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# Two systems individually in thermal equilibrium with a third system are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

Common sense law : Concept of temperature and heat flow
A
B
T A =T C
T B =T C
C
Then T A =T B
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# Temperature is a measure of average kinetic energy of particle in a substance.

Temperature really tells us how fast atom /molecules moving in
the system .
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Based on Boyles’s law – Empirical law
PV
PV=0= f(T)
100
0
-273.15

## T(₀C)

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# surrounding is constant

Simply the law of conservation of energy
Energy is conserved!

# --Amount of heat required to raise its temperature by one degree

S p e c i f i c h e a t , Heat capacity at Volume (C ) U = f(V,T) dE= δ q-P dV 12/30/2013 AMMASI A CSIR -NML India " id="pdf-obj-22-4" src="pdf-obj-22-4.jpg">

# Heat capacity at Volume (C v) U = f(V,T) dE= δq-P dV

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S p e c i f i c h e a t , Heat capacity at Volume (C ) U = f(V,T) dE= δ q-P dV 12/30/2013 AMMASI A CSIR -NML India " id="pdf-obj-22-30" src="pdf-obj-22-30.jpg">
S p e c i f i c h e a t , Heat capacity at Volume (C ) U = f(V,T) dE= δ q-P dV 12/30/2013 AMMASI A CSIR -NML India " id="pdf-obj-22-32" src="pdf-obj-22-32.jpg">

# are directional & irreversible

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## Entropy

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# 

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# a = f /f ₀

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# For some materials (H 2O, Ga, Ge, diamond), however, ΔV = V s– V l> 0 and

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= X A
a A

# (2)

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# .. and For non ideal solution 1< Ÿ >1

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# Regular solution

SB
S M
S A
0
X B
1
H M
H A
H B
0
X B
1
G M
GB
GA

## 1

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# Feasibility of a reaction ??? Chemical potential is identical with partial molar free energy

## The concept of chemical equilibrium can be understood in terms of the chemical potential

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# Mole lit / sec , kg / sec or Mole / sec or else ???

T h e c o l l i s i o n are less frequent when the conctn are goes lower 12/30/2013 AMMASI A CSIR -NML India " id="pdf-obj-92-2" src="pdf-obj-92-2.jpg">

# Why ?? (Pseudo reaction )

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t 0.5

## value .

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# Type of reaction

• ##  Involving following steps

• Adsorption of reactant into interfacial layer

• Chemical reaction between adsorbed components

• Desorption of products into the products phase