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Abstract

Earthquake resistant structures are the need of time. Today the billion dollar construction industry has a made a landmark in the history with super high rise buildings viz. Burj Khalifa (829.8m). Such tall structures need a high resistance to the horizontal loads of wind forces and seismic forces. To construct these modern mammothic structures Structural engineers have laid great efforts in the development of techniques for the anti-seismic design of structures. One such method is the use of RCC Shear wall. Shear walls have proved to be a very useful, reliable and effective method for earthquake resistance.

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1. INTRODUCTION

Reinforced concrete shear wall structures wide space in many earthquake regions, Such as India, Canada, Turkey and Chile. Shear walls are vertical elements of horizontal force resisting system. They are usually provided in tall buildings to avoid the total collapse of buildings under seismic forces. Shear wall buildings are usually regular in plan and elevation. Shear walls are usually provided between columns, stairwells, lift wells, toilets, and utility shafts. When shear walls are situated in advantageous positions in a building, they can be very efficient in restating lateral loads originating from wind or earthquakes. Huge lateral loads acting on structural elements results in shear; in order to overcome shear for a building shear wall is provided. RC buildings with shear wall also have columns; these columns primarily carry gravity loads. RCC shear walls classifications are bar bell type shear wall, coupled shear wall, rigid frame shear wall, column supported shear wall sand core type shear wall. Out of this shear walls rectangle type shear wall, core type shear wall, and coupled type shear walls are used for analysis. Rectangular type shear wall are formed by columns and walls in between. Core type shear walls have good resistance to torsion. So many Literatures are available for design of RCC shear walls. However less discussion about the location of shear wall and suitable type of shear wall for RCC buildings. More shear walls are uneconomical in low earthquake intensity areas. Shear wall should be provided suitable position to resist the lateral forces. Some times more number of shear walls is not economic. Shear walls are provided proper location in the building and reduce the collapse of structure.

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In other cases. and they will have the strength and stiffness to resist the horizontal forces. As part of an earthquake resistant building design. Shear walls are especially important in high-rise buildings subjected to lateral wind and seismic forces. Examples are the reinforced-concrete wall or vertical truss. In building construction. Lateral forces caused by wind. Shear walls are constructed to counter the effects of lateral load acting on a structure. and uneven settlement loads. and roofs to the ground foundation in a direction parallel to their planes. there are setbacks at higher floor levels. Reinforcing a frame by attaching or placing a rigid wall inside it maintains the shape of the frame and prevents rotation at the joints. create powerful twisting (torsion) forces. These forces can literally tear (shear) a building apart. lower floors are used for commercial purposes and the buildings are characterized with larger plan dimensions at those floors. these walls are placed in building plans reducing lateral displacements under earthquake loads. However. shear walls became an important part of mid and high-rise residential buildings. Definition Shear walls are vertical elements of the horizontal force resisting system. So shear-wall frame structures are obtained. In residential construction. Shear wall buildings are usually regular in plan and in elevation. floors. When shear walls are designed and constructed properly. earthquake. a rigid vertical diaphragm capable of transferring lateral forces from exterior walls. Shear wall buildings are commonly used for residential purposes and can house from 100 to 500 inhabitants per building 3 .2. in some buildings. shear walls are straight external walls that typically form a box which provides all of the lateral support for the building. In the last two decades. in addition to the weight of structure and occupants.

Firstly the model is implemented into known computer software and then it is analyzed based on the investigation of strength and ductility. both in terms of construction cost and effectiveness in minimizing earthquake damage in structural and non.e. These columns primarily carry gravity loads (i. Shear walls in high seismic regions require special detailing. Shear wall buildings are a popular choice in many earthquake prone countries. Most RC buildings with shear walls also have columns.. even buildings with sufficient amount of walls that were not specially detailed for seismic performance (but had enough welldistributed reinforcement) were saved from collapse. Shear walls are easy to construct. those due to self-weight and contents of building). in past earthquakes. like Chile.structural elements (like glass windows and building contents). which significantly reduces lateral sway of the building and thereby reduces damage to structure and its contents. This study helps in the investigation of strength and ductility of walls. The scope is to analyze the constructed shear wall that is to be constructed. The strength of shear walls tested are compared with the calculated strengths based on design codes.3. Shear walls are efficient.Shear walls provide large strength and stiffness to buildings in the direction of their orientation. Other objective is to construct a cost effective structure in less period of time. because reinforcement detailing of walls is relatively straight-forward and therefore easily implemented at site. 4 . New Zealand and USA. Some other reasons why we use shear walls are tall structures can be constructed which reduces the area used and we can accommodate a large population in that particular area. Scope of the work The aim of the shear wall is to investigate the different ways in which the tall structures can be stabilized against the effects of strong horizontal wind loading and seismic loading. However.

In braced frames the lateral loads like wind earthquake etc. unbraced and dual structures are briefly described as follows: 4.3 Dual structures Dual structures are combination of the above two. According to SP: 24 the bracing system must provide a total stiffness equal to at least six times the sum of stiffness of all the columns.2 Unbraced structures A typical unbraced frame is shown in figure. The resistance to horizontal loads is provided by both. the sidesway or joint translation do occur in such frames. where resistance to horizontal loads is provided by bending in the beam and column in that plane. In other words. shear trusses or bracing provided in the building must have stiffness to act as effective bracings. However. These structures are called unbraced structures and the columns occuring in such structures are called unbraced columns. they differ in carrying horizontal loads. In other words the sidesway or joint translation is not possible in column. the bending in frames and by shear walls. shear trusses. Thus the beam column frames are not subjected to horizontal loads. 4.4. are resisted by special arrangements like shear walls. The frames and shear walls will resist 5 . The shear walls. Types of Structures 1 Braced structures 2 Unbraced structures 3 Dual structures As shown in in all the three cases . The structure is called a braced structure and columns occurring in such structure are called the braced column. They may become uneconomical for larger height as shear walls are designed as vertical cantilevers from the ground.1 Braced structures A typical braced frame is shown in figure. the resistance to gravity loads (DL+LL) is provided invariably by beam column and space frames. bracing or special supports. 4. Braced. within the storey.

However.horizontal forces in proportion to their relative stiffness . 6 . the frame should be designed to carry minimum 25% horizontal shear.

etc. Vertical Loads Structurally speaking. is the dead load which consists of the self-weight of member. Dead load should be calculated very accurately. Loads on Structure 5. plaster. while it is of a low value (75 kg/m2 to 150 kg/m2) on a roof. finishes. roofs are to be made sloping due to snow at 2. columns and footings too. Snow loads on roofs in hilly areas are also specified in IS: 875.1. 7 . But in most of the buildings. is the live load. while in hospitals and institutional buildings. Partition loads are also important to be considered. which is caused by the use of building. brick walls are arranged to divide space. brick walls are used as partition walls. which may or may not be accessible. Wooden or similar light-weight partitions anywhere on a floor give a general loading of 100 kg/m2 of floor area. The load. Live loads are given in IS: 875. wooden partitions are provided in office buildings. which finally leads to economy in structural design. for flexibility in the use of the building. But in the present practice. the snow loading will work out to be 75 kg/m2.0 m run of the partition wall. this provision is made in most of the buildings and wherever possible. which is ever present and ever acting on a building.5 kg/m2 per cm depth of snow. Live loads are generally high (150 kg/m2 to 1500 kg/m2) on floors depending on the activity that is carried on there. brick walls should be replaced by wooden partitions to achieve in lighter partition loading. which gives a heavier loading on the floor. which may be reasonable for sloping roofs. In practice.5. beams. \ Thick brick walls anywhere add substantially to the building and it affects the design of slabs. IS: 1911-1967 gives schedule of unit-weights of building materials and it is used extensively to calculate the dead load. Next in importance to dead load. With 30 cm snow depth. IS: 875 gives the partition walls loading at one-third the weight of 1. as it comprises most of the building load. In snowincident areas. buildings are built to support loads.

this loading can be made use of in the evaluation of the gap of an expansion joint. While wind and earthquake cause horizontal loads on a building. it is clear that temperature and shrinkage loading has an effect on the design of long concrete buildings.15 = +10. It is.32 (0C) For extreme climates : ± 25 . Wind loading Dead and live loads are vertical or gravity loads. It is also seen that by providing minimum specified steel percentages in concrete members. Thus. effect due to temperature fluctuations and shrinkage and creep can be ignored in the design calculations”. . The temperature differential is taken at ± 17 2/3(t1-t2). It is. which can be neglected if the length of building is restricted to 45 m (clause 26. however.1 that “in ordinary buildings.40 (0C) IS: 456 1978 (hereafter called simply that Code) states in its clause number 17. temperature and shrinkage effects can be absorbed in short-length buildings. . Blast effect. Of course. Temperature and shrinkage also results in horizontal loads on a building. where t1 and t2 are the maximum and the minimum temperatures observed in a day (24 hours) for a given place or locality . where negative stands for fall of temperature .3. The combined effect of temperature and shrinkage is given below. 5.5. IS:875 gives values of wind pressure varying from 100kg/m2 acting on building up to a height of 30m above the 8 .2. For moderate climates : ± 17 . while in long concrete buildings. Temperature and shrinkage loading Temperature and shrinkage also act on a building and these can also be regarded as a load on it. Fall of temperature together with shrinkage will govern the design.5. earth and water pressure also a horizontal loads on a structure . Shrinkage is equivalent to -15 0C.15 = +2.3 of the Code). these members have to be designed for this extra loading or a long building has to be cut up in two or more short-length buildings. what is meant by an ordinary building. Further. while the rise of temperature will be substantially reduced in effect by the Indian Road Congress at ±17 0C for moderate climates and at ±25 0C for extreme climates. not explained. it can be summarized that temperature and shrinkage effect can be neglected in short-length buildings.

General provisions and buildings Part 2 . East coast is enhanced to Zone III and connected with Zone III of Godavari Graben area. 4. Killari area is enhanced to Zone III. 3. Also.Liquid retaining tanks .mean retarding surface i. The important changes as compared to IS 1893:1984 are as follows: 1.Industrial structures including stack like structures Part 5 . these wind pressure values can be reduced by 25 %. Earthquake loading IS 1893:2002 Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures part 1 general provisions and buildings The Code is now split into five parts Part 1 .Bridges and retaining walls Part 4 . Seismic zone factor is changed reflecting a more realistic value of peak ground acceleration. it contains provisions that are specific to buildings only.075 9 . Bellary isolated zone is removed.4. 2. For buildings of height up to 10.1h for moment resisting frames without bracing or shear walls is replaced with Ta=0. Zone I is upgraded to Zone II. Medium and Soft. 5.075h0. Response acceleration spectra are now specified for three types of founding strata viz.0m. Hard. the mean level of the adjoining ground . Seismic zone map is revised with only four seismic zones.e. The empirical formula for calculating fundamental natural period T=0.Dams and embankments Part 1 contains provisions that are general in nature and applicable to all structures.Elevated and ground supported Part 3 .

SC with N>30) 10 .SP.5 where h and d are the height and base dimension of the building along the considered direction of earthquake. 5. Medium or Soft soil. in industrial plant buildings. The list of building systems and the corresponding values of R is more exhaustive.24 V 0.36 Sa/g = Spectral acceleration coefficient for Hard.40 and 1.GW. Revised procedure first calculates the actual force that may be experienced by the structure during the probable maximum earthquake. 5% damping = 2. Then response reduction due to ductile deformation or frictional energy dissipation in the cracks is applied via response reduction factor R in place of the earlier performance factor K.5 for T <= 0. The code procedures for calculating base shear VB are summarized below: IS:1893-2002 ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ Z = Zero period acceleration value for the Maximum Considered Earthquake Zone Z II 0.10 III 0. this formula applies to bare frames e.09h/d0. if it were to remain elastic.For RC framed buildings.40 (Hard: GP. The formula for framed buildings with in-filled masonry walls is Ta = 0.SW.00/T for T > 0.g.16 IV 0.

5 for T <= 0.67 (Soft: All except SP with N<10) I = Importance factor = 1. cinema halls.55 (Medium: All with 10<N<30 SP with N>15) = 2.55 and 1. railway power stations and 1.0 for others R = Response reduction factor Ordinary RC Moment Resisting Frame (OMRF) Special RC Moment Resisting Frame (SMRF) Ordinary RC Shear Walls Ductile RC Shear Walls Dual Systems with frames carrying >25% of VB 3 5 3 3 11 . fire.67/T for T > 0.= 2.36/T for T > 0. schools.5 for hospitals. radio.5 for T <= 0.67 and 1. telephone exchanges. television. monumental structures.

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Wall sections. If the columns are provided at the edge of the wall. thereby reducing the nonstructural damage of the building at the same time. LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Reinforced concrete structural walls are important components of lateral load resisting systems in a multistoried building.1 Classification of shear wall 6.1.these columns are 13 . While rectangular cross-section is common.1.i.6. Classification according to shape Shear walls are oblong in cross-section. 6. can achieve sufficient ductility and ensure good hysteretic response of the building system during earthquakes. L.and U-shaped sections are also used . the walls restrict the deformation response of buildings under lateral loads. which are designed and detailed for seismic forces. one dimension of the cross-section is much larger than the other.e.. Due to their high lateral stiffness.

Thin-walled hollow RC shafts around the elevator core of buildings also act as shear walls.Classification according to Height – to-Width ratio a. 6. Squat Shear wall 14 .1.known as boundary elements .2. Slender Shear wall b. and should be taken advantage of to resist earthquake forces.

or lateral instability of the compression zone (Fig 2. shear is resisted by interface friction across the crack and dowel action of the vertical reinforcement. The flexural strength of such walls is limited by fracture of main flexural reinforcement that is provided near the wall edges concrete crushing in the compression zone. Failure Modes 7.3) Fracture of the main flexural reinforcement takes place due to low cycle fatigue caused by alternate tensile yielding and inelastic compressive buckling of the bars. After yield of the vertical reinforcement.It will also contain the cracked concrete and prevent it from falling away thereby preventing loss of lateral support to the main flexural reinforcement. The provisions of adequate transverse confining reinforcement to the main flexural reinforcement near the outer edges of the wall and in boundary elements can delay the onset of buckling. Bauschinger effect also makes the compression steel buckle earlier than in comparable monotonically loaded specimens.1 Failure modes in slender walls Slender walls are governed by their flexural strength. 15 . They develop a predominantly horizontal crack pattern in the lower hinging region after a few cycles of inelastic deformation..7. They are subjected to low nominal shear stress.

Failure due to concrete crushing occurs when the crushing strain of concrete is exceeded in the compression zone of the wall. Reversed loading may cause the effective moment of inertia of the wall section to reduce to that of steel area alone. Unsymmetrical wall sections. etc are heavily stressed in the compression zone and may also fail by this mode. However such a failure can occur in rectangular walls that have a large percentage of vertical reinforcement and carry a large axial load. 16 . L. This is usually accompanied by buckling of the main flexural reinforcement. This will reduce stability of the wall against out of plane displacements and may cause lateral buckling of the compression zone. such as T. Wall sections are usually under-reinforced and so concrete crushing is not expected.

and Surface elements are outlined. In late 2005. beam elements. 2nd order p-delta analysis. geometric non linear analysis or a buckling analysis.Pro) is a structural analysis and design computer program originally developed by Research Engineers International in Yorba Linda.Pro has added direct links to applications such as RAM Connection and STAAD. It supports several steel. In the present work the seismic analysis of a multistorey building with shear wall and without shear wall will be presented.8. The beam elements and surface elements are used for modeling purpose of structure. The surface element is used for the modeling of shear wall.Pro itself. About STAAD PRO STAAD or (STAAD. earthquake load and various load combinations will be done using software STAAD PRO. The steps involving analysis of shear wall for different location in the structure will be presented.Pro is one of the most widely used structural analysis and design software. concrete and timber design codes.1. without and with shear wall are shown in here. CA. Analyses for live load. Research Engineer International was bought by Bentley Systems. Additionally STAAD. Foundation to provide engineers working with those applications which handle design post processing not handled by STAAD. In recent years it has become part of integrated structural analysis and design solutions mainly using an exposed API called OpenSTAAD to access and drive the program using an VB macro system included in the application or other by including OpenSTAAD functionality in applications that themselves include suitable programmable macro systems. . Details of number of nodes. dead load. The commercial version STAAD. 17 . It can also make use of various forms of dynamic analysis from modal extraction to time history and response spectrum analysis. at lift well and at opposite ends. STAAD PRO MODELING AND PROPOSED WORK The modelS of structure. 8. It can make use of various forms of analysis from the traditional 1st order static analysis. The Preferred locations of the shear walls for the work will be taken at boundry.

Structure without shear wall 18 .

Structure with shear wall 19 .

0025 of the gross area in each direction.4 Shear walls shall be provided with reinforcement in the longitudinal and transverse directions in the plane of the wall.6 The diameter of the bars to be used in any part of the wall shall not exceed l/1O th of the thickness of that part. 9.5 If the factored shear stress in the wall exceeds 0. 9.7 The maximum spacing of reinforcement in either direction shall not exceed the smaller of lw/5.1.9. and tw is the thickness of the wall web.1. 9 1.25 or if the wall thickness exceeds 200 mm. This reinforcement shall be distributed uniformly across the cross section of the wall.1 The requirements of this section apply to the shear walls. 9. τv shall be calculated as: Where 20 .1 The nominal shear stress. each having bars running in the longitudinal and transverse directions in the plane of the wall. 9.2 The thickness of any part of the wall shall preferably. 3tw. 9. and 450 mm.1. 9. reinforcement shall be provided in two curtains. The minimum reinforcement ratio shall be 0.1. not be less than 150 mm. which are part of the lateral force resisting system of the structure.1. to be used in the design of flanged wall sections. shall be assumed to extend beyond the face of the web for a distance which shall be the smaller of (a) half the distance to an adjacent shear wall web.2 Shear Strength 9.1.3 The effective flange width. where lw is the horizontal length of the wall. and (b) l/1O th of the total wall height.2. SHEAR WALLS (IS 13920:1993 RECOMMENDATIONS) General Requirements 9.

Muv. tw = thickness of the web.2.4 When τv is less than τc shear reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with 9.1 The moment of resistance.3 Flexural Strength 9. which is uniformly distributed in the wall. max.2.2.rectangular shear wall section with uniformly distributed vertical reinforcement is given in Annex A.1. shall be calculated as per Table 13 of IS 456 : 1978.2. τv. 9. shall not exceed τc. is the shear force to be resisted by the horizontal reinforcement. the area of horizontal shear reinforcement. Ah to be provided Vus = within a vertical spacing.1. 456 : 1978. This may by taken as 0.4 9. 9.7.1. and dw= effective depth of wall section. 21 . Sv is given by where Vus = ( Vu . 9.8 lw.1.2 The design shear strength of concrete. the amount of horizontal reinforcement provided shall not be less than the minimum. However. as per Table 14 of IS 9. of the wall section may be calculated as for columns subjected to combined bending and axial load as per IS 456 : 1978. shall not be less than the horizontal reinforcement calculated as per 9.4.6 The vertical reinforcement.5.5 When τv is greater than τc.VU = factored shear force.5 and 9.2. for rectangular sections. 9.3 The nominal shear stress in the wall. 9. Q.3. The moment of resistance of slender .2.τc tw dw ). as per 9.

4.1 Where the extreme fibre compressive stress in the wall due to factored gravity loads plus factored earthquake force exceeds 0. 22 . Though they may have the same thickness as that of the wall web it is advantageous to provide them with greater thickness. 9. The boundary.4 Boundary Elements Boundary elements are portions along the wall edges that are strengthened by longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. assuming short column action.9.3 In walls that do not have boundary elements. so as to enable it to carry an axial compression equal to the sum of factored gravity load on it and the additional compressive load induced by the seismic force.2fck. boundary elements shall be provided along the vertical boundaries of walls. The compressive stress shall be calculated using a linearly elastic model and gross section properties.2 A boundary element shall have adequate axial load carrying capacity. elements may be discontinued where the calculated compressive stress becomes less than 0.3. vertical reinforcement shall be concentrated at the ends of the wall. Muv = moment of resistance provided by distributed vertical reinforcement across the wall section Cw = center to center distance between the boundary elements along the two vertical edges of the wall. 9.15fck. Each concentration shall consist of a minimum of 4 bars of 12 mm diameter arranged in at least 2 layers.3. The latter may be calculated as: Where: Mu = factored design moment on the entire wall section.4.2 The cracked flexural strength of the wall section should be greater than it’s untracked flexural strength. 9. 9.

4.4. as per 7. 9. shall be provided throughout their height.4. the entire earthquake induced shear and flexure shall.1 Coupled shear walls shall be connected by ductile coupling beams.4. and is the angle made by the diagonal reinforcement with the horizontal.4. be resisted by diagonal reinforcement. The reinforcement along each diagonal shall be enclosed by special confining reinforcement. where required.2 The area of reinforcement to be provided along each diagonal in a diagonally reinforced coupling beam shall be: where Vu is the factored shear force.5 Boundary elements.6 Boundary elements need not be provided.3 If the gravity load adds to the strength of the wall. as per 9. as per 7.4 The percentage of vertical reinforcement in the boundary elements shall not be less than 0.1.5. 9. The pitch of spiral or spacing of ties shall not exceed 100 mm. as per 7.8 percent. If the earthquake induced shear stress in the coupling beam exceeds is where ls is the clear span of the coupling beam and D is its overall depth. In order to avoid congestion. if the entire wall section is provided with special confining reinforcement. 9.4. 9.4.5 Coupled Shear Walls 9.5. 23 .8. At least 4 bars of 8 mm diameter shall be provided along each diagonal. 9. with special confining reinforcement. preferably.4. the practical upper limit would be 4 percent.9. nor greater than 6 percent. its load factor shall be taken as 0.

However.5. 9. as far as possible.6.1 The shear strength of a wall with openings should be checked along critical planes that pass through openings.8 Construction Joints The vertical reinforcement ratio across a horizontal construction joint shall not be less than: where Tv is the factored shear stress at the joint. 9.2 Reinforcement shall be provided along the edges of openings in walls.1 Horizontal reinforcement shall be anchored near the edges of the wall or in the confined core of the boundary elements 9.9. Not more than one third of this vertical 24 . in regions where yielding may take place. The area of the vertical and horizontal bars should be such as to equal that of the respective interrupted bars. is the factored axial force ( positive for compression ).6. Splice and Anchorage Requirement 9. and Ae is the gross cross sectional area of the joint.7 Discontinuous Walls Columns supporting discontinuous walls shall be provided with special confining reinforcement. 9.4.9. The horizontal bars should be provided with development length in tension beyond the sides of the opening. This cone of flexural yielding may be considered to extend for a distance of lw above the base of the wall or one sixth of the wall height.3 The diagonal or horizontal bars of a coupling beam shall be anchored in the adjacent walls with an anchorage length of 1.4. whichever is more. The vertical bars should extend for the full storey height. 9. 9. as per 7.5 times the development length in tension. this distance need not be greater than 2lw.9 Development. Pu.2 Splicing of vertical flexural reinforcement should be avoided.6 Openings in Walls 9.9.

not more than half the reinforcement be less than one fourth that of the spliced bar shall be spliced at a section. 9. 9.2. The spacing of ties shall not exceed 150 mm center to center.9.5. The spacing of ties shall confirm to 25.9.2 of IS 456 : 1978. in diameter. The spacing of ties shall yielding may take place.reinforcement shall be spliced at such a section. The diameter of the tie shall not less than one fourth that of the spliced bar nor less than 6 mm.3 Lateral ties shall be provided around lapped spliced bars that are larger than 16 mm in diameter. 25 . The diameter of the tie shall not However. Splices in adjacent bars should be staggered by a minimum of 600 mm. where flexural nor less than 6 mm.4 Welded splices and mechanical spliced bars that are larger than 16 mm.

______Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete. 6. New Delhi. Bureau of Indian Standards New Delhi. 2.References 1. New Delhi. ______Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete. Indian Standard Code of Practice for Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures subjected to Seismic Forces. IS 456:2000 Bureau of Indian Standards. ______ Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures IS1893:2002. ______ Explanatory Handbook on Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete (IS: 456-1978). 26 . Bureau of Indian Standards. Bureau of Indian Standards. Bureau of Indian Standards. New Delhi.Bureau of Indian Standards. ______ Indian Standard Code of Practice for Structural Safety of Buildings: Loading Standards. SP: 24-1983. 4. 5. 3. New Delhi. IS:875-1964. IS 456:1978. IS 13920: 1993. New Delhi.

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