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• Introduction • Some figures to introduce the subject • Successively for coarse and fine grinding
– – – – – – How grinding balls are wearing Parameters to take into account concerning the impacts Deformation of grinding balls Grinding balls of tomorrow Several words about metallurgy Quality criteria of grinding balls

• (Generations of grinding balls) • Maintenance of grinding ball charges

Figures
Diameter (mm) (inch) Weigth (gr) Surface (cm2) Nbr balls Specific surface per mt m2/mt

90 80 77 70 64 60 50 40 38 35 31.75 30 25 23 22.22 20 17 15

3

1/2"

3" 2 " 2" 1 " 1 " 1" 7/8" 3/4" 5/8"
1/4 1/2 1/2

2,916.841 2,048.590 1,826.658 1,372.396 1,048.878 864.249 500.144 256.074 219.551 171.549 128.061 108.031 62.518 48.682 43.895 32.009 19.658 13.504

254.469 201.062 186.265 153.938 128.680 113.097 78.540 50.265 45.365 38.485 31.669 28.274 19.635 16.619 15.511 12.566 9.079 7.069

342.837 488.141 547.448 728.653 953.400 1,157.074 1,999.424 3,905.121 4,554.750 5,829.238 7,808.779 9,256.602 15,995.393 20,541.473 22,781.638 31,241.213 50,869.875 74,052.133

8.724 9.815 10.197 11.217 12.268 13.086 15.703 19.629 20.662 22.434 24.730 26.172 31.407 34.138 35.336 39.259 46.186 52.344

Figures The composition of the ball charges plays a major role in the grinding energy consumption:
• particle size distribution of the feed • hardness of the feed other factors like
• motion of the charge • % of moisture • % of slag, pozzolana, ... • open/closed circuit

Figures Costs related to grinding media • grinding media consumption • energy consumption • grinding media charges removing and sorting .

Figures Characteristics and quality of the media : • excellent wear resistance • adapted impact resistance • excellent resistance to deformation • manufacturing quality irreproachable and constant .

BALL CHARGES FOR COARSE GRINDING CHAMBERS .

Reduction from feed size between 0 and 5 to 100 mm down to product size 100 % < 1 to 2 mm Ball diameter 110 mm .50 mm Working conditions Medium to high abrasivity Medium to high impact level .

Abrasion of ground material 2. “Dry“ corrosion 5. Fatigue due to repeated impacts 4. Internal foundry defects .Wear factors NORMAL 1. Deformation ABNORMAL 6. Excessive work hardening 7. Friction between balls 3.

Fatigue due to repeated impacts causes “MICRO-CHIPPING” slight chipping at the surface of the grinding media due to the hardness of the material .Wear factors 3.

05 0.1 0.03 0.GRINDING BALLS WEAR ABRASION + CHIPPING 1 0.01 Violence of impacts Clinker .9 Wear rate in mm/100h 0.

Excessive work hardening causes “SCALING” chipping on an important depth at the surface of the balls leading to the destruction of the balls .Wear factors 6.

Fatigue due to repeated impacts . “Dry“ corrosion 4.Wear factors 1. Abrasion of material to be ground 2. Friction between balls 3.

High Cr cast iron grinding ball martensitic matrix Chromium carbides unstable phase .

Grinding balls wear Abrasion Hardness of ground material < Hardness of balls low wear of balls .

Grinding balls wear Abrasion Hardness of ground material > Hardness of balls high wear of balls .

cast iron) 500 600 Martensite fx(C) Silex 7 Quartz 8 Topaz Fondu Grenat Hardness scales related to the Mohs’scale Fe3C 1430 1200-1600 (FeCr)7C3 1500 Mo2C 1800 1500-2000 2400 3700 10000 (FeCr)23C6 WC B4C/NbC 9 Corundum 10 Diamond .Mohs Scale Other minerals Coal 1 Talc 2 Gypsum 3 Calcite 4 Fluorite Knoop Hardness (+Shore) 20 35 40 124 136 216 (32) 175 235 305 (58) Vickers Hardness (HV) Metallic structures Rc Hardness HB (3TÆ30) 5 Apatite Glas 6 Orthoclase Clinker 435 455 ~ 550 (72) 620 (84) 500-800 820 (98) ~ 840 1025 1330 1735 1800 2020 1800 2800 7575 36 110 140 200 190 70-200 170-230 300-460 318 423 440 300-600 544 640 740 500-1010 950 1020 110 200 (11) (13) (5-18) 30-45 43 44 30-55 48 51 60 (48) 65 68 (712) 301 400 Ferrite Austenite (12%Mn) Pearlite (alloyed) Austenite (Cr.

WEAR as a relation of the ratio existing between the hardness of the ABRASIVE (material to be ground) and the “WEAR RESISTING” MATERIAL Ha/Hm Wear or Abrasivity (friction wear essentially) Ha/Hm 0 1 2 3 4 5 Mohs’scale 6 Hard Martensite 7 8 (FeCr)7C3 Gypsum Pearlite Clinker Fe3C 9 10 .

03 0.05 0.01 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Ground product hardness scale / Mohs’scale Clinker .GRINDING BALLS WEAR ABRASION 1 0.1 0.9 Wear rate in mm/100h Gypsum 0.

05 0.01 6 7 Ground product hardness scale Clinker .GRINDING BALLS WEAR ABRASION 1 0.1 0.9 Wear rate in mm/100h 0.03 0.

Impacts 90 mm According to the volume of the ball 30 mm ~ 3000 gr ~ 100 gr .

Impacts IMPACT energy of a ball according to its diameter and the diameter of the mill 25.00 0.00 dia 110 mm dia 100 mm dia 90 mm 15.00 20.00 kgm dia 80 mm dia 77 mm dia 70 mm 10.00 dia 64 mm dia 60 mm dia 50 mm dia 40 mm 5.00 1 2 3 Mill diam eter 4 5 6 .

Quality WHAT IS A PROPER GRINDING BALL ? • MARTENSISTIC MATRIX • CHROMIUM CARBIDES • AUSTENITE • a PERFECT SOUNDNESS martensitic matrix Chromium carbides austenite .

Metallurgy Depth of penetration of the deformation according to the impact force .

Metallurgy Depending of the force • yield deformation • plastic deformation .

Metallurgy neutral fiber TENSILE strength .

compression stresses induced by impacts according to the quantity of residual austenite after quenching LESS MORE .Metallurgy Importance of tensile .

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MAGOTTEAUX GRINDING BALLS FOR COARSE MILLING • High hardness throughout martensitic matrix Cr carbides martensitic matrix Chromium carbides • Low potential of work-hardening controlled low quantity of unstable metallurgical phase • Identical and homogeneous metallurgical characteristics for all the specimens • Regular shape • Perfect physical soundness unstable phase .

High hardness throughout Low potential of work-hardening martensitic matrix Chromium carbides unstable phase .

Identical and homogeneous metallurgical characteristics for all the specimens Same hardness and same homogeneous metallurgical structure are obtained thanks to : martensitic matrix Chromium carbides • precise chemical composition • oil quenching • additional heat treatment • clean manufacturing conditions unstable phase .

BALL CHARGES FOR FINISHING GRINDING CHAMBERS .

Reduction from feed size 60% > 90 microns down to product size 10 .C.) Ball diameter 60 mm .C.) 5 % > 90 microns (O.15 mm Working conditions Generally smooth conditions No strong lifting effect Limited impacts .20 % > 90 microns (C.

Friction of ball against ball 3. Abrasion of the material to be ground 2. Deformation .Wearing factors 1.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MAGOTTEAUX GRINDING BALLS FOR FINE MILLING • High hardness throughout martensitic matrix Cr carbides martensitic matrix Chromium carbides • Controlled potential of work-hardening controlled low quantity of unstable metallurgical phase • Identical and homogeneous metallurgical characteristics for all the specimens • Perfect physical soundness • Regular shape unstable phase .

Identical and homogeneous metallurgical characteristics for all the specimens Same hardness and same homogeneous metallurgical structure are obtained thanks to : martensitic matrix Chromium carbides • precise chemical composition • high carbon content • oil quenching • clean manufacturing conditions unstable phase .

• High hardness throughout • Controlled potential of work-hardening martensitic matrix Chromium carbides unstable phase .

Metallurgy Molding in cluster .

Sketch of a mould filled up with liquid metal Metallurgy .

Shrinkage after solidification Metallurgy .

Magotteaux production Magotteaux yearly produces more than 200.000 Tons of Grinding Media of which 65.000 tons for the cement industry in 10 factories Worldwide .

Magotteaux production All these grinding balls are produced according to the same manufacturing procedure quality control standards securing a same high level of constant quality .

Magotteaux also offers the services of Process Engineers Magotteaux has a permanent program of research for new more cost effective grinding ball materials .Magotteaux production Besides the activity of producing excellent grinding balls.

Quality Insurance C .

Destructive and non destructive visual examination Gas holes. sand and slag holes. cracks. . or after light fettling Quality Above big shrinkage which caused breakage Hereunder little shrinkage appearing after cutting and grinding. appearing on surface.

Quality Y Sphericity check up X Y .

Quality Swelling phenomenon ∅ real .

GRINDING MEDIA cost waste ENERGY cost ...And tomorrow .