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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 11, November 2013)
18

Maximum Power Point Analysis Using Simulink/Matlab for a
Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic/Battery Storage system.
S. Wijewardana
1
Member-IESL
School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.


Abstract—Electricity generation using solar photovoltaic
systems pose a unique challenge to improve the efficiency and
to minimise the manufacturing cost. Research and
development in this area has been expanding as it is
environmentally friendly and helps the planet to reduce the
greenhouse gas emission while reducing the carbon footprint.
As a result, solar photovoltaic (PV) electrical power
generation systems have become more popular and limelight
of sustainable energy research. This paper describes the
dynamic modeling and simulation of a sustainable renewable
hybrid energy system with solar PV array and a battery
storage system. Simulink was used to study the characteristics
of temperature and irradiation effect along with the
manufacturer’s data to validate the results. The
Matlab/Simulink based study therefore also points out
significance of locating maximum power point for a given
Module/Array.
Keywords— Simulink/Matlab, Photovoltaic, Maximum
power point, Battery storage, Control systems, Hybrid energy,
Simulation.
I. INTRODUCTION
Hybrid energy systems development using solar
photovoltaic (PV) arrays combed with wind turbines,
proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), battery
storage systems have become very popular due to
increasing oil prices in the global market. Though the
initial cost of these hybrid systems are still very much
higher than the electricity generation cost by using fossil
fuel plants, they have proved environmentally friendly[6]
and low maintenance cost in the long run. Capital
investment subsidy introduced by many governments to
tackle the alarming effect of greenhouse gases [6][7], have
attracted many manufacturing companies to develop
technological solutions to use hybrid energy power systems
effectively and efficiently. Though, there have been
considerable developments in this signposted area, still
there are many technological challenges unanswered
relevant to hybrid control systems designs.


II. METHODOLOGY
A. Literature review in the context of dynamic modeling
of solar photovoltaic arrays and battery storage
systems.
B. Mathematical Modeling and simulation
C. Analysis and validation of simulation results.
D. Conclusion.
III. LITERATURE REVIEW
A. Solar Cell
A solar cell (also called photovoltaic (PV) cell as shown
in Fig.1) is a unit that converts light energy into the
electrical energy by the photovoltaic effect. The generated
current, voltage and its resistance characteristics will vary
depending upon the radiant light and the ambient
temperature. Similar to transistor materials solar cells are
made up of semiconductor materials like silicon, gallium
arsenide, copper indium gallium di-selenide (CIGDS),
cadmium telluride (CdTe) and amorphous silicon (a-Si)
[31], [32]. Current solar cells in the market use mainly
monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous
silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium
selenide/sulfide.[33]
Solar cells can be
used as portable
chargers:
Monocrystalline
solar charger.
Excitonic Solar
cells which uses
nanotube arrays
can absorb larger
fraction of
solar spectrum.

Fig.1. Solar Cell (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cell)






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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 11, November 2013)
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When making solar cells bulk purified material is cut
into very thin layers (wafers) of 180 -240 micro meters
thick and in between organic dyes and organic polymers
are deposited to support the substrate. Polycrystalline
silicon or multicrystalline silicon is widely used as it is less
expensive to produce though it is slightly less efficient[32].
Monocrystalline silicon solar cells are expensive than the
Polycrystalline as Monocrystalline cells(c-Si) have Single-
crystal wafer cells. Boron or phosphorous dopant impurity
atoms are added to molten silicon to get the n-type or p-
type charging effect [33].
B. Efficiency of a Photovoltaic System
When the sun light hits the semiconductor surface of a
solar cell, electron springs up and attracted towards the N-
type semiconductor material. This will cause more
negatives in the N-type and more positives in the P-type
semiconductors generating a higher flow of electricity. This
is known as the Photovoltaic effect. The amount of current
generated by a PV cell depends on its efficiency (type of
PV cell) its size (surface area) and the intensity of sunlight
striking the surface. A single solar cell can only create a
little amount of power and hence to get a larger effect solar
cells are either connected in series or parallel. Solar array
or PV module is made up of many solar cells connected
either in series or parallel [17]. Cross section of a PV cell
is shown in Fig.2.







Fig.2. Physical structure of a PV cell (Cross section)
It is observed that a normal PV cell can generate a
voltage around 0.5 to 0.8 volts depending on the type of
semiconductor and the built-up technology [33]. Under
peak sunlight conditions a typical commercial PV cell with
a surface area of about 25 square inches will produce about
2 watts peak power [32]. Since a single cell can produce
only a very law current and voltage, cells connected in
series can get a high voltage while keeping the same
current.
When solar cells are connected in parallel it can produce
high current while keeping the voltage constant. Depending
upon the requirement cells can be connected in series and
parallel to make one module that gives high current and
voltage.
There are three main types of PV cells available in the
market. They are: monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin
film. The monocrystalline and polycrystalline PV cells are
manufactured using microelectronic manufacturing
technology. The efficiency of monocrystalline cells are in
the range of 10%- 15%, while polycrystalline (or multi-
crystalline) PV cells are in the range of 9% -12%. For thin
film cells, the efficiency is 10% for a-Si(amorphous
Silicon), 12% for CuInSe2 and 9% for CdTe [31],[33].
Technology in this area has been rapidly developing and it
has found that different technologies can achieve
efficiencies up to 20%. GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multi-junction
solar cells can get the efficiency up to 40%. The highest
efficiency so far recorded was by using multiple junction
cells at high solar concentrations (43.5% using 418 x
concentrations).They are still under experimental stage.
Thermodynamically it is understood that the maximum
theoretically possible conversion efficiency for sunlight is
86% according to the Carnot limit. All of these
measurements were taken under standard conditions:
measured under the global AM1.5(1000 W/m
2
) at 25°C
(IEC 60904–3: 2008, ASTM G-173-03 global).
IV. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF A SOLAR PV SYSTEMS
The model of a solar cell which is shown in Fig. 3. has
been used by many researchers in [2] [11][14] [21]. Where
G and T are irradiance and temperature respectively. Solar
cell is basically a p-n semiconductor junction that directly
converts light energy into electricity.
I
ph
: Photo generated current depending on irradiance
(G) and temperature (T)
R
sh
: Intrinsic shunt resistance of the cell
R
s
: Series resistance
Usually R
sh
is very large and R
s
is very small compared
to R
sh
. Hence, R
s
may be neglected to simplify the
mathematical model. The output current, I can be written
as: (Kirchhoff’s current law)
I = I
ph
– I
d
- I
sh
(1)
These currents are defined as given in [21]:
) ( (
, ref Icc ref ph
ref
ph
T T I
G
G
I ÷ + = µ (2)

p

n
Light
rays
Semicon
ductor
layers
Met
al
base
Metal
grid
lo
a
d

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Where:
I = I
ph
– I
d
- I
sh
(1)
These currents are defined as given in [21]:
) ( (
, ref Icc ref ph
ref
ph
T T I
G
G
I ÷ + = µ (2)
Where:
G : irradiance
T : is the temperature conditions of work.
G
ref
: irradiance at standard test conditions (STCs): 1000
W/m
2
and 25
o
C.








I
ph,ref
: is the photo generated current at STCs and
µ
Icc
: temperature coefficient of current.
From diode theory it is known that:
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
| +
= 1 exp
t
s
sat d
nV
I R V
I I (3)
Where
I
sat
: is the reverse saturation current of the diode
n : is the diode ideality factor and V
t
the thermal
voltage
V
t
: is the thermal voltage

sh
s
sh
R
I R V
I
+
=
(4)
Now equation (1) can be re-written by substituting for I
d

and I
sh
:





|
|
.
|

\
| +
÷
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
| +
÷ =
sh
s
t
s
sat ph
R
I R V
nV
I R V
I I I 1 exp
(5)
Equation (5) is a nonlinear equation that represents the
relationship between I and V. It is used in research papers
[4][16][23] [28],[29],[30][36]. Gupta, SC.; et. al.in [29]
stated that the equation (5) has no analytical solution. It is
also noted that many researchers assumed the PV model
given for a single cell will behave in the same manner for
series connections. Since I is there in both side of equation
(5) empirical solutions have been given by various
researchers to make the I or V as the subject of equation
(5). The same formula with little modification to include
either a single diode model or two diodes model have been
used in [13],[15],[22],[24],[25],[27][36]. Uzunoglu, M., et
al in [13] used an approximate solution for output voltage.
Kalanta, M.; et. Al in [13] presented a simple empirical
formula for their research work as a solution for I and V .
According to their work the formula given below, includes
the number of modules in series and parallel:
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
÷
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ =
M
NR
M
N R I
NV
NAkT
M
N R I
NV q
MI MI I
sh
s p
p
s p
o l P
1 exp
(6)
Where:
I
p
: in this equation is the output current of the panel.
I
l
:

is the light generated current per module( or I
ph
in
the other models)
I
o
: reverse saturation current per module which is
equal to I
sat
M : number of module strings in parallel, N : number
of modules in each series string
R
s
: diode series resistance per module, R
sh
: diode
shunt resistance per module. Q: electric charge, k is the
Boltzmann constant and T
p
: cell temp in Kelvin. An
approximated model was used by Badawe, M. et. al [20]
taking into account of I-V and P-V characteristic curves
separately. An easy empirical formula was presented in
[35] to model a solar system
P
pv
= A
m
η
m
P
f
η
pc
I (7)




G, T
Vpv
I
d

I
sh

R
sh

R
s

I
ph

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Where:A
m
is the array area, η
m
is the module reference
efficiency (assumed to be 0.11), P
f
is the packing factor
(assumed to be 0.9), η
pc
is the power conditioning
efficiency (assumed to be 0.86), and I is the hourly
insolation in W/m
2
.
Solar cell mathematical model and the Simulink model
presented by Chen HC.; et. al in [27] gives a very good
approximated model covering all constraints and variables.
PV model presented by Mousavi, SM; in [19] can be
considered as the easiest model out of many research
papers. The PV mathematical model that was presented in
1993 in [12] was revisited by Carlson, in 1995 and
thenagain by Faith Onur Hocao Glu in 2011 was
represented by the formula:
P = A
pv
x
2
+ B
pv
x + C
pv
(8)
Where x = solar radiation W/m
2
, P is the power
generation [W] and A
pv
, B
pv
and C
pv
are constants, which
can be derived from measured data. Surprisingly this
equation seems to be the answer for all our nonlinear,
exponential relationships [12]. Experimental results from a
solar cell array with series and parallel connections can be
used to verify the mathematical model given in equation
(8).
V. IMPLEMENTED MATHEMATICAL MODEL
Mathematical model implemented this this paper was the
model presented in [36].
1000 / * )] 298 ( [ ì ÷ + =
op i SCr ph
T K I I
(9)
| | 1 ) / exp( / ÷ = kAT N qV I I
s oc SCr rs

(10)
(
(
¸
(

¸

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
op ref
go
ref
op
rs o
T T Bk
E q
T
T
I I
1 1
*
exp *
3

(11)
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦ +
÷ = 1
) ( *
exp * *
op s
s PV pv
o p ph p PV
kAT N
R I V q
I N I N I

(12)
(For SOLKAR PV module: N
p
=1, N
s
=36, I
scr
= 2.55A,
V
oc
=21.24V, I
mp
= 2.25, V
oc
at maximum power = 16.56V)


Fig.4 Simulink model of the PV system
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Module Voltage vpv(v)
M
o
d
u
l
e

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

i
p
v
(
A
)
I-V Char. Varying irradiation but const Temp. 25C
1000W/sqm
800W/sqm
600W/sqm
400W/sqm
200W/sqm

Fig. 5. Output Vpv-Ipv characteristic with varying irradiation at
onstant temperature.
As shown in Fig.5 Solkar 36W PV module
characteristics depends on the Irradiance when the temp is
at 25C. When the Irradiance increases from 200W/Sqm to
1000W/Sqm the output current also increases.

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22

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
1.5
2
2.5
3
Module Voltage(vpv in volts)
M
o
d
u
l
e

C
u
r
r
e
n
t
-
i
p
v
(
A
)
I-V characteristics with const.Irradiation with varying Temp
25C
50C
65C
75C
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Module Voltage Vpv in Volts
M
o
d
u
l e

P
o
w
e
r

p
p
v

i n

W
a
t
t
s
Output Power with varying Temp at const Irrad.
25C
35C
75C
50C
65C










Fig.6. Output Vpv –Ipv characteristics with varying temperature
keeping Irradiance constant.
Simulation results shown by Vpv versus Ipv and the Vpv
versus Module power , Fig.6 and Fig.7 respectively
indicates when the temperature increases the increase of
current is marginal but the decrease of voltage and the
output power were very high.








Fig. 7. Vpv(V) versus Output power(W) with varying temperature
and constant Irradiation.
VI. USING MATLAB
Matlab code used to plot the output voltage against the
output current under varying temperature conditions:
clear all
clc
rs=0.1; %Rs is the series resistance of
%a PV module
np=1; %Np is the number of cells
%connected in parallel
ns=36; %Ns is the number of cells
%connected in series
voc=21.24; %vpv=voc
iscr=2.55; %ISCr is the PV module
%short-circuit current at 25 C
%and 1000W/m2 = 2.55A
Tr=298; %Tr is the reference
% temperature = 298 K
a=1.6;b=1.6; %A = B is an ideality factor = 1.6
k=1.3805e-23;%k is Boltzman constant =
% 1.3805 × 10-23 J/K
q=1.6e-19;%q is Electron charge = 1.6 ×
%10-19 C
ki=0.0017;%Ki is the short-circuit
%current temperature
%co-efficient at ISCr =
%0.0017A /0C
lamda=1000;%is the PV module
%illumination (W/m2) = 1000W/m2
ego=1.1; %Ego is the band gap for
%silicon = 1.1 eV

Top=300;%Top is the module operating
%temperature in Kelvin
iph=(iscr+ki*(Top-298))*lamda/1000;
%Iph is the light generated current
%in a PV module (A): The current
%source
%Iph represents the cell
%photocurrent
m=(q*voc)/(ns*a*k*Top);
irs=iscr/(exp(m)-1);%Module reverse %saturation current
io=irs*((Top/Tr)^3)*exp((q*ego/b*k)*(1/Tr-1/Top)); %Io
%is the PV module saturation current (A)
ipv=2.5; %Ipv is output current of a PV
%module (A)
vpv=0:1:23; %Vpv is output voltage of a
%PV module (V)
ipv=zeros(size(vpv));
for i=1:length(vpv)
ipv(i)=np*iph-
np*io*(exp(((q*(vpv(i)+ipv(i)*rs)/(ns*k*a*Top)))-1));
end
figure(1)
set(gcf,'Color', 'w')
plot(vpv,ipv)
xlim([0 25])
ylim([0 3])
xlabel('Module Voltage (Vpv)')
ylabel('Module Current (Ipv)')
title('Power curve from Matlab at Lamda =800:Solkar
Module')

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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 11, November 2013)
23

0 5 10 15 20 25
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Module Voltage (Vpv)
M
o
d
u
l e

p
o
w
e
r

(
p
o
w
e
r
)
Power curve from Matlab at Lamda=800:green curve Const temp
Matlab
plot
Max.power:
26.6068(W)
Simulink
plot
max. power:
21.6853(W)
0 5 10 15 20
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Module voltage(V)
M
o
d
u
l e

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
A
)
vpv vs ipv at const temp;const Irra.1000w/sqm
Dash lines represents the use
of
Matlab code for plotting and the
continuous line represents the
use of Simulink.
At 25C-using
Matlab.
At 25C using
Simulink
At 40C using Matlab
At 40C using
Simulink
At 60C using
Matlab
At 60C using
Simulink






Fig.8. Module voltage versus module current using Matlab code
generated plot and the Simulink plot.
As shown in Fig.8. there is a slight difference between
the readings of Maximum power point when used Matlab
code and the Simulink blocks. The difference could be due
to initial conditions and due to different numerical
approximation method used in Simulink and Matlab. The
differences is not a trivial phenomenon for the design
purposes as it is very minor.












Fig. 9. Characteristics of Solkar module plot using both Matlab and
Simulink.
As shown in Fig.9 there is a slight difference between
the graphs of Matlab code generated plots against the
Simulink plots. Ipv, and Vpv plot difference explains the
when it is plot for the power. Simulink plot indicates the
lower values than Matlab code generated plots.




VII. DYNAMIC MODELING OF A LITHIUM-ION BATTERY
STORAGE SYSTEM
To implement the battery electrical model, a Lithium-Ion
battery cell was considered as a series circuit with
controlled voltage source and a battery internal resistance
in the circuit given in [37].
E : No load voltage(V)
E
0
: Battery constant voltage(V)
K : Polarization voltage(V)
Q : Battery capacity(Ah)
A,B : Exponential constants
q : Charge
The equation for the controlled voltage is described as
given in [37]:
Bq
A
q Q
Q
K E E
÷
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ = exp *
0
(13)
V
battery
= E - i*R
i
(14)
(i and R
i
symbolizes the battery discharge and internal
resistaces.)
The temperature makes difference on three basic
variables of the electrical model which are polarization
voltage K, battery constant E
0
and the exponential
coefficient A & B. To make the Model simpler [38],
thermal effect on A has been ignored since A & E are
highly related. B coefficient akes significant difference on
exponential part of the characteristic curve. As given in
[38]:
2
) ( CT BT A T f x
n
+ + = = (15)
) , , , (
0
C B E K f n = (16)
The charge and discharge efficiency of Li-ion batteries
are high compared to lead-acid or NiMh (Nickel Metal
Hydride) batteries(80%-90% range)[38].
2 4
* 10 * 218 . 4 028 . 0 876 . 0 ) ( ) ( T T T f T x
k
÷
+ ÷ = = (17)
2 5 4
0
* 10 * 6 . 6 * 10 * 97 . 4 986 . 0 ) ( ) ( T T T f T x
E
÷ ÷
÷ + = =
(18)
2 4
* 10 * 63 . 9 * 045 . 0 733 . 0 ) ( ) (
÷ ÷
+ ÷ = = T T T f T x
B
(19)





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0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
Time in seconds
B
a t t e r y v o l t a g e ( V
)
Li-Ion Panasonic Battery discharge
CGR17500 with varying Temp.
-10C
0C
20C
Combining equations (17), (18) and (19):
q B x
K E
B
A
q Q
Q
K T x E T x T q E
* *
0 0
exp * * ) ( * ) ( ) , (
÷
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ =
(20)
Fig.10. Simulink model of the Li-Ion Battery storage system
Specification of Li-Ion battery CGR17500 model is used for the
simulation
Nominal Voltage = 3.6V
Std. Capacity = 830mAh
Dimensions: Diameter 16.9 mm
Height 49.6mm
Weight 25g
Total equivalent impedance = 150mOhms.
R2=40mOhms and C= 4F as given in [2].
q is a ramp input slope and is 0.001 was used for the
simulation which makes q increase by 1 mAh per time unit.
Voltage versus time curve indicates the discharge
characteristics.






Fig.11. Time versus battery voltage (v) –discharging
After the battery is discharged when the simulation
model is turned on for charging the Panasonic CGR17500
model shows that it is gradually charging up to the
specified level.(Fig.10.)
900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
Time (seconds)
B
a
t
t
e
r
y

v
o
l t
a
g
e
(
V
)
Panasonic CGR17500 battery charging at 20C

Fig.12. Charging of the Panasonic CGR Model 17500 under
predefined conditions at 20C
VIII. CONCLUSION
Generalized PV model and a battery storage model have
been developed with Matlab/Simulink and the models were
verified with the previous research data. The proposed PV
model takes sunlight irradiance and cell temperature as
input parameters and outputs the I-V and P-V
characteristics under various conditions. Though the
maximum power point data extracted from Simulink and
Matlab were slightly different they were not far apart.
However, when experimental data is available these
differences can be verified. These generalized models can
be used to combine with wind generators and the PRMFCs
to produce complex hybrid electricity generation systems to
boost the Grid power supply.
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USA
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[4] C. Wang,C., Nehrir, M.H., ―Power management of stand-alone
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[5] Takle, E., ― AgGM News Letter,‖ Professor of atmospheric science
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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 11, November 2013)
25

[6] EPA, ― Future Climate Change,‖ United States Environmental
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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 11, November 2013)
26

AUTHOR’S PROFILE

S Wijewardana was born in Sri Lanka and he
obtained his first degree in B.Sc.Eng.(Mech) in
1979 from University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka. He
obtained his M.Eng (EEE) Victoria, Australia
(1992),GradDip (Digital Control) Victoria, and
GradDip(Ed)(Sec.Ed) Victoria, Australia (1993).
He has more than 25 years of industry experience
internationally as a Senior engineer/Manager
plant operations and Maintenance, Designs, and
Constructions. He is currently pursuing his research PhD degree at the
School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of
London, London E1 4NS, UK. He authored and published a Text book on
―Feedback Control Systems‖ 2001, Vishvalekha Publishers, Colombo, Sri
Lanka: ISBN:955-599-243-6, which is suitable for electrical and
electronic engineering undergraduate and Masters’ degree courses. His
current research interests are in hybrid energy control systems.
Mr Wijewardana is a chartered engineer, UK qualified professional
teacher (2006) and a corporate member of the Institution of Engineers, Sri
Lanka. (M1748).