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The Case Against Johnathon Pollard In the last decade, Jonathan Pollard, the American Navy employee who

spied for Israel in the mid-nineteen-eighties and is now serving a life sentence, has become a cause celebre in Israel and among Jewish groups in the nited !tates" The Conference of Presidents of #a$or American Jewish %rgani&ations, a consortium of fifty-five groups, has publicly called for Pollard's release, arguing, in essence, that his crimes did not amount to high treason against the nited !tates, because Israel was then and remains a close ally" #any of the leading religious organi&ations have also called for an end to Pollard's imprisonment, among them the (eform nion of American )ebrew Congregations and the %rthodo* nion" Pollard himself, now forty-seven, has never denied that he turned over a great deal of classified material to the Israelis, but he maintains that his sole motive was to protect Israeli security" +,rom the start of this affair, I never intended or agreed to spy against the nited !tates,+ he told nited !tates -istrict Court Judge Aubrey (obinson,Jr", in a memorandum submitted before his sentencing, in ./01" )is goal, he said, was +to provide such information on the Arab powers and the !oviets that would permit the Israelis to avoid a repetition of the 2om 3ippur 4ar,+ in ./56, when an attac7 by 8gypt and !yria too7 Israel by surprise" +At no time did I ever compromise the names of any "!" agents operating overseas, nor did I ever reveal any "!" ciphers, codes, encipherment devices, classified military technology, the disposition and orders of "!" forces " " " or communications security procedures,+ Pollard added" +I never thought for a second that Israel's gain would necessarily result in America's loss" )ow could it9+ Pollard's defenders use the same arguments today" In a recent op-ed article in the 4ashington Post, the )arvard :aw !chool professor Alan #" -ershowit&, who served as Pollard's lawyer in the early nineteennineties, and three co-authors called for President Clinton to correct what they depicted as +this longstanding miscarriage of $ustice+ in the Pollard case" There was nothing in Pollard's indictment, they added, to suggest that he had +compromised the nation's intelligence-gathering capabilities+ or +betrayed worldwide intelligence data"+ In Israel, Pollard's release was initially championed by the right, but it has evolved into a mainstream political issue" 8arly in the Clinton

there is no distinction between betraying secrets to an enemy. and betraying secrets to an ally" %fficials are loath to tal7 publicly about it.7eep Pollard loc7ed up" Pollard. 2it&ha7 (abin. sensitive details about the secrets Pollard gave away have been made public by C.oth times. with une<uivocal anger" According to the Times. the late Israeli Prime #inister. but spying on allies is a fact of life> the nited !tates invests billions annually to monitor the communications of its friends" #any American embassies around the world contain a clandestine intercept facility that targets diplomatic communications" The goal is not only to 7now the military and diplomatic plans of our friends but also to learn what intelligence they may be receiving and with whom they share information" +If a friendly state has friends that we don't see as friends. such as the !oviet nion.+ one senior official .! and N.en$amin Netanyahu that Pollard's release would not be imminent. or so the Israeli government claimed" 4hen the President's ac<uiescence became publicly 7nown. warned the President that he would be forced to resign from the agency if Pollard were to be released" Clinton then told Prime #inister .ut last %ctober.C" In the course of my own interviews for this account. the officials who 7new the most about Jonathan Pollard made it clear that they were tal7ing because they no longer had confidence that President Clinton would do what they believed was the right thing -. the American intelligence community responded immediately. in which they argued that Pollard's release would be +irresponsible+ and a victory for what they depicted as a +clever public relations campaign"+ !ince then. at a crucial moment in the IsraeliPalestinian peace negotiations at the 4ye (iver Conference Centers. these officials told me. four retired admirals who had served as director of Naval Intelligence circulated an article. in #aryland. and ordered a formal review of the case" The President's willingness to consider clemency for Pollard so upset the intelligence community that its leaders too7 an unusual step> they began to go public" In early -ecember. =eorge J" Tenet. eventually published in the 4ashington Post. had done far more damage to American national security than was ever made 7nown to the public? for e*ample. he did tentatively agree to release Pollard.Administration. Clinton reviewed the evidence against Pollard and decided not to ta7e action" . personally urged the President on at least two occasions to grant clemency" . he betrayed elements of four ma$or American intelligence systems" In their eyes. the director of the Central Intelligence Agency.

was an award-winning microbiologist who taught at Notre -ame" The young boy did not fit in well in !outh . and obtained a civilian position as a research analyst in the .end. and in the ne*t three years he attended several graduate schools without getting a degree" )e applied for a Job with the C"I"A" but was turned down when the agency concluded. sensitive intelligence that it should not possess -. in high school. and members of his family have described his years in public school there as hellish> he made constant complaints of being pic7ed on and./@A and grew up as the youngest of three children in !outh . he attended a summer camp for gifted children in Israel" )e tal7ed then of serving in the Israeli Army.was born in . but at least one of them he sabotaged" In the early nineteen-eighties. and had misrepresented his drug use" Pollard then tried for a $ob with the Navy. #aryland" The $ob re<uired high-level security clearances. who ran an analytical section at !uitland. and. he repeatedly told colleagues far-fetched stories about ties he had with #ossad. :ieutenant Commander -avid =" #uller. Indiana? his father. which 7new nothing about the C"I"A"'s assessment. because he was Jewish" %ne of the boy's happiest times. according to Pollard's superiors.ield %perational Intelligence %ffice. beaten up. his analytical wor7 was e*cellent" 4hile at !uitland. the Israeli foreign-intelligence agency.e*plained. however. and about his wor7 as an operative in the #iddle 8ast" Pollard's bragging and storytelling didn't prevent his immediate supervisors from recogni&ing his competence as an analyst" )e was given many opportunities for promotion. after a liedetector test and other investigations. the family told $ournalists after his arrest. had an opening on his staff and summoned Pollard for an interview" +I had ./51. but instead he finished high school and went on to !tanford niversity" )is !tanford classmates later recalled that he was full of stories about his ties to Israeli intelligence and the Israeli Army" )e also was said to have been a heavy drug and alcohol user" )e graduated in . eventually gave them to Pollard" )is initial assignments dealt with the study of surface-ships systems in non-Communist countries. at the age of si*teen. came when.+ as one official put it. -r" #orris Pollard.end.+can spread to others"+ #any officials said they were convinced that information Pollard sold to the Israelis had ultimately wound up in the hands of the !oviet nion" J%NAT)AN JA2 P%::A(. that he was +a blabbermouth. in !uitland. Jr". and the Navy.such as that supplied by Pollard -.

/06. loan debts. shortly after the terrorist bombing of a #arine barrac7s in . +and said. he had been recruited by Israeli intelligence" )e was arrested a year and a half later.$ust before his appointment" %f course. debts on rent. and on huge bar bills" In late . and even $ewelry" In his pre-sentencing statement to Judge (obinson. Pollard depicted the money as a benefit that was forced on him" +I did accept money for my services. a longtime spy who at the time headed a scientific-intelligence unit in Israel. and he'd spent the wee7end chasing the 7idnappers"+ Pollard said that he had managed to rescue his fiancee +only in the wee hours of #onday morning+ -.respect for him. that +I not only intended to repay all the money I'd received but. Pollard was constantly spending money on meals in e*pensive restaurants. Anne )enderson.riday evening his then fiancee. ')ey. . the intelligence officer said. cars"+ )e was also borrowing heavily from his colleagues. also./0@" Pollard was paid well by the Israelis> he received a salary that eventually reached twenty-five hundred dollars a action that could lead to loss of his topsecret clearances" -espite his chronic financial problems. (afi 8itan./0A.+ #uller recounted" +)e loo7ed as if he hadn't slept or shaved" )e proceeded to tell me that on . meals. Pollard did not get the $ob. and in June. this guy's a wac7o"' + A career American intelligence officer who has been actively involved for years in assessing the damage caused by Pollard told me that Pollard had been desperately bro7e during this period> +)e had creditcard debts.y that summer. who is retired. furniture. in November of . in part to forestall possible garnishment of his wages -. #uller said. however. the Navy set up a high-powered Anti-Terrorist Alert Center at !uitland. but he still wishes that he had warned others" +I ought to have gone to the security people.eirut. on drugs.+ #uller. was going to establish a chair at the Israeli =eneral !taff's Intelligence Training Center outside Tel Aviv"+ .+ he ac7nowledged. and tens of thousands of dollars in cash disbursements for hotels. told me. had been 7idnapped by I"("A" operatives in 4ashington. but only +as a reflection of how well I was doing my $ob"+ )e went on to assert that he had later told his controller.+ #uller recalled recently" +)e 7new a lot about Navy hardware and a lot about the #iddle 8ast"+ An early-#onday-morning interview was set up" +Jay blew in the first thing #onday. Pollard was assigned to that unit's Threat Analysis -ivision" )e had access there to the most up-to-date intelligence in the American government" .

/01.Charles !" :eeper./05. and in . that he had +read all of the material once. twice. is an indefatigable ally. consumed by the idea that he is a victim of anti-semitism and that Israel can rescue him through diplomatic and political pressure"+ Pollard has also turned increasingly to %rthodo* Judaism" )e divorced his wife after her release from prison. challenged his statement that money had not motivated him" In a publicly filed sentencing memorandum. the !ecretary of -efense. and merely noted at the end of a lengthy sentencing hearing./0@E.//D. :eeper said that Pollard was 7nown to have received fifty thousand dollars in cash from his Israeli handlers and to have been told that thirty thousand more would be deposited annually in a foreign ban7 account" Pollard had made a commitment to spy for at least ten years. the Justice -epartment supplied the court with a classified sworn declaration signed by Caspar 4" 4einberger. in #arch. who had been his accomplice. Anne Bthey had married in . . he had been married in prison to a Toronto schoolteacher named 8laine Feit&" 8sther Pollard. the assistant nited !tates attorney who prosecuted Pollard. said nothing in public about the scope of the materials involved in the case. by categories. the $ournalist Peter Perl wrote that even Pollard's friends saw him as +obsessed with vindication.//A proclaimed that. especially about the e*tent of Israeli espionage" After the plea bargain. was convicted of unauthori&ed possession and transmission of classified defense documents and was given a five-year sentence" %nce in $ail. he elected to plea-bargain rather than face a trial" The government agreed with alacrity> no state secrets would have to be revealed. who passionately believes that her husband was wrongfully accused of harming the nited !tates and was therefore wrongfully imprisoned" +This is the 7ind of issue I feel very strongly concerns every Jew and every decent. as she is now 7nown. which detailed. when it came to the topsecret materials that Pollard had passed on to Israel" In mid-. however. in . if you will"+ )e then sentenced Pollard to life in prison" Pollard's wife. we are writing a page of Jewish history"+ .DDDE over the e*pected life of the conspiracy"+ There was no such public specificity. and +stood to receive an additional five hundred and forty thousand dollars BC@AD. Pollard became increasingly fervent in proclaiming his support for Israel" In the 4ashington Post last summer. thrice. the memorandum alleged. law-abiding citi&en.+ she told an interviewer shortly after the marriage" +The issues are much bigger than Jonathan and myself"""" :i7e it or not. some of the intelligence systems that had been compromised" Judge (obinson. under Jewish law. for his part.

but by . :ohbec7 said. according to senior members of the American intelligence community. about his involvement in Pollard's unsuccessful efforts in .! 8vening News" :ohbec7."I" investigators later determined that in the fall of .".+ :ohbec7 added. if as7ed. if necessary. Argentina.!'s main battlefield correspondent in the Afghan war. told me that Pollard had provided him. Pollard posed as a high-level C"I"A" operative" :ohbec7.8!T)8( P%::A(. ac7nowledged in a telephone interview that he was prepared to testify. about Pollard's drug use" +Jay used cocaine heavily. who had a chec7ered past" )e had served seven months in prison after being convicted of passing a bad chec7 in New #e*ico in . who now lives in Albu<uer<ue -. government officials said.Bhe received a full pardon from the governor of New #e*ico two years agoE.urthermore.and her husband s other supporters are mista7en in believing that Jonathan Pollard caused no significant damage to American national security" ./0@ Pollard had also consulted with three Pa7istanis and an Iranian in his efforts to bro7er arms" BThe foreigners were <uietly deported within several months of his arrest"E )ad Pollard's case gone to trial.". and ta*-fraud charges -. drug."I" ./0@. :ohbec7 made similar statements.efore Pollard's plea bargain./55.allegations that before his arrest Pollard had used classified documents in an unsuccessful attempt to persuade the governments of !outh Africa. and thus C. +other than that he tried to portray himself as a (eaganite" Not a word about Israel" Jay's sole interest was in ma7ing a lot of money"+ :ohbec7 went on to say that he had also been prepared to testify. and Taiwan to participate in an arms deal for anti-Communist Afghan rebels who were then being covertly supported by the (eagan Administration" ./0@ he was under contract to the C. and had no compunction about doing it in public" )e'd $ust lay it in lines on the table"+ In . who was then C./0@ to bro7er arms sales for the rebels in the Afghan war" At one meeting with a foreign diplomat. Pollard's argument that he acted solely from idealistic motives and provided Israel only with those documents which were needed for its defense was a sham designed to mas7 the fact that he was driven to spy by his chronic need for money" . one of the government's ma$or witnesses would have been a $ournalist named 3urt :ohbec7. to the . the government had been preparing a multi-count criminal indictment that included-along with espionage.!. with a large number of classified American documents concerning the war" )e also told me that Pollard had never discussed Israel with him or indicated any special feelings for the state" +I never heard anything political from Jay.

the satellites could photograph areas that were seemingly far out of range" Israeli nuclearmissile sites and the li7e. +and there's no doubt the Israelis want to prevent us from being able to surveil their country"+ The data passed along by Pollard included detailed information on the various platforms -.a most sensitive area of intelligence defined as +sources and methods"+ Pollard gave the Israelis vast amounts of data dealing with specific American intelligence systems and how they wor7ed" . and at sea -.its analytical reports and estimates" They also revealed how America was able to learn what it did -.+slowing down"+ It also hindered the nited !tates' ability to recruit foreign agents" Another senior official the air. where they intercepted and translated Israeli signals" %ther interceptions came from an unmanned N"!"A" listening post in Cyprus" Pollard's handing over of the data had a clear impact. would thus be left e*posed. and diplomatic communications" At the time of Pollard's spying. told by me of :ohbec7's assertions. +The level of penetration would convince any self-respecting human source to loo7 for other 7inds of wor7"+ A number of officials strongly suspect that the Israelis repac7aged much of Pollard's material and provided it to the !oviet nion in e*change for continued !oviet permission for Jews to emigrate to Israel" %ther officials go further. and at a specially constructed facility inside the American 8mbassy in Tel Aviv.used by military components of the National !ecurity Agency to intercept Israeli military. the e*pert told me. he betrayed details of an e*otic capability that American satellites have of ta7ing off-a*is photographs from high in space" 4hile orbiting the earth in one direction. 8ngland. for +we could see the whole process+ -. select groups of American sailors and soldiers trained in )ebrew were stationed at an N"!"A" listening post near )arrogate. which would normally be shielded from American satellites.of intelligence collection -. sent a response from a $ail cell in North Carolina> +#y relationship with :ohbec7 is e*tremely complicated" I was never indicted for anything I did with him" (emember that"+ The documents that Pollard turned over to Israel were not focussed e*clusively on the product of American intelligence -.+ one intelligence e*pert told me. with bitterness.or e*ample. and say there was reason to believe that secret information was e*changed for Jews wor7ing in highly .Pollard. commercial. on land. and could be photographed" +4e monitor the Israelis.

including some that described the techni<ues the American Navy used to trac7 !oviet submarines around the world. . who became deputy C"I"A" director in April.ut Casey. Israel.sensitive positions in the !oviet nion" A significant percentage of Pollard's documents.+ =ates said. I was told by the station chief. when 4illiam J" Casey./01./0@. hadn't told Clarridge how he 7new what he 7new" (obert =ates.+ in the form of a document from an Israeli or a !oviet archive -. and he said that Casey had added. the firing locations. former C"I"A" colleagues of Casey's were unable to advance his categorical assertion significantly" -uane Clarridge. a month after Pollard's arrest. and the !oviet nion. the late C"I"A" director. but they also said that the documents that Pollard had been directed by his Israeli handlers to betray led them to no other conclusion" )igh-level suspicions about Israeli-!oviet collusion were e*pressed as early as -ecember. who is now retired" +)e as7ed if I 7new anything about the Pollard case. was of practical importance only to the !oviet nion" %ne longtime C"I"A" officer who wor7ed as a station chief in the #iddle 8ast said he understood that +certain elements in the Israeli military had used it+ -Pollard's material -. told me that Casey had never indicated to him that he had specific information about the Pollard material arriving in #oscow" +The notion that the (ussians may have gotten some of the stuff has always been a viewpoint.+ including Jewish scientists wor7ing in missile technology and on nuclear issues" Pollard's spying came at a time when the Israeli government was publicly committed to the free flow of Jewish emigres from the !oviet nion" The officials stressed the fact that they had no hard evidence -. who was 7nown for his close ties to the Israeli +smo7ing gun. recalled that the C"I"A" director had told him that the Pollard material +goes beyond $ust the receipt in Israel of this stuff"+ . .+ the station chief recalled. stunned one of his station chiefs by suddenly complaining about the Israelis brea7ing the +ground rules"+ The issue arose when Casey urged increased monitoring of the Israelis during an otherwise routine visit. but not through the bartering of emigres" +The only view I heard e*pressed . +. the se<uences" And for guess who9 The !oviets"+ Bboldface mine (oninECasey had then e*plained that the Israelis had traded the Pollard data for !oviet emigres" +)ow's that for cheating9+ he had as7ed" In subse<uent interviews.or your demonstrate the lin7 between Pollard. the Israelis used Pollard to obtain our attac7 plan against the "!"!"(" all of it" The coordinates. who had many close ties to the Israeli intelligence community.+to trade for people they wanted to get out. then in charge of clandestine operations in 8urope.

+ the official said. the official added. !habtai 3almanovitch. officials told me.+ the admiral said" +And they use it very effectively" They do things worth doing.the 3"=". whose $ob at one point was to ease the resettlement of (ussian emigrants in Israel. had an alternative e*planation" )e pointed out that Israel would always play a special role in American national security affairs" +4e give them truc7loads of stuff in the normal course of our official relations. and do what we do not dare to do"+ Nevertheless. in a publicly filed memorandum. +There is no <uestion that the (ussians got a lot of the Pollard stuff" The only <uestion is how did it get there9+ The admiral./05"E It was reasonably assumed in the aftermath of Pollard. the identity of the authors of these classified publications+ was clearly mar7ed" A retired Navy admiral who was directly involved in the Pollard investigation told me. that !oviet spies inside Israel had been used to funnel some of the Pollard material to #oscow" A full accounting of the materials provided by Pollard to the Israelis has . so we suggested+ in the 4einberger affidavit that the possibility e*isted" Caution was necessary. it was understood that the !oviet intelligence services had long since penetrated Israel" B%ne important !oviet spy. li7e (obert =ates. for +fear that the other side would say that 'these people are seeing spies under the bed"' + The Justice -epartment further informed Judge (obinson. I learned from an official who was directly involved. the admiral added. to include a statement about the possible flow of intelligence to the !oviet nion in -efense !ecretary 4einberger's top-secret declaration that was presented to the court before Pollard's sentencing" There was little doubt. and they will go places where we will not go." In any event. +was whether we could prove it was Pollard's material that went over the a<ueduct" 4e couldn't get there. that !oviet intelligence had access to the most secret information in Israel" +The <uestion. he said.was that it was through intelligence operations+ -. that +numerous+ analyses of !oviet missile systems had been sold by Pollard to Israel. was arrested in . and that those documents included +information from human sources whose identity could be inferred by a reasonably competent intelligence analyst" #oreover. there was enough evidence.

Irit 8rb and Joseph 2agur -. and !ella were in 4ashington when Pollard was first sei&ed by the .+ in the words of a Justice -epartment official. and they had been forced to rent an apartment in northwest 4ashington.the stuff of Tom Clancy novels" They often deal with signals intelligence.". the Israeli who controlled the operation./0A. and only a to7en number of the Pollard documents have been returned" It was not until last #ay that the Israeli government even ac7nowledged that Pollard had been its operative" In fact. the government's intelligence e*perts concluded that it was +highly unli7ely. modulation. his Israeli handlers re<uested specific documents. and their world is 7ept in order by an in-house manual 7nown as the (A!IN an acronym for radio-signal notations" The manual. or !I=INT. bombing raid on the Ira<i nuclear reactor at %sira7" B!ella was eventually indicted.been impossible to obtain> Pollard himself has estimated that the documents would create a stac7 si* feet wide. and bandwidth -.orce hero. never to return" -uring one period./0@."I". . in absentia. bu&&es. which were identified only by top-secret control numbers" After much internal assessment. si* feet long. the Israeli government chose not to cooperate fully with the . but they <uic7ly left the country./0. 8itan brought in Colonel Aviem !ella.were named as unindicted co-conspirators by the Justice -epartment" In the summer of . a chronic wannabe" 2agur. on three counts of espionage"E 8itan's decision to order !ella into the case is considered by many Americans to have been a brilliant stro7e> the Israeli war hero was met with starry eyes by Pollard. and ten feet high" (afi 8itan.+ the e*pert told me" The Israelis +got the numbers from somebody else in the "!" government"+ T)8 men and women of the National !ecurity Agency live in a world of chaotic bleeps. that any of the other American spies of the era would have had access to the specific control numbers" +There is only one conclusion. which is classified . despairingly. an Air . and two colleagues of his attached to the Israeli diplomatic delegation -. 8rb. in November. and whistles. it is widely believed that Pollard was not the only one in the American government spying for Israel" -uring his year and a half of spying. who led Israel's dramatic and successful . where they installed a highspeed photocopying machine" +!afe houses and special Gero*es9+ an American career intelligence officer said."I" and Justice -epartment investigation.". Pollard had been handing over documents to them almost wee7ly. spectrums. and tal7 to each other about fre<uencies. concerning the Pollard operation" +This was not the first guy they'd recruited"+ In the years following Pollard's arrest and confession.

ible.those that were 7nown and targeted by the N"!"A" -.+ Judge (obinson inter$ected. found we had an out-of-date version. fre<uency. and significant features of Israeli communications -.+ a former senior watch officer at an N"!"A" intercept site in 8urope told me. I was told by the retired admiral. and passed it on.+ the officer said" +I was surprised we even had it"+ The (A!IN theft was one of the specifics cited in -efense !ecretary 4einberger's still secret declaration to the court before Pollard's sentencing hearing" In fact. as it related to only one thing. (ichard A" )ibey. along with the Justice -epartment attorneys. said that the (A!IN was the ninth item on the 4einberger damageassessment list" After the bench conference. and he described its function in easy-to-understand terms> . +with reference to one particular category of publication.+ fills ten volumes. because the copy that Pollard photocopied belonged to the %ffice of Naval Intelligence" +)e went into our library. and the group spent a few moments reviewing what government officials told me was 4einberger's account of the importance of the (AI!IN" %ne Justice -epartment official.+top-secret mbra. re<uested a new one. recalling those moments with obvious pleasure. but added that he did supervise people who constantly used it. and I fail to see how you can ma7e that argument"+ )e invited )ibey to approach the bench. is constantly updated. )ibey refused to discuss the case for this article"E The ten volumes of the (A!IN were available on a need-to-7now basis inside the N"!"A" +I've never seen the monster.+ one former communications-intelligence officer told me" +It tells how we collect signals anywhere in the world"+ The site. and lists the physical parameters of every 7nown signal" Pollard too7 it all" +It's the . readily ac7nowledged his client's guilt but argued that the e*tent of the damage to American national security did not call for the imposition of a ma*imum sentence" +I would as7 you to thin7 about the !ecretary of -efense's affidavit.were in the (A!IN? so were all the 7nown communications lin7s used by the !oviet nion" The loss of the (A!IN was especially embarrassing to the Navy. the hearing's most dramatic moment came when Pollard's attorney. )ibey made no further attempt to minimi&e the national-security damage caused by its theft" BCiting national security.

they could relocate the signal and force the N"!"A" to invest man-hours and money to try to recapture it" %r. the government has consistently lied in its public version of what I gave the Israelis"+ .information referred to in the N"!"A" as 'parametric data"' It tells you everything you want to 7now about a particular signal -. whom it was first used by. he e*plained. wavelength.the fireside coo7boo7 of cryptology" Not only the analyses but the facts of how we derived our analyses" 4hatever recipe you want"+ Pollard. as many in the American intelligence community suspected.+It is a complete catalogue of what the nited !tates was listening to. told me. and this+ -. had been focussed in particular on the !oviet nion and its thousands of high-fre<uency. and e*actly how we're e*ploiting !oviet communicationsH+ the retired admiral e*claimed" +It's a how-to-do-it boo7 -. and where. +As far as !I=INT information is concerned. communications. what 7ind of entity. as7ed about the specific programs he compromised. the !oviet communications e*perts had been able to learn which of their signals were being monitored.tells where the biases and the wea7nesses are" It's how we get the $ob done.+ the career intelligence officer e*plained to me" +4e've got holes in our coverage. the !oviets could continue to communicate in a normal fashion but relay false and misleading information" Pollard's betrayal of the (A!IN put the N"!"A" in the position of having to <uestion or reevaluate all of its intelligence collecting" +4e aren't perfect. and how we will get the $ob done"+ +4hat a wonderful insight into how we thin7. fre<uency. more li7ely. or shortwave. or could listen to -.the loss of the (A!IN -.when it was first detected and where. which had enabled (ussian military units at either end of the huge land mass to communicate with each other" Those signals +bounced+ off the ionosphere and were often best intercepted thousands of miles from their point of origin" If. or band length it has" 4hen you've copied a signal and don't 7now what it is. the (A!IN manual gives you a description"+ A senior intelligence official who consults regularly with the N"!"A" on technical matters subse<uently told me that another issue involved geometry" A senior intelligence official who consults regularly with the N"!"A" on technical matters subse<uently told me that another issue involved geometry" The (A!IN.

and submarines operating in the #editerranean" The Navy's primary targets were the ships. had complained twice about the missed messages and had as7ed him to find a way to retrieve them" Pollard told his American interrogators that he had never missed again" The career intelligence officer who helped to assess the Pollard damage has come to view Pollard as a serial spy.leet %cean !urveillance Information .+message by message. which was responsible for monitoring and decoding military and diplomatic communications all across North Africa" #any at (ota spent hundreds of hours a month listening while loc7ed in top-secret compartments aboard American ships./0@ the Israelis had nagged him when he missed several days of wor7 because of illness and had failed to deliver the . the Ted . the aircraft.the intelligence -.%!I.In the mid-nineteen-eighties. and correlate it" They could not only piece together our sources and methods but also .E in (ota. most important.+ the officer told me recently. as the senior managers understood it. reports from (ota" Pollard himself told the Americans that at one point in . !pain. was one of America's Cold 4ar staples" A top-secret document filed every morning at D0DD Fulu time B=reenwich #ean TimeE. whose nuclear missiles were aimed at nited !tates forces. on data supplied both by intelligence agents throughout the #iddle 8ast and by the most advanced technical means of intercepting !oviet military communications" The Navy's intelligence facility at (ota shared space with a huge N"!"A" intercept station. it reported all that had gone on in the #iddle 8ast during the previous twenty-four hours. aircraft.%!I. Joseph 2agur.%!I. and. the daily report from the Navy's !i*th . the nuclear-armed submarines of the !oviet nion on patrol in the #editerranean" Those submarines. referring to the Israelis" +They could analy&e it+ -. occupied by more than seven hundred linguists and cryptographers.undy of the intelligence world" +Pollard gave them every message for a whole year. reports for those days" %ne of his handlers.acility B. as recorded by the N"!"A"'s most sophisticated monitoring devices" The reports were renowned inside Navy commands for their sophistication and their reliability? they were based. were constantly being trac7ed? they were to be targeted and destroyed within hours if war bro7e out" Pollard's American interrogators eventually concluded that in his year and a half of spying he had provided the Israelis with more than a year's worth of the daily .

which was comparatively primitive in the midnineteen-eighties -. and how we approach a problem" All of a sudden. particularly in ) #INT -human intelligence" #any Americans who went to the #iddle 8ast for business or political reasons agreed.orce.could not be accessed by specific issues or 7ey words but spewed out vast amounts of networ7ed intelligence data by time frame" Nevertheless. are always eager to help. and you got us by the balls"+ In other words./0A and . officials involved in the Pollard investigation recounted that Pollard had once collected so much data that he needed a handcart to move the papers to his car. and in one instance he relied on the library security guards" 4ith some chagrin. to be debriefed by American defense attaches after their visits" They were promised anonymity -. and the priority of those tas7s./0@ was Jonathan Pollard" )e had all the necessary clearances and necessary credentials to gain access to the classified Pentagon library? he also understood that librarians. gave the Israelis +a road map on how to circumvent+ the various American collection methods and shield an ongoing military operation" The reports provide guidance on +how to 7eep us asleep.+ he added" +They tell the Israelis how to raid Tunisia without tipping off American intelligence in advance" That is damage that is persistent and severe"+ N%T every document handed over by Pollard dealt with signals intelligence" -IA:-C%IN! is the acronym for the -efense Intelligence Agency's Community %n-:ine Intelligence !ystem. -IA:-C%IN! contained all the intelligence reports filed by Air .+ the officer said" +:i7e handing you the address boo7 of the spoo7s for a year"+ =overnment investigators discovered that one of the system's heaviest users in . there is no mystery" These are the things we can't change" 2ou got this. +It was full of great stuff. as loyal citi&ens.many had close friends inside Israel and the nearby Arab states who would be distressed by their collaboration -.learn how we thin7. and #arine attaches in Israel and elsewhere in the #iddle 8ast" %ne official who had been involved with it told me recently. in a nearby par7ing lot. given to various N"!"A" collection . which was one of the government's first computeri&ed information-retrieval-networ7 systems" The system.and the reports were classified" +It's who's tal7ing to whom. Navy. and the security guards held the doors for him" Pollard also provided the Israelis with what is perhaps the most important day-to-day information in signals intelligence> the National !I=INT (e<uirements :ist. thin7ing all is wor7ing well. even in secret libraries. the (ota reports. when carefully studied. Army. which is essentially a compendium of the used an 0D00 operating chip and thermafa* paper -.

eventually concluded that the Israeli planners had synergistically combined the day-to-day insights of the !I=INT (e<uirements :ist with the strategic intelligence of the .orce or a Navy !eal team.orces +change our emphasis"+ In other words. to provide instantaneous electronic coverage of the target area" In addition. the target of the coverage would be 7nown" +If we're going to bomb Ira<.someone in the intelligence community -+as7ed for specific coverage. tele*es.%!I. was inserted into hostile territory or hostile waters" !ometimes the N"!"A"'s re<uests were less comprehensive> a 8uropean or #iddle 8astern business suspected of selling chemical arms to a potential adversary might be placed on the N"!"A" +watch list+ and its fa*es. such as the Army's -elta . he added. which was surprised by the operation. 7illing at least si*ty-seven people" The nited !tates.efore a bombing mission.+ a former N"!"A" operative told me" +If a customer+ -.orce bombed the head<uarters of the Palestine :iberation %rgani&ation in Tunisia. +had no idea what he gave away"+ The results of President Clinton's re<uested review of the Pollard case by officials in the intelligence community and other interested parties were to be presented to the 4hite )ouse by January .units around the world"" A former Justice -epartment official told me. reports and other data that Pollard provided to completely outwit our government's huge collection apparatus in the #iddle 8ast" 8ven Pollard himself..+ a senior specialist subse<uently told me" +It's a tipoff where the American emphasis is going to be"+ 4ith the :ist. the Israelis +could see us move our collection systems+ prior to military action. and other communications carefully monitored" The (e<uirements :ist is +li7e a giant to-do list. the specialist added. we will shift the system. for e*ample. the senior official told me. and eventually come to understand how the nited !tates Armed . a nited !tates satellite might be re-deployed. at enormous financial cost. +Nobody can believe that any President would have the gall to release this 7ind of spy"+ . +and could e*tend up to today"+ Israel made dramatic use of the Pollard material on %ctober ./0@. N"!"A" field stations would be ordered to begin especially intensive monitoring of various military units in the target nation" !pecial N"!"A" coverage would also be ordered before an American covert military unit. . Israel +could ma7e our intelligence system the prime target+ and hide whatever was deemed necessary" +The damage goes past Jay's arrest. seven wee7s before his arrest.ut as the report was being prepared the nature of the <uestions that the 4hite )ouse was referring to the Justice -epartment convinced some . when its Air .+ the specialist said. it would be on a list that is updated daily"+ That is.

give us a list of what you've got.ill Clinton as a facilitator who would not hesitate to trade Pollard to the Israelis if he thought that would push Israel into a peace settlement and result in a foreign-policy success" The officials emphasi&e that they support Clinton's efforts to resolve the #iddle 8ast crisis but do not thin7 it is appropriate to use Pollard as a bargaining chip" Adding to their dismay." C" (uff. and the issue doesn't cause any trouble" And getting the nited !tates to bend would be a serious victory for Israel"+ A senior intelligence official whose agency was involved in preparing the report for the 4hite )ouse told me. warned the President that Pollard's release would enrage and demorali&e the intelligence community" +4hat he got bac7.+ the official told me.+ one distraught career intelligence official told me" The deal believed to be under consideration would provide for his release. somewhat facetiously. +was ' the eyes of the 4hite )ouse" +Pollard doesn't get out right away. in the summer of IDDI" The solution had a certain +political beauty. with time off for good behavior. the 4hite )ouse counsel" +Pollard would get half a loaf. provide the nited !tates with a complete list of the documents that were turned over to it" !ome members of the intelligence community view themselves today as waging a dramatic holding action against a President who they believe is eager to split the difference with the Israelis on Pollard's fate" They see . when he was considering 2it&ha7 (abin's re<uest for clemency. second. but from Charles . some officials made clear. the C"I"A" director.+ the official added -. 7nows as much as anyone in the nited !tates government about the significance of Pollard's treachery" %ne informed official described a private moment at the 4ye peace summit when =eorge Tenet. is the fact that Clinton himself. such as commuting Pollard's life sentence to twenty-five years in prison" The <ueries about commutation were coming not from (oger Adams.irst. the President's pardon attorney.intelligence officials that Clinton was considering a compromise. tell us what you did with it"+ !uch answers are unli7ely to be forthcoming" The Israeli government has ac7nowledged that Pollard was indeed spying on its behalf but has refused -. having studied the case years ago. don't worry about it" It'll blow over"' + . that he would drop all ob$ections to Pollard's immediate release if the Israeli government would answer two <uestions> +.despite constant entreaties -.

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