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Africa of today is indeed a dark continental with darkness getting manifested in all spheres of its existence or the lack of it, considering the fact that the rest of the world seems hardly concerned with the collapse of the continent. It seems world opinion is more directed towards the effects of terrorism and the acts of the hegemon but is ignorant about the millions of silent deaths occuring in Africa due to a host of factors be it low economic growth bringing poverty, civil strife and intra armed conflict among the tribes, escalating the number of deaths as well as of the refugees, epidemics o the all encompassing AIDS or the failure of democratic traditions leading to human rights violations. All these is further aggravated by the natural calamities drought and desertification snatching the base necessities of human survival. It is in this context the paper tries to evaluate the

diplomatic initiative of the African statesmen - the African union, a forum for multilateral diplomacy about how they are going to confront the challenges to their survived and

whether it is ust an idea in paper having severe limitations getting short of its expectations.

Present Africa
!any of the ills that affect today can be seen in the internal failures. Africa has rich sources of mineral wealth " i.e. it has #$% of world&s platinum, '$% of worlds uranium ( . Instead of producing manufactured goods, post independent countries of Africa concentrated on export of primary

products which have fluctuating prices in the world market. )his was further affected by droughts, the oil crisis of (*+$s which pushed their external debt. ,nd of cold-war cost

them Soviet -nion as an ally. .hen I!/ and the .orld 0ank came forward to tackle the debt crisis, it launched a programme called the structural ad ustment programme according to which debtor nations& resources will be used to produce exports to be sold for dollars that can be used to pay debts under the condition that the former have to reduce or eliminate subsidies and price controls. )heir universal application without any regard of the special circumstances of each country or reasons behind their
1Africa in a 2hanging .orld3 Journal of the USI of India , 4ol. 2555II 6o. 7'#, April-8une 9$$9.

6o. Asians also stealB so do others. . ad ustment and the politics of effective response to CI4DAIDS in Africa3 Third World Quarterly . Analyst /antu 2heru says that these programmes had a regressive impact on human development and eopardi:ed the right to food. As Aodfrey !wakikagile argues that. they invest more in national developmental pro ects far more than the Africans. there is an urgent need of a strong state for nation building which is not the case in Africa. )he reason behind this is tribalism which divides one tribe from another. 1many African leaders have been busy stealing and have simply led their countries rot. breeds dictatorship and also identifies elites who when ac. 4ol. )hat is why South <orea. /antu 1Debt. but relatively speaking.balance of payment difficulties have resulted in their failure further deteriorating the debt crisis.uire power direct their hatred to other tribes. <enya in (**9-*= witnessed state sponsored violence directed against ethnic <ikuyu. 9$$9. whose per 9 2heru. 9. 9=. 9 At this uncture. @ise of dictatorship have led to the growth of corruption. >uo and >uhya farmers? so did @wanda in (**' and against Ibos in 6orthern 6igeria. education and health as government subsidies to the social sectors were curtailed under the programmes.

Aodfrey.capita income E(9$FG was lower than Hambia EF9$$G in (*I+ has now a per capita income of more than F(=. = Another aspect of African problem is about the state of democrati:ation expressed in multi-party elections. most African countries moved away from single party political systems there are also is indications fraying at that the the process )he of democrati:ation edges. It was them. the donor countries started putting down condition to conduct multi-party elections reinstating democracy. )he sailing was smooth till the economic crisis of the +$s. accountability and respect for human rights. Kost independents African nations were ruled by single parties due to the immediate needs for keeping the multi ethnic population together. western countries are democratic because democracy is the political order which has emerged from several centuries of economic and political changes at the most effective and legitimate system of political accountability. 3 . 9$$(G. The Modern African State E6ew Lork. 0ut in Africa !wakikagile. Although between (*#*-*'.$$$ whereas Hambia&s is a mere F'$$J. following public unrest state repression increased.

)herefore elections here have become as one of the many instruments of factional mobili:ation. 6igerian peace initiative which ended the civil war in >iberiaG Some countries have introduced innovative political instruments to tackle the ethnicity problem .there was no such tradition which was in-fact a tribal society and the donor induced system was seen as the price to pay for continued financial assistance rather as the political modality that would bring development. the 2airo Agenda for Action @elaunching Africa&s economic @ecovery. +#E=G 8uly 9$$9. the <hartoum Declaration on human centred development.uagmire have come from within Africa as many African states and statesman have taken various initiatives collectively E>agos plan of Action.uest for good government and development in Africa3. the diplomacy to remove Africa from this . Katrick 1)he . Mwing to such factors.stablishing the African .conomic community.apart from decoloni:ation and apartheid have not been able to respond the above issues. 6. the treaty . ' )he MA.KADG or individually ESouth African victory on the importing of AIDS drug. International Affairs . 4ol. .convening of a sovereign ' 2habal.

. . !ay 9$$9. 7 2oming from this.uiet one is the formation of the African -nion. and such as polyethnic federalism .national conference in 0enin.uropean union to confront the challenges and issues discussed above.bere 1Africa&s Mther Story3.uropean 2ommunity.thiopia 1party-less3 democracy in -ganda. one of the most significant development and a smooth and . the institution of new forms in of government. the implementation of three tier federalism and federal character principles in 6igeria. >ater it shifted 5 to a more structural one laying emphasis on Mnwudiwe. conventional neo-classical theory describes economic integration as a means of expanding economic opportunities through speciali:ation based on comparative advantage of economics of scale. 0y freeing trade economic growth through traditional Infact customs union was seen as development. which brings all the African nations Eexcept oneG under its umbrella in the lines of the . Why the affinity for Regional Integration? )he first examples of regional integration among developing countries in the 7$s was to the reaction of the formation of . Current History .

eastern western and southern regions of Africa. .hite.. (**'G.ast African colonies had a common currency and services I Axline. 0rain et al EedG Issues in World Politics E6ew Lork. central.ith respect to Africa it was during the (* th century colonisation government that integrative arrangements came up to in 6orthern. there is more close interactions within members of the group than with the outside world? and thirdly. Secondly.industriali:ation. The Political Economy of Re ional Coo!eration E>ondon. with common negotiating positions in larger international forums. /or example. there is the emergence of an organi:ation in the region giving a structural framework for further integration. !ichael 1@egions and @egionalism3 in .e. . 9$$(G. + /irst. . there is a common historical experience and shared problems among the group. 0ut this created underdevelopment calling for focused efforts at regional cooperation towards the adoption of a common front through regional policies as a from of collective self reliance i. 7 Smith. I !ichael Smith puts forward three central elements to regional integration Eby Stubbs and -nderhillG. Andrew EedG. the 0ritish .

Africa Quarterly .est African States. 9 .uropean . 9$$(. * Genesis of AU:Since the time of <wame 6krumah.which came up in (*I=. South African Development 2ouncil. the .AS.conomic 2ommunity of . of So the need to accept further the by neo the )he model of the integration fuelled . At present there are more than (7$ of such organi:ation in Africa e.ditorial. '( E=G. SAD2.sharing arrangements. -A!. administered as a federal unit with a common currency? the 0elgian colonies in central Africa permitted free movement of factors of production? portuguese colonies were integrated with the metropolitan economy. 4ol. 2ommon !arket for . seleou toure. 2M!.2M.g. Caile selassie and 8ulius 6yerere influenced the great # . 8omo <enyatta.SA. the .conomic 2ommunity. .est African /rench colonies.astern and Southern Africa. the -nion of the Arab !aghreb union. # In Africa need for regional integration was realised in the immediate aftermath of its independence post colonial Africa was a deeply disintegrated continent of small countries with fragmented national markets and were too small to become economically functional success viable. structural framework was provided by the MA.

ideas of pan-Africanism. N)he 6ew African -nion and its constitutive Act3 American Journal of International "a# 4ol. shaba rebellion attempted invasion of HaireG. the invasion of 0enin. mobili:ation. African leaders adopted the >agos plan of Action and /inal Act in which they expressed their firm commitment to established an African . MA. Mn 8une =.conomic 2ommunity by the year 9$$$. ($ 0y (*##. 9$$9. and the Mgaden war against Somalia. Abu a signed the )reaty establishing the African . eradication of colonialism and establishment of the independence of African nation was completed.estern /rance.conomic 2ommunity to create a framework for the development. 0ut the economic series in the region has become acute.soon failed in its attempt as it became a competing forum between power blocks with no political unity. the notion of united states of Africa had remained an elusive dream. In April (*#$. thirty-four African leaders meeting in the new 6igerian capital. and utili:ation of African human and material resource in an ($ Kacker and @ukare. *I. !auritania. (**(. . It was week and disunited by the dispute over .G Sahara the Einvolving Algeria. Ethe !orocco.

11 .7 dollars to the MA. 9$$ (***. . /ebruary (**+. 2M!. '.annual meeting of foreign ministers in )ripoli. (( It formally came into existence in !ay (**' wherein it recommended the establishment of an African union and a Kan-African Karliament. In the meantime aggressive calls for the formation of an African union was first put forward in the MA. >ibya is taken seriously by African leaders.9 million dollars to cover the membership dues of (( countries. It has been reported that >ibya paid F 9.2M.AS. )his development was further augmented by South African Kresident. >ibya reciprocated by paying F'. . 6o. )habo !beki&s effort 2alls for creating a free trade area in each of the four regional communities of the -!A.SA.hen Himbabwe faced an acute fuel shortage recently. where Oadhafi was not able to get enough support for the >ockerbie case from the Arab leaders. >ibya helped it out. he shifted his attention to pan-African unity triggered by the African support towards >ibya as it was proclaimed in the MA.effort to achieve continental self the >ibyan leader !uammar Oadhafi. 1>ibya&s Diplomatic Success in Africa3 $i!lomacy and Statecraft 4ol. 12 @onen. SAD2G. (=. Lehudi. (9 As an economic heavy weight.

KAD E6ew Kartnership for Africa&s DevelopmentG in the lines of the !arshall plan asking the west to invest in the African economies in return for accountability democracy and a commitment to human rights from the African nations. )he . What it is? )he organisation is modeled after the . So all these led to the establishment of the African -nion on * 8uly. the 2ourt of 8ustice.conomic Social and 2ultural 2ouncil and the /inancial Institution. the Kan-African Karliament.xecutive 2ouncil. the 2ommission the Kermanent @epresentatives 2ommittee. )he important distinction with MAis that it will have the right to intervene in the affairs of member states and investigate cases of war crimes and genocide. NEPAD: ..called 6. 9$$9 at a summit meeting of heads of state and government held in Durban. the Speciali:ed )echnical 2ommittees. the . In order to obtain its ob ectives it has set up several organs " )he Assembly of the union.with goals to foster prosperity and democracy through social economic and regional integration. South Africa.

9$$(. protect democracy and human rights? and maintain regulatory macroeconomic frameworks for stability. )he ob ectives put forward by the African leaders include maintain peace by preventing conflicts. sustainable time. that they have a pressing duty to eradicate poverty and and to place on a at their path the countries.($+. 4ol. technical training and health services. '(. p. of both individually growth and collectively.KAD document. Its stated aim is to achieve the overall + percent annual growth necessary for Africa to meet one of the 13 6.)he 6ew Kartnership for Africa&s Development is a pledge by African leaders based on a common vision and a firm and shared conviction. 6o. (= )he central focus is to establish a type of partnership with the international community particularly the highly industriali:ed countries to bridge the development gap. to development and same participate actively in the world economy and body politic. financial institute legal markets and audit of private companies and the public sector? and to extend provision of education.'. Africa Quarterly . particularly to the problem of CI4DAIDS. .

6. by )habo !beki.KAD emerged from three parallel initiatives launched in 9$$$-9$$(.xecutive Secretary of the -. Second was the M!.ade to focus on regional infrastructural and educational pro ects. /irst was the !illenium Kartnership for Africa&s @ecovery Krogramme E!KA@KG.!illenium Development Aoals E!DAsG halving poverty by 9$(7. All three was clubbed together in a oint conference of Africa&s minister of finance and economic planning in !DAs were established by the -6 Aeneral Assembly at its !illenium session as targets for the promotion of human development.AA Klan of Senegal&s president Abdoulaye . <.to Kresident !beki. (' 6. 14 . (7 )he mandate was given by the MA. along with Kresident Mlusegun Mbasan o of 6igeria and Kresident Abdela:i: 0outeflika of Algeria to investigate how to overcome debt crisis.conomic 2ommission for Africa. Amoako. 15 !A@K is designed to present a common front when Africa deals with the developed world.L. seek aid and investment in return for good governance. )hird was the 2ompact for African @ecovery initiated by the . in response to a decision by African ministers of finance to a decision by African ministers of finance in late 9$$$. .

Alex De .aal says that Africa has )aylor and 6eil.assembly. )here is no Acontrol. 4ol. It is trying to challenge 6orth at its own game e. globali:ation and the confines of elite reformism3. it is ust responsible to the A. 6o. in a meeting of the group of seven industriali:ed nations and @ussia Ethe A-#G welcomed the formation of 6.KAD. 1 Third World Quarterly 3.KAD and adopted an African Action Klan in support of the initiative. 9$$9.(. )he significance of it is that it is not accusing the west for its state. (I In order to avoid >ibyan influence and bureaucratic maneuvering in the A-. India and 0ra:il have since (**7 been consistently among the main initiators of anti- dumping measures against 6orthern exporters. 16 .g. RE !ECTION": !any analysts have argued about the effectiveness of the -nion because there are several shortcomings which are needed to overcome. 9=.KAD. rather engaging the developed world on its own terms arguing for liberali:ation and free trade and for globali:ation. 16ew Africa. South Africa.Algiers in !ay 9$$( as the new African Initiative and later renamed as 6. In 8une 9$$9. over 6. let alone veto.

which is further to see aggravated whether by proper the AIDS /urther political governance is practiced will be demanding. *I. (+ !oreover. As it lacks any provision for financing. 4ol.KAD3. the . 17 .took about 7$ years to grow to its present successful stature under circumstances very dissimilar to Africa. 18 Kacker and @ukare. American Journal of International "a# . effective institution pandemic. 2hillers and Sturman argue that the maintenance of peace and conflict prevention will be difficult as African military capabilities are very limited.hat&s new in the 6. (# Integration experts like Amitai .insufficient capacity in terms of human capital. in the case of Himbabwe African heads of state failed to pass udgements on the electoral EmalG practices of their peer. De .which was plagued by arrears problem..aal. lack of administrative and political skills. it might reach the same fate as MA. and preoccupation with problems of domestic moderni:ation are inimical to successful integration efforts in developing countries which is what is prevalent in Africa.t:ioni argue that factors such as limited hori:on. 0ecause as recently. 4ol. +# E=G 8uly. 9$$9. 9$$9. Alex 1. )hese are several of the constraints in front of the A-. 16ew African -nion and its 2onstitutive Act3. International Affairs . Also there is no provision for a standby force of the A-.


Katrick 1A few considerations on democracy in Africa3 International Affairs . @onen. Mnwudiwe. +'. 7. )he . 9$$9. '. ' th Ouarter. Current History . Ailliers. 9.#I#!IOGRAP$%: Articles: (. !ay 9$$9.conomic 2ommunityQ Kroblems and Krospects3 Africa Today . December 9$$9. (**#. (**7. =. Lehudit 1>ibya&s Diplomatic Success in AfricaQ )he @eemergence of Oaddhafi on the International Stage3 $i!lomacy and State Craft . African Security Re%ie# . . 4ol. 1)he @ight interventionQ enforcement challenges for the African -nion3. I. <waku 1)he African . <athryn.(= E'G. 4ol.9. 2habal.bere 1Africa&s Mther Story3. 8akkie P Sturman. American Journal of International "a# . Danso. 1)he 6ew African union and its 2onstitutive Act3. (( E9G.

'(. #. <. (=. Africa Quarterly . 4ol 2555II 6o. 9$$(.'( E=G. 1)he African -nion " a 6ew Dawn for Africa3 The International and Com!arati%e "a# Quarterly . 4ol.+#E=G. 6o. DocumentQ African -nionQ 2onstitutive Act EA-2AG. Abdal !ahmood Afdalhalum !ohammad in Journal of the united Ser%ice Institution of India . 10irth of the African -nion EA-G. Africa Quarterly .uest for good government and development in AfricaQ Is 6.+.1@egional 2ooperation and Development in Africa3 editorial. (9. *. April-8une 9$$9. Aion 8. 4ol. April. . /iro:e and M&coill. 1)he missionary positionQ 6AMs and development in Africa3 ibid. Alex. ('. 9$$9. 7'#. 7(. 2arl. 8anuary-8une 9$$(.orld3.2habal.all. 8uly 9$$9. Katrick 1)he .(-9. !agliveras.!an i. 4ol. <onstantinos D.xcerpt of the talk given by the Ambassador of Sudan. 1. Ibid. and 6aldi.hat&s new in the 16ew Kartnership for Africa&s Development3 Ibid. .1Africa in a 2hanging . 4ol. ((. ($.KAD the answerR International Affairs . !athews.De .

African Kublishing 2ompanyG (*+I. '( E'G.DocumentQ )he 6ew Kartnership for Africa&s Development E6.9 E9$$9G. 9$. (#. 9=. 0erhanykun. 1Debt. 9$$9.)aylor. ad ustment and the politics of effective response to CI4DAIDS in Africa3. Satish 2. 9$$(. and Mkolie.KADG Ibid.2heru.. getting the strategy wrong3 Third World Quarterly . August 9. Ian and 6el. /antu. 9$$9. (*. .(. 6o. vol.2herian 8ohn 1African -nion Arrives3 (rontline .!ehta.conomics3 ibid. globali:ation and the confines of elite reformismQ Ngetting the rhetoric rightG&. 9=. Andrew 2 1)he Aatt -ruguay round Agreements and their implication for Sub-Saharan African . E6ew Lork.xperience and /uture Kromise3. (I. 9(.(7. 4ol. Ifeanyi 2. Khilip 16ew Africa. 6o. (+. in The &AU and the U' by Andemicael. 4ol. Third World Quarterly .12harter of the Mrgani:ation of African -nity3.:eonu. 1African -nificationQ Kast . Africa Quarterly .

Book: (. . Re ional Coo!eration E>ondon Krinter KublishersG (**'. Andrew Eed. 9( Aug. 2ervenka. .orld E Euro!a . >ibrary of 2ongressG 9$$(. Hdenek. 7. '. !ichael 1@egions and @egionalism3 in . 6orth Africa and the Arab . !wakikagile. 9. The Unfinished Quest for unity* Africa and the &AU E>ondon. 9$$9. 8ulian /riedman KublishersG. 9$$=G..G The Political Economy of E6ew Lork..1Keace )alks buoy Africans3 International Herald Tri)une .hite. (*++. =. KalgraveG 9$$(.99. Smith. Axline. 0rian et al EedG Issues in World Politics . Aodfrey The Modern African State* Quest for Transformation E6ew Lork.