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Sarika B.

Kale, et al International Journal of Computer and Electronics Research [Volume 2, Issue 2, April 2013]

EMBEDDED SYSTEM FOR INTELLIGENT AMBULANCE AND TRAFFIC CONTROL MANAGEMENT
Ms. Sarika B. Kale Department Of Digital Electronics Sipna’s College of Engg. & Tech., Amravati Sarikakale47@yahoo.co.in
Abstract - The use of Embedded technology has proved to be very beneficial in present Traffic Light Controller (TLC) and that will minimize waiting time of vehicle and also manage traffic load. In this paper we exploit the emergence of new technology called as Intelligent traffic light controller, This makes the use of sensor n/w along with embedded technology. Where traffic light will be intelligently decided based on the total traffic on all adjacent roads. Thus optimization of traffic light switching increases road. Capacity, traffic flow and can prevent traffic congestions. Keywords - Microcontroller Based System, Embedded System, Intelligent Ambulance, Traffic Control Management.

Prof. Gajanan P. Dhok Associate Professor Department of Instrumentation Engineering Sipna’s College of Engg. & Tech. Amravati, M.S. gajanandhok@rediffmail.com In 1868, the traffic lights only installed in London and today these have installed in most cities around the world. Most of the traffic lights around the world follow a predetermined timing circuit. Sometime the vehicles on the red light side have to wait for green signal even though there is little or no traffic. It results in the loss of valuable time [2]. Traffic control at intersections is a matter of concern in large cities. Several attempts have been made to make traffic light’s sequence dynamic so that these traffic lights operate according to the current volume of the traffic. Most of them use the sensor to calculate current volume of traffic but this approach has the limitation that these techniques based on counting of the vehicles and treats a emergency vehicles as the ordinary vehicles means no priority to ambulance, fire brigade or V.I.P vehicles. As a result, emergency vehicles stuck in traffic signal and waste their valuable time. The problem of traffic light control can be solved by RFID based system. With this system, we can consider the priority of different type of vehicles and also consider the density of traffic on the roads by installing RF reader on the road intersections. Radio frequency identification is a technique that uses the radio waves to identify the object uniquely. RFID is a technique that is widely used in the various application areas like medical science, commerce, security, Electronic toll
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1. INTRODUCTION Traffic management on the road has become a severe problem of today's society because of growth of the urbanization, industrialization and population, there has been a tremendous growth in the traffic. With growth in traffic, there is occurrence of bundle of problems too; these problems include traffic jams, accidents and traffic rule violation at the heavy traffic signals. This in turn has an adverse effect on the economy of the country as well as the loss of lives[1]. So problem given above will become worst in the future. Traffic lights play an important role in traffic management. Traffic lights are the signaling devices that are placed on the intersection points and used to control the flow of traffic on the road.
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ISSN: 2278-5795

The reader sends electromagnetic waves that produce current in the tag’s antenna. RELATED WORK A. especially those related to image processing and beam interruption techniques. There are three main components of RFID: RFID tag. RF Reader and Database. In response antenna reflects the information stored in it. switching frequency of green light at a junction. The various performance evaluation criteria are average waiting time. Intelligent Traffic Lights Based on RFID This paper states that the traffic management is the critical issue of the road. In the link based algorithm it is assumed that if a particular link is given then. The existing traffic lights follow the predetermined sequence. The range and cost of these tags is more as compare to passive tags [3]. In contrary the vehicle based algorithm uses every available data pair to consider all the links travelled by them to calculate an average speed of the traffic. Thus.Sarika B. There are three parts of the tag: antenna. This technique is based on the queue length of the vehicles on the traffic lights. This is a unique feature of this project which is very useful to car drivers to take an alternate route in case of congestion. et al International Journal of Computer and Electronics Research [Volume 2. average distance traveled by vehicles. then a pair of sensors situated at the starting point and at the ending point of the link can best reflect the traffic status of that link. The proposed system provides quality of service to Emergency vehicles and improves the accuracy of Automatic Traffic Light Violation Detection system as well as helps to trace out the stolen vehicles using RFID [6].org ISSN: 2278-5795 . These traffic lights are not capable to count the number of vehicles and the priority of the vehicles on intersection point. The result gathered can be accurate but having sensors in all the vehicles and also on all the roads is very costly especially when we are taking into consideration an economically poor country like India. This RFID technique deals with a Page 138 © http://ijcer. Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence Using RFID It avoids problems that usually arise with standard traffic control systems. We have three kinds of tags which work on the three different frequency ranges: low – frequency. Dynamic Traffic control system The work in [4] proposed a smart traffic control system based on the wireless sensor network and an alerting system for red light crossing scenario to alert the drivers on other sides to save their lives. Various types of tags are available but we can mainly divide them into two categories: passive tags and active tags. So these lights are called static traffic lights. The passive tags don’t contain any internal power source. C. we can say that a sensor fitted in a vehicle can travel across more than one link which in turn can again be associated with more than one road. access control etc. The vehicles like Ambulance and Fire Brigade are also stuck in traffic and waste their valuable time. high-frequency and ultra high frequency. 2. semiconductor chip and some form of encapsulation. The active tags contain a battery as an internal power source used to operate microchip’s circuitry and to broadcast the information to the reader. MSN for Traffic Monitoring This paper has two types of algorithms: i) Linked based. and ii) Vehicle based.Kale. efficient emergency mode operation and satisfactory operation of SMS using GSM Mobile. As a result some vehicles have to wait even there is no traffic on the other side. GSM cell phone interface is also provided for users those who wish to obtain the latest position of traffic on congested roads.[5] B. They also represent the simulation of 4 models which are used in the different parts of the world and shows competing results in the terms of waiting time and number of vehicles not served first time. Traffic lights play an important role in the traffic management. D. April 2013] collection system. Issue 2. The life of the passive tag is very long.

manpower and machinery are the key factors which influence the industrial development of any country. The monitoring and control of city traffic is becoming a major problem in many countries. This has made them dominant in the mobile and embedded electronics market as relatively low cost and small microprocessors and microcontrollers. we are also using serial communication to make connection to hospital using GSM and GPS. ARM is a 32-bit reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by ARM Limited. In this paper. heart beats and temp values will be sent to pre defined mobile phone(Hospital) using GSM. ii) Achieve smart automatic traffic signal control without human interrupt. industrial products.The Systems consist of ARM microcontroller. It provides an efficient time management scheme. in which a dynamic time schedule is worked out in real time for the passage of each traffic column. The project is designed using ARM microcontroller. The Tag will be attached to the ambulance when the ambulance passes through the reader the Tag would be read Page 139 © http://ijcer. loss of fuel and money. April 2013] multi-vehicle. With the ever increasing number of vehicles on the road. Transportation of goods. The whole setup consists of ARM. This system can do the following. On signal there will be two RFID readers which will detect traffic density on two roads. we are going to developed an smart ambulance systems. Ambulance will consist of Heart Beat and Temp. This digital voltage is feed to controller. 3. All developed nations have a well developed transportation system with efficient traffic control on road. The number of vehicles in each column and the routing are proprieties. ARM to provide them clear path. VIP vehicles etc. the first aim is to collect the information of moving emergency vehicles using GSM. sensor. Temperature sensor. Fire brigade. It was known as the Advanced RISC Machine. et al International Journal of Computer and Electronics Research [Volume 2. The RFID systems will be connected to microcontroller using serial protocol. i) Minimize long waiting time. Mismanagement and traffic congestion results in long waiting times. iii) Wirelessly monitor patients health parameter through GSM technology. Also the Heart beat sensor and temperature sensors are used for patient monitoring and GSM modem will be used to send the SMS to mobile. It is therefore utmost necessary to have a fast. The micro controller cannot process the analog voltages as it is a digital device. rail and air. The real time operation of the system emulates the judgment of a traffic policeman on duty. multi road junction area. fully automation is required for making traffic management which gives priority to emergency vehicle Fast transportation systems and rapid transit systems are nerves of economic developments for any nation. iv) Less chance of accident due to red light violation it gives priority to vehicles like ambulance.org ISSN: 2278-5795 . upon which the calculations and the judgments are based [7]. multilane. and before that as the Acorn RISC Machine. When key is pressed. the Traffic Monitoring Authority has to find new methods of overcoming.Kale. Heart Beat Sensor. so we use inbuilt ADC to convert the raw output of sensor to digital voltage. PROPOSED WORK Under the proposed work. When ambulance is detected on any road signal for that side will be green. The ARM continuously monitors the Temperature value and display on LCD. And traffic on that road and other roads will be sent to ambulance through another GSM.Sarika B. GSM Modem and GPS . In this paper. The RFID tag would be used to detect the ambulance. In this project there would be two RFID systems used in the project. GPS. economical and efficient traffic control system for national development. Issue 2.

The Sunrom RFID Card Reader's antenna was designed with a RFID operation at a tag read distance of around 7 cm. April 2013] and the traffic Light will be made Green Signal. The tag will then modulate the electromagnetic waves generated by the reader in order to transmit its data back to the reader. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a generic term for non-contacting technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. anywhere on or near the Earth. longitude. navigation. Global Position System (GPS) Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites broadcast signals from space that GPS receivers. There are several methods of identification. The reader's antenna is used to transmit radio frequency (RF) energy. and timing services to worldwide users on a continuous basis in all weather. RFID tags and readers must be tuned to the same frequency in order to communicate effectively. Issue 2. more expensive. Just as you tune your radio to different frequencies in order to hear different radio stations. The output is serial data of 9600 baud rate which is standard NMEA 0183 v3.org electromagnetic waves as described above. use to provide three-dimensional location (latitude. The combined antenna and microchip are called an "RFID transponder" or "RFID tag" and work in combination with an "RFID reader". to be identified. reprogrammed and communicated by using radio waves. The tag is then able to send back any information stored on the tag by reflecting the © http://ijcer. is used to run the microchip's circuitry and to broadcast a signal to a reader. but the most common is to store a unique serial number that identifies a person or object on a microchip that is attached to an antenna. and a user segment (US). The read range of a tag ultimately depends on many factors: the frequency of RFID system operation. active tags are typically larger. the power of the reader. GPS receivers provides reliable positioning. the reading distance is much shorter than with active tags. Also the body parameters like Temperature and Heart beat will be measured using sensors and will be sent through mobile to the respective Doctor. 4. However. "Active tags" have their own power source and transmitter. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) RFID is an acronym for radio frequency identification. The power source. When radio waves from the reader reach the chip’s antenna. usually a battery. "Passive tags" are tags that do not contain their own power source or transmitter. The current GPS consists of three major segments. We are using GPS to track the position of ambulance. accessed. stored. and altitude) plus precise time. There are two major types of tag technologies. Frequency refers to the size of the radio waves used to communicate between the RFID system components. Due to the fact that passive tags do not have their own transmitter and must reflect their signal to the reader. B. physical size of the tags antenna and interference from other RF devices. et al International Journal of Computer and Electronics Research [Volume 2. so it will help us to direct the ambulance to reach the hospital as early as possible. An RFID system consists of a reader and one or more tags. day and night. the energy is converted by the antenna into electricity that can power up the microchip in the tag.Sarika B. The reader receives the modulated waves and converts them into digital data.0 protocol offering industry standard data messages and a command set for easy interface to mapping software and embedded devices. a control segment (CS). for instance a library book. Briefly the RF stand for “radiofrequency” and ID means “identifier” that allows an item. These are the space segment (SS). environmental conditions. Page 140 ISSN: 2278-5795 .Kale. and require occasional service. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION A.

The Economics Times. Typically. each time slot is 577 micro seconds long. and a third instruction is being fetched from memory. REFRENCES [1] Rajat & Nirbhay Kumar (2007) “RFID Resolution: Your cars will be tagged”.org [2] [3] ISSN: 2278-5795 Page 141 . Pipeline techniques are employed so that all parts of the © http://ijcer. Each is divided into 200kHz wide channels. 2010.29-36. which offers high performance and very low power consumption. A multi frame consists of 51 frames. 8 time slices is a frame.Kale. Issue 2. Figure 1: GSM Architecture D. The main feature of this operation is the ability to communicate with purpose using GSM and GPS. while one instruction is being executed. It is very smart to find the location of emergency of VIP vehicle and get clear path to pass on. Chong hua Li “Automatic Vehicle Identification System based on RFID”. its successor is being decoded. MITIP 2006. As far as TDMA goes. pp 281-284. which makes it ideally suited to high-volume applications with memory restrictions. ARM Processor The ARM7TDMI-S is a general purpose 32-bit microprocessor. which are 890915. pp. The ARM7TDMI-S processor also employs a unique architectural strategy known as Thumb. and the instruction set and related decode mechanism are much simpler than those of micro programmed Complex Instruction Set Computers (CISC). This simplicity results in a high instruction throughput and impressive real-time interrupt response from a small and cost-effective processor core. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) GSM uses Frequency Division Multiplexing AND Time Division Multiplexing. The design and implementation of this technique is directly targeted for traffic management so that emergency vehicle on road get clear way to reach there destination in less time and without any human interruption. and 2048 Super frames make a Hyper frame which is 2715648 frames. The key idea behind Thumb is that of a super-reduced instruction set. Also the condition of patient is monitored and this information is send to the respective doctor so that doctor can prepare for the next process before the patient reach to the hospital. Anti Counterfeiting Security and Identification in Communication (ASID).615ms. lasting for a grand total of 4. April 2013] C. CONCLUSION This system will definitely help to traffic police to give the way to the ambulance when there is heavy traffic on the road. processing and memory systems can operate continuously. i) Mobile station. ISBN 963 86586 5 7. Elisabeth ILIE-ZUDOR “The RFID Technology and Its Current Applications”. 51 multi frames make up a Super frame. et al International Journal of Computer and Electronics Research [Volume 2. The ARM architecture is based on Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) principles. 25 September. consider figure 1. or applications where code density is an issue.Sarika B. The GSM network can be divided into three parts to illustrate this. FDMA divides the frequency ranges for GSM. 935-960 and some others that the book didn't have. ii) Base station subsystem and iii) Network subsystem.

“Performance Evaluation of Vehicle-Based Mobile Sensor Networks for Traffic Monitoring” IEEE transactions on vehicular technology. May 2009. Issue 2. et al International Journal of Computer and Electronics Research [Volume 2. International Islamic University Malaysia. Khalid Al-Khateeb. 4. pp. Johari. Y.Harbans Kaur. no. "Intelligent Traffic Lights Based on RFID". Xu Li. 1647-1653.Hosam Rowaihy “Simulation of Dynamic Traffic control system based on Wireless sensor network”. April 2013] [4] [5] Faisal A. pp 40-45.Krishan Kumar.org ISSN: 2278-5795 Page 142 . Hong-Yu Huang. IEEE Symposium on Computers & Informatics 2011. 58. "Intelligent Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence Using RFID". vol. © http://ijcer.Kale. Pei-En Luo.Nasser. Jaiz A. Wei Shu. Min-You Wu. Al. International Journal of Computing & Business Research.Sarika B. ISSN 2229-6166. [6] [7] Harpal Singh. Minglu Li.