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Wireless Communication Medium

Chapter 3 & 4
Wireless Communications principle and practice By- Theodore

S Rappaport

Lesson-2 & 3:
Topic
Wireless communication medium,

Lesson Learning Outcomes
• • • • To know the basics of radio wave propagation To understand the various propagation model To familiarize with scientific theories behind radio wave propagation. To know about different types of channel fading

Teaching-Learning Assessment Method Methodology
Class Lecture Question and answer Test, exams, quiz, etc

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Communication mediums • The physical medium on which the communication takes place • Also Known as communication channel • Types – Wired Medium • Metal cables – Self study • Optical fiber – Will be discussed later – Wireless medium – Topic of this lecture 3 .

and scattering. • The variability of the signal strength in close spatial proximity to a particular location. • No direct line-of-sight path between the transmitter and the receiver. 4 . – Most cellular radio systems operate in urban areas. diffraction.Wireless Channel • Radio Wave Propagation – The mechanisms behind electromagnetic wave propagation are diverse. • Reflection. – Propagation models • Predicting the average received signal strength at a given distance from the transmitter.

5 . propagation models – Small-scale or fading models • Characterize the rapid fluctuations of the received signal strength over very short travel distances (a few wavelengths) or short time durations (on the order of seconds). On the other hand.Wireless Channel • Wave Propagation Models – Large-scale propagation models • Predict the mean signal strength for an arbitrary transmitter-receiver (T-R) separation distance • Characterize signal strength over large T-R separation distances (several hundreds or thousands of meters).

Wireless Channel • Small-scale and large-scale model 6 .

is given by the Friis free space equation.Propagation Model • Free Space Propagation Model – Predict received signal strength when the transmitter and receiver have a clear. – The free space power received by a receiver antenna which is separated from a radiating transmitter antenna by a distance d. • Example. Satellite communication systems and microwave line-of-sight radio links. unobstructed line-of-sight path between them. 7 .

– The received power at any distance d > d0 may be related to 8 . as a known received power reference point.Propagation Model • Free Space Propagation Model – Large-scale propagation models use a close-in distance. d0.

• there is no loss of energy in absorption. • A part of the energy is transmitted into the second medium • A part of the energy is reflected back into the first medium. – In a perfect dielectric. • The wave is partially reflected and partially transmitted. 9 . – In a perfect conductor • All incident energy is reflected back into the first medium without loss of energy.Propagation Characteristics • Reflection – When a radio wave propagating in one medium impinges upon another medium.

Propagation Characteristics • Ground Reflection (2-ray) Model – This model has been found to be reasonably accurate for predicting the large-scale signal strength over distances of several kilometers for mobile radio systems with tall tower 10 .

Propagation Characteristics • Ground Reflection (2-ray) Model – The received power at a distance d from the transmitter can be expressed as – The path loss for the 2-ray model (with antenna gains) can be expressed in dB as 11 .

and that these wavelets combine to produce a new wavefront in the direction of propagation. – Diffraction is caused by the propagation of secondary wavelets into a shadowed region. • All points on a wavefront can be considered as point sources for the production of secondary wavelets. – The field strength of a diffracted wave in the shadowed region is the vector sum of the electric field components of all the secondary wavelets in the space around the obstacle.Propagation Characteristics • Diffraction – The phenomenon of diffraction can be explained by Huygen's principle. 12 .

Propagation Characteristics • Diffraction 13 .

• Beyond the horizon.Propagation Characteristics • Diffraction – Diffraction allows radio signals to propagate • Around the curved surface of the earth. – The received field strength decreases rapidly as a receiver moves deeper into the obstructed (shadowed) region. – The diffraction field still exists and often has sufficient strength to produce a useful signal. and • Behind obstructions. 14 .

– The average large-scale path loss for an arbitrary T-R separation is expressed as a function of distance by using a path loss exponent. n 15 .Path Loss Model • Log-distance Path Loss Model – Both theoretical and measurement-based propagation models indicate that • Average received signal power decreases logarithmically with distance in outdoor or indoor radio channels.

Path Loss Model • Path-loss exponents for different environment 16 .

Shadowing • Log-normal Shadowing – The surrounding environmental clutter may be vastly different at two different locations having the same T-R separation. – Measurements have shown that at any value of d. the path loss at a particular location is random and distributed lognormally (normal in dB) about the mean distance dependent • Xσ is zero-mean Gaussian distributed random variable with standard deviation σ. • The long-distance model did not consider this fact 17 .

• These waves. – Describe the rapid fluctuation of the amplitude of a radio signal over a short period of time or travel distance. or simply fading.Fading • Small-scale fading. called multipath waves. – Fading is caused by interference between two or more versions of the transmitted signal which arrive at the receiver at slightly different times. so that large-scale path loss effects may be ignored. • Combine signal at the receiver antenna can vary widely in amplitude and phase. 18 .

– The three most important effects are: • Rapid changes in signal strength over a small travel distance or time interval • Random frequency modulation due to varying Doppler shifts on different multi path signals • Time dispersion (echoes) caused by multipath propagation delays.Fading • Multipath Propagation – Multipath creates small-scale fading effects. 19 .

Fading • Factors Influencing Small-Scale Fading – Many physical factors in the radio propagation channel influence small scale fading. These include the following: • • • • Multipath propagation Speed of the mobile Speed of surrounding objects Transmission band width 20 .

Fading • Types of Fading 21 .

Fading • Types of Fading 22 .

– Ricean Fading • One strong LoS path – Nakagami Fading • Generalization of others 23 .Fading • Statistical fading models – Rayleigh fading • There is no line-of-sight(LoS) path.