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Textbook for Class X

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given space. The success of this effort depends on the steps that school principals and teachers will take to encourage children to reflect on their own learning and to pursue imaginative activities and questions.Foreword The National Curriculum Framework. We must recognise that. Sinclair of IGNOU. The methods used for teaching and evaluation will also determine how effective this textbook proves for making children’s life at school a happy experience. home and community. not as receivers of a fixed body of knowledge. The textbook attempts to enhance this endeavour by giving higher priority and space to opportunities for contemplation and wondering. Syllabus designers have tried to address the problem of curricular burden by restructuring and reorienting knowledge at different stages with greater consideration for child psychology and the time available for teaching. Inculcating creativity and initiative is possible if we perceive and treat children as participants in learning. Flexibility in the daily time-table is as necessary as rigour in implementing the annual calendar so that the required number of teaching days are actually devoted to teaching. These aims imply considerable change in school routines and mode of functioning. rather than a source of stress or boredom. New Delhi and Professor G. Professor J. Lucknow for guiding the work of this committee. and activities requiring hands-on experience. This principle marks a departure from the legacy of bookish learning which continues to shape our system and causes a gap between the school.P. We hope these measures will take us significantly further in the direction of a child-centred system of education outlined in the National Policy on Education (1986). The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) appreciates the hard work done by the textbook development committee responsible for this book.V.) of Lucknow University. The syllabi and textbooks developed on the basis of NCF signify an attempt to implement this basic idea. time and freedom. discussion in small groups. Treating the prescribed textbook as the sole basis of examination is one of the key reasons why other resources and sites of learning are ignored. 2005. Dikshit (Retd. They also attempt to discourage rote learning and the maintenance of sharp boundaries between different subject areas. children generate new knowledge by engaging with the information passed on to them by adults. recommends that children’s life at school must be linked to their life outside the school. We wish to thank the Chairperson of the advisory group in Science and Mathematics. Narlikar and the Chief Advisors for this book. Professor P. Several teachers © no N C tt E o R be T re pu bl is he d .

We are especially grateful to the members of the National Monitoring Committee. material and personnel.iv © no N C tt E o R be T re pu bl New Delhi 15 November 2006 Director National Council of Educational Research and Training is he contributed to the development of this textbook. we are grateful to their principals for making this possible. As an organisation committed to systemic reform and continuous improvement in the quality of its products. for their valuable time and contribution. d . NCERT welcomes comments and suggestions which will enable us to undertake further revision and refinement. We are indebted to the institutions and organisations which have generously permitted us to draw upon their resources.P. Ministry of Human Resource Development under the Chairpersonship of Professor Mrinal Miri and Professor G. appointed by the Department of Secondary and Higher Education. Deshpande.

and come out with. Its report. should build on this knowledge in a way that allows children to enjoy mathematics. which came in 2005. the focus should be on helping children to develop the ability to particularise and generalise. a National Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics was formed. to solve and pose meaningful problems. the following broad guidelines have been kept in mind.Preface Through the years. and to her experiences. The syllabus. and do some mathematics very naturally in their surroundings. Here ‘several’ should be within reason. Encourage the children to see. While teaching mathematics. a National Curriculum Framework (NCF) was finalised in 2005. from the time of the Kothari Commission. Concepts/processes should be introduced through situations from the children’s environment. teaching approach. highlighted a constructivist approach to the teaching and learning of mathematics. For each concept/process give several examples and exercises.. there have been several committees looking at ways of making the school curriculum meaningful and enjoyable for the learners. but in varying contexts. including that for ‘word problems’. The students and teachers need to perceive mathematics as something natural and linked to the world around us. The language used in the book. More specifically. and to realise that mathematics is more about a way of reasoning than about mechanically applying formulae and algorithms. and to apply the logical thinking behind mathematical proof. must be clear. textbooks etc. before they even join school. not overloading the child. © no N C tt E o R be T re pu The matter needs to be linked to what the child has studied before. while creating the textbook. and which the textbook development committee has tried to realise in the present textbook. all this in an environment that the children relate to. Based on the understanding developed over the years. The essence of this approach is that children already know. As part of this exercise. but not of the same kind. bl is he d . simple and unambiguous. This is the philosophy with which the mathematics syllabus from Class I to Class XII was developed. And. diverse solutions to problems. without overloading them. to look for patterns and relationships. This ensures that the children use the concept/process again and again.

However. Give answers to all exercises. Further. Proofs and solutions need to be used as vehicles for helping the learner develop a clear and logical way of expressing her arguments. these points have been kept in mind by the Textbook Development Committee. As in the past. These would not be tested in the examinations. propagate constitutional values.P. give the children motivation for results used. The focus should be on proofs where a short and clear argument reinforces mathematical thinking and reasoning. D IKSHIT Chief Advisors Textbook Development Committee bl is he d . and solutions/hints for those that the children may require. pictures. we hope that teachers and learners would send comments for improving the textbook to the NCERT. two special appendices have been given — Proofs in Mathematics. We are also assuming that teachers will contribute continuously to the process in the classroom by formulating examples and exercises contextually suited to the children in their particular classrooms. the children would be trained to do the same while doing constructions. Finally. These topics may be considered for inclusion in the main syllabi in due course of time. All proofs need to be given in a non-didactic manner. PARVIN SINCLAIR G. Include optional exercises for the more interested learners. All geometric constructions should be accompanied by an analysis of the construction and a proof for the steps taken to do the required construction. what is unusual about the team this time is that teachers from different kinds of schools have been an integral part at each stage of the development. These are placed in the book for interested students to study. As you will see while studying this textbook. and Mathematical Modelling. Add such small anecdotes. more than one proof is to be given. cartoons and historical remarks at several places which the children would find interesting. allowing the learner to see the flow of reason. and are only optional reading at present. The book has particularly been created with the view to giving children space to explore mathematics and develop the abilities to reason © no N C tt E o R be T re pu As far as possible. Whenever possible. this textbook is also a team effort. Whenever possible. Accordingly.

Lucknow © no N C tt E o R be T re pu Anjali Lal.K.D. TGT. DESM. Mysore Jayanti Datta. Salwan Public School. TGT. Pune d . Vasco. PGT. MEG & Centre.COORDINATOR R. Vikaspuri District Centre. DESM.P. Upadhyaya. NCERT Rama Balaji. DESM. Gautam. Professor (Retd. RIE. Green Park.. PGT. NCERT B.A. NCERT. Lecturer. Professor (Retd. ADVISORY GROUP IN S CIENCE AND M ATHEMATICS J. DESM. Teacher and Member.). Sujatha. St. Narlikar. New Delhi G. Governing Council. Goa V. Lecturer (S. Sanskriti School. John’s Road. Professor.S. Gurgaon Manica Aggarwal. Dikshit. Shukla. NCERT N. DAV Public School. Associate Professor.) (Retd. Madhavi.V. Delhi bl CHIEF COORDINATOR Hukum Singh. Professor (Retd.P. Jagdeeshan. Sinclair. Sector-14. Centre for Learning. DESM.). New Delhi is he CHAIRPERSON. New Delhi MEMBER. Kendriya Vidyalaya No. Associate Professor. 1. Chankyapuri. TGT. Lucknow Ram Avtar.S. School of Sciences. K. Lucknow University. Professor. Bangalore S. Inter-University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCAA). Professor. Ganeshkhind.Textbook Development Committee CHIEF ADVISORS P. Lucknow University. Pune University.). Bangalore Vandita Kalra. NCERT. NCERT V.K.) & Consultant. New Delhi M EMBERS S.G. Maurya. New Delhi Mahendra Shanker. Emeritus Professor. Wazalwar. Gurgaon A. Sarvodaya Kanya Vidyalaya. IGNOU. Professor and Head.V.

Naresh Kumar and Nargis Islam. Incharge. TGT. © no N C tt E o R be T re pu bl is he d . DESM. Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya. Yogita Sharma.S. TGT. S. Proof Reader. Uaday Singh.U. Department of Mathematics. Dudhnoi. TGT. Ajay Kumar Singh. Lajpat Nagar. Mohammad Qasim. New Delhi. Delhi. Operators. Sainik School. Amity International School.P. Dr Ambedkar Nagar. TGT. TGT. Rashmi Rana. Copy Editor. Meera Mahadevan. Rakesh Kaushik. Central School for Tibetans.C. Purnendu Kumar Barik. Bhubaneswar. New Delhi. Lecturer. TGT. Special thanks are due to Professor Hukum Singh. Rauto. Sector-44. Sector-V. Anushakti Nagar. Goalpara. 4. Karnal. B. Distt. TGT.B. Mumbai. Sri Ram College (University of Delhi). S. Ajmeri Gate. Sirpur. Pushpanjali Enclave.A. administration of DESM. Happy Valley.P.H. Handa. Secondary School No. TGT.S. Sankar Misra. The Council acknowledges the efforts of Deepak Kapoor. RIE. No. B. Adilabad. Atomic Energy Central School. Computer Station. D. Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya. Head. TGT. Kagaz Nagar. Ramjas Sr. Delhi. Anglo Arabic Senior Secondary School. TGT. Mukesh Kumar Agrawal.T. Demonstration Multipurpose School. NCERT for his support during the development of this book.R. IIT. TGT. Lecturer. Varanasi.G. The Contribution of APC-Office.V. Public School. School. Chandni Chowk.A. D.S. Monika Singh. Kunjpura. Publication Department and Secretariat of NCERT is also duly acknowledged.Acknowledgements The Council gratefully acknowledges the valuable contributions of the following participants of the Textbook Review Workshop: Mala Mani. Noida. Emeritus Professor. G. New Delhi. Mussoorie. Ashok Kumar Gupta. Pitampura. Delhi. 3. Sri Hari Babu..

2 3.2 Quadratic Equations 2.1 3.3 Cross-Multiplication Method 3. 2.3 The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic 1.4.3 3.6 Summary Quadratic Equations bl is 11 15 18 20 20 21 28 33 37 38 38 39 44 50 50 54 57 63 69 70 70 71 he 1 2 7 d . 4.2 Elimination Method 3. Real Numbers 1.Contents Foreword Preface 1.3 Relationship between Zeroes and Coefficients of a Polynomial Introduction Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables Graphical Method of Solution of a Pair of Linear Equations Algebraic Methods of Solving a Pair of Linear Equations 3.4.4 4.6 Summary Polynomials iii v 1 1.1 Introduction 4.4.5 Summary Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables 3.2 Euclid’s Division Lemma 1.4 Division Algorithm for Polynomials 3.1 Introduction 2. © no N C tt E o R be T re pu 2.5 Revisiting Rational Numbers and Their Decimal Expansions 2.4 Revisiting Irrational Numbers 1.5 Equations Reducible to a Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables 3.1 Introduction 1.1 Substitution Method 3.2 Geometrical Meaning of the Zeroes of a Polynomial 2.

2 Arithmetic Progressions 5. Introduction to Trigonometry 8.5 Areas of Similar Triangles 6.5 Summary 6.7 Summary 7.4 Solution of a Quadratic Equation by Completing the Square 4.5 Summary 8.6 Pythagoras Theorem 6.3 n th Term of an AP 5.1 Introduction 8.x 4.3 Solution of a Quadratic Equation by Factorisation 4.4 Similar Figures Similarity of Triangles 74 76 88 91 93 93 95 © no N C tt E o R be T re pu Criteria for Similarity of Triangles 6.6 Summary 5.2 6.3 Trigonometric Ratios of Some Specific Angles 8.1 Introduction 6.5 Nature of Roots 4.3 7. Arithmetic Progressions 5.2 Distance Formula Section Formula 7.1 Introduction 5. Coordinate Geometry 7.1 Introduction 7. Triangles 6.2 Trigonometric Ratios 8.6 Summary bl is 117 117 118 123 129 141 144 154 155 155 156 162 168 172 173 173 174 181 187 190 194 he 100 107 116 d .5 Trigonometric Identities 8.3 6.4 Trigonometric Ratios of Complementary Angles 8.4 Sum of First n Terms of an AP 5.4 Area of a Triangle 7.

2 Tangent to a Circle 10.1 Introduction 9.3 Summary 195 195 196 205 206 206 207 10.5 Frustum of a Cone 13.4 Areas of Combinations of Plane Figures 12.2 Division of a Line Segment 11.2 Heights and Distances 9.1 Introduction 13.4 Conversion of Solid from One Shape to Another 14.3 Areas of Sector and Segment of a Circle 12. Circles 10.1 Introduction 11.1 Introduction 14. Some Applications of Trigonometry 9.3 Volume of a Combination of Solids 13.2 Perimeter and Area of a Circle — A Review 12.4 Summary © no N C tt E o R be T re pu 12. Surface Areas and Volumes 13.1 Introduction 12.3 Mode of Grouped Data bl is 216 216 220 222 223 224 226 231 238 239 239 240 245 248 252 258 260 260 260 272 223 he 209 215 216 d .2 Surface Area of a Combination of Solids 13. Constructions 11.2 Mean of Grouped Data 14.4 Summary 11.1 Introduction 10.xi 9.3 Construction of Tangents to a Circle 11.5 Summary 13. Statistics 14.6 Summary 13. Areas Related to Circles 12.3 Number of Tangents from a Point on a Circle 10.

xii 14.4 Why is Mathematical Modelling Important? bl is 316 318 323 329 333 334 334 335 339 343 344 345 326 he 313 313 313 d .7 Proof by Contradiction A1.3 Some Illustrations A2.1 Introduction © no N C tt E o R be T re pu Appendix A2 : Mathematical Modelling A2.5 Summary Answers/Hints A2.6 Converse of a Statement A1.1 Introduction A1.3 Deductive Reasoning 277 289 293 295 295 296 312 A1.1 Introduction 15.4 Conjectures.2 Mathematical Statements Revisited A1.2 Stages in Mathematical Modelling A2.5 Graphical Representation of Cumulative Frequency Distribution 14.4 Median of Grouped Data 14.2 Probability — A Theoretical Approach 15.6 Summary 15.5 Negation of a Statement A1.8 Summary A2. Probability 15. Theorems. Proofs and Mathematical Reasoning A1.3 Summary Appendix A1 : Proofs in Mathematics A1.