2h" . programmable I *.S Fietd-pr I l' ''Sff'T:'lptisu*:m rhebasictogic ceus.j:j."ore is a regurararray of pro"ic logic celts and the interconnect.2 DesignFlow call this a d.."'r.ilffi... ".:"s"ra...canimp.no^ *. . ---'r'Ptogrstnmabte Vo cels surround.il.esign to th'e labels in a .:*t:iiii}tf !.fi.1. Weshallexamine U."* irfChapters +_g.::t*nds -:--6signturnaround is a few hours.:lli A.

shoulC beablcro r Describea basic CPLD.o "..lr.. t r i ) t 3 r s c c t i ( n .rrc fr. .: blml tlili...\. EchTdDCA L Logic &rray blocL (LAB) .. .nr . .s{__ After cornplerinq rhisscction.\ Cl'Ll) basicall-v consisr:.. ' ! 1l 1 r F T G U R €t 2 _ 3 9 Earic diagram of a CpLD Macrocelf s Each fogic ulll...rys11-.cm!n5g{EglllU_lbcy_rin Figurr llJO. .:lini[il:il'3l. cPLD architcc{urc v:rrics. you . uoih. A s i r l r p | i r t c t | d i a t r .h..(i jrrii\ {tl \.r.-{riu.1C logic irr:r pAL/Gr\l_ ur.*@ r " l c . orhcr tur-!pnod*o]5-qDr"Ui*ri. r l t r r r i a t1'pical CI)LD nt.fii?i#fil. hut. Nrrite ih:rr rhelogicis -simii:rr rrrrhc OL. uc (inpu r/ousu t) .rfiij ..ffia i n FiCu rc-TF3 9-.r...lj ' tl l--:----t '#. p"rp"* of thclogic arrayblock(LAll) r Explain the purposc of rhcproglrarnr.j2 to J.griq-i |\.i1.'.r-.r..'r"Hi:#:SrlJ ::::: +"T^:l .*-"i l]...cruI hUndrt-t|. _ .riollr ()ne .. r.. ..yipr^. : ::.r.J1cft LDisbased on rAB sor .bl:. ff lO-..trlock irr a CpLD conrains s. block | '*tt J-T 'i.n11irj.. . Exptain.ecnerlily thcr.rr i..l|**} i I I F -l' rr i ri I lngic lrra! lrltrt (tnB) .. ..1 ..I onnec.jJ.ii"lomn!1x_e_cornp*.crt'cellis shtrrrn .1. of rnulriplc groups of pAUGAL_tike l i r o u p t s c a l l c da ffi .....nect aray (plA) r l)iscuss a basic rnacrocell r Describc rircMAiT000Cp.'.--"r'it-r.

a fixed oumher ^r rrh j*:: p^yl9trt .y.:" nrf-t * *G."r**.1 .4UOS_{rffi '-.thrurgh Proerar il ily.' r..H:tlji.i iiJr"## _ _" vrd .ff'tr ty:iilj =--.^:. *. lrlEocell n .A togic uny block (LAA..:i"*.t FfGURE t2_.iT.---*:=:= .rre Drog.'li':.T-ffi .u-sereeioo tf l"t.H*Taqe-q4Np . ' gtobal ctock "r ffi ffilffiffi"::**.ffi :i:. Ptoducrrcrm Erpaodcrourgl oorhcrncocclts FrGunE tz_at &rcCPIDmaqocefl Each rnacrocell has t.ram_ ut..o"offi *rr.t. nipffi 1. Prodrrf<crm Erpcnjcr lnfxrfs GlohlOcat fnm othcr macroctlls Global Cfoct CorubinarioorJ gutF{ Rq'isrcrud output I .-g.tO Ejrk togic:rraTbbd.i.*_€tint"ffi ffi:i*ll'::l':- macrocells inure LAB o.rol.Hmt:mffiT.Ti?. ."ru# "r"'*.inot.

""***Tv.g*t"-uut" "'ffi t#r:ffi"'rfftil.r a specrar'r rsvr..{ttera's ffii}"l"tt*t'" tlar a cPU itspl' ISPmcans .? The arrowswith slashes macrocells. following inPuts: [t t Edi rnsot'ell hasth€ j ln" .il.sgCPlilcal P'o8r.*" to r-A'B..'.:0n:)efttr6 trt+an hrs PII' line A FTGURE 72-42 PlAlitr: techn<ilog Eatic Ez€lvlos interconnecri?o s A SpecificCPLD Several comPanies.^'md'ir 3.il in isirtustratcd ..".il"t ingul[]|1 gate AND dn ro (PtA) An-dy ProgrammableInterconnect "rroy EtMOS.il".ycnr ** bc tt. devices "'rp"Jnrcn-o c.i jwn Each-camPany hasjts 3i1o: ao.. ouSul the flip-flop provides a regisere4 ilf.f.. &T"':ffiffi|J same #'hl#f.H Figure 1242- .pr.....:..1 wi&in macroce.s ff:r"#T'nt#.^fhpr elements o rq U a macrocellare accomplished to the AND gates or other "t"-"t .onn""ting r"r"ticrr'it* tr""r*"iirt.iilfi 55fi$**Xrmm*r* #..p.J.e1l:"T::$5j:f . :r transistor between two lines is by *u"io""ff .i .#". ad devtoe anal)'sts rimios . progrannrng' l::-:E:iJ[l"iJ:"'::ffi.. Artcra -t*tt allofthe sry "'" ry co"cr erampie' asa 'eprcsentatirrc sbih mo'ntcd o a * * rq* r'"i'i'"GtS'S*H=Hl . . rrav software' compilation fmilv' rhe logic orsixteen * the consist (uos each (LABs) )asd brocks i?Ji' a''pur/outp* . the term in aCPI-Dcan t".". ..rnilU determination made bY the Programmingsoftware' nifn"p 8'rhe 5*-lchaPter flig'ftp or a gate-implemeuted is ..il.. aod trtacroctll orIIO Err YA\ t/.'.g]#l|o}ffiil aline .Ftt"" shows Figure12-43 IJf*.iH :lSiH|.i -.il."s* qn *$s Larice Xilinx.gt-tr"d CPLDs must be progranmed ln ilS'.ra=a thatareauuiuurl.ff.*"' the device'or to other VOl in*.ayJi..- F-:cllf.'i'.". MAx ?000 '^.L?i'."i.HlT":Hfr '* die *"0 #ffillEffi'..ffi:[]ir#T"H..+-an Jffi ffff H'i'ffi ff ffi "ff and : In CPLDs.ltrffinffi.*tion method h s'..)s rrnsistix ON: ..-::":*""f and [:T'ffi :::il'"*::$:ffi SoP t'"1y*rroutpus "Tjl:' . in ottrer LABS in ^.(PLD') ' LoGICDEVICEs PRoGMMMABLE 535 prcvides brock select prosrammable :'*1.il'.''jTJ"n"l as welr as **' fIl'T j:1* -i *""r"i'i ffi..rff..ti"::l*Ti inaier" lru oumil"s.i:t::-1 :}"fl".T*lffi"iilTiJl:Tt:.ru.ili#t of *n"rrcffo "*.".^*"tt" ransos epseg-491 variarions cpq i1loes.: :'"T:::t""rn'"K [j\'".i.

cr elemenb rh a CplD. oul*.: € F .sienals from VO pins 'l}c 1 ctcar.--..t cnablesgo to all mrcrocells) .. :f .:T_1.) ]6 . - :.lJ/.. mzcroccll in rhe MAX 7tr0 is similrr to rhe ee A F | G U R Et 2 _ 4 3 Efock diagramo( Nl."-!r:r:r. 3.[:. DIG'IAt FUNDAMENTATJ .l"i' . Dercnbe a fogrt trray biodc.ffi.. Whatdoer CpLDfind for? 2. all CpLDIbaled? @ az"t:" .1000CILDI 5ECT|ON t2_E REYIEW l. .#.i"fi l : ffi [: "' "'.:] T 3i **. {.-i.Up'onwhatcommon architecture are .i6 signrls liom thc PIA Clobal cr'trol signais (ckrt lrrpul._q i .:fi TffiIllJ.Name hvo maj.

__ ofprogramma- (P9_el is intnoaucea. :: ::-9i'Ycnces' rogcrAr&cjurh r.1ri.|:r.... : ::ilE i-:A'a :teEt F ! ."' n o"il^ffi ffi #* *"*r"o .rut...*.orlwr'rr'Jror*tokt"lgp.-. f.o on soP(slnof-product nof-produa) ^ 3lr*gglg-ltqcki surroun Although theie are many variationsof th basic architecture.p Ro G RAMMA T T:* roH!'.^_ _otiglv interco*.frT !# .iu. field fierd rrrm*.:-fi1'$$..".ui 6e *.tSUyprog.1* F"jAr.ting-..R$ ..ffi "'. tod" soP AND/onl-iplii".T"-Tlon i'lle...dre tr?GA with p.*'j i1:tfy.$Tl:Iclass _..i1...11 :.__*..mrttipl"^ro to g"n. t I l t -:'.*-i"il'l*.|NTRODUCTION TO r .ffii Tw ad colu{nn b gonsists . called . '|(ecall that CptDs-&riii.* r rnr.IQgic FPGAS -.. . FtcUR€ t2_t{ Saric btocft diagren ofan FpGA @ tf 9'' ..g"ihu.r#*r" *u.trr I ! nl-.r_ 'Cr.AL---Etogicblockithatare devi*i.r.|...-..jil earlier in rhis ciaprer..

:': 'tF-":::T::t as a logic function such as functions or genEli." outPut.asshown rgics fromiiffrildlEtuiEito f. TO.. to rnterconnecl Da&ft@t pqnmrn:blc incrconsts Cm' ou: out Cascs(1(- r ' F T G U R El 2 ..*i*Y it coonins that . can > FIGURE l2-45 Bln bgk blod< in an FPGA l '*-qr l |.FI @ I I I ' l I l r-'--=. es . rurrtions from Sc flipflop from rbeLUT oulgrt or registetcd Carry in i.!t{'.g"* ii-OS.-1 t-ogic ctF-'' r 1 *... It can be uscd to produceSOI -tun*ios allow out carrY in and -rry when comparators.rio...'.. ons funcri combinational either lo.5]E" T DI6'TAL FUNDAMENTALS The Logic Block E a c h l o g i c b t o c k i a a S c o c r i c F P G A c o n t a i D s s e v c r a l I o g i canother' c | e m cbut nts."+ FPGAarchirect'rc chip' in a single logk clcnents tcnlhousand bccdl o\Gr *i?.b:.' 1 6 A rimplified bypiol FPGAlogk elemnt jt"' . ing with LUTs in an ex ffi .s'* it-a No$cc cacb logi diagramrf tryi:1:ry" EtanentA simptificd Logic T'ne " :: :l:T: t"n111l'fn:i:]iT3:.*tit O*.pr**r*"ore sef ls ry-.

i'J*-'*Htri#$ *ithEtMgsr]%Buraos'*rror"gy...0".. t"r*t urer arenot tEr.* + nC tf'" iOp ft"ai *n-C iis selecied produce to srammed ffiilonffiilrrerorywFsteringaf **".:"""::ffi :?."'ffi. a connecuc rhe to create shorted piogr-ammedofl6aG t:. follows: another areas .ilt which is normallvshorted t:s@ee+ a (a)' e I2-4 gure inFi .11l:H$.::..ig l: t$a pryg-Tlg"a: j:::::--...UTlntuts' part appears terms upp"* uct i".Tbe-. cspecially y us-e wert-bnelly *T._::f:*Hr:if / lf 6 atr trf example.ii"*r * tbeSOP of on on-mtf.PRUSKrrMrnltrLg LtGr' Oc"u-' 1' --'1 ' ltl The LLJT As mentioned ice that can be used'1qgf * i:::iIt':HK.:"* As r* full-adder sumandcarry ontexPresslo For any Proouct aPp€ars ou the-ouput ABC'^ AEe'--+ .'" opcd is and ""tt".'*'r betgcen to drcfuse conqection a form to .. tabre look-up a orrne n'i"w' tttrc functiotr.. sffiinterconnecuotts :l: "' * --oare. * tn ttgtrn<ned x a futl-adder TecfurologY i f he Interco nnection medted with 6t 6ffig1 ftem . the LUT ouFutis 0 fro*-Ct upt"t 6 rhat the (LO$D' 'Recail j[::ffi LU I r) l vsr-:'* x ihispogrunnrcd. 9'*.: ...:-jmmabte R&alt iEataiiffit interconneqjrqq.::fl'.figure aoY wbeo any + ABC'iien .i'H il J irr-"*""a .o + 8) + Ci"=AECt+-enC^+ + lnc^ + lncn AB + (A + BlCa= lnC^ + lnC^ Cour: " A B A B ci" OuSr -tse +Aic+trc r'fIGURE f 2-{t > F I G U R Et 2 ...4 7 ..H..#@Ti11gy. ffi.. and the I (HIGID fun"tion.

r :a:t =' | '':e i---> /. fi # tr*T# mm.s€d into mws and corumns.S. "T*. ..ffi :ffiffi 3. I : . FPGA IOK series an irprt/output clcment flOE)...:.on_ anrong theeightI Fs in anLAB *i.j..11naT rhe ffi #[:". u'iip_nop una 'associared logic. ( . (a) &rsic crctr of nrifusc intscrnna. h'-!*-!!"^""t-l\) The LE is rhesmauest unit of rogicin rheFLEX I0K. conrou-ed uy oc'sratc oran oo-rlrochi..r""*ri"l.:1"T.Asnrenrioned.'ffii:l'"'l.'rc eicnrcrrt Itrtc ...''.. *"tiu.r rhatis sepaiatefrom rhe andcolumninterconnects tu* row in Figure ri-si '. .) r uctrAt fUNDAM€MrAIJ -j| I t l.t'"p'ffiiits . a LAB ir theFI-EX rOKcqrrains erefrEia ('EIJnfffifGE-tAB eight Iogic arso-tras aran-i"r. . .-"?J:. I Rtu rt rr. ro generare ru' ffirw:blo"ks(EAB...n€cttoo ted)..* ro""r in.. conrarns Each LE a 4-inputLUT (took-up rabre) and associatedlo!i.l#. as*.""il*r rhis oohaneed can .srands for sarrc inercc'r"reci rines.o"r"".As discussed before.rrL{.*". F. ther-ur is u fp" of memo../ / . Inliilnlu-i I I Roc tr colunrn . . .11q*:y. t .mX* *i*ffi ffi. Rn c column tnlflt\EtlCct [h- I I u T " " lI (b) B:sic cqrctr of SRAM iorcrcoryrcctjoc A F ' G U R Et 2 . therow andcorumn inteiconnects..i:: F.y p*r. #.:*.:ixx. .-n&lil ..otfluna\1 lirf.:.dn l--r=-I op) r t..ffi .rolo$e: i Rox c co*umn rntcrcmnoct lin- t random acce sisror. / ."m in &ishnily has a routrareorr*ffi-199"_tPu"ity cooteinc blocks of random acccss . row andcolumninterconnect rhcrcis t. . * .r**JJllio*.ilM_controred .. ry[.cre crcnrcnr rrnc lry<-i.lumn lirl. I nections rnr.. trtffirh5 .4 SpecificFPGA flLf .*i* "r-*.tr*T. : .t 9 Antt6rc aod5RAM iot r@.. ::T...- Logkctcnrrnr tior. I. . asyo{l k ow. grx* The Logic Anav (Lail . Lo. u. iililffi#* theprugrammabte SRAM.gur"til+l(bt .r:iJ.ftH.iltr#.. .11ffi tr.

?#Hjltff"fJffJ :T::.x "^ii..i1[!ii":. rour input. i F : r!:j:B:iA:.tffi. rn..ha.ft logic functions.. D E Y I C T ) {pLDr/ I 5{l trffi r y i Lffi i-tr $H$H E$ rH$F =*'---ii't-*ffim."* O"'r-m dre LE t** tff :.ith panicutar LUr.* *ce.:T. .: ! : _ i r lt+j l F i i fid&&' 5impl6ed FLE(lO* U.basic T:** it has iqicil#.PROGRAM^rA8LI TOGI( ... rqt u' ure sEtlr r8t€rconoec$ (rorv and column) x. lhe select logic. This .*TJ.

.c blod )..ffi ..AL fUNDAiIENTAIS .fi Carq'crt lOK log& elerE tt (l"f) t i i t l I a i ' F= t ..Grr' > F|6URE tZ-51 Sinpftficd dirgrarn of e bg.rey (lr8) := RocEmrq Column intsconncct tl- tl ll r! I I t t1 t- I T ? t ' I t I i L] I & /r FIGUREt2-52 5impli6ed bbcf dbgram of R.s1z I UGTf.