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IF + present simple, present simple

If I stay out late, I always take a taxi
To describe something that is generally true. The use of IF is very similar to WHEN.


IF + present simple, future simple

If I see Andrew, I'll give him your message
To talk about something that is quite likely to happen in the future (probable). It is very possible and the condition is quite likely to be fulfilled.


IF + past simple, would/could + infinitive

If my parents were here, they would be very proud of me
To talk about a present situation that is impossible: a hypothetical situation. The condition cannot be fulfilled.


IF + past perfect, would have / could have + past participle

If she had worked harder, she would have passed the exams.
To talk about something in the past that did not happen. It is an unfulfilled condition in the past, so it is absolutely impossible to happen


We can use WISH and IF ONLY (it is more emphatic) with a past tense to express regret about the present (to say that we would like something to be different).

I wish I had a car (I DO NOT HAVE A CAR). If only we knew Mary's address (WE DO NOT KNOW MARY'S ADDRESS)


To express regret that something happening or did not happen in the past.

I'm tired. I wish I'd gone to bed earlier last night (I DID NOT GO TO BED VERY EARLY LAST NIGHT) If only you had explained the situation to me (YOU DID EXPLAIN THE SITUATION TO ME)

CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE 1 It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled. FORM: if + Simple Present, will-Future Example: If I find her address, Ill send her an invitation. CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE 2 It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled. FORM: if + Simple Past, Conditional I (= would + Infinitive) Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation. CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE 3 It is impossible that the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the past. FORM: if + Past Perfect, Conditional II (= would + have + Past Participle) Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.

1. If he had dropped the vase, it would have broken. Type I Type II Type III 2. If you have to do the washing up, I will help you. Type I Type II Type III 3. If I had a hammer, I'd hammer in the morning ... (song) Type I Type II Type III 4. I wouldn't run away if I saw a spider. Type I Type II Type III 5. We'd have given you a lift if you hadn't had your bike with you. Type I Type II Type III 6. If you had listened to me, the accident wouldn't have happened. Type I Type II Type III 7. If we don't get tickets for the concert, we'll stay at home. Type I Type II Type III 8. They'd go by bus if they didn't have a car. Type I Type II Type III 9. She'll hear us if you don't stop laughing. Type I Type II Type III 10. He wouldn't have taken the bread if he hadn't been hungry. Type I Type II Type III


1. If I had time, I (go)__________________shopping with you. 2. If you (speak)____________________ English, you will get along with them perfectly. 3. If they had gone for a walk, they (turn)______________the lights off. 4. If she (come)_______________to see us, we will go to the zoo. 5. I would have told you, if I (see)___________him. 6. Would you mind if I (open) _____________the window? 7. If they (ask)__________________ me, I wouldn't have said no. 8. My friend (drive)_____________________me at the station if he gets the afternoon off. 9. If I (not do)________________________it, nobody would do it. 10.If my father (wake up) ________________________me up, I'll take the bus home. 11.If they (have) _______________________time at the weekend, they will come to see us. 12.If we sneak out quietly, nobody (notice) __________________________. 13.If we (know) _______________________about your problem, we would have helped you. 14.If I (be) _________________________you, I would not buy that dress. 15.We (arrive) _____________________ earlier if we had not missed the bus. 16.If I didn't have a mobile phone, my life (not / be) ___________________________complete. 17.Okay, I (get) ____________________________the popcorn if you buy the drinks. 18.If I (tell) __________________________you a secret, you would be sure to leak it. 19.She (go) __________________________out with you if you had only asked her. 20.I would not have read your diary if you (not hide) ___________________ it in such an obvious place. 21.If I (to be) __________________________ stronger, I'd help you carry the piano. 22.If we'd seen you, we (stop) ____________________________. 23.If we (meet) ________________________________ him tomorrow, we'll say hello. 24.He would have repaired the car himself if he (have) _________________________ the tools. 25.If you drop the vase, it (break) __________________________________. 26.If I hadn't studied, I (pass) ________________________________ the exam. 27.I wouldn't go to school by bus if I (have) ______________________________ a driving licence. 28.If she (see) ___________________________________ him every day, she'd be lovesick. 29.I (travel) _________________________ to London if I don't get a cheap flight. 30. We'd be stupid if we (tell) _________________________________ him about our secret.

COMPLETE THE SENTENCES USING THE CORRECT FORM OF THE VERB AFTER WISH. Example It isn't lunchtime. I wish it was lunchtime. 1 I can't do this exam. I wish 2 I didn't bring enough money. I wish 3 He has to stay in tonight. He wishes 4 I regret that I bought that car. I wish 5 She regrets going out with him. She wishes . . . . .

6 Unfortunately, I have to work late tonight. I wish

PRACTICE: 1 She failed most of her exams, and now she wishes she __________ harder. a works b worked c would work d had worked 2 I had to get the bus to work every day. I wish I __________ a car. a have got b had c would have d had had 3 The weather's terrible today. I wish it __________ a bit warmer. a is b was c would be d had been 4 It really annoys me that you never do anything around the house! I wish you __________ from time to time. a wash up b washed up c would wash up d had washed up 5 I missed my English class yesterday because I went to the doctor's. I wish I __________ it. a don't miss b didn't miss c wouldn't miss d hadn't missed 6 The last bus always seems to leave early. I wish the driver __________ until the right time before leaving. a waits b waited c would wait d had waited 7 My sister will have to cancel her party next week. She wishes she __________ cancel it, but she's broken her leg. a doesn't have to b won't have to c didn't have to d wouldn't have to 8 We went to a new restaurant for lunch and I've been feeling sick all afternoon. I wish we __________ there. a go b didn't go c wouldn't go d hadn't gone 9 The two brothers are always fighting. Their mother wishes they __________. a don't b won't c wouldn't d hadn't 10 I gave that man in the pub my phone number. I wish I __________. a won't b didn't have c wouldn't d hadn't