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**Ajith K.P.-B100189EC Arun Tony-B100171EC Aswin E Augustine-B100305EC Basil Babu-B100523EC Vaisakh R.P. -B100087EC
**

National Institute of Technology

November 12th 2013

Major Project

Image Encryption

1/24

Introduction

• Need for Scrambling

Major Project

Image Encryption

2/24

Introduction

• Need for Scrambling • security reasons

Major Project

Image Encryption

2/24

Introduction

• Need for Scrambling • security reasons • Areas of Application

Major Project

Image Encryption

2/24

Introduction • Need for Scrambling • security reasons • Areas of Application • conﬁdential remote video conferencing Major Project Image Encryption 2/24 .

Introduction • Need for Scrambling • security reasons • Areas of Application • conﬁdential remote video conferencing • security communication Major Project Image Encryption 2/24 .

Introduction • Need for Scrambling • security reasons • Areas of Application • conﬁdential remote video conferencing • security communication • military applications Major Project Image Encryption 2/24 .

Introduction Image Scrambling methods • Advanced Encryption Standard Major Project Image Encryption 3/24 .

Introduction Image Scrambling methods • Advanced Encryption Standard • Magic Cube Major Project Image Encryption 3/24 .

Introduction Image Scrambling methods • Advanced Encryption Standard • Magic Cube • Arnold’s Cat Map Major Project Image Encryption 3/24 .

Introduction Image Scrambling methods • Advanced Encryption Standard • Magic Cube • Arnold’s Cat Map • Twice Internal Division Major Project Image Encryption 3/24 .

Introduction Image Scrambling methods • Advanced Encryption Standard • Magic Cube • Arnold’s Cat Map • Twice Internal Division • Cellular Automaton Major Project Image Encryption 3/24 .

Cellular Automata • Introduced by Ulam and von Neumann in 1940 Major Project Image Encryption 4/24 .

Cellular Automata • Introduced by Ulam and von Neumann in 1940 • Consist of rectangular grid of identical cells Major Project Image Encryption 4/24 .

Cellular Automata • Introduced by Ulam and von Neumann in 1940 • Consist of rectangular grid of identical cells • Each cell takes ﬁnite number of states Major Project Image Encryption 4/24 .

Cellular Automata • Introduced by Ulam and von Neumann in 1940 • Consist of rectangular grid of identical cells • Each cell takes ﬁnite number of states • At each step cells update synchronously by applying rules(transition functions) Major Project Image Encryption 4/24 .

Cellular Automata • Introduced by Ulam and von Neumann in 1940 • Consist of rectangular grid of identical cells • Each cell takes ﬁnite number of states • At each step cells update synchronously by applying rules(transition functions) • These rules are based on the states of the respective cells and their neighbours Major Project Image Encryption 4/24 .

Cellular Automata Related Automata • variation in cells Major Project Image Encryption 5/24 .

Cellular Automata Related Automata • variation in cells • hexagonal cells Major Project Image Encryption 5/24 .

Cellular Automata Related Automata • variation in cells • hexagonal cells • irregular cells Major Project Image Encryption 5/24 .

Cellular Automata Related Automata • variation in cells • hexagonal cells • irregular cells • probabilistic rules instead of deterministic Major Project Image Encryption 5/24 .

001% probability that each cell will transition to opposite colour Major Project Image Encryption 5/24 .Cellular Automata Related Automata • variation in cells • hexagonal cells • irregular cells • probabilistic rules instead of deterministic • .

Cellular Automata Related Automata • variation in cells • hexagonal cells • irregular cells • probabilistic rules instead of deterministic • .001% probability that each cell will transition to opposite colour • continuous automata Major Project Image Encryption 5/24 .

Cellular Automata Cellular Automata Neighbourhood • 1D CA Major Project Image Encryption 6/24 .

Cellular Automata Cellular Automata Neighbourhood • 1D CA • Each cell and its immediate left and right neighbours Major Project Image Encryption 6/24 .

Cellular Automata Cellular Automata Neighbourhood • 1D CA • Each cell and its immediate left and right neighbours • 2D CA Major Project Image Encryption 6/24 .

Cellular Automata Cellular Automata Neighbourhood • 1D CA • Each cell and its immediate left and right neighbours • 2D CA • Von Neumann Neighbourhood Major Project Image Encryption 6/24 .

Cellular Automata Cellular Automata Neighbourhood • 1D CA • Each cell and its immediate left and right neighbours • 2D CA • Von Neumann Neighbourhood • Moore Neighbourhood • Conways Game of Life uses the Moore Neighbourhood Major Project Image Encryption 6/24 .

r) = [(x. then n= 5 Major Project Image Encryption 7/24 .Von Neumann Neghbourhood • deﬁned by N H (x0 . y ) : x − x0 + y − y0 ≤ r] • number of cells in each neighbourhood n = 2r(r + 1) + 1 • if r=1 . y0 .

Von Neumann Neighbourhood Major Project Image Encryption 8/24 .

y − y0 ≤ r] • number of cells in each neighbourhood n = (2r + 1)2 • if r=1 . then n= 9 Major Project Image Encryption 9/24 . y0 . r) = [(x. y ) : x − x0 ≤ r.Moore Neighbourhood • deﬁned by N H (x0 .

Moore Neighbourhood Major Project Image Encryption 10/24 .

rows turned into circles • 2D .rectangular grids turned into toroids • static • extreme cells are connected to permanent zero state cells Major Project Image Encryption 11/24 .Boundary Conditions To determine neighbours of cells at the edges • periodic • 1D .

Conway’s Game of Life • consists of [M X N] matrix of cells with two states – alive or dead • uses Moore neighbourhood • at every generation each cell compute its new state using transition rules • every cell are updated simultaneously(synchronous) Major Project Image Encryption 12/24 .

A dead cell becomes alive if exactly three neighbours were alive • Death by Overcrowding .Conway’s Game of Life The Transition Rules • Birth .An alive cell dies if more than three of its neighbours were alive • Death by Exposure .An alive cell remains alive if two or three of its neighbours were alive Major Project Image Encryption 13/24 .An alive cell dies if one or none of its neighbours were alive • Survival .

then discard it • After the last generation.Procedure Encoding • Image ﬁle is read in as a matrix • An initial random conﬁguration is set up for game of life algorithm • Read the positions of the alive cells • Take the grey value of ﬁrst pixel and put it in the position of the ﬁrst alive cell • Take the next value and continue likewise • Continue like this for the required generations • If an alive cell has already appeared before. ﬁll the scrambled image with the remaining pixel Major Project Image Encryption 14/24 .

Figure: Image Scrambling Using First Generation Major Project Image Encryption 15/24 .

Procedure Decoding In decoding we know the initial conﬁguration and the number of generations and we can execute the inverse of the scrambling algorithm to obtain the original image. Major Project Image Encryption 16/24 .

E [GD(i. j ) (M − 2)X (N − 2) GDD = E (GD(i. j )) Better scrambling correspondes to an absolute value near one Major Project Image Encryption 17/24 . j )) − E (GD(i. j ) − P (i . M −1 i=2 N −1 j =2 GD (i. j )]2 i. j ) = 1 4 [P (i.j • Average Neighbourhood Grey Differernce. GD(i. j )] = • Grey Value Degree. j )) + E (GD(i.Analysis • Grey Difference. j )) E (GD(i.

Observations Figure: original image of a rino Figure: scrambled image of the rino Major Project Image Encryption 18/24 .

Observations Figure: original image of a boat Figure: scrambled image of the boat Major Project Image Encryption 19/24 .

Observations Figure: original image of lena Figure: scrambled image of lena Major Project Image Encryption 20/24 .

Observations Figure: original image of letter–P Figure: scrambled image of the letter–P Major Project Image Encryption 21/24 .

0000 Table: GDD Major Project Image Encryption 22/24 .9991 0.9989 0.9979 0.7128 0.8446 rino 0.Observations no.9847 0.6801 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.9984 boat 0. of generations 1 5 20 100 lena 0.9987 letter P 1.4618 0.9938 0.9983 0.

Figure: resolution of 50 X 50 Figure: GDD value vs no. of generations Major Project Image Encryption 23/24 .

Conclusion • Attacker cannot break the encrypted image even if the algorithm is open • We can provide high security by using double scrambling • Due to diffusion process rate of encryption and decryption increases Major Project Image Encryption 24/24 .

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