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Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Physical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that concerns itself with the study of matter

and the laws governing the chemical interactions. This is achieved by collecting experimental data needed to define properties of gases, liquids, solids, solutions and colloidal dispersions and to provide them with a theoretical foundation in the form of laws. Physical chemistry attempts to discover general patterns in the behavior of matter, summarizes these patterns in the form of laws and then tries to explain them by means of theories. Laws.- a law is a statement which summarizes some general feature of substances or their behavior. Thus, from experiments with a large number of gases, it is found that at constant temperature, changes of pressure affect the volumes of all gases in the same way; the volume is halved when the pressure is doubled, reduce to one third when the pressure is trebled and so on. Boyle‘s law expresses this general feature of gases. Chemical laws describe the ways in which chemical changes take place. For example, when elements combine together to form compounds they do so in fixed proportions by mass. This is stated in the law of definite proportions. Many laws in physics and chemistry are not strictly true. Thus, neither the law of definite proportions nor Boyle‘s law holds in all cases. However, a law must be approximately true if it is of any use. In science laws are accepted only when experiments show that thay are 100 percent accurate, or nearly so. Theories- the explanations which we advance for scientific laws are called theories. For example why are the volumes of different gases affected in the same way by changes in pressure. A scientist tests his/her theories by finding whether predictions based on them work out in practice. Occasionally a possible explanation has to be provisionally accepted without experimental testing because the latter is impossible. In this case the explanation is called a hypothesis. The method used by scientists to test theories is called the scientific method. CLASSICAL ATOMIC THEORY The idea that matter is composed of tiny discrete particles was probably first put forward by the early Greek philosophers, while others suggested that matter was continuous, in much the same way that time is continuous. About 440 B.C. Empedocles stated that all matter was composed of four ―elements‖—earth, air, water, and fire. Democritus (about 470–370 B.C.) thought that all forms of matter were composed of tiny indivisible particles, which he called atoms, derived from the Greek word atomos, meaning ―indivisible.‖ He held that atoms were in constant motion and that they combined with one another in various ways. This hypothesis was not based on scientific observations. However, it was not until about 1807 that the atomic nature of matter finally became accepted as the most realistic theory. John Dalton (1766-1844) is the scientist credited for proposing the atomic theory. The evidence that led Dalton to put forward his atomic theory contained a number of inaccurately verified chemical laws. The fundamental laws of chemistry The four basic laws upon which the emergence of chemistry as a quantitative science rests and which led to Dalton‘s atomic theory are; 1. The law of conservation of mass (Antoine Lavoisier 1774) – matter is neither created nor destroyed in the course of a chemical reaction

4. Thomson‘s discovery of the electron and the proton 2 . 5. Atoms of two elements may combine in different ratios to form more than one compound. Although all substances that concern the chemist are made up of atoms there are sub atomic particles as well. At the end of the nineteenth century there accumulated enough experimental evidence to show that the atom is made of still smaller particles. and so on. The number of subatomic particles now known is very large. atoms cannot be created. d) While it is still true to say that a single atom is never bound to more than a small whole number of other atoms by chemical bonds. such as one to one.J.matter is made up of small. How these fundamental particles go to make the internal structure of the atom. 4. electrons. It states all pure samples of the same chemical compounds contain the same elements combined together in the same proportion by weight. The main landmarks in the evolution of atomic structure are : 1896 J. owing to the ability of some atoms e. e. the masses of B. C. The atomic theory has been modified as outlined below. carbon to form rings and long chains. D which combine with each other.g. the three most important are the proton. divided or destroyed. or simple multiples of those masses. divided or destroyed 3. D. 6. The law of reciprocal proportions – if an element A combines with several other elements. Atoms combine to form compounds in simple numerical ratios. Dalton‘s atomic theory The atomic theory states. is a fascinating story. B. but never in purely chemical changes. John Dalton (1805) considered that all matter was composed of small particles called atoms. the different weights of A which separately combine with a fixed weight of B are in a simple ratio. giant molecules do exist containing thousands of atoms. The Law of constant composition (Joseph Proust 1799) – Also known as the law of definite proportions. c) All atoms of any element are not the same (isotopes) but are different from atoms of any other element. 3. neutrons etc b) In all nuclear changes atoms are created. D. He visualized the atom as a hard solid individual particle incapable of subdivision. C. Chemical compounds are formed by the union of two or more atoms of different elements. a) All matter is not composed of atoms. 1. Modification of Dalton‘ atomic theory None of the laws and theories on which chemistry was built in the 19th century has survived unchanged until now. two to three. These subatomic particles are called the fundamental particles. which combine with a fixed mass of A are the masses of B. The law of multiple proportions (John Dalton 1803) – when two elements A nd B combine together in more than one proportion. the atoms of a particular element are all exactly alike in every way and are different from the atoms of all other elements.g. Indeed as more experimental results are reported new theories are developed and older ones are either discarded or modified to embrace these findings. one to two. neutron and electron. protons. For us. indivisible particles called atoms 2. C.2.

J. The electrodes are connected to a source of high voltage (10. The electric discharge passes between the electrodes and the residual gas in the tube begins to glow.1909 Rutherford‘s Nuclear Atom 1913 Mosley‘s determination of Atomic Number 1913 Bohr Atom 1921 Bohr-Bury Scheme of Electronic Arrangement 1932 Chadwick‘s discovery of the neutron. The discharge tube consists of a glass tube with metal electrodes fused in the walls (diagram below). Thomson. Through a glass side-arm air can be drawn out with a pump. the glow is 3 . If virtually all the gas is evacuated from within the tube.000 Volts) and the air partially evacuated. 1896). Atomic Model : Timeline Cathode rays– The discovery of electrons The knowledge about the electron was derived as a result of the study of the electric discharge in the discharge tube (J.

They heat up a metal foil to incandescence (emission of light from a hot body) which they impinge upon. This model was named after the plum-pudding dessert. Cathode rays are deflected by the electric as well as the magnetic field in a way indicating that they are streams of minute particles carrying negative charge.A. Cathode rays produce X-rays when they strike a metallic target. Properties of cathode rays 1. 6. Thus they possess kinetic energy and must be material particles. They produce fluorescence (a glow) when they strike the glass wall of the discharge tube. These are also emitted as β-particles by radioactive substances. Thus it is concluded that electrons are a universal constituent of all atoms. 5.replaced by faintly luminous ‗rays‘ which produce fluorescence on the glass at the end far from the cathode. 2. Lorentz Electrons are also obtained by the action of X-rays or ultraviolet light on metals and from heated filaments. These rays which proceed from the cathode and move away from it at right angles in straight lines are called Cathode Rays Production of cathode rays. 4. The cathode rays were named electrons by the Dutch Physicist H. The plum pudding model: After Thomson's discovery of the electron. Thompson proposed the plum pudding model of an atom that stated that the electrons float in material that is positively charged. They travel in straight lines away from the cathode and cast shadows of metallic objects placed in their path. Cathode rays cause mechanical motion of a small pin-wheel placed in their path. 4 . 3.

Thomson and Aston (1913) concluded that atom consists of at least two parts : (a) the electrons . (3) The charge-to-mass ratio (e/m) of positive particles varies with the nature of the gas placed in the discharge tube. H → H+ + e– proton 5 . (2) They are deflected by electric as well as magnetic field in a way indicating that they are positively charged. there were coloured rays produced simultaneously which passed through the perforated cathode and caused a glow on the wall opposite to the anode. He called them Positive rays. Goldstein (1886) discovered protons in the discharge tube containing hydrogen. Conclusions from the study of Positive rays From a study of the properties of positive rays. they knock out one or more electrons from it. (4) They possess mass many times the mass of an electron. PROPERTIES OF POSITIVE RAYS (1) They travel in a straight line in a direction opposite to the cathode. Thomson studied these rays and showed that they consisted of particles carrying a positive charge. and (b) a positive residue with which the mass of the atom is associated. Protons E.Positive rays In 1886 Eugen Goldstein used a discharge tube with a hole in the cathode (diagram below). Production of Positive rays. its molecules are dissociated into atoms and the positive atoms (ions) constitute the positive rays. M + e− M+ + 2e− These positive ions pass through the perforated cathode and appear as positive rays. How are Positive rays produced ? When high-speed electrons (cathode rays) strike molecule of a gas placed in the discharge tube. He observed that while cathode rays were streaming away from the cathode. When electric discharge is passed through the gas under high electric pressure. Thus a positive ion results. (5) They cause fluorescence in zinc sulphide.

The assigned relative mass of a neutron is approximately one atomic mass unit (amu). pions and gluons. positrons. Thus a proton is defined as a subatomic particle which has a mass of 1 amu and charge + 1 elementary charge unit. Rutherford proceeded to perform experiments to know as to how and where these were located in the atom. In 1909 Rutherford and Marsden performed their historic Alpha Particle-Scattering Experiment. The reaction which occurred in Chadwick‘s experiment is an example of artificial transmutation where an atom of beryllium is converted to a carbon atom through the nuclear reaction. α-Particles directed at beryllium sheet eject neutrons whereby the electric charge detector remains unaffected. On the relative scale. Rutherford‘s atomic model – the nuclear atom Having known that atom contains electrons and a positive ion. many other subatomic particles such as mesons. proton has mass 1 atomic mass unit (amu). He named it neutron.J. He directed a stream of alpha particles ( ) at a beryllium target.It was J. With each discovery. A great deal of recent research is producing a long list of still other subatomic particles with names quarks.672 × 10– 24 gram. Neutrons In 1932 Sir James Chadwick discovered the third subatomic particle. Protons were also obtained in a variety of nuclear reactions indicating further that all atoms contain protons. A proton is a subatomic particle which has one unit mass and one unit positive charge. Thomson who studied their nature. using the apparatus illustrated in diagram below They directed a stream of very highly energetic α particles 6 . Thus : A neutron is a subatomic particle which has a mass almost equal to that of a proton and has no charge. (2) The electrical charge of proton is equal in magnitude but opposite to that of the electron. He found that a new particle was ejected. He showed that : (1) The actual mass of proton is 1. neutrinos and antiprotons have been discovered. protons and neutrons. the picture of atomic structure becomes increasingly complex. Other Subatomic Particles Besides electrons. It has almost the same mass as that of a proton and has no charge.

Based on these observations. tiny flashes were also seen on other portions of the screen. To their great astonishment. a tiny flash of light was produced at that point. This showed that gold atoms deflected or ‗scattered‘ α -particles through large angles so much so that some of these bounced back to the source.from a radioactive source against a thin gold foil provided with a circular fluorescent zinc sulphide screen around it. . This is also called the Nuclear Atom. 7 . Rutherford proposed a model of the atom which is named after him How nuclear atom causes scattering of -particles. Rutherford and Marsden noticed that most of the α -particles passed straight through the gold foil and thus produced a flash on the screen behind it. It was this empty space around the nucleus which allowed the α -particles to pass through undeflected. This indicated that gold atoms had a structure with plenty of empty space. According to it : (1) Atom has a tiny dense central core or the nucleus which contains practically the entire mass of the atom. Whenever an α -particle struck the screen. Rutherford and Marsden's -particle scattering experiment. some time in front of the gold foil. leaving the rest of the atom almost empty.

(3) The electrons were moving in orbits or closed circular paths around the nucleus like planets around the sun. finally falling into the nucleus. Weakness of Rutherford Atomic Model The assumption that electrons were orbiting around the nucleus was unfortunate. while electrons were distributed in vacant space around it. This was the chief weakness of Rutherford‘s Atomic Model. its speed will decrease and it will go into spiral motion. According to the classical electromagnetic theory if a charged particle accelerates around an oppositely charged particle. Orbiting electron would radiate energy and spiral into the nucleus. However it did not tell anything as to the position of the electrons and how they were arranged around the nucleus. This does not happen actually as then the atom would be unstable which it is not. the former will radiate energy.(2) The entire positive charge of the atom is located on the nucleus. electrons orbiting around nucleus. 8 . If an electron radiates energy. It was due to the presence of the positive charge on the nucleus that α-particle (He2+) were repelled by it and scattered in all directions. Rutherford model laid the foundation of the model picture of the atom. Rutherford's model of atom .

Thus Rutherford model failed to explain why electrons did not do so. But according to the classical laws of Physics an electron moving in a field of force like that of nucleus. would give off radiations and gradually collapse into the nucleus. ions. radiations and atomic spectra. He closely studied the behaviour of electrons. It is defined as the amount of any substance that contains as many elementary entities (e.g atoms. With his theoretical model he was able to explain as to why an orbiting electron did not collapse into the nucleus and how the atomic spectra were caused by the radiations emitted when electrons moved from one orbit to the other.Rutherford recognized that electrons were orbiting around the nucleus. electrons) as there are atoms in 12 grams of pure carbon-12 (12C). In 1913 Bohr proposed a new model of the atom based on the modern Quantum theory of energy. molecules. pointed out that the old laws of physics just did not work in the submicroscopic world of the atom. CONCEPT OF MOLES AND MOLARITY CALCULATIONS Mole is a unit of measurement used in chemistry to express amounts of a chemical substance. Neils Bohr. a brilliant Danish Physicist. 9 .