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Trafford College

Lifestyle Management

Nutrition Manual for Lifestyle Management Module
MMU FD in Spa Management

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Table of Contents Page Number

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Introduction Recommendations Carbohydrates Fibre Fats Protein Vitamins & Minerals Fluid Replacement Anti-nutrients Food Additives Diets

3 4 9 24 33 47 54 65 69 71 76

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Introduction Nutrition is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with a healthy diet. A poor diet can have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases such as scurvy; health-threatening conditions like obesity and common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, minerals, protein, vitamins, and water. These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macronutrients (needed in relatively large amounts) which consist of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and water or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities) which consist of minerals and vitamins. A balanced diet contains all the 6 nutrients plus fibre (the non digested carbohydrate) in the correct amounts.

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Trafford College Lifestyle Management RECOMMENDATIONS . Current Recommendations General advice is given for healthy people.Lower Recommended Nutritional Intake (2. This advice is summarised in the eat well plate. The government recommends that healthy people should eat a diet which contains plenty of starch (rice. pasta and potatoes). fish. salt. Dairy products should also be moderately consumed. although they are often similar. bread.Reference Nutrient Intake (97.5% of the population's requirement is met) RNI is not the same as RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) or GDA.5% of the population's requirement is met) EAR . saturated fat and sugar should be eaten less.UK In 1991. eggs and other protein-rich foods should be eaten in moderation.Estimated Average Requirement (50% of the population's requirement is met) LRNI . The DRVs can be divided into three types:    RNI . the United Kingdom Department of Health published the Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. This records Dietary Reference Values (DRV) which recommended nutritional intakes for the UK population. It also recommends that a person should eat at least 5 fruit or vegetable portions each day. Finally. Page 4 of 113 . Meat.

those who have little exposure to sunlight may need to take vitamin D supplementation. starch and sugars. They define the proportion of a person's total energy intake which should come from different components of food. Nutrient Saturated Fatty Acid Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Monounsaturated Fatty Acid Trans fats Total Fat Non-milk intrinsic sugars Intrinsic milk sugars and starch Total Carbohydrate Average percentage of food energy Not more than 11% 6.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Note that exceptions to these rules include pregnant women and young children. fibre. The Food Standards Agency estimate the average salt intake is about 8.5% 13% Not more than 2% Not more than 35% Not more than 11% 39% 50 Fibre as non-starch polysaccharide (g/day) 18 [not applicable to children under 5] Salt The guideline salt intake for adults is about 6 grams of salt (approximately one teaspoon). Additionally. and children younger than five with small appetites should not have such restrictions imposed. A high salt diet is likely to increase the risk of high blood pressure. Page 5 of 113 . Sources of Energy The Dietary Reference Values (DRV) below are specified mainly for adults. These include fat and fatty acids.6 grams/day (2008). Note that these values do not apply to children. which is associated with an increased risk of heart attack and stroke.

referring on the same subject (calories from nutrient groups) but casting shadow on the effectiveness of DRVs as public authorities' scheme. This is due to very different food patterns. against the WHO hypothesis. carbohydrates. EFSA met in September 2009 with representative of the Member States in order to gain their views on fats. there is much literature referring to this link. Furthermore EFSA is searching for comments (Open Consultation) by 15 October. EFSA is the equivalent of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA. fibres and water as well as Food-Based Dietary Guidelines. in order to validate its assumptions on the need to have:    carbohydrates comprising 45% – 60% of the overall daily caloric intake fats being comprised among 20% / 35% of the overall caloric intake fibre needs: complying with 25 grams/day EFSA considers that there are not sufficient data to set DRVs for sugars. In any case. Dietary Reference Values are under the interest of the European Food Safety Authority too. on journals with very high impact factor and statistically robust design and results Many problems seem nowadays to derive from having integrated EU level DRV:   the presence of a previous EFSA opinion on Food Based Dietary Guidelines. Page 6 of 113 .Trafford College Lifestyle Management Age Target salt intake (grams per day) 0–6 months Less than 1 gram 7–12 months 1 gram 1–3 years 4–6 years 7–10 years 11 years+ 2 grams 3 grams 5 grams 6 grams Extension to EU level In recent times. aimed at stressing the need of having only country-based guidelines. the presence of private scheme such as GDA (Guideilnes on Daily Amounts). which intend to extend them at the EU level. and acts as watchdog inside the European market in order to establish a common ground on food safety requirements and nutrition as well. and not systematic scientific substantiation linking diseases such as stroke or diabetes (DMT1 or DMT2) to an increased intake of sugars (glycemic load/glycemic index). for EFSA. inside Europe.

Stiebeling. prisons. National Academy of Sciences. United States Department of Agriculture nutritionists made a new set of guidelines that also included the number of servings of each food group in order to make it easier for people to receive their RDAs of each nutrient.Trafford College Lifestyle Management RECOMMENDATIONS – US & CANADA The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the U. The final set of guidelines.S. 35). and Mitchell surveyed all available data. Page 7 of 113 . The DRI system is used by both the United States and Canada and is intended for the general public and health professionals. were accepted in 1941. created a tentative set of allowances for "energy and eight nutrients". all part of a committee established by the United States National Academy of Sciences in order to investigate issues of nutrition that might "affect national defense" (Nestle. Roberts. Roberts. where the older Reference Daily Intakes are still used. In the early 1950s. Mitchell. for civilians. and submitted them to experts for review (Nestle. so they included a "margin of safety. History The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) was developed during World War II by Lydia J. Hazel Stiebeling. The Food and Nutrition Board subsequently revised the RDAs every five to ten years. The allowances were meant to provide superior nutrition for civilians and military personnel. The standards would be used for nutrition recommendations for the armed forces. Applications include:    Composition of diets for schools. and for overseas population who might need food relief. hospitals or nursing homes Industries developing new food stuffs Healthcare policy makers and public health officials The DRI was introduced in 1997 in order to broaden the existing guidelines known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The committee was renamed the Food and Nutrition Board in 1941. after which they began to deliberate on a set of recommendations of a standard daily allowance for each type of nutrient. and Helen S. 35). the food guides created by government agencies to direct citizens' nutritional intake also took food availability into account. The DRI values are not currently used in nutrition labeling. called RDAs for Recommended Dietary Allowances." Because of food rationing during the war.

Trafford College Lifestyle Management Current recommendations The current Dietary Reference Intake recommendation is composed of:     Estimated Average Requirements (EAR). Tolerable upper intake levels (UL). Adequate Intake (AI). but the amount established is somewhat less firmly believed to be adequate for everyone in the demographic group. to caution against excessive intake of nutrients (like vitamin A) that can be harmful in large amounts.5% of healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. where no RDA has been established. It is calculated based on the EAR and is usually approximately 20% higher than the EAR. Page 8 of 113 . and Canada. The RDA is used to determine the Recommended Daily Value (RDV) which is printed on food labels in the U. expected to satisfy the needs of 50% of the people in that age group based on a review of the scientific literature. This is the highest level of daily consumption that current data have shown to cause no side effects in humans when used indefinitely without medical supervision. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA).S. the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient by the Food and Nutrition Board to meet the requirements of 97.

mono = one 2 sugars linked. Fructose and galactose are two other sugars that have the same chemical formula as glucose (i.7 carbon atoms. di = two 3 .(CH2O)n. plants provide the major source of carbohydrate in the diet.1000's of sugars. hydrogen and oxygen. however the arrangement of the atoms within fructose and galactose is slightly different making each sugar unique. oligo = few 10 .9 sugars. where n equals from 3 . Carbohydrate has the following chemical formulae. There are four categories of carbohydrates (sugars): Monosaccharides Disaccharides Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides single sugars. C6H12O6).Trafford College Lifestyle Management CARBOHYDRATES All living cells contain carbohydrates.e. and 6 oxygen atoms. A distinguishing feature of carbohydrates is that there are usually 2 hydrogen atoms for every oxygen & carbon atom in each molecule. For example glucose contains 6 carbon. thus the chemical formula for glucose is C6H12O6. Carbohydrates (sugars) are formed by combining the atoms carbon. 12 hydrogen. poly = many Complex Sugars Simple Sugars Page 9 of 113 . In humans.

This prevents the glucose molecule from moving back out of the cell into the blood stream. Once glucose enters a cell it is immediately combined with a phosphate atom. In humans glucose. more than 200 monosaccharides exist.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Monosaccharides Monosaccharides are the basic units of carbohydrates. galactose monosaccharides. which is then stored in fat tissue (adipose tissue) Before glucose can be utilised as an energy source for body cells it must pass through each cell membrane. Glucose and fructose are the nutritionally important Glucose (also called dextrose) can:    occur naturally in food (eg onions and beetroot) be formed by digesting more complex carbohydrates be formed by the liver from specific amino acids Glucose can be:    used by cells to provide a source of energy stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles (for future use) the liver can also transform excess glucose into fat. In nature. Page 10 of 113 . The speed at which this can occur is greatly increased if the hormone insulin is present in the blood stream.

thus an average person stores between 1500 . it is crucial that blood glucose levels are maintained for the following reasons:    to keep the brain functioning to supply energy to the body's cells. Each gram of carbohydrate (either glycogen or glucose) contains approximately 4 calories of energy (3. Thus.Trafford College Lifestyle Management and enables the cell to hold onto glucose until it is required as a source of energy. Some cells such as those found in the liver. it is combined with lots of other glucose molecules to form glycogen. Glucose Storage If glucose is not required as an immediate source of energy. it is possible for glucose to leave the cell and move back into the blood stream. brain cells are • • unable to store glucose unable to burn fat as an additional fuel source. 1999) Glucose provides both the brain and the muscles of the body with an essential form of energy. Katch & Katch.enough to power a 20 mile run at high intensity. The body's cells are stimulated to make glycogen when the hormone insulin is released into the blood stream. Unlike muscle cells. and the rest exists as glucose circulating in the blood stream. which allow the attached phosphate atom to be removed.110g as liver glycogen. Glycogen can be stored in the liver and the skeletal muscles. A well nourished 80kg person is able to store approximately 500g of carbohydrate.replacing used glycogen stores to regulate the appetite Page 11 of 113 . Any individual who has low levels of glucose in their blood stream will experience fatigue in their muscles and a gradual deterioration in mental functioning (concentration.8Kcal/g). Once phosphate is removed. The brain must receive a constant supply of glucose from the blood stream if it is to continue to function at an optimal level. determination etc). kidneys and intestines possess specialised enzymes.2000 calories of carbohydrate . (Source: McKardle. The biggest reserve of carbohydrate (approximately 400g) exists as muscle glycogen. 90 .

made up of many (poly) monosaccharide units.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Disaccharides There are 3 main disaccharides: sucrose. Lactose Lactose is found in milk. it consists of one unit of glucose and one unit of galactose. The main polysaccharide in the human diet is starch which is formed from many glucose units. Sucrose Sucrose. When choosing which carbohydrate foods are best there are 3 main things to consider: Page 12 of 113 . these foods are also high in saturated fats and low in vitamins and minerals. it is obtained from germinated barley. obtained from sugar cane. lactose and maltose. making them a poor choice nutritionally. pastry and chocolate also contain significant amounts of carbohydrate however. Maltose Maltose is known as malt sugar. Polysaccharides . Which Type of Carbohydrate Food Should You Choose? All carbohydrate foods are broken down into glucose and then stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. crisps. Which Foods Contain Carbohydrate? Some good sources of carbohydrate include:         beans bread cereals dried and fresh fruit potatoes and other root vegetables pancakes pasta rice Other foods such as cakes. consists of one unit of glucose and one unit of fructose. vegetables and pluses. Starch is the food reserve of cereals.

One thing that confuses many people about the glycaemic index is that. The glycaemic index. during and immediately after exercise. Foods that are high in complex carbohydrates are often high in fibre and can be very filling. Thus. The following table identifies the glycaemic index of some typical foods. how much fibre the food contains). The glycaemic index is a way of measuring how quickly carbohydrate (glucose) can be absorbed and how quickly the levels of glucose in the blood then rise. Glucose has an index of 100. A food with a high glycaemic index indicates that the carbohydrate within the food is easily absorbed by the body. Whilst the average person in the population is encouraged to consume more fibre it is important to remember that foods containing a lot of fibre can sometimes be difficult to eat if you have a high energy requirement.e. 2. the ability of a carbohydrate to be quickly absorbed once eaten does not depend on whether or.Trafford College Lifestyle Management 1. for example. before. The nutritional content of the food Those foods that are high in complex carbohydrates and those that have naturally occurring sugars ie fruit are more nutritious and generally lower in fat. 3. for those individuals who have a high calorie requirement it is often necessary to top up carbohydrate intake with foods such as carbohydrate drinks or even biscuits as they are less bulky. Page 13 of 113 . not it is a complex carbohydrate (ie along chain of sugars). Occasionally there is a need to consume foods that can be easily absorbed. Rate of absorption is affected by factors such as: • • • • the presence of fibre (soluble fibre slows down the absorption of glucose) the presence of other nutrients ie fat or protein the type of starch cooking or processing -cooking alters particle size and processing removes fibre. For example if you were an athlete who needed 4000 kcal each day you would need approximately 600g of carbohydrate (this would be the equivalent of 20 potatoes or 37 slices of bread). Most Athletes would find it difficult to consume this quantity of food in between their training sessions. All of the above factors can affect how quickly the carbohydrate can be absorbed. How bulky the food is (i.

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The Adverse Effects of Sugar

Obesity Sugar is easy to consume in large amounts, it is extremely difficult to consume the same number of calories of complex carbohydrates because the sheer bulk of the food would be so great. This would appear to be Nature’s way of helping us control our appetites. Hypertension In some individuals, a high sucrose intake produces an increase in blood pressure. Elevation of blood fats Sucrose ingestion, like that of alcohol, markedly raises levels of certain blood fats, particularly the triglycerides, Sugar can also elevate cholesterol in some people. Platelet Stickiness Blood platelets are responsible for the clotting of blood, if over-active, this may result in an increased liability to blood clotting, which can cause a stroke or impaired circulation in the legs. Smokers are particularly at risk, taking sucrose has been found to increase blood platelet stickiness both in healthy volunteers and those with peripheral arterial disease. Atherosclerosis and chromium deficiency Sucrose increase losses in the urine of the essential trace mineral chromium. Low levels of chromium and associated with increased atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), coronary artery disease, elevated blood cholesterol levels and diabetes. Diabetes mellitus Diabetes is not simply caused by eating too much sucrose, closely related to an excess calories intake from both carbohydrates and fat. Current dietary advice urges an increased intake of complex carbohydrates, high in fibre, from such sources as whole grains, lentils, beans, nuts and seeds, rather than the intake of glucose and sucrose. This can be helpful for diabetics who are experiencing a hypoglycaemic episode which can occur in both those on insulin and those receiving oral antidiabetic drugs. Gastrointestinal Disease People with Chrohn’s disease have been found to have a higher sucrose intake that their healthy counterparts. There may be a link with carbohydrate intake and colitis. Low-sugar high-fibre diets have been recommended in the treatment of diverticular disease and, with the use of unprocessed bran, have been found to be highly effective.
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Gallstones Research at Bristol Royal Infirmary has shown that a diet providing the average amount of sucrose consume in the UK produces an increased concentration of cholesterol in bile and therefore, an increased risk of gallstones. Tooth Decay Tooth decay depends not only on the amount of sugar eaten, but the frequency and type. Consumption of foods in which sugar is sticky or caramelized (and thus easily adheres to the teeth) is more likely to cause dental problems. Crisps are a particular problem in causing tooth decay. Kidney Disease Some people appear to retain salt (and water along with it) when consuming a diet high in sucrose. In a weight reduction programme in which the intake of refined carbohydrate is cut dramatically, there is often a marked reduction in weight as a result of loss of body fluid. High sucrose consumption appears to have an adverse effect upon the metabolism of people who have kidney stones. Resistance to Infection Sucrose has a rapid and dramatic adverse effect upon the ability of white blood cells to fight infection. In studies where students were given 24 ounces of a sucrose containing soft drink, there was a rapid rise in blood sugar within 45 minutes, at which time the ability of certain types of white blood cells to ingest and destroy foreign bacteria was significantly impaired. It is well known that diabetics, who have impaired glucose tolerance, are especially likely to get infections. Behaviour and Mood Changes A deficiency of vitamin B1 can occur in people who eat a diet high in refined carbohydrates. This can be a cause of, or aggravate, existing depression and anxiety. Vitamin B1 demands are increased by diets high in refined carbohydrates, and sugar such as sucrose contain none of the B vitamins that are necessary for their metabolism. Some children experience adverse reaction to sucrose in food. Skin Diseases Many people who have poor skin, or are susceptible to spots and pimples, improve by butting out sugar and refined carbohydrates (including ice cream, sweets and chocolate) from their diet. Apart from the sugar you consciously add to drinks or food, sugar is also contained in many manufactured foods. Approximately 60% of the sugar consumed in the UK is taken in this way. The National Advisory Committee on Nutrition Education recommended that the consumption of sucrose should be reduced to 20Kg per head per year.
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The recommendation is based on the amount of sugar available for consumption in the UK. Allowing for a certain percentage of wastage that is inevitable, this can be translated into the maximum number of teaspoons recommended per day per person. The recommendation is not more than a total of 10 teaspoons a day (including all those added to tea and coffee). If you take less, so much the better. Below is a table listing the sugar content of popular foods:

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saccharine. even when it’s not listed separately. others don’t. Try to limit them or choose smaller servings – a King size Mars Bar contains 24 cubes of sugar. compared with a Snack size Mars Bar. especially those in heavy syrup. Fish and meat – the amount of sugar in fish and meat is negligible. Dilute them with water to reduce the sugar without sacrificing taste. which makes them good choice if you want to lower your sugar load. muffins. just be careful about sauces and condiments which can contain a lot of sugar. to give you the taste without the sugar. one way of reducing your sugar intake is to be selective about which fruit you eat. ordinary loaves. But do read labels carefully.        Page 21 of 113 . whereas a diet cola has none. as do fromage frais. Look for artificial sweeteners (NutraSweet. Pastries cakes and biscuits. The worst culprits are dried. A 500ml glass of cola contains 21 cubes of sugar. virtually all of the carbohydrate in fruit drinks will be sugar. However. so avoid them. however.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Simple Advice to Avoid Sugar   Beware fruit juices – they are notoriously high in sugar. which has 10. stewed and canned fruit. aspartame*). Forbidden fruit – one of the highest sugar-containing food groups is fruit and although natural plant sugars offer their won benefits. because ‘low calories’ may not mean ‘sugar free’. yoghurts and sweetened creams. are generally not. Check carbohydrates. while many products tell you how much of the carbohydrate content is from sugar (as opposed to starch). Chocolate and sweets are the worst offenders. French sticks and crumpets are typically very low in sugars. Watch out for spreads and processed cheese which do contain more sugar. Cheese is high in fat but contains virtually no sugar. Bread such as bagels. Drink diet carbonated drinks.

Approval was rescinded the following year and after reviews and additional testing. A widely circulated email hoax cited aspartame as the cause of numerous diseases.Trafford College Lifestyle Management * Aspartame has been found to be safe for human consumption by more than ninety countries worldwide. final approval was granted in 1981.S. Reviews conducted by regulatory agencies decades after aspartame was first approved have supported its continued availability Page 22 of 113 . The Center for Disease Control investigated and was unable to find any significant epidemiological associations to serious risk or harm. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1974. The weight of existing scientific evidence indicates that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a non-nutritive sweetener. Allegations of conflicts of interest marred the FDA's approval of aspartame. Problems with safety tests were found following the initial approval by the U. Government Accountability Office conducted reviews of the actions of involved officials in 1986 and the approval process in 1987.S. neither the allegations of conflict of interest nor problems in the final approval process were substantiated. with FDA officials describing aspartame as "one of the most thoroughly tested and studied food additives the agency has ever approved" and its safety as "clear cut". The U. but has been the subject of several controversies. question the quality of the initial research supporting its safety. hoaxes and health scares.

Trafford College Lifestyle Management Carbohydrate and Exercise Eating carbohydrate before exercise can help you to maintain higher blood sugar levels which may help delay fatigue . if all you carbohydrate is eaten at just 1 or 2 meals each day there may be a possibility that some of it is converted into body fat. To ensure you refuel efficiently you need to consume a minimum of 50g of carbohydrate within the first 2 hours following exercise (preferably you should consume approximately 1g of carbohydrate per kg of bodyweight). eat frequently throughout the day). the speed at which glucose is stored in the muscles as glycogen is vastly increased.e. Below is a list of suitable snacks.30 minutes before exercising (this does not mean consume a meal). remember everyone is unique and it is often necessary to try different amounts of carbohydrate at different times. Remember also. It is recommended that approximately 50g of carbohydrate should be consumed 5 . This is because glycogen storage is much slower if long gaps are left between eating. the sooner you replace any used glycogen stores (by eating plenty of foods high in carbohydrate) the quicker and more efficiently you will recover. The body replaces its glycogen stores much faster during the first 2 hours following physical activity. which would supply at least 50g of carbohydrate: 1 pint of isotonic sports drink 2-3 bananas 1 banana sandwich 3 oz of dried fruit 3 slices of bread 7 rice cakes 7 oz of cooked pasta 6 oz of cooked rice 4-5 oatcakes 2 oz of breakfast cereal with ½ pint of low fat milk 6 oz baked potato with 4oz of baked beans 1 bagel Summary of Recommendations for Carbohydrates 1991 UK Department of Health Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients National Advisory Committee on Nutrition Education Average Percentage of food Energy = 50% 10 teaspoons of sugar a day Page 23 of 113 . You also need to continue to consume at least 50g of carbohydrate every 2 hours (i. Research has shown that during this period. It is important to note that some individuals may not respond very well to this strategy.allowing you to train harder and for longer. you need to start re-fuelling as soon as possible. Following exercise. Consequently.

Soluble fibre is found in oats and pulses (beans. lentils). brown rice and wholemeal pasta. Unlike other carbohydrates fibre is not fully broken down by the body (digested) but instead passes completely through the digestive system and is excreted via the faeces. nuts. There are two main types of fibre: • • soluble insoluble Insoluble fibre is important in our diet because it absorbs water and makes food bulkier and softer. beans. which form thick gels. These gels delay the absorption of glucose into the blood stream. speeding up the passage of waste through the body. Page 24 of 113 .Trafford College Lifestyle Management Fibre Fibre or roughage is the name for a group of complex carbohydrates that are found naturally in plant foods such as cereals.e. The best sources of insoluble fibre are unrefined cereals such as wheat and their products (i. People who do not consume enough fibre in the diet appear to be more likely to suffer from constipation and diseases of the digestive system. fruit and vegetables. It contains soluble gums. This is particularly beneficial to diabetics who would otherwise experience a massive rise in blood-sugar levels with insufficient insulin to cope. it also allows the muscles of the digestive system greater grip making them more efficient. wholemeal bread). peas.

Pectin also forms a gel.otherwise constipation may still occur. It is also advisable to increase fibre intake very gradually. it is not necessary to change eating habits drastically. For example. Some individuals become bloated and experience flatulence or stomach ache if they suddenly change from a diet that is high in processed food to one that is high in fibre Page 25 of 113 . eat wholemeal bread instead of white. To increase fibre in the diet to the recommended intake of approximately 30g per day. It follows therefore. which helps with the passage of food through the intestines. It also protects against the effects of certain toxic chemicals and helps to lower cholesterol and fat levels.leaving the skins on whenever possible. Remember it is also important to drink plenty of fluid.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Pectin is also a soluble fibre it is found in most ripe fruits and vegetables such as carrots. Also ensure a good intake of whole fruit and vegetables . ie the potato skin. that refining food often reduces its fibre content. and eat brown rice or wholemeal pasta and breakfast cereals made from whole grains or oats. as the valuable outer coating is generally removed. The greatest concentration of fibre is contained in the external surface of plant food. Eat more dried fruits. raw if possible. Cooking reduces the amount of fibre even further. so it is important to eat fresh fruit and vegetables. pulses and nuts. apple peel and the outer layer of brown rice or cereal grains. This will replace the water absorbed by the fibre .

has limited faecal bulking capacity. In natural fibre-rich foods it is closely mixed up with other complex carbohydrates. turnips. promote the formation of large bulky stools. Cereals Most cereals. binds strongly to bile salts and promotes their excretion from the gut. Potatoes provide reasonable amounts of protein and vitamin C. Fruit and leafy vegetables Includes cabbage. Properties of Non-Starch Polysaccharides Cellulose (all vegetable tissues): insoluble in water but can absorb water and swell. especially cereal husks): slightly soluble in water and absorbs large amounts of water.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Non-starch Polysaccharide (NSP) Components and their Properties Fibre comes in various forms. parsnips. Root Vegetables Root vegetables (potatoes. The fibre they provide works in the gut keeping it working smoothly and efficiently. binds to bile salts. form strong associations with bile salts and promotes the excretion of the latter from the intestine. Peas and Beans (Pulses) Peas and beans are rich in gums and mucilages which play a part in controlling the level of sugar in the blood. For this reason they are very good are relieving constipation. Page 26 of 113 . Pectins (significant amounts found only in fruit): very water soluble and capable of forming a gel at low concentrations. Advantageous to slimmer’s as they are also a dilute source of calories. Swedes) are high in fibre and starch. particularly whole grain cereals (as in wholemeal brad and brown rice) are good sources of fibre. carrots. which may play a apart in reducing cholesterol in the blood. Some fruits are particularly rich in pectin. lettuce and spinach. They may prove to be an important in the diet for diabetics. Gums and Mucilages (pulses = peas and beans): all have a marked ability to form bulky gels at low concentrations and many form strong associations with molecules such as bile acids. As they are mainly water they are much more diluted sources of fibre. Fibre-rich foods fall into four main groups. woody vegetables): very insoluble in water and resistant to degradation in the gastro-intestinal tract. Hemicelluloses (all vegetables tissues. Lignin (cereals and old.

Raw bran contains a substance known as phytate which makes it difficult for the body to absorb iron. Women with heavy periods Women with heavy periods. For example. are unleavened and so the phytate is incorporated into their diet. Some phytate is destroyed if the bran is cooked. Even more phytate is destroyed when combined with yeast during the bread making process. beans vegetables and fruit. dairy products and sugars. add bran to their diet. or two slices of wholemeal bread.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Phytate Many people associate fibre with ‘bran’. breakfast cereals and pasta which contain the most concentrated forms of fibre. beans. therefore. zinc and iron the diet. Pregnant women Many pregnant women suffer from constipation and may be tempted to add bran to their diets. groups known to be at risk are: Asians The Asian diet tends to be deficient in vitamin D. Traditional bread. Page 27 of 113 . They may rely on vegetables and fruit only for dietary fibre which may result in a low fibre intake. you would have to eat a whole lettuce to obtain the same amount of fibre as a portion of beans. experience a large blood loss and need to have increased iron in their diets. the outer layer of cereal grains which are rich in the fibre lignin. rice. Some people would argue that most people have more than enough calcium. Thus constipation is best relieved by increasing the intake of whole grain (ie unrefined) cereals. in that it may contain a high amount of refined foods. A zinc deficiency in the mother’s diet may be related to babies who are low in weight at birth (but are not premature). Slimmers Many slimmers suffer from constipation due to the fact that they cut out or reduce their intake of potatoes. chapattis. thus the effect of phytate is not important however. and as a result. a bowl of breakfast cereal. Elderly people Elderly people may have a reduced ability to absorb calcium and a tendency to suffer from constipation and may. zinc and calcium. meat. Whilst adding bran can relieve constipation. bread. the rest of the diet can still be poor.

Elimination of hard stools requires considerable effort and this straining at stool causes a build up of intra-abdominal pressures. are more difficult to propel along the gastro-intestinal tract and require more powerful muscle contractions. but a survey of 4 to 5 year old children shows that nearly one in fifteen was suffering from constipation associated with a low fibre diet. Diverticulitis Small hared faeces. NSP is also thought to regulate the acidity of gastric juices. So a decreased transit time is good. hiatus hernias and haemorrhoids. the claims that fibre in the diet may prevent or ease the symptoms of many ‘Western Diseases’ are based up the fact that increased fibre consumption in humans for different times and under a variety of conditions. dietary patterns established in children could have a profound effect on health in later life. However. It is not just uncomfortable to be constipated. characteristic of a low-fibre diet. Page 28 of 113 . preventing gastric juices leaving the stomach prematurely and causing problems such as duodenal ulcers. Possible harmful waste products hang about for much longer. which cause an increase in intra-luminal pressure. The most obvious result of an increase in NSP consumption is a decreased intestinal transit time and the production of bulk stools that are easy to eliminate. Origin Europeans Vegetarian Europeans Rural Africans Transit Time 70 hours 43 hours 35 hours Stool Weight 100 grams 180 grams 400 grams In one experiment children were given a harmless plastic marker to swallow with one meal. Clearly. A great deal of this information is indirect and should not be confused with a demonstrated cause and effect relationship. These diseases are usually associated with middle and old age. It took anything from one day to a whole week for the marker to pass through them. It also helps to retain liquids which normalise acidity in the stomach. Pressures inside the colon can become so great that they cause ballooning out of the inner lining of the colon wall though the surrounding muscle giving rise to diverticular (small pouches) and diverticulitis if they become inflamed. This pressure is transmitted to veins and the diaphragm and is thought to predispose varicose veins. especially in the colon.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Data has been collected linking a deficiency of NSP to a range of diseases. almost without exception produces beneficial results.

High fibre diets and the resultant bulky (more dilute) fast moving stools will reduce the contact (and hence the cancer risk) of those substance with the intestinal mucosa. spontaneous recovery can occur at this point. From epidemiological data. The end result of this cascade is appendiceal rupture (a 'burst appendix') causing peritonitis. It is assumed that caner of the colon is a result of bacteria converting bile salts into carcinogenic substances in the lumen that come into contact with the colon cell wall. trauma. Several studies offer evidence that a low fiber intake is involved in the pathogenesis of appendicitis. Whilst countries whose population consumes large amounts of dietary fibre have a low incidence of colon cancer compared with low-fibre communities. acute appendicitis has been shown to occur antecedent to cancer in the colon and rectum. which may lead to septicemia and eventually death. acute appendicitis seems to be the end result of a primary obstruction of the appendix lumen (the inside space of a tubular structure). Page 29 of 113 . Rarely. The occurrence of a fecalith in the appendix seems to be attributed to a right-sided fecal retention reservoir in the colon and a prolonged transit time. as demonstrated by a significantly lower number of bowel movements per week in patients with acute appendicitis compared with healthy controls. most commonly. increasing pressures within the lumen and the walls of the appendix. pus forms within and around the appendix (suppuration). Also. Cancer of the Colon The case is far from proven that fibre might be protective against this disease. and. As bacteria begin to leak out through the dying walls. lymphadenitis. The causative agents include foreign bodies. On the basis of experimental evidence. and an appendiceal fecalith is commonly associated with complicated appendicitis. and stasis of lymphatic flow. As the former progresses. the appendix becomes ischemic and then necrotic. fecal stasis and arrest may play a role. Dietary fibre is only one of several factors that may play. Once this obstruction occurs. This is in accordance with the occurrence of a right-sided fecal reservoir and the fact that dietary fiber reduces transit time. the appendix subsequently becomes filled with mucus and swells. it has not been possible to establish the exact reasons for the differences. calcified fecal deposits known as appendicoliths or fecaliths The occurrence of obstructing fecaliths has attracted attention since their presence in patients with appendicitis is significantly higher in developed than in developing countries. it has been stated that diverticular disease and adenomatous polyps were unknown and colon cancer exceedingly rare in communities exempt from appendicitis. Also. intestinal worms. resulting in thrombosis and occlusion of the small vessels.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Appendicitis Appendicitis is another problem related to low fibre diets.

normalizes blood lipid levels and. Diets naturally high in fiber can be considered to bring about several main physiological consequences:        helps prevent constipation reduces the risk of colon cancer improvements in gastrointestinal health improvements in glucose tolerance and the insulin response reduction of hyperlipidemia. Such components are likely to have physiological effects. resistant starch has been shown to directly increase insulin sensitivity in healthy people. The use of certain analytical methods to quantify dietary fiber by nature of its indigestibility results in many other indigestible components being isolated along with the carbohydrate components of dietary fiber. that appears in the large bowel. hypertension. and in individuals with insulin resistance. it is better to classify fiber as a group of compounds with different physiological characteristics. In June 2007. the British Nutrition Foundation issued a statement to define dietary fiber more concisely and list the potential health benefits established to date: ‘Dietary fibre’ has been used as a collective te rm for a complex mixture of substances with different chemical and physical properties which exert different types of physiological effects. it is not appropriate to state that fiber has a single all encompassing physiological property as these effects are dependent on the type of fiber in the diet. Dietary fibers can change the nature of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract. reduces sugar response after eating. and to change how other nutrients and chemicals are absorbed through bulking and viscosity. viscosity and fermentation. Defining fiber physiologically allows recognition of indigestible carbohydrates with Page 30 of 113 . in type 2 diabetics. making them less likely to enter the body. and other CHD risk factors reduction in the risk of developing some cancers increased satiety and hence some degree of weight management Therefore. One type of insoluble dietary fiber. The beneficial effects of high fiber diets are the summation of the effects of the different types of fiber present in the diet and also other components of such diets. rather than to be constrained by defining it chemically. Thus. some differentiation has to be made between these indigestible plant components and other partially digested material. this in turn lowers cholesterol levels in the blood. produce short-chain fatty acids as byproducts with wide-ranging physiological activities (discussion below). possibly contributing to reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Insoluble fiber is associated with reduced diabetes risk. once fermented in the colon. Viscous soluble fibers may also attenuate the absorption of sugar. but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. These components include resistant starches and oligosaccharides along with other substances that exist within the plant cell structure and contribute to the material that passes through the digestive tract. Yet.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Cholesterol Metabolism and Diabetes Dietary fibers have three primary mechanisms: bulking. Some types of soluble fibers bind to bile acids in the small intestine. such as protein.

Stoll weight is not increased further with excessive intakes of NSP so the Panel (COMA) gave a recommendation that 32g/day should not be exceeded. figs. berries eg logan berries Cabbage. out bread Pearl barley Bread. Under 2 years of age. The aim of the DRV is to achieve an increase in average faecal stool weight of 25%. fresh and frozen corn Especially brown rice Especially wholemeal pasta Rhubarb. baked products made with wholemeal flour Cornbread. lentils Porridge. wheat-based cereals.Trafford College Lifestyle Management structures and physiological properties similar to those of naturally occurring dietary fibers. Brussels sprouts Peas. apricots Carrots. NSP starch polysaccharide rich foods should not replace other energy rich foods which are needed for adequate growth. Women and older people with low energy intake may have difficulty in achieving an adequate intake of NSP. crisp breads Most fruits especially with the skin dried fruits eg prunes. kidney beans Soluble Summary of Recommendations for Dietary Fibre Dietary Requirement Daily Recommended Amount (DRA) Approx 30 grams (NACNE Report) Dietary Reference Value (DRV): 18 grams (Englyst Analysis) 1991 UK Department of Health Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients Children should eat proportionately less. parsnips Baked beans. chick peas. oat based breakfast cereals. Sources of soluble and insoluble fibre Classification Insoluble Plant sources Wheat Maize Rice Pasta Fruits Leafy vegetables Pulses Oats Barley Rye Fruits Vegetables Pulses Food examples Wholemeal bread. so particular attention should be paid to ways of achieving this. broad-beans. Page 31 of 113 .

Page 32 of 113 . if they are runny you may need less fibre and if they float you are probably getting the correct amount of fibre. If they sink you may need more fibre.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Simple advice to give to clients with regard to fibre is look at your stools when on the toilet.

Triglycerides are stored in fat cells (adipose tissue). they are used as fuel. D. Chemical bond G L Y C E R O L Fatty Acid Fatty Acid Fatty Acid Page 33 of 113 .Trafford College Lifestyle Management FATS Functions of Fat     As a source of energy For insulation/protection As carriers of fat soluble vitamins (A. The basic structure of a triglycerides is one molecule of a compound called glycerol attached to three molecules of free fatty acids (FFA's). & K) For making important structures in the body such as hormones Fats or liquids are found' in the body in the following main forms:    triglycerides phospholipids cholesterol The fats found in food consist mainly of mixtures of triglycerides. E.

There are many different kinds of free fatty acids. a polyunsaturated margarine will also contain a small amount of · saturated fatty acids as well. These terms can be misleading as no fat or oil is made up of just one type . For example. the molecule is called an unsaturated fatty acid. however they differ in the number and the arrangement of each of the atoms. Free fatty acids are basically long chains of carbon. the fatty acid is said to be polyunsaturated. Each fat is described by the kind of fatty acid that features most in its composition.the fatty acid is said to be monounsaturated. however the three most common types are: • • • stearic acid oleic acid palmitic acid Just like carbohydrates free fatty acids contain atoms of carbon. with hydrogen attached and a little bit of oxygen. Page 34 of 113 .Trafford College Lifestyle Management The free fatty acids form the fuel part of the molecule. (When there is a hydrogen atom at every available spot in the molecule the fatty acid is said to be saturated. For example. palmitic acid contains a long chain of 16 carbon atoms. Each carbon atom is saturated with hydrogen atoms. You are probably aware of the terms.they contain a mixture of them all. If two or more atoms of hydrogen are missing. C16H32O2 C = Carbon H = Hydrogen O = Oxygen When some hydrogen is missing. saturated. in other words it contains all the hydrogen that is possible). monounsaturated and polyunsaturated with reference to fats. If just one atom of hydrogen is missing . hydrogen and oxygen.

some fat spreads some vegetable oils such as palm oil and coconut oil Page 35 of 113 . crisps etc. biscuits. Too much of this kind of fat can cause cholesterol levels to increase in some individuals. eggs lard (animal fat) they are also found in: • • • processed foods such as chocolate. This in turn increases the risk for developing heart disease. cakes.e.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Saturated Fats Saturated fats include those fats which are normally hard/solid at room temperature i. cheese. pastries. Saturated fats are found mainly in animal foods/products these include: • • • • dairy products (milk. cream & butter) meat and meat products such as sausages. lard and butter. pies etc. yoghurt.

Oils high in monounsaturates are usually liquid at room temperature but turn solid in cold temperatures. Polyunsaturated Fats Polyunsaturated fats have the least hydrogen (they have two or more unsaturated carbon atoms).Trafford College Lifestyle Management Monounsaturated Fats Monounsaturated fatty acids have slightly less hydrogen . Consequently they must be supplied by the diet.which originates from the essential fatty acid linolenic add Omega 3 .which originates from the essential fatty acid linoleic add.their carbon chain contains one unsaturated carbon atom. These are called essential fatty acids. Page 36 of 113 . The richest sources of monounsaturates include: • • • • • Olives and olive oil Rapeseed oil Groundnut oil Hazelnut oil Almond oil Monounsaturates have health benefits as they can help to reduce total cholesterol levels in the blood without affecting (or reducing) the beneficial high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol. These essential fatty adds can be split into two types: • • Omega 6 . Oils high in polyunsaturated fats are liquid at both room and cold temperatures. Some polyunsaturated fats cannot be made by the body.

mackerel. Each has a different role within the body. Fish with darker flesh such as herring. they form a vital part of cell membranes and are converted into hormone like substances (prostaglandins*. vegetable oils (eg soya. they also help to control blood cholesterol levels they help to diminish inflammatory processes reducing the pain of conditions such as arthritis and psoriasis they help to maintain the immune system omega 3 fatty adds also form an important part of brain tissue they help to make skin watertight. Essential fatty acids provide important health benefits. this helps the blood to flow more easily round the body. sardines or salmon provide much more. Page 37 of 113 . mackerel and salmon). grains and nuts. Modern diets supply mostly the Omega 6 type. thromboxanes and leukotrienes). herring. however the lighter the colour of the fish the less oil it contains and consequently it provides less omega 3. sunflower oil and safflower oil). rapeseed and linseed oils) walnuts and leafy vegetables.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Omega 6 fatty acids are found mainly in vegetable oils (eg corn oil. · Both types of polyunsaturated fats (omega 3 and omega 6) are essential for good health. these control many functions in the body such as: ·         blood dotting . Virtually all fish contain some omega 3 oils. pilchards. particularly in those with high blood pressure they help to reduce the amount of fat in the blood. Omega 3 fatty acids are found mainly in seafood in particular oily fish (eg sardines.blood becomes less sticky and less likely to form unwanted blood dots widening and narrowing of blood vessels they help to lower blood pressure.

Page 38 of 113 . A free radical is any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell. more may offer some protection from heart disease. Linoleic acid has also been show to promote tumour growth in animals. skin problems. Denham Harman first proposed the free radical theory of aging in the 1950s. Omega-3 fatty acids are needed in smaller amounts 1-2g per day found in 100g of herring. An adult requires about 4g omega-6 fatty acids a day (equivalent to 2 teaspoons of sunflower oil or a handful of almonds or walnuts. such as regulating the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle tissue. including a 5-carbon ring. which are locally acting messenger molecules. 1-2 teaspoons of linseed or rapeseed oil. They differ from hormones in that they are not produced at a discrete site but in many places throughout the human body. blood clots and an impaired immune system. Prostaglandins are not endocrine hormones. or a handful of walnuts. An upper daily limit of 25g is suggested as very high intake may be harmful as they increase the production of free radicals**. Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms. and limit oxidative damage to biological structures by passivating free radicals. their target cells are present in the immediate vicinity of the site of their secretion (of which there are many). ** The free-radical theory of aging states that organisms age because cells accumulate free radical damage over time. but autocrine or paracrine. Antioxidants are reducing agents.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Deficiency in omega-6 fatty acids (sometimes found in babies fed on skimmed milk and patients who are unable to absorb fats) can lead to poor growth. and in the 1970s extended the idea to implicate mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species. most biologically-relevant free radicals are highly reactive. free radical damage is closely associated with oxidative damage. They are mediators and have a variety of strong physiological effects. For most biological structures. Also. * A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. While a few free radicals such as melanin are not chemically reactive.

biotin. emotional. pumpkin and sesame seeds or their oils Converted to GLA (Gamm-linolenic acid) found in Evening Primrose Oil Converted to DGLA (di-homo gamma linolenic acid) Converted to Prostaglandins type 1 Reasons for Omega-6 Fatty Acids Deficiency Many people omit oils and fats from their diet because of the calories content. which is dependent on vitamin B1. and the mistaken belief that all fats are bad. The enzyme delta-6-desaturase. Without the GLA human beings cannot make DGLA or prostaglandins type 1. drinking alcohol and stress in its various forms (chemical. zinc and magnesium is essential for conversion of linolenic acid into gammalinolenic acid.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Omega-6 Fatty Acids Linoleic acid Hemp. Deficiency Signs & Symptoms of Omega-6 Fatty Acid           Inflammatory conditions eg arthritis and asthma Difficulty in losing weight Dry eyes and skin. physical and mental) reduce omega-6 absorption. including eczema High blood pressure PMS or breast pain Blood sugar problems or diabetes Excessive thirst Multiple sclerosis Need to drink alcohol every day Mental health problems Page 39 of 113 . sunflower. For that reason people with vitamin and mineral deficiency are likely to be affected by deficiency in omega-6 fatty acids. Smoking.

salmon. linseeds. safflower oil. herring. walnuts Converted to EPA (eicosaopentonic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) Sardines. vegetable leaves. tuna Converted to Prostaglandins type 3 Deficiency Signs & Symptoms of Omega-3 Fatty Acid         Inflammatory health problems Difficulty in losing weight Dry skin High blood pressure Impaired vision Prone to infections Fluid retention Memory and learning ability impaired Page 40 of 113 . almonds.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Omega-3 Fatty Acids Linolenic acid Groundnut oil. mackerel.

Hydrogenation causes fats to become saturated. cakes. it also causes 'trans' fatty acids to be formed.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Trans Fatty Acids (Trans Fats) Fat spreads are a mixture of hydrogenated oil and water (or skimmed milk). plus a large amount of emulsifiers (these prevent the two substances from separating). The Department of Health's committee recommends no more than 2% of all our energy intake should come from ‘ trans’ fats (approximately 4g per day). Most current intakes are around 5g per day. avoid processed foods. Some 'trans' fatty acids have been shown to raise the level of triglycerides in the blood. biscuits. hydrogenated spreads. Hydrogenation is a process that makes oils become hard. Fat spreads appear to provide nearly one third of 'trans' fatty acids in our diet. pastries. However. do not re-use the cooking oil (trans fatty acids are also formed when you re-heat cooking oil). puddings and ice cream also provide significant amounts. there is much less scientific consensus asserting that eating trans fat specifically increases the risk of other chronic health problems: Page 41 of 113 . and when frying foods. In general. Other health risks There are suggestions that the negative consequences of trans fat consumption go beyond the cardiovascular risk. To keep the intake of 'trans' fatty acids low. (this increases the thickness of the blood and increases its tendency to clot) they also appear to increase cholesterol levels.

However. there is not a strong scientific consensus connecting trans fat and obesity.059 people over six years and found those who ate the most trans fats had a 48 per cent higher risk of depression than those who did not eat trans fats. a larger study found a correlation between trans fats and a significant decrease in high-grade prostate cancer." Liver Dysfunction: Trans fats are metabolized differently by the liver than other fats and interfere with delta 6 desaturase. but seen after six weeks. both of which are important to the functioning of cells. although the 6-year experiment did find such a link. Diabetes: There is a growing concern that the risk of type 2 diabetes increases with trans fat consumption. consensus has not been reached. "Each 2% increase in the intake of energy from trans unsaturated fats. one study found that risk is higher for those in the highest quartile of trans fat consumption. concluding that "under controlled feeding conditions. as opposed to that from carbohydrates.. with evidence that there is impaired post-insulin receptor binding signal transduction." One study has found a positive connection between trans fat and prostate cancer. It has been found that trans fats impaired memory and learning in middle-age rats. this is generally in the context of eating too many calories. and were associated with insulin resistance.2% of their body weight. longterm TFA consumption was an independent factor in weight gain. despite a similar caloric intake. The rats' brains of trans-fat eaters had fewer proteins critical to healthy neurological function.". Obesity: Research indicates that trans fat may increase weight gain and abdominal fat.Trafford College Lifestyle Management        Alzheimer's Disease: A study published in Archives of Neurology in February 2003 suggested that the intake of both trans fats and saturated fats promote the development of Alzheimer disease. TFAs enhanced intra-abdominal deposition of fat. Delta 6 desaturase is an enzyme involved in converting essential fatty acids to arachidonic acid and prostaglandins.8% for monkeys on a mono-unsaturated fat diet. Cancer: There is no scientific consensus that consumption of trans fats significantly increases cancer risks across the board. Although obesity is frequently linked to trans fat in the popular media. although not confirmed in an animal model. For example. Another study has found no diabetes risk once other factors such as total fat intake and BMI were accounted for. even though the rats were still young. as compared to 1. A 6-year experiment revealed that monkeys fed a trans fat diet gained 7. These are the exact types of changes normally seen at the onset of Alzheimer's. Infertility in women: One 2007 study found. However. When the brains of 15 major depressive subjects who had committed suicide were examined post-mortem and compared against 27 age-matched controls. One mechanism may be trans-fats' substitution for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Major depressive disorder: Spanish researchers analysed the diets of 12. even in the absence of caloric excess. The American Cancer Society states that a relationship between trans fats and cancer "has not been determined. the suicidal brains were found to have 16% less (male average) to 32% (female average) less DHA in the OFC. was associated with a 73% greater risk of ovulatory infertility.. Page 42 of 113 . Inflammation in and around the hippocampus. the part of the brain responsible for learning and memory.

Trafford College Lifestyle Management Which spread is really the best for you? The following spreads have been scored out of 5 (1 is the worst and 5 is the best for health).5. To classify as ‘heart healthy’. which is linked to possible increased cancer risk. Granose Olive Grove 2 _______________________________________ Page 43 of 113 . Best for: 40 plus group and people who don’t usually eat olive or rapeseed oil. when they end up in body tissues. HEALTH RATINGS: Flora 3.5%) trans fats (look the term hydrogenated fats). the spreads should ideally also be free from. Studies show that monounsaturates have at least as favourable an effect on cholesterol as polyunsaturates. But keep an eye out for added hydrogenated oils. to avoid loading up with trans fats. HIGH IN POLYUNSATURATES Typical fat content 70% These spreads are usually made with sunflower oil and supply at least a 2-1 ratio of polyunsaturated fats to the less healthy saturated type.5 _______________________________________ HIGH IN MONOUNSATURATES Typical fat content 60-80% Olive oil and rapeseed oil are an important ingredient in these spreads. Utterly Buttely 2. Vitalite Buttery 3. Best for: anyone keeping a watchful eye on their cholesterol levels. The may help to reduce cholesterol as long as they are eaten as part of a diet that is overall low in fat. making them richer in monounsaturates than other types. or very low in (less that 0. HEALTH RATINGS: Olivio 4. They are less prone to oxidation.5. Flora Buttery 3. Vitalite 3.

Page 44 of 113 . I Can’t Believe It’s Not Butter Light 3. so look for those that list hydrogenated fats or oils on the ingredients list. _______________________________________ BUTTER Typical fat content 80% An average spreading of butter on two slices of toast accounts for more that 10% of the daily guideline fat intake for women and half the maximum desirable saturate intake. Spreadable butter has up to 30% vegetable oil (usually sunflower) added. be healthier than those that are higher in fat.5. Vitalite Light 2. Anchor Half Fat 4. people with special dietetic needs. and aren’t thought to be associated with harmful side effects in the same way as the man-made variety. In practice they are a bit of a health minefield. HEALTH RATINGS: Natural Butter 1. The small amount of trans fats that occur in butter do so naturally. A general rule. HEALTH RATINGS: Gold Lowest 3. Anchor Organic 2. HEALTH RATINGS: Tesco Sunflower 4.5. Vegetarians should also check labels for animal gelatine as the ingredient can crop up in some low fat spreads. Spreads containing this ingredient can be as low as 5% fat. people who aren’t at high heart disease risk. Best for: Young children.5.Trafford College Lifestyle Management LOW FAT Typical fat content 25-40% Even though these spreads should. with the trade off being a high water content and added bulking ingredients such as processed carbohydrates. _______________________________________ FAT SUBSTITUTED Typical fat content 5% SIMPLESSE is a milk-derived ingredient which gives a feel similar to fat in the month. The big bonus is that the spread contains virtually no harmful saturated fat. Best for: Very overweight people. Gold Semi-Skimmed 2. the lower in fat the spread is the more likely it is to be bolstered with addition of thickeners and emulsifiers. Best for: People on diets or who have been ordered to cut down their fat and saturate intake. which makes it slightly better for your arteries. Anchor Spreadable 1. The main problem is trans fats. in theory. Lurpak Spreadable 1.5.

Those containing semi-solid palm oil or buttermilk tend to be higher in saturates. The fall is almost exclusively in bad cholesterol. Best for: People with a high cholesterol level or at high genetic ricks of heart disease. _______________________________________ Page 45 of 113 . but the composition is very variable. ______________________________________ OTHERS Typical fat content 60-75% Most of the spreads that are left fit into the medium to high fat bracket.5.Trafford College Lifestyle Management BENECOL Typical fat content 40% or 80% Benecol contains stanol ester. a plant substance that physically blocks the absorption of cholesterol from the gut. Benecol 4. HEALTH RATINGS: Benecol Light 5. Best for: People with a high cholesterol level or at high genetic ricks of heart disease. HEALTH RATINGS: Benecol Light 5. Studies show that eating Benecol in amounts equivalent to 4-6 slices of bread thinly spread with the product daily reduces total cholesterol by one tenth which can equate to a reduction of about 20% in heart disease. Benecol 4.5. They contain up to half the saturated content of butter. depending on the precise ingredients.

this is because fat is continually being released from storage. fats are still the body's second choice when it comes to supplying energy. How Much Fat Should We Consume? The UK Government recommends that for health no more than 35% of all the calories we eat each day should come from fat. pilchards. Most of this fat intake should be in the form of unsaturated fats. Not all fats are used as an energy source. Cholesterol is another type of fat . phospholipids are used for making cell membranes and prostaglandins (molecules that function like hormones). Even though the body is able to store much more fat than glycogen. are present in the blood stream. This can happen when a large quantity of carbohydrate or protein enters the body – more than can be used at that moment in time. This process is complex and is enhanced when particular hormones (such as insulin). Each gram of fat can yield 9 kcal. For athletes the International Conference of Foods Nutrition and Sports Performance recommends an intake between 15% . Remember these are found in: • • • • • Vegetable oils eg corn or olive oil Seeds eg sunflower.Trafford College Lifestyle Management What Happens to Fat Following Digestion? Triglycerides can be combined with oxygen (oxidised) to produce energy. For example. Deposited fats are renewed about once every 2-3 weeks. Some types of fat are used as structural molecules or used to create other substances that are essential to the body. transported by the blood and redeposited in other fat cells.30 %. Fat which is stored in adipose tissue makes up the largest reserve of energy in the body. sardines Summary of Recommendations for Fats 1991 UK Department of Health Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients Saturated Fatty Acid Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Monounsaturated Fatty Acid Trans fats Total Fat Average Percentage of food Energy Not more than 11% 6. About half of stored fat is deposited under the skin. sesame Nuts eg groundnut Peanut butter Oily fish eg mackerel. Excess fat is stored mainly in fat tissue (adipose tissue) until it is needed. Liver cells can create fats from glucose or some amino acids. Fat tissue also insulates and protects the body.5% 13% Not more than 2% Not more than 35% Page 46 of 113 .it is used in the construction of bile salts and steroid hormones.

glycine. cannot be synthesized so they must be consumed within the diet. leucine. cobalt and iron (McKardle. Note that the term ‘nonessential’ does not mean that these amino acids are unimportant. consequently they are referred to as essential amino acids. tryptophan. cysteine. phenylalanine.Trafford College Lifestyle Management PROTEIN The body of an average-sized adult contains between 10 . aspartic acid. serine. threonine. Children also require histidine. and valine. The remaining amino acids are Alanine. and at a rate that meets the demands for normal growth and repair of tissue. glutamine. The body is able to manufacture the remaining nonessential amino acids. Eight of them (nine in children and some older adults). Nonessential amino acids are still vital to the human body they are termed ‘nonessential’ because these particular amino acids can be synthesized from other compounds already found in the body. It is a source of energy if glucose is in short supply (thus there is a danger that those people on low calorie or low carbohydrate diets will bum lean tissue as an energy source).1999). arginine. In addition to carbon.000 KJ) of protein (McKardle. tyrosine. glutamic acid. Katch & Katch.consequently it is needed for the formation and/or repair of all tissues. lysine. proline. Protein has two main functions within the body:  It forms part of the structure of every cell in the body (including enzymes and hormones). 1999). hydrogen and oxygen. When proteins are digested (broken down) they are separated into basic units called amino acids. Page 47 of 113 . proteins also contain about 16% nitrogen along with sulphur and occasionally phosphorous. aspargine. These are isoleucine. There are 20 different amino acids required by the human body.Katch & Katch. methionine.  Proteins are large complex molecules.12 kg (160.

are incomplete in one or more of the essential amino acids. nuts and cereals). This means that it contains all the amino acids (both essential and nonessential). These proteins are therefore said to have low biological values. No health or physiological advantage exists from an amino add obtained from an animal source compared to the same amino acid obtained from a plant source. because the quality of a protein depends on its ability to supply all the indispensable/essential amino acids in the amounts needed. Whereas vegetables (lentils. For example. or in short supply. thus giving a relatively lower biological value (often referred to as 2nd class or incomplete protein). Other foods which have a high BV are shown below:  Meat  poultry  fish  dairy products (except butter) High-quality protein foods (also referred to as 1st class protein or complete protein).Trafford College Lifestyle Management Both animals and plants manufacture proteins that contain essential amino acids. Plant proteins. dried beans and peas. such as those in cereals. Legumes such as lentils are low in tryptophan and methionine. This is often referred to as its Biological Value or BV Biological Value refers to its completeness for supplying essential amino acids. wheat and rice proteins are comparatively low in lysine. comes from animal sources. Egg white has a BV of 100. The table below rates some common sources of protein in the diet. in the right proportions needed by the human body. pulses and nuts generally have one or more to the essential amino acids wither missing. Protein Sources The usefulness of a food high in protein is often measured by how many amino acids are contained within it. Page 48 of 113 .

Katch & Katch 1999 p31) McKardle. Because proteins form the main part of virtually every cell structure .higher protein intake is important during: • • • growth pregnancy recovery from disease or injuries Page 49 of 113 . whereas 50 years ago protein consumption occurred equally from plants and animals. Once the necessary amino acids are present inside the cell. Protein breakdown occurs every day in all the body's tissues. Protein formation is carried out in virtually every cell of the body. relatively high intake of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids comes from this over reliance on animal sources for dietary protein.Katch & Katch (1999) note that currently. Proteins are taken from worn out cells such as red blood cells and are broken down again into amino acids. Some of these amino acids can then be recycled to make new proteins.Trafford College Lifestyle Management (Source: McKardle. Those that can't be recycled are excreted. The current. protein can be formed. animal sources of protein provide almost two-thirds of the dietary protein consumed.

while legumes contain lysine but lack the essential amino acid methionine (found abundantly in grains). What about Vegetarians? Grains and legumes (peas. however they do not provide the full range of essential amino acids (an exception to this may be well-processed. isolated soy-bean protein. when incomplete or low biological value proteins are combined they form 'complete' proteins of 'high biological value'. Over time large amounts of lean tissue can be lost. hard workout).this protein ranks equivalently to some animal proteins). lentils): Rice and beans Croutons and pea soup Beans on toast Lentil soup with a bread roll Tortillas and beans Corn bread and chilli beans Page 50 of 113 . Grains do not possess the essential amino acid lysine. larger quantities of protein are then used for energy. If glycogen dieting/fasting or towards the end of a long.each gram of protein yields approximately 4kcal/g (the same as a gram of carbohydrate). energy provision is not the main role of protein. beans. beans and lentils) are excellent protein sources. However. The main source of this protein is the muscles and organs of the body.Trafford College Lifestyle Management As noted earlier. Thus. (stored glucose) is in short supply (for example when source. termed soy-protein isolates . The following combinations of food provide a full range of amino acids: Grains & Milk Products (for lacto-vegetarians): Cereal and milk Bread and cheese Pasta and cheese Grains & Pulses (peas. leading to little or no improvements in fitness levels and signs of over training. As long as the body takes in and stores enough carbohydrates it will use very little protein as an energy . protein can also be used as a source of energy .

lacto-ovo vegetarians (vegetarians that still consume dairy products and eggs) need to take care as both cheese and eggs have a higher saturated fat and cholesterol level than lean meats.4% complete protein and it also contains 25. Page 51 of 113 . cooked piece of beef contains 65% protein and 35% fat. making it even more likely that vegetarians or vegans may suffer from a deficiency. In percentages of calories provided:      A slice of lean ham is about 25% protein.3% fat. A carefully trimmed. Wholegrain bread contains 14% protein. all red meats are not the best source of protein. the remaining 75% is fat. Vegetarians may also lack iron and zinc (minerals found primarily in meat and other animal products). Cooked beans contain 36% protein.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Grains & Nuts: Peanut butter sandwich Legumes & Seeds: Hummus (a blend of chic peas and tahini which is made from sesame seeds) Tofu and sesame seeds By combining the above foods vegetarians can plan their diets to ensure they consume an adequate amount of protein each day. However. Thus. it is unbalanced. lean. Plant foods that are high in zinc include beans. Iron is vital for red blood cell formation and zinc is important for tissue growth and maintenance. 9% fat and 70% unrefined carbohydrate. Its excessive consumption leads to a dangerous consumption of fat which can be deposited in the body’s stores and arteries and an increased risk of colon cancer. Therefore. Both iron and zinc in animal protein is also more easily absorbed than that obtained from plants. Untrimmed it is 24% protein and 76% fat. The most efficient animal protein is found in eggs which produce a higher proportion of usable protein than steak. less that 6% fat and 58% unrefined carbohydrate. lentils and wholegrains. as a food. in general. Recent Events The terms ‘first class protein’/‘high biological value’ and ‘second class protein’/‘low biological value’ may be considered obsolete due to the following: By weight steak is only 17.

so does your need for protein. By weight soya bean has 34% protein and 18% fat of which 11% is polyunsaturated.1. Nutrition and Sports Performance (1991). Once an optimal level of protein intake has been reached.2-1. peas and beans. This amount is easily obtained from a well balanced diet in which 1215% of the calories eaten are from protein sources. would supply one and a half times the protein needed by 98% of the population. There are other points about protein which are not often fully realised. which is an ample intake for most people. stated that protein intake for athletes should form 12-15% of total energy consumed. it is always necessary to have a mixture of different types of vegetable protein in one meal when vegetable sources of protein are used.4 for endurance athletes and 1. This is why the International Conference on Foods. is related to the total amount of calories (energy) needed per day. it has been found that a diet sufficient to supply 2500 Kcal/day. The amount of protein each individual requires. Is Too Much Protein Harmful? Consuming more protein than your body needs offers no advantages in terms of health or physical performance.7g per kg of bodyweight (1. The total amount of protein per day an average adult can remain in good health on is 40g of protein.75g per kg of bodyweight. For those involved in heavy exercise (athletes) the protein requirement is slightly increased to 1. If typical menus from around the world are based primarily on grains and vegetables. This percentage remains the same for those individuals who are sedentary. It is very difficult on a mixed vegetable diet to produce a loss of body protein unless high levels of sweet things and other proteinfree foods are taken. Page 52 of 113 . (with only about a tenth of the protein coming from meat. any excess protein is not converted into muscle and does not improve strength or stamina. In other words. as your need for more energy increases because you are more active . How Much Protein Do We Need? The normal adult daily requirement of protein is approximately 0. milk and eggs). However.7 for power lifters).2.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Soya bean contains more protein which is totally usable (ie it is complete protein with all the 8 essential amino acids) than any meat.

Summary of Recommendations for Proteins 1991 UK Department of Health Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients Protein Average Percentage of food Energy 12-15% Sedentary 0.4g of protein/Kg body weight Power lifter 1. The nitrogen part of protein is excreted and the remainder is converted into glucose.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Protein when eaten in excess of what the body requires represents a burden on the body as it needs to be eliminated.7g of protein/Kg body weight Page 53 of 113 .2-1. Excess glucose may be used as an immediate energy source or may be converted into glycogen (stored glucose). if your diet is also providing adequate amounts of glucose (carbohydrates) glycogen stores may be full .consequently excess glucose may be converted into fat.75g protein/Kg body weight Endurance athlete 1. However.

and must be obtained from the diet. but not for most other animals. because it was suggested in 1912 that the organic micronutrient food factors that prevent beriberi and perhaps other similar dietary-deficiency diseases might be chemical amines. An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism. By convention. meaning amine of life. nor does it encompass the large number of other nutrients that promote health but are otherwise required less often. and the word was shortened to vitamin. carbohydrates and proteins). and biotin and vitamin D are required in the human diet only in certain circumstances. or essential amino acids (which are needed in larger amounts than vitamins). For example. essential fatty acids." a compound word coined in 1912 by the Polish biochemist Kazimierz Funk when working at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine. Thus. The name is from vital and amine. Most vitamins form essential components within enzymes or co. ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a vitamin for humans. the term is conditional both on the circumstances and on the particular organism. Page 54 of 113 . the term vitamin does not include other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals.enzymes (an organic substance which must be present if an enzyme is to work). Although vitamins in themselves do not release energy they are vital in the process of metabolising (breaking down) other nutrients (fats. This proved incorrect for the micronutrient class.Trafford College Lifestyle Management VITAMINS AND MINERALS Vitamins The term vitamin was derived from "vitamine. Thirteen vitamins are universally recognized at present. Vitamins are needed in small amounts for growth and normal metabolism. A vitamin is an organic compound required by an organism as a vital nutrient in limited amounts. The main function of vitamins is the regulation or control of chemical reactions within the body.

the richest sources however. carbohydrate and protein also contain vitamins. Below is a table of all the vitamins: Page 55 of 113 . this also means that if eaten in excess they can become toxic. which is why they must be obtained through the diet. biotin is part of enzymes involved in making fatty acids. D. deficiencies particularly in the UK are rare. the other vitamin functions are equally important. vitamins may be tightly bound to enzymes as part of prosthetic groups: For example. Most · foods that are high in fat. In this role. such as "vitamin A". Although these roles in assisting enzyme-substrate reactions are vitamins' bestknown function. as well. However. or regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation (eg some forms of vitamin A). Such a set of chemicals is grouped under an alphabetized vitamin "generic descriptor" title. Others function as antioxidants (eg vitamin E and sometimes vitamin C).Trafford College Lifestyle Management Vitamins are classified by their biological and chemical activity. that help enzymes in their work as catalysts in metabolism. Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. folic acid carries various forms of carbon group – methyl. and four known carotenoids. Vitamers by definition are convertible to the active form of the vitamin in the body. which includes the compounds retinal. Vitamins are classified into two types:   water soluble (B vitamins and vitamin C) fat soluble (A. retinol. An adequate amount of each vitamin is necessary to function optimally. Some have hormone-like functions as regulators of mineral metabolism (eg vitamin D). E and K can be stored in the body. detachable molecules that function to carry chemical groups or electrons between molecules. Consequently they do not need to be consumed each day however. Thus. disease and even death. are green leafy vegetables. and are sometimes inter-convertible to one another. Excess amounts however. mainly in the liver but also in the adipose (fat) tissue. For example. not their structure. The minimum daily requirements are small and can easily be met by eating a varied diet. D. E & K) The fat soluble vitamins A. The body cannot manufacture vitamins. and methylene – in the cell. A deficiency of vitamins can lead to illness. formyl. The largest number of vitamins (eg B complex vitamins) function as precursors for enzyme cofactors. each "vitamin" refers to a number of vitamer compounds that all show the biological activity associated with a particular vitamin. Vitamins may also be less tightly bound to enzyme catalysts as coenzymes. have never been proven to improve performance.

ripe yellow fruits.0 mg Paresthesia N/D Diarrhea. 3. liver. bananas Vitamin B7 Biotin Water 30. pumpkin. oatmeal. certain Page 56 of 113 . muscle relaxation vegetables. age complete) 19–70) Deficiency disease Upper Intake Level (UL/day) Overdose disease Food sources Vitamin A Retinol. potatoes. pyridoxamine. niacinamide Water 16.0 µg Dermatitis. pyridoxal Water 1. Hyperkeratosis. mushrooms. nausea and broccoli. and Keratomalacia Orange. possibly Meat. eggs Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Water 1. green beans.0 mg Pellagra 35. spinach. 100 mg Impairment of proprioception. popcorn. avocados Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine.3– 1. many vegetables. tree nuts Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Water 5. liver Vitamin B1 Thiamine Water 1. heartburn. leafy Hypervitaminosis vegetables.000 µg A carrots. nerve damage (doses > 100 mg/day) Meat. with large doses. bananas.2 mg Beriberi. retinal. Drowsiness or brown rice. liver.7 mg Anemia peripheral neuropathy. & 4 carotenoids including beta carotene Fat 900 µg Night-blindness. tree nuts. fish.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Vitamin generic descriptor name Vitamera chemical RDA name(s) (list not Solubility (male. asparagus Vitamin B3 Niacin. enteritis N/D Raw egg yolk. squash. peanuts. WernickeKorsakoff syndrome N/D Pork.3 mg Ariboflavinosis N/D Dairy products. eggs.0 mg Liver damage (doses > 2g/day) and other problems Meat. vegetables.

Trafford College Lifestyle Management Vitamin generic descriptor name Vitamera chemical RDA name(s) (list not Solubility (male. bread. Meat and other animal products Vitamin C Ascorbic acid Water 90. age complete) 19–70) Deficiency disease Upper Intake Level (UL/day) Overdose disease Food sources vegetables Vitamin B9 Folic acid. cereal.000 mg megadosage Many fruits and vegetables. folinic acid Water 400 µg Megaloblast and Deficiency during pregnancy is associated with 1. Leafy vegetables. menaquinones Fat 120 µg Bleeding diathesis N/D Increases coagulation in patients taking warfarin Leafy green vegetables such as spinach. liver Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin.0 mg Deficiency is very rare. Increased congestive heart failure seen in one large randomized study. pasta.0 mg Scurvy Vitamin C 2. D mushrooms Vitamin E Tocopherols. Water methylcobalamin 2.4 µg Megaloblastic anemia N/D Acne-like rash [causality is not conclusively established]. such as neural tube defects May mask symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. tocotrienols Fat 15. eggs. Many fruits and vegetables Vitamin K phylloquinone. liver Vitamin D Cholecalciferol Fat 10 µg Rickets and Osteomalacia 50 µg Fish. hydroxycobalamin.000 mg in newborn infants. mild hemolytic anemia 1. egg Page 57 of 113 . other effects. Hypervitaminosis liver.000 µg birth defects.

sodium. sulfur. They are inorganic substances which make up about 4% of total body weight. cobalt. and others (eg arsenic & silicon) are suspected to have a role in health. phosphorus and magnesium. Most minerals that enter into the dietary physiology of organisms consist of simple compounds of chemical elements. Pyrithiamine is similar to thiamine. which are subsequently picked up by the herbivores that eat them and so on. molybdenum. Over twenty dietary minerals are necessary for mammals. Some are needed in relatively large amounts for example. but without proof. For example. The total number of minerals that are absolutely needed is not known for any organism. selenium and iodine are needed in tiny amounts but are still essential if the body is to function normally.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Anti-vitamins are chemical compounds that inhibit the absorption or actions of vitamins. iron. See also anti-nutrients. and oxygen present in common organic molecules. vitamin B1. and selenium. nitrogen. necessary for mammalian life. Others. and inhibits the enzymes that use thiamine. Minerals Dietary minerals (also known as mineral nutrients) are the chemical elements required by living organisms. copper. Minerals in order of abundance in the human body include the seven major minerals calcium. the minerals move up the food chain. potassium. Plants absorb dissolved minerals in soils. zinc. sodium. phosphorus. and magnesium. Larger organisms may also consume soil (geophagia) and visit mineral licks to obtain limiting mineral nutrients they are unable to acquire through other components of their diet. Larger aggregates of minerals need to be broken down for absorption. Each mineral has a unique role in the body. Minerals are present in all living cells. chlorine. other than the four elements carbon. iodine. chloride. calcium. hydrogen. Important "trace" or minor minerals. Ultra trace amounts of some minerals (eg boron & chromium) are known that clearly have a role but the exact biochemical nature is unknown. avidin is a protein in egg whites that inhibits the absorption of biotin. Below is a table of all the minerals: Page 58 of 113 . include iron. such as zinc. potassium.

is pervasive and required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase. Red meat. soy beans. is needed for production Table salt (sodium of hydrochloric acid in chloride) is the main the stomach and in dietary source. Dairy products. cumin. parsley. green leafy hypocalcaemia vegetables. spinach. beans. tomatoes. yoghurt. mushrooms. tomatoes. eggs. scallops. sea hyponatremia coregulating ATP with vegetables. nuts. dry and is essential in beans. dry beans. notably hemoglobin to prevent anemia. spinach. is required for hypomagnesemia. sodium. cloves. In biological contexts. soybeans. bones. anaemia turmeric. sea processing ATP and for magnesium vegetables. seeds. cells. milk. supports synthesis and function of blood cells. is required for many proteins and enzymes. lentils. canned fish with bones (salmon. chard. oats. lentils. dill. and carbonic anhydrase. cocoa mass. the main and is essential in source). whole grains. bananas. potato skin. ginger. sweet potato. chard. tofu. Dietary Calf liver. in energy processing and many other functions. spinach. oregano. green peas. hypokalemia coregulating ATP with yams. eggs. is a systemic electrolyte papayas. iron overload disorder Page 59 of 113 . hypernatremia Calcium 1300 mg Quantity is needed for muscle. asparagus. hyperkalemia Chlorine 2300 mg Quantity hypochloremia hyperchloremia Sodium 1500 mg Quantity Table salt (sodium is a systemic electrolyte chloride. miso hypermagnesemia Zinc 11 mg Trace zinc deficiency zinc toxicity Iron 18 mg Trace Grains. tofu. liver alcohol dehydrogenase. heart and digestive system health. hypophosphatemia hyperphosphatemia Magnesium 420 mg Quantity Raw nuts. hypercalcaemia Phosphorus 700 mg Quantity is a component of bones (see apatite). spinach. bread. spinach. dairy foods. deficiency halibut. rice. oats. sardines). seeds. turmeric.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Dietary element RDA/AI (mg) Description Category High nutrient density dietary sources Insufficiency Excess Potassium 4700 mg Quantity Legumes. thyme. red meat. usually seen as phosphate. poultry. fish. cinnamon. cumin. builds bone. eggs. dry beans. cellular pump functions. chard. and potassium.

seeds. tofu. shrimp. aldehyde oxidase.055 mg Trace Brazil nuts. a cofactor essential to salmon). fish (tuna. tomatoes. tempeh. probably as an antioxidant. spinach. tuna. spinach. mozzarella cheese. iodized salt. but also. and sulfite oxidase Molybdenum 0. carrots molybdenum deficiency Page 60 of 113 . Manganese 2. selenium deficiency selenosis enzymes like glutathione mustard. barley is required not only for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Alternate but inconsistent sources of iodine: strawberries. activity of antioxidant turkey.150 mg Trace Sea vegetables. garlic. pineapple. rye. mushrooms.900 mg Copper in health Trace Mushrooms. squash. whole grains. dried fruits.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Dietary element RDA/AI (mg) Description Category High nutrient density dietary sources asparagus. turmeric manganism Copper Main article: 0. onions. cinnamon. beans. raw of many redox enzymes. cold water wild fish (cod. tempeh. calf liver. soybeans. soybeans.3 mg Trace is a cofactor in enzyme functions. eggplant. oxidase. cheese. fish. is required component greens. peroxidase. leafy green vegetables. for extrathyroidal organs as mammary and salivary glands and for gastric mucosa and immune system (thymus): copper toxicity Iodine 0. thyroxine and triiodothyronine and to prevent goiter. deficiency strawberries. manganese raspberries. and enriched grains. milk. beans. cloves. olives Insufficiency Excess sources include red meat. salad greens. lamb. halibut. brown rice. thyme. cashews. salmon). seeds the oxidases xanthine oxidase. eggs. Spelt grain. shellfish. beans. yogurt. garlic. barley.045 mg Trace Tomatoes. iodine deficiency iodism  Iodine in biology Selenium 0. raw copper deficiency including cytochrome c walnuts. eggs.

If the body is deficient in iron.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Iron Deficiency Iron is important as it forms an essential part of haemoglobin (the protein that transports oxygen in the blood stream). Who is at risk of iron deficiency? Those who are susceptible to iron deficiency include:      Young children Teenagers Females of childbearing age. those people who are on a restricted intake (eg dieters) can end up with iron deficiency. Clients should avoid taking any supplements unless they are under medical supervision. Page 61 of 113 . Normally adults take in approximately 5-6mg or iron for each 1000 kcal of food they consume. Excessive iron intakes from supplements can be dangerous .the iron stored in the body can become toxic . including women who are physically active. What Are the Symptoms of Anaemia?         Tiredness/ easily fatigued Breathlessness on exertion Pale skin Sore mouth Nail changes Dizziness Insomnia Lack of appetite If you are concerned that one of your clients may have anaemia suggest that they seek medical advice.it is better to change eating habits so they include more iron-rich foods on a daily basis. Women on vegetarian-type diets (iron obtained from plant foods is not as easily absorbed by the body). red blood cell production can be affected. Pregnancy can also trigger iron deficiency because of the increased iron demand for both mother and foetus. Therefore.

found in the outer layer of cereals). pastas and cereals that are 'iron-enriched' or 'fortified'. refined salt (table salt). The absorption of non-haem iron. It is essential for animal life in small quantities. Page 62 of 113 . remember vitamin C aids iron absorption. Choose breads. is affected by chemicals found in certain foods. The following tips will help with acquiring an adequate iron intake. (iron from plant sources). a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of ionic salts. Avoid constantly drinking coffee or tea with each meal as they contain substances (tannin) which interfere with iron absorption. most ubiquitous food seasonings and salting is an important method of food preservation. The taste of salt (saltiness) is one of the basic human tastes. Vitamin C can enhance iron absorption. Animal protein contains haeme-iron. and iodized salt. is a crystalline mineral that is composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl).Trafford College Lifestyle Management What Stops the Body Absorbing Iron? Remind your clients that it is not just 'any old iron' that is important. It is a crystalline solid. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt). normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. white. mainly found in tea and phytic acid. These chemicals (which include tannin. also known as table salt.   Salt Salt. or rock salt. So. Salt is one of the oldest. which is more easily absorbed by the body. Eat these foods with a source of vitamin C (eg drink orange juice with meals).  Eat lean cuts of red meat. pale pink or light gray in color. but is harmful to animals and plants in excess. bind to the iron or make iron insoluble and prevent its absorption into cells. and the dark meat of chicken or turkey 3-4 times per week (animal protein contains haeme-iron which is more easily absorbed). drinking a glass of orange juice with fortified breakfast cereal or serving beans on toast with tomatoes will help the absorption of nonhaeme iron. Edible rock salts may be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content.

However.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Chloride and sodium ions. Left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy.there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy. The sodium ion itself is used for electrical signaling in the nervous system. Drinking too much water. puts a person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). with insufficient salt intake. although others state the risk is minimal for typical western diets. including high blood pressure in sensitive individuals. such as in treatment of dysautonomia. Acute effects Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps. Death can occur by ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight). Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. Reduced salt intake also results in a small reduction in blood pressure. Stomach cancer is associated with high levels of sodium. Some associations include:      Stroke and cardiovascular disease. salt consumption is higher. as salt consumption has increased during modern times. scientists have become aware of the health risks associated with high salt intake.. and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food. some health authorities have recommended limitations of dietary sodium. Deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics. salt has often been considered a valuable commodity during human history.. High blood pressure: Evidence shows an association between salt intakes and blood pressure among different populations and age range in adults. are needed by all known living creatures in small quantities. Salt is sometimes used as a health aid. which can cause neurological problems. Because of its importance to survival." However. Therefore. The effects of salt reduction appears to have an unclear effect on mortality and its effect on morbidity is contentious. independently of blood pressure effects. It can exacerbate renal disease. can cause hypernatremia." Excessive salt (sodium) intake. combined with an inadequate intake of water. the two major components of salt. Long-term effects The effect of salt consumption on long term health outcomes is controversial. in Japan. Oedema: A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention). or death. forced salt intake. a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. dizziness. "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK." ". Page 63 of 113 . or electrolyte disturbance.

mcg) of folic acid daily until 12th week of pregnancy. might not need vitamin drops. In 1994. the researchers found a reduced blood pressure in the intervention group. with mean blood pressure falling by 7. However. rarely get outdoors or are housebound. and a reduction in strokes. green vegetables. the health consequences of ingesting sea salt or regular table salt are the same. Age Target average salt intake (g/d)  0-6 months Less than 1  7-12 months 1  1 – 3 years 2  4-6 years 3  7-10 years 5  11 years + 6 Page 64 of 113 . Children under the age of 5 who are not good eaters may need to take a supplement containing vitamins A. at least 5 portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables a day Pregnant women and those women trying for a baby should take 400 microgram (μg. Over a 24week period. high potassium. critics have pointed out that it is possible that some of the subjects may have changed their dietary habits due to many of them being able to distinguish the mineral salt from table salt due to their different taste. brown rice and fortified breakfast cereals. Parents who are concerned about their child’s diet should talk to their GP or health visitor for further advice Consumers should consider taking a daily 10mcg vitamin D supplement if they are of Asian origin. D & C.6 mm Hg (systolic) and 3. Summary of Recommendations for Vitamins and Minerals 1991 UK Department of Health Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients Plenty of fruit and vegetables. the British Medical Journal published a randomized double blind placebo controlled study examining 100 Dutch middle-aged and elderly subjects with mild to moderate hypertension. they should also eat folate rich foods such as. Pregnant and breastfeeding women should also take a daily 10mcg supplement of vitamin D. According to The Mayo Clinic and Australian Professor Bruce Neal. In addition to this.3 mm Hg (diastolic) in the mineral salt group compared with the control group. as the content of sea salt is still mainly sodium chloride. wear clothes that cover all your skin when you are outdoors or eat no meat or oily fish.Trafford College Lifestyle Management The Cochrane Collaboration found that a modest and long term reduction in population salt intake would result in a lower population blood pressure. with the control group ordinary table salt in their foods and at the table. including fruit and vegetables. high magnesium mineral salt was used at the table and in foods given to the intervention group. heart attacks and heart failure. A low sodium. Children who have a good appetite and eat a wide variety of foods.

Page 65 of 113 . performance in any activity will be impaired. it is second only to oxygen as a substance necessary for life. the body becomes less able to carry out the above tasks. It makes up approximately 50 -55% of total body weight. Water has several important roles within the body: • • • • it stabilises body temperature via sweating fluid in blood carries nutrients to working muscles and carries away metabolic waste products · fluid in urine helps to eliminate waste products it is needed for cells to function If too little fluid is drunk.Trafford College Lifestyle Management FLUID REPLACEMENT Water Water is essential. Consequently. or large amounts of fluid are lost via sweating.

Thirst is triggered by high concentrations of sodium (a part of salt) in the blood. Both these groups should take care to ensure they have an adequate fluid intake. If the body temperature continues to rise the participant may suffer from heat exhaustion or heat stroke. A person's water consumption is normally governed by the thirst mechanism. Less water in the blood stream causes it to become more concentrated. Any loss of body fluid reduces the ability to circulate blood. Increased concentrations of sodium are then detected by the brain. As sweat evaporates it helps to cool the skin and this in turn cools the blood. you lose significant amounts of water from your blood. particularly if they participate in exercise. When you sweat. By the time the body reacts to thirst.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Proper hydration is essential for exercise performance. it is already dehydrated. the thirst mechanism is not reliable. Page 66 of 113 . Performance begins to decline and physical activity becomes increasingly difficult. An adequate consumption of fluids is obviously the best way to prevent dehydration. Blood flow to the skin decreases and body temperature begins to rise. which is regulated by the hypothalamus in the brain. Unfortunately. which in turn stimulates the thirst mechanism. However an individual who is exercising hard and losing a large amount of water through sweat may become dehydrated before feeling thirsty. Two groups of the population who need greater monitoring with regard to fluid intake are young children (who have poorly developed thirst mechanisms) and senior citizens (who tend to be less sensitive to the thirst mechanism). During physical activity sweat is produced to help lower body temperature (during hard exercise the body may generate 20 times more heat than at rest).

In hot weather. What Should You Drink? It does not have to be water per se that is. Consume plenty of drinks. Page 67 of 113 . by the time your thirst is stimulate you may have lost 3 cups of sweat (approximately 1% of your body weight). Water is often the best fluid for those who wish to exercise. Water empties more quickly from the stomach because it does not need to be digested. Drink 1-2 cups of water 5-15 minutes before starting your workout or before competing. and therefore the fluid contained within is absorbed more slowly.Trafford College Lifestyle Management How Much Fluid Should You Consume? The exact amount you should drink depends on how large you are and how much you can comfortably cope with. drink as much and as often as you can manage during activity. Consequently these drinks are not as effective as water when it comes replacing the fluid lost during exercise. ideally water up to 2 hours prior to exercising – the kidneys need approximately 60-90 minutes to process excess fluid. drunk to meet daily requirements – almost any none-alcoholic liquid will do. A 2% loss of body weight may reduce your ability to exercise by 10-15%. Individual needs should be determined through trial and error however. there are some general guidelines:      Reduce the risk of chronic dehydration by quenching the thirst – then drinking more. caffeine has a dehydrating effect therefore caffeinated tea or coffee is recommended for optimal hydration. Always drink before you are thirsty. However. particularly in hot weather or if training hard. Drinks containing high amounts of sugar need to be digested.

or faster depending on exercise conditions are more concentrated than body fluids and will therefore be absorbed less quickly into your body Isotonic Drinks Hypertonic Drinks How Do You Know If You Are Replacing Fluid Adequately? The simplest way to tell if you're adequately replacing fluid is to check the colour and quantity of urine. Darker colour urine suggests dehydration. you should drink at least 2 cups of fluid. Electrolytes do not improve performance – they help to get water into the body faster and therefore prevent performance from deteriorating. For every pound you lose. they are designed to be absorbed more rapidly than water. Hypotonic Drinks are less concentrated than the body's fluids. leading to faster re-hydration have the same concentration of dissolved particles as body fluids.Trafford College Lifestyle Management What About Commercial Sports Drinks? Commercial sports drinks contain small amounts of sugars and minerals called electrolytes (such as sodium and potassium) Al low concentrations this can be speed up water absorption. Page 68 of 113 . Unless you are exercising very hard for over an hour in hot conditions they are not necessary. they will be absorbed at the same speed as water. Another way is to weigh yourself before and after exercise.

causing pancreatic enlargement. contain anti-nutrients. such as beans. Some enzyme blockers disrupt the body’s natural protein digestive enzymes including the enzyme pepsin in our stomachs. the digestive process is altered and the absorption and uptake of essential nutrients from our food is disrupted. nuts. Foods with high concentrations of lectins. The glycoalkaloids are particularly concentrated in green and injured potatoes which should be avoided and eating raw potatoes is strongly discouraged. These enzyme-blockers disrupt the predator’s digestive enzymes discouraging the bird or animal from eating further grain meals. EG grains protect themselves from predators by being armed with toxic proteins in the form of enzyme-blockers and lectins. damaging the cell lining of our intestines. With the blocking of these enzyme functions. In most naturally occurring anti-nutrients. seeds. Lectins and enzyme blockers are mostly neutralized by sprouting or fermentation and sometimes the cooking process (cooking however does nothing to alter the toxic effects of the glycoalkaloids in potatoes). stimulating cells to secrete hormones. Grains. which must be able to sprout in an appropriate environment to continue the grain’s lifecycle. and immune (allergic) reactions. beans and legumes including soy contain enzyme blockers and lectins. and trypsin and chymotrepsin in our small intestines. cereal grains. Possibly. may be harmful if consumed in excess in uncooked or improperly cooked form. Adverse effects may include nutritional deficiencies. Grains. and potatoes. Page 69 of 113 . the plant contains the compound in order to assure its continued lifecycle. Others block the effects of the enzyme amylase for the digestion of starch. thus the name anti-nutrients. Potatoes contain not only enzyme blockers and lectins but also a group of toxins known as glycoalkaloids. most effects of lectins are due to gastrointestinal distress through interaction of the lectins with the gut epithelial cells.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Anti-nutrients Anti-nutrients are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients. Lectins can be responsible for removing protective mucous from tissue. Lectins may even be responsible for tricking our immune systems into attacking ourselves as seen in the auto-immune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.

polyphenols. which forms insoluble complexes with calcium. Nevertheless. and malting increase the nutritive quality of plant foods through reducing certain antinutrients such as phytic acid.Trafford College Lifestyle Management One common example is phytic acid. Anti-nutrients are found at some level in almost all foods for a variety of reasons. particularly cereals. iron and copper. An important example of such processing is the fermentation of cassava to produce cassava flour: this fermentation reduces the levels of both toxins and antinutrients in the tuber. the large fraction of modern diets that come from a few crops. probably as an outcome of the process of domestication. Such processing methods are widely-used in societies where cereals and legumes form a major part of the diet. zinc. Page 70 of 113 . These compounds chelate metals such as iron and zinc and reduce the absorption of these nutrients. The possibility now exists to eliminate anti-nutrients entirely using genetic engineering. Some proteins can also be anti-nutrients. but they also inhibit digestive enzymes and may also precipitate proteins. However. since these compounds may also have beneficial effects. which are a group of polyphenolic compounds that include tannins. such as the trypsin inhibitors and lectins found in legumes. such genetic modifications could make the foods more nutritious but not improve people's health. has raised concerns about the effects of the anti-nutrients in these crops on human health. but. and oxalic acid. cooking. their levels are reduced in modern crops. Many traditional methods of food preparation such as fermentation. Another particularly widespread form of anti-nutrients are the flavonoids. These enzyme inhibitors interfere with digestion.

Australia has had an approved system of labelling for additives in packaged foods. but without the prefix 'E'.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Food Additives Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste and appearance. and inform consumers. Page 71 of 113 . many more additives have been introduced. alkanet. although it is approved for use in Australia and New Zealand. although there is some overlap between them. preserving sweets or using sulfur dioxide as in some wines. but countries outside Europe use only the number. regardless of whether they are approved for use. The numbers are the same as in Europe. Some additives have been used for centuries. for example. termed as "E numbers". salting. Categories Food additives can be divided into several groups. E numbers are all prefixed by "E". each additive is assigned a unique number. but is simply known as additive 260 in some countries. Since 1987. acetic acid is written as E260 on products sold in Europe. is not approved for use in Europe so does not have an E number. With the advent of processed foods in the second half of the 20th century. For example. of both natural and artificial origin. as with bacon. whether the additive is approved in Europe or not. preserving food by pickling (with vinegar). Numbering To regulate these additives. Additive 103. which is used in Europe for all approved additives. Each food additive has to be named or numbered. This numbering scheme has now been adopted and extended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to internationally identify all additives.

citric acid. Food coloring Colorings are added to food to replace colors lost during preparation. Common food acids include vinegar. Emulsifiers Emulsifiers allow water and oils to remain mixed together in an emulsion. Acidity regulators Acidity regulators are used to change or otherwise control the acidity and alkalinity of foods. ice cream. Anticaking agents Anticaking agents keep powders such as milk powder from caking or sticking. tartaric acid. Page 72 of 113 . Colour retention agents In contrast to colourings. and also act as preservatives and antioxidants. colour retention agents are used to preserve a food's existing color. Antioxidants Antioxidants such as vitamin C act as preservatives by inhibiting the effects of oxygen on food. as in mayonnaise. Bulking agents Bulking agents such as starch are additives that increase the bulk of a food without affecting its taste. fumaric acid. and may be derived from natural ingredients or created artificially.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Acids Food acids are added to make flavors "sharper". and can be beneficial to health. and lactic acid. or to make food look more attractive. and homogenized milk. malic acid. Antifoaming agents Antifoaming agents reduce or prevent foaming in foods. Flavours Flavours are additives that give food a particular taste or smell.

they help to stabilize emulsions. like agar or pectin (used in jam for example) give foods a firmer texture. thus guaranteeing shelf life.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Flavour enhancers Flavour enhancers enhance a food's existing flavors. Thickeners Thickeners are substances which. Flour treatment agents Flour treatment agents are added to flour to improve its color or its use in baking. bacteria. Stabilizers Stabilizers. Glazing agents Glazing agents provide a shiny appearance or protective coating to foods. or because they have beneficial effects for diabetes mellitus and tooth decay and diarrhea. Humectants Humectants prevent foods from drying out. They may be extracted from natural sources (through distillation. While they are not true emulsifiers. Tracer gas Tracer gas allow for package integrity testing to prevent foods from being exposed to the atmosphere. when added to the mixture. Sweeteners Sweeteners are added to foods for flavoring. among other methods) or created artificially. maceration. and other microorganisms. thickeners and gelling agents. increase its viscosity without substantially modifying its other properties. Sweeteners other than sugar are added to keep the food energy (calories) low. solvent extraction. Page 73 of 113 . Preservatives Preservatives prevent or inhibit spoilage of food due to fungi.

" Page 74 of 113 . saccharin. boric acid was widely used as a food preservative from the 1870s to the 1920s. The results are hard to follow and somewhat inconsistent. an amendment to the Federal Food. this was a carefully conducted study in which the investigators went to great lengths to eliminate bias and to rigorously measure outcomes. This has led to legislation in many countries regulating their use. available food preservatives led to it being used again.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Safety With the increasing use of processed foods since the 19th century. and Cosmetic Act of 1938. impulsivity and over activity) at least into middle childhood. In each case increased hyperactive behaviors were associated with consuming the additives. led to the retention of saccharin despite its violation of the Delaney clause. and an application of the precautionary principle led to the conclusion that only additives that are known to be safe should be used in foods. as demonstrated in animal and human studies. For many of the assessments there were small but statistically significant differences of measured behaviors in children who consumed the food additives compared with those who did not. Thus. Drug. but it was finally banned in the 1950s. the urgent need for cheap. but was banned after World War I due to its toxicity. During World War II. the overall findings of the study are clear and require that even we skeptics. who have long doubted parental claims of the effects of various foods on the behavior of their children. stating that no carcinogenic substances may be used as food additives. and found both to be problematic for some children. Widespread public outcry in the USA. In the USA. In the February 2008 issue of its publication. after the banning of cyclamates in the USA and Britain in 1969. Such cases led to a general mistrust of food additives. there has been a great increase in the use of food additives of varying levels of safety. and it is unclear whether some disturbances can also occur in mood and concentration in some adults. presented evidence that a mix of additives commonly found in children’s foods increases the mean level of hyperactivity. For those comparisons in which no statistically significant differences were found. was found to cause cancer in rats. there was a trend for more hyperactive behaviors associated with the food additive drink in virtually every assessment. In September 2007. Further studies are needed to find out whether there are other additives that could have a similar effect. the only remaining legal artificial sweetener at the time. However." That study examined the effect of artificial colors and a sodium benzoate preservative. AAP Grand Rounds. admit we might have been wrong. The team of researchers concluded that "the finding lends strong support for the case that food additives exacerbate hyperactive behaviors (inattention. partly communicated to Congress by postage-paid postcards supplied in the packaging of sweetened soft drinks. the American Academy of Pediatrics concluded that a low-additive diet is a valid intervention for children with ADHD: "Although quite complicated. this led to the adoption of the Delaney clause. For example. research financed by Britain's Food Standards Agency and published online by the British medical journal The Lancet.

mice and non-human primates can be very different from humans in the relevant biochemical pathways. and has shown to cause brain tumors in mice. and Yellow 6 are among the food colorings that have been linked to various health risks in animal models. soft drinks. heart disease or obesity. Blue 2 can be found in pet food. and pastries and there has been some evidence that it may cause cancer in mice. In the EU it can take 10 years or more to obtain approval for a new food additive. soft drinks. It should be noted that many animal models are poor substitutes for studying carcinogenic effects in humans because the physiology of rabbits. Sodium nitrite can produce cancer causing chemicals such as nitrosamines. For example. Blue 1 is used to color candy. Standardization of its derived products ISO has published a series of standards regarding the topic and these standards are covered by ICS 67. even though it occurs naturally in sassafras and sweet basil. This includes five years of safety testing. it may not be added to foods. Blue 1. Food Standards Australia New Zealand published an official shoppers' guidance with which the concerns of food additives and their labeling are mediated. but in minimal amounts. followed by two years for evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority and another three years before the additive receives an EU-wide approval for use in every country in the European Union Apart from testing and analyzing food products during the whole production process to ensure safety and compliance with regulatory standards. neurological conditions. mainly used in cherries for cocktails has been correlated with thyroid tumors in rats. trading standards officers (in the UK) protect the public from any illegal use or potentially dangerous mis-use of food additives by performing random testing of food products. safrole was used to flavor root beer until it was shown to be carcinogenic. gelatin. and pastries. and candy can lead to the attribution of gland and kidney tumors. and numerous studies have shown a link between nitrite and cancer in humans that consume processed and cured meats. There has been no scientific consensus on the carcinogenic properties of these agents in humans and studies are still on-going. digestive problems. Natural additives may be similarly harmful or be the cause of allergic reactions in certain individuals.Trafford College Lifestyle Management In 2007. used in sausages. Some artificial food additives have been linked with cancer. Red 3. Page 75 of 113 . Red 3. Sodium nitrite is added to meats to produce an appealing and fresh red color to the consumer. ADHD. again in animal models and contains carcinogens.220. Yellow 6. but studies have not been replicated. There has been significant controversy associated with the risks and benefits of food additives. Blue 2. Extreme caution should be taken with sodium nitrite which is mainly used as a food coloring agent. Due to the application of the Delaney clause.

for conformity to the requirements of a particular diet. Although Buddhists are generally vegetarians. Although humans are omnivores. proteins. is often implied the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related). or "going on a diet". Page 76 of 113 . The terms "healthy diet" and "diet for weight management" are often related. the practice varies and meat-eating may be permitted depending on the sects. vegetable oils. Religious and cultural dietary choices Some cultures and religions have restrictions concerning what foods are acceptable in their diet. and other nutrients. Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in quality of life. can change the energy balance and increase or decrease the amount of fat stored by the body. only Kosher foods are permitted by Judaism. issues surrounding morality. Dietary choices Many people choose to forgo food from animal sources to varying degrees (flexitarianism. each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos. vitamins. These diets may require tuning or supplementation to meet ordinary nutritional needs. and will provide your body with the right balance of vitamins. In Hinduism. minerals. but meat-eating is not banned. Weight management A particular diet may be chosen to seek weight loss or weight gain. Some foods are specifically recommended. Specific weight loss programs can be harmful to health. health and longevity. With the word diet.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Diets In nutrition. while others may be beneficial (and can thus be coined as healthy diets). Changing a subject's dietary intake. and Halal foods by Islam. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy. vegetarianism is the ideal. Jain are more or less strictly vegetarian. or to reduce their personal impact on the environment. fruitarianism) for health reasons. These diets are often recommended in conjunction with exercise. minerals. and food energy in the form of carbohydrates. due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. or even altered. and can define cultures and play a role in religion. Raw foodism is another contemporary trend. Having a healthy diet is a way to prevent health problems. and fats. Dietary habits are the habitual decisions an individual or culture makes when choosing what foods to eat. diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. Proper nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of fibre. veganism. vegetarianism. For example. as the two promote healthy weight management.

defined by abnormal eating habits that may involve either insufficient or excessive diet. Health A healthy diet may improve or maintain optimal health. limit red and processed meat. In developed countries. there is no total consensus on what constitutes a healthy diet. Diet classification table Food Type Fruits and berries Greens Vegetables Starchy vegetables Grains Poultry Fish (scaled) Seafood (nonfish) Beef Pork Eggs Dairy Nuts Alcohol Carnivore Omnivore Pescetarian Vegetarian Vegan Raw vegan Islamic Hindu Jewish Paleolithic diet No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Page 77 of 113 . eat plant-based food.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Eating disorders An eating disorder is a mental disorder that interferes with normal food consumption. and limit alcohol. However. affluence enables unconstrained caloric intake and possibly inappropriate food choices. It is recommended by many authorities that people maintain a normal weight (limiting consumption of energy-dense foods and sugary drinks).

Belief-based diets Some people's dietary choices are influenced by their religious. or famine". clinical need. Hindu and Jain diets: Followers of Hinduism and Jainism often follow lactovegetarian diets. Haraam substances include alcohol. I-tal: A set of principles which influences the diet of many members of the Rastafari movement. food that is Islamically Impermissible. and any meat from an animal which was not killed through the Islamic method of ritual slaughter (Dhabiha). Vegetarian diets A vegetarian diet is one which excludes meat. Vegetarians also avoid food containing by-products of animal slaughter. Usually either vegetarian or vegan. including ethical and religious beliefs. rather than through a conscious choice to eat unhealthily. Many diets are considered by clinicians to pose significant health risks and minimal long-term benefit. Islamic dietary laws: Muslims follow a diet consisting solely of food that is halal – permissible under Islamic law. The creators interpret a verse from the Bible as suggesting that Christians should only consume seed bearing plants and fruits. is said to be Kosher. followed by members of the Latter Day Saint movement.         Buddhist diet: While Buddhism does not have specific dietary rules. Word of Wisdom: The name of a section of the Doctrine and Covenants. Hallelujah diet: A form of Christian vegetarianism developed in the 1970s. and failure to prepare food in accordance with Kashrut can make otherwise permissible foods non-Kosher. Page 78 of 113 . One principle is that natural foods should be consumed. Some Rastafarians interpret I-tal to advocate vegetarianism or veganism. People's dietary choices are often affected by a variety of factors. pork. Not all diets are considered healthy. Some foods and food combinations are non-Kosher. spiritual or philosophical beliefs. the set of Jewish dietary laws. or of cold. Edenic diet: A diet based on what Adam and Eve are believed to have consumed in Garden of Eden. Some people follow unhealthy diets through habit. Terms applied to such eating habits include "junk food diet" and "Western diet".Trafford College Lifestyle Management An individual's diet is the sum of food and drink that he or she habitually consumes. Dietary advice includes only eating meat "in times of winter. Dieting is the practice of attempting to achieve or maintain a certain weight through diet. The opposite of halal is haraam. some buddhists practice vegetarianism based on a strict interpretation of the first of the Five Precepts. and based predominantly on fruit. or a desire to control weight. This is particularly true of "crash" or "fad" diets – short-term weight-loss plans that involve drastic changes to a person's normal eating habits. based on the principle of Ahimsa (non-harming). Kosher diet: Food permissible under Kashrut. such as animal-derived rennet and gelatin.

proteins and carbohydrates. Weight Watchers diet: Foods are assigned points values. Low-calorie diets      Body for Life: A calorie-control diet. Vegan diet: In addition to the requirements of a vegetarian diet. Nutrisystem distributes low-calorie meals. Weight control diets A desire to lose weight is a common motivation to change dietary habits. under others it is possible to follow a plant-based diet whilst occasionally consuming meat. Nutrisystems Diet: The dietary element of the weight-loss plan from Nutrisystem. Such diets are normally followed under the supervision of a doctor. A common diet among followers of several religions. with specific ratios of fats. This is especially true of "crash" or "fad" diets. dieters can eat any food with a points value provided they stay within their daily points limit. such as eggs and dairy products. based on the principle of Ahimsa (non-harming). it is noted in that diet's entry. often in place of a meal. Pescetarian diet: A diet which includes fish but not meat. Many weight loss diets are considered by some to entail varying degrees of health risk. Inc.Trafford College Lifestyle Management    Lacto vegetarianism: A vegetarian diet that includes certain types of dairy. Where this is the case. The book suggests that the key to reaching and maintaining the desired weight is understanding and carefully monitoring calories consumed and used. Page 79 of 113 . Lacto-ovo vegetarianism: A vegetarian diet that includes eggs and dairy. In addition to foods permissible in a vegetarian diet. Hacker's diet: A calorie-control diet from The Hacker's Diet by John Walker. and some are not widely considered to be effective. vegans do not eat food produced by animals. Very low calorie diets A very low calorie diet is. Kangatarian: A diet originating from Australia. Consuming fewer than 800 calories per day. including Hinduism and Jainism. Many of the diets listed below could fall into more than one subcategory. kangaroo meat is also consumed. in which meat is occasionally consumed. promoted as part of the 12-week Body for Life program. Under some definitions a plant-based diet is fully vegetarian. Plant-based diet: A broad term to describe diets in which animal products do not form a large proportion of the diet. and foods which contain animal rennet. but excludes eggs. as is a desire to maintain an existing weight. Cookie diet: A calorie control diet in which low-fat cookies are eaten to quell hunger. Semi-vegetarian diets     Flexitarian diet: A predominantly vegetarian diet.

taking supplements. The name is a reference to the Western world. rapid changes to food consumption. Israeli Army diet: An eight-day diet. It is considered a fad diet. Both types of diet are often considered to pose health risks. Dukan Diet: A multi-step diet based on high protein and limited carbohydrate consumption. Junk food diet: A diet largely made up of food considered to be unhealthy. Page 80 of 113 . intended to facilitate weight loss. Where this is the case.        Beverly Hills Diet: An extreme diet which has only fruits in the first days. cheese in the following two days. They describe diet plans which involve making extreme. who lost 245 pounds after replacing his meals with Subway sandwiches as part of an effort to lose weight. such high-fat or processed foods. Proponents argue that this approach is a more successful way of losing weight than low-calorie diets. Cabbage Soup Diet: A low-calorie diet based on heavy consumption of cabbage soup. Grapefruit diet: A fad diet. chicken on days five and six. It starts with two steps intended to facilitate short term weight loss. as drinking significantly more water than recommended levels can cause hyponatremia. gradually increasing the selection of foods up to the sixth week. and salad for the final two days. followed by two steps intended to consolidate these losses and return to a more balanced long-term diet. Made famous by former obese student Jared Fogle. Examples include restricting food consumption to foods without colourings or preservatives. Subway diet: A crash diet in which a person consumes Subway sandwiches in place of higher calorie fast foods. or drinking large amounts of water. Western dietary pattern: A diet consisting of food which is most commonly consumed in developed countries. Many of the diets listed here are weightloss diets which would also fit into other sections of this list. Considered a fad diet. but are also as disparaging terms for common eating habits which are considered unhealthy. Detox diets Detox diets involve either not consuming or attempting to flush out substances that are considered unhelpful or harmful.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Low-carbohydrate diets  Atkins diet: A low-carbohydrate diet. it will be noted in that diet's entry. Despite what the name suggests. the diet is not followed by Israel Defense Forces. critics argue that a low-carb approach poses increased health risks. populised by nutritionist Robert Atkins in the late-20th and early-21st centuries. milk and puddings.  Crash diets Crash diet and fad diet are general terms. Examples include meat. Only apples are consumed in the first two days. in which grapefruit is consumed in large quantities at meal times. white bread. The latter practise in particular has drawn criticism.

It is promoted as a way of reducing the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Diets followed for medical reasons People's dietary choices are sometimes affected by intolerance or allergy to certain types of food. by avoiding foods with certain types of protein. Other diets   Alkaline diet: The avoidance of relatively acidic foods – foods with low pH levels – such as grains. alcohol. Elimination diet: A method of identifying foods which cause a person adverse effects. which is found in barley. There are also dietary patterns that might be recommended. Gluten-free diet: A diet which avoids the protein gluten. whole-grains and low fat dairy foods as part of their diet. red meat and fats. in which dietary and body fat is converted into energy. Ketogenic diet: A high-fat. ulcerative colitis. Elemental diet: A medical. low-carb diet. in which nutrition is obtained solely from fruit and vegetable juices.Trafford College Lifestyle Management  Juice fasting: A form of detox diet. prescribed or administered by medical professionals for people with specific medical needs. May be administered by clinicians for medical reasons. in which liquid nutrients are consumed for ease of ingestion. Promoted by the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is a medical treatment for coeliac disease. Colon Cancer Diet: Calcium. a protein commonly found in milk and cheese. Liquid diet: A diet in which only liquids are consumed. rye and wheat. Crohn's disease. a United States government organisation. dairy. casein-free diet: A gluten-free diet which also avoids casein. Diabetic diet: An umbrella term for diets recommended to people with diabetes. Blood Type Diet: A diet based on a belief that people's diets should reflect their blood types. o Gluten-free. by process of elimination. DASH Diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension): A recommendation that those with high blood pressure consume large quantities of fruits. caffeine and fungi.           Best Bet Diet: A diet designed to help prevent or mitigate multiple sclerosis. liquid-only diet. milk and garlic are thought to help prevent colon cancer. meat. sugar. Specific Carbohydrate Diet: A diet that aims to restrict the intake of complex carbohydrates such as found in grains and complex sugars. The health implications of such diets are disputed. coeliac disease and autism. critics consider the arguments to have no scientific basis. such as after a gastric bypass or to prevent death through starvation from a hunger strike. and avoid sugar sweetened foods. There is considerable disagreement in the scientific community as to what sort of diet is best for sufferers. vegetables. Proponents believe such a diet may have health benefits. Used as a medical treatment for refractory epilepsy. Page 81 of 113 . Red meat and processed meat may increase risk.

Not to be confused with low-carb diets. nuts and grains.Trafford College Lifestyle Management                    Dr. The Graham Diet: A vegetarian diet which promotes whole-wheat flour and discourages the consumption of stimulants such as alcohol and caffeine. Low-fat diet Low glycemic index diet Page 82 of 113 . a book by Harvey and Marilyn Diamond. vegetables. and on mixing lean proteins with complex carbohydrates. People who follow this type of diet are sometimes known as locavores. low fat and vegetarian. High-protein diet: A diet in which high quantities of protein are consumed with the intention of building muscle. and also involves taking specific supplements. where the intention is to lose weight by restricting carbohydrates. An example of this was explored in the book 100-Mile Diet. Developed by Sylvester Graham in the 19th century. hunted or gathered locally. in which the authors only consumed food grown within 100 miles of their residence for a year. prepared and transported with a minimum of associated greenhouse gas emissions. the diet is low salt. intended to facilitate weight loss. normally with the intention of losing weight. High-fiber foods include certain fruits. Fit for Life diet: The dietary aspect to Fit for Life. Gerson therapy: A form of alternative medicine. Often involves the consumption of larger amounts of protein. Fruitarian diet: A diet which predominantly consists of raw fruit. Hay diet: A food-combining diet. predominantly meat and fish. These claims have not been scientifically proven. Hay diet: Developed by William Howard Hay in the 1920s. Earth Diet: An example of raw foodism. For instance. F-plan diet: A high-fibre diet. Inuit diet: Inuit people traditionally consume food that is fished. Low-carbohydrate diet: A diet in which carbohydrates are avoided. some weight control diets suggest that proteins and carbohydrates should not be consumed in the same meal. The dietary aspect involves the consumption of pre-packaged food produced by the company. not drinking water at meal time. Divides foods into separate groups. Low carbon diet: Consuming food which has been produced. Jenny Craig: A weight-loss program from Jenny Craig. Food combining diet: A nutritional approach where certain food types are deliberately consumed together or separately. although the diet should not to be confused with highprotein diets. Its recommendations include not combining protein and carbohydrates. It was developed by Max Gerson. Feingold diet: A diet which attempts to combat hyperactivity by avoiding foods with certain synthetic additives and sweeteners. who claimed the therapy could cure cancer and chronic. Eat-clean diet: Focusses on eating foods without preservatives. High residue diet: A diet in which high quantities of dietary fibre are consumed. degenerative diseases. encourages exclusively eating foods in their natural state. It includes weight counselling among other elements. Inc. and the American Cancer Society claims that elements of the therapy have caused serious illness and death. and avoiding dairy foods. and suggests that proteins and carbohydrates should not be consumed in the same meal.

irradiation or food additives. proteins and fats in a 40:30:30 ratio. Scarsdale Medical Diet Shangri-La Diet Slimming World diet Smart For Life Sonoma diet South Beach diet SparkPeople diet Stillman diet Sugar Busters: Focuses on restricting the consumption of refined carbohydrates. beans and vegetables. Zone diet: A diet in which a person attempts to split calorie intake from carbohydrates. particularly sugars. Page 83 of 113 . Pritikin Program for Diet and Exercise: A diet which focusses on the consumption of unprocessed food. Inc. Medifast Diet: A weight-loss diet based on foods sold by Medifast. Raw foodism: A diet which centres on the consumption of uncooked and unprocessed food. Omnivore: An omnivore consumes both plant and animal-based food. Organic food diet: A diet consisting only of food which is organic – it has not been produced with modern inputs such as chemical fertilizers. One of the more distinct features is that olive oil is used as the primary source of fat. Okinawans are the longest lived people in the world. such as celery. genetic modification. or of modern dietary plans based on these habits. Its composition varies between institutions and states. Paleolithic diet: Can refer either to the eating habits of humans during the Paleolithic era.Trafford College Lifestyle Management                           Low-protein diet Low sodium diet Macrobiotic diet A diet in which processed food is avoided. it is intended to provide inmates with all their dietary needs. Prison loaf: A meal replacement served in some United States prisons to inmates who are not trusted to use cutlery. although some raw food dieters do consume raw meat. Common components include grains. Master Cleanse: A form of juice fasting. The basis for this claim is disputed. Swank diet: Focuses on restricting the consumption of saturated fat. Mediterranean diet: A diet based on habits of some southern European countries. Okinawa diet: A low-calorie diet based on the traditional eating habits of people from the Ryukyu Islands. Often associated with a vegetarian diet. but as a replacement for standard food. Montignac diet: A weight-loss diet characterised by consuming carbohydrates with a low glycemic index. Negative calorie diet: A claim by many weight-loss diets that some foods take more calories to digest than they provide.

The common use association between such diets and vegetarianism has led vegetarian groups such as the Vegetarian Society to state that diets containing these ingredients are not vegetarian. dairy. The OED writes that the word came into general use after the formation of the Vegetarian Society at Ramsgate in 1847. For example. a lacto-vegetarian diet includes dairy products but not eggs. Various packaged or processed foods. often contain unfamiliar animal ingredients. Page 84 of 113 . and an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet includes both eggs and dairy products. A vegan. though it offers two examples of usage from 1839 and 1842. Etymology The Vegetarian Society. including eggs. and seafood). Vegetarians in some nations consume more animal products than those in others. or strict vegetarian. diet excludes all animal products. Other motivations for vegetarianism include health. however. Despite this. while some vegetarians may be unaware of animal-derived rennet's role in the usual production of cheese and may therefore unknowingly consume the product. or sometimes other meats on an infrequent basis. A pescetarian diet. and may be a special concern for vegetarians due to the likelihood of such additions. There are varieties of the diet as well: an ovo-vegetarian diet includes eggs but not dairy products. for example. along with the concept of animal rights. cultural. Vegetarians vary in their feelings regarding these ingredients. Vegetarianism can be adopted for different reasons. chocolate and marshmallows. the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) and other standard dictionaries state that the word was formed from the term "vegetable" and the suffix "-arian". other vegetarians may not be bothered by its consumption.). aesthetic or economic. may also be practiced. vegetables. says that the word "vegetarian" is derived from the Latin word vegetus meaning lively or vigorous. due to fish and birds being animals. Abstention from by-products of animal slaughter. poultry. and honey. etc. includes "fish but no meat". Many object to eating meat out of respect for sentient life. Such ethical motivations have been codified under various religious beliefs. products are scrutinized by vegetarians for animal-derived ingredients prior to purchase or consumption. and with the exclusion of meat (red meat. The results of a 2009 International survey suggest the standard definition of vegetarianism is different in different nations. with or without the inclusion of dairy products or eggs. founded in 1847. such as animal-derived rennet and gelatin. Semi-vegetarian diets consist largely of vegetarian foods. including cake.Trafford College Lifestyle Management VEGETARIANISM Vegetarianism encompasses the practice of following plant-based diets (fruits. Those with diets containing fish or poultry may define "meat" only as mammalian flesh and may identify with vegetarianism. political. environmental. but may include fish or poultry. Often. cookies.

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Varieties of vegetarianism There are a number of types of vegetarianism, which exclude or include various foods.
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Ovo vegetarianism includes eggs but not dairy products. Lacto vegetarianism includes dairy products but not eggs. Ovo-lacto vegetarianism (or lacto-ovo vegetarianism) includes animal/dairy products such as eggs, milk, and honey. Veganism excludes all animal flesh and animal products, including milk, honey, and eggs. Raw veganism includes only fresh and uncooked fruit, nuts, seeds, and vegetables. Vegetables can only be cooked up to a certain temperature. Fruitarianism permits only fruit, nuts, seeds, and other plant matter that can be gathered without harming the plant. Sattvic diet (also known as yogic diet), a plant based diet which may also include dairy (not eggs) and honey, but excludes anything from the onion or leek family, red lentils, durian fruit, mushrooms, blue cheeses, fermented foods or sauces, alcoholic drinks and often also excludes coffee, black or green tea, chocolate, nutmeg or any other type of stimulant such as excess sharp spices. Buddhist vegetarianism (also known as su vegetarianism) excludes all animal products as well as vegetables in the allium family (which have the characteristic aroma of onion and garlic): onion, garlic, scallions, leeks, chives, or shallots. Jain vegetarianism includes dairy but excludes eggs and honey, as well as root vegetables. Macrobiotic diets consist mostly of whole grains and beans.

Within the 'ovo-' groups, there are many who refuse to consume fertilized eggs (with balut being an extreme example), however such distinction is typically not specifically addressed. Some vegetarians also avoid products that may use animal ingredients not included in their labels or which use animal products in their manufacturing; for example, sugars that are whitened with bone char, cheeses that use animal rennet (enzymes from animal stomach lining), gelatin (derived from the collagen inside animals' skin, bones and connective tissue), some cane sugar (but not beet sugar) and apple juice/alcohol clarified with gelatin or crushed shellfish and sturgeon, while other vegetarians are unaware of such ingredients. Individuals may describe themselves as "vegetarian" while practicing a semivegetarian diet, as some dictionary definitions pertaining to vegetarianism vary and include the consumption of fish, while other definitions exclude fish and all animal flesh. In other cases, individuals may describe themselves as "flexitarian". These diets may be followed by those who reduce animal flesh consumed as a way of transitioning to a complete vegetarian diet or for health, environmental, or other reasons. Semi-vegetarian diets include:

pescetarianism, which includes fish and some other forms of seafood;
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pollotarianism, which includes poultry; "pollo-pescetarian", which includes poultry and fish, or "white meat" only; macrobiotic diets consisting mostly of whole grains and beans, but may sometimes include fish.

Semi-vegetarianism is contested by vegetarian groups who state that vegetarianism excludes all animal flesh.

Health benefits and concerns Scientific endeavors in the area of vegetarianism have shifted from concerns about nutritional adequacy to investigating health benefits and disease prevention. The American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada have stated that at all stages of life, a properly planned vegetarian diet is "healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provides health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases." {citation needed}Large-scale studies have shown that mortality from ischaemic heart disease was 30% lower among vegetarian men and 20% lower among vegetarian women than in non-vegetarians. Vegetarian diets offer lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein, and higher levels of carbohydrates, fibre, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and phytochemicals. Vegetarians tend to have lower body mass index, lower levels of cholesterol, lower blood pressure, and less incidence of heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, renal disease, metabolic syndrome, dementias such as Alzheimer’s disease and other disorders. Non-lean red meat, in particular, has been found to be directly associated with increased risk of cancers of the esophagus, liver, colon, and the lungs. Other studies have shown no significant differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians in mortality from cerebrovascular disease, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, or prostate cancer. A 2010 study compared a group of vegetarian and meat-eating Seventh Day Adventists in which vegetarians scored lower on depression tests and had better mood profiles. However, vegetarians are more likely to be deficient in vitamin B12, leading to increased incidence of osteoporosis and depression. The 2010 version of Dietary Guidelines for Americans, a report issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services every five years states: In prospective studies of adults, compared to non-vegetarian eating patterns, vegetarian-style eating patterns have been associated with improved health outcomes—lower levels of obesity, a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, and lower total mortality. Several clinical trials have documented that vegetarian eating patterns lower blood pressure. On average, vegetarians consume a lower proportion of calories from fat (particularly saturated fatty acids); fewer overall calories; and more fiber, potassium, and vitamin C than do non-vegetarians. Vegetarians generally have a lower body mass index. These characteristics and other lifestyle factors

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associated with a vegetarian diet may contribute to the positive health outcomes that have been identified among vegetarians. Western vegetarian diets are typically high in carotenoids, but relatively low in omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12. Vegans can have particularly low intake of vitamin B and calcium if they do not eat enough items such as collard greens, leafy greens, tempeh and tofu (soy). High levels of dietary fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, and magnesium, and low consumption of saturated fat are all considered to be beneficial aspects of a vegetarian diet. Medical use In Western medicine, patients are sometimes advised to adhere to a vegetarian diet. Vegetarian diets have been used as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, but the evidence is inconclusive whether this is effective. Certain alternative medicines, such as Ayurveda and Siddha, prescribe a vegetarian diet as a normal procedure. Maya Tiwari notes that Ayurveda recommends small portions of meat for some people, though "the rules of hunting and killing the animal, practiced by the native peoples, were very specific and detailed". Now that such methods of hunting and killing are not observed, she does not recommend the use of "any animal meat as food, not even for the Vata types."

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sheep's tail fat and rendered butter (samna) are traditional staple fats. but the strongest evidence for a beneficial health effect and decreased mortality after switching to a largely plant based diet comes from studies of Mediterranean diet. Based on "food patterns typical of Crete. zero to four eggs consumed weekly. and parts of the Middle East. amongst others. high consumption of vegetables. much of the rest of Greece. in addition to "regular physical activity. Greece. UNESCO recognized this diet pattern as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Italy. high consumption of legumes. Page 88 of 113 ." emphasizes "abundant plant foods. Olive oil is particularly characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. There is also evidence that the antioxidants in olive oil improve cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol reduction. moderate consumption of dairy products (mostly as cheese and yogurt). southern Italy. The Mediterranean diet is often cited as beneficial for being low in saturated fat and high in monounsaturated fat and dietary fibre. and that it has other anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive effects. along with olive oil. In both North Africa and the Levant. thus reinforcing it not only as a fundamental part of their history and background. The principal aspects of this diet include high olive oil consumption.Trafford College Lifestyle Management MEDITERRANEAN DIET The Mediterranean diet is a modern nutritional recommendation inspired by the traditional dietary patterns of Portugal. In Northern Italy. On November 17. and fish and poultry consumed in low to moderate amounts. olive oil as the principal source of fat. lard and butter are commonly used in cooking. It contains a very high level of monounsaturated fats. southern France. In North Africa. wine is traditionally avoided by Muslims. low consumption of meat and meat products. high consumption of fruits. Health effects A number of diets have received attention. Spain. moderate to high consumption of fish. for instance. from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Total fat in this diet is 25% to 35% of calories. high consumption of unrefined cereals. and moderate wine consumption. dairy products (principally cheese and yogurt). and olive oil is reserved for dressing salads and cooked vegetables. most notably oleic acid. by Dr Walter Willett of Harvard University's School of Public Health from the mid-1990s on. fresh fruit as the typical daily dessert. with saturated fat at 8% or less of calories. Greece and specifically the Greek island of Crete.g. red meat consumed in low amounts. e. but also as a great contribution to the world. Despite its name. 2010. which epidemiological studies suggest may be linked to a reduction in coronary heart disease risk. this diet is not typical of all Mediterranean cuisine. and southern Italy in the early 1960s". including a book for the general public. and wine consumed in low to moderate amounts". Spain and Morocco. The most commonly understood version of the Mediterranean diet was presented. this diet. One of the main explanations is thought to be the health effects of olive oil included in the Mediterranean diet.

while they reflect a very real disparity in the geographic incidence of heart disease. significantly increases risk of heart disease. which has been observed to reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease. and the emphasis on freshness. incidence of melanomas in the Mediterranean countries is lower than in Northern Europe and significantly lower than in other hot countries such as Australia and New Zealand. Page 89 of 113 . Environment may also be involved. However. There is an inverse association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the incidence of fatal and non fatal heart disease in initially healthy middle aged adults in the Mediterranean region. the influence of genetics is rather minimal. A 10-year study published in the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) found that adherence to a Mediterranean diet and healthful lifestyle was associated with more than a 50% lowering of early death rates. identifying the causal determinant of this disparity has proven difficult. less physically active lifestyle and a diet influenced by the Western pattern diet. residents of the Mediterranean are also observed to have very low rates of skin cancer (which is widely believed to be caused by over-exposure to solar UV radiation). anchovies. balance. because it was shown that the slowly changing habits of Mediterranean populations. from a healthy active lifestyle and Mediterranean diet to a not so healthy.Trafford College Lifestyle Management The Mediterranean diet is high in salt content. The inclusion of red wine is considered a factor contributing to health as it contains flavonoids with powerful antioxidant properties. The proposed mechanism is solar UVB-induced synthesis of Vitamin D in the oils of the skin. Dietary factors are only part of the reason for the health benefits enjoyed by certain Mediterranean cultures. salted fish roe. on the population level. Interestingly. The most popular dietary candidate. olive oil. salt-cured cheeses. A healthy lifestyle (notably a physically active lifestyle or labour) is also beneficial. for the population of a whole country or a region. Its been hypothesized that some components of the Mediterranean diet may provide protection against skin cancer.e. Foods such as olives. and salads dressed with extra virgin olive oil all contain high levels of salt. has been undermined by a body of experimental evidence that diets enriched in monounsaturated fats such as olive oil are not atheroprotective when compared to diets enriched in either polyunsaturated or even saturated fats. i. The putative benefits of the Mediterranean diet for cardiovascular health are primarily correlative in nature. and which rapidly diminishes with increasing latitude. daily exercise. capers. and pleasure in food. Mireille Guiliano credits the health effects of the Mediterranean diet to factors such as small portions. A recently emerging alternative hypothesis to the Mediterranean diet is that differential exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation accounts for the disparity in cardiovascular health between residents of Mediterranean and more northerly countries.

despite moderate to high intake of fat. a 2007 study found that adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) may affect not only risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) but also subsequent disease course: Higher adherence to the MeDi is associated with Page 90 of 113 .4 years) the researchers from the University of Navarra found that participants who stuck closely to the diet had a lower risk of diabetes. Additionally a 13% reduction in incidence of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases is to be expected provided strict adherence to the diet is observed. A meta-analysis published in the British Medical Journal in 2008 showed that following strictly the Mediterranean diet reduced the risk of dying from cancer and cardiovascular disease as well as the risk of developing Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. the Mediterranean diet produced 3. but adopted a pragmatic approach. consisting mostly of olive oil. The low-carb and Mediterranean diet resulted in the greatest weight loss. The Lyon Diet Heart Study set out to mimic the Cretan diet. As well. and Mediterranean. New cases of diabetes were confirmed through medical reports. Realizing that some of the people in the study (all of whom had survived a first heart attack) would be reluctant to move from butter to olive oil. they used a margarine based on rapeseed (canola) oil. A 2008 study published in The New England Journal of Medicine examined the effects of three diets: low-carb. The results report 9%. The questionnaire also included questions on the use of fats and oils. The low-carb and Mediterranean diets produced similar amounts of weight loss in the overall study results and in the men. cooking methods and dietary supplements.4 lbs) more weight loss on average than the low-carb diet. During the follow-up period (median 4. the traditional Mediterranean diet provides substantial protection against type 2 diabetes. The low-fat diet resulted in a loss of 7 lbs.8 kg (8. According to a 2008 study published in the British Medical Journal. respectively. 9%.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Medical research The Seven Countries Study found that Cretan men had exceptionally low death rates from heart disease. A high adherence to the diet was associated with an 83% relative reduction in the risk of developing diabetes. who were recruited between December 1999 and November 2007. The Cretan diet is similar to other traditional Mediterranean diets. bread. The study involved 322 participants and lasted for two years. and a moderate amount of dairy foods and wine. and 6% reduction in overall. cardiovascular. The study involved over 13 000 graduates from the University of Navarra in Spain with no history of diabetes. abundant fruit and vegetables. and cancer mortality respectively. Every two years participants were sent follow-up questionnaires on diet. low-fat. lifestyle. This study was so successful that the ethics committee decided to stop the study prematurely so that the results of the study could be made available to the public immediately. The dietary change also included 20% increases in vitamin C-rich fruit and bread and decreases in processed and red meat. Participants initially completed a 136-item food frequency questionnaire designed to measure the entire diet. fish. On this diet. and medical conditions. In the remaining participants who were women. mortality from all causes was reduced by 70%. risk factors. One caveat of the study is that 86% of the study participants were men. 12 lbs and 10 lbs. and whose dietary habits and health were subsequently tracked.

000 people to examine the effect of a Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome. articulated into extensive lifestyles interventions in a clinical follow-up study. Moderate alcohol consumption. blood sugar. even without significant modifications of Insulin Resistance. are more significantly associated with low risk of mortality than other components. Another study (reported on in the news in February 2010) found that the diet may help keep the brain healthy by reducing the frequency of the mini-strokes that can contribute to mental decline. A 2011 meta-analysis published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology analyzed the results of 50 studies (35 clinical trials. improves renal artery circulation. and high legume consumption were also associated with lower risk of mortality. This is a beneficial effect and modifies the pathophysiology of essential hypertension. Mediterranean Diet. A study published in the British Medical Journal in 2009 showed some components of the Mediterranean diet.Trafford College Lifestyle Management lower mortality in AD. high fruit and nut consumption. such as high vegetable consumption and low meat and meat product consumption. such as cereal consumption and fish consumption. and triglycerides. The gradual reduction in mortality risk for higher MeDi adherence tertiles suggests a possible dose-response effect. As part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.5 years to see how various aspects of a Mediterranean diet affect mortality. Mediterranean Diet is becoming a comprehensive popular and successful translational paradigm for the promotion of healthier lifestyles. researchers followed more than 23. 2 prospective and 13 crosssectional) covering about 535.000 Greek men and women for 8. decreasing renal resistive index. The researchers reported that a Mediterranean diet is associated with lower blood pressure. Page 91 of 113 .

and neutral. dairy. meal two protein foods with salads. Acidic foods are protein rich.) Acid foods are not combined with the alkaline ones. such as meat. Hay. It claims to work by separating food into three groups: alkaline. A similar theory. D. Young. William Hay contracted Bright's disease (or what modern medicine refers to as Nephritis).Dr. Page 92 of 113 . called nutripathy. the pH of the foods. fish.. his calorie intake dropped and his health improved. Others who have promulgated alkaline-acid diets include Edgar Cayce. so must not be combined with acids of any kind. However. which found no benefit from the diet in terms of weight loss. Dr. Stewart Baxter showed that the pancreas secretes digestion enzymes simultaneously regardless of whether the food eaten is carbohydrates or protein There is also no evidence to support the notion that acidic and alkaline foods should be eaten separately. (Hay's use of these terms does not completely conform to the scientific use. Studies The food-combining diet has been the subject of one peer-reviewed randomized clinical trial. Dr. "Any carbohydrate foods require alkaline conditions for their complete digestion. i.Trafford College Lifestyle Management HAY DIET The Hay Diet is a nutrition method developed by the New York physician William Howard Hay in the 1920s. as sour fruits. He found that fruits and vegetables produce an alkaline end-product when they are fully metabolized. Jarvis. vegetables and sweet fruit. in 1935. It is also known as the food combining diet. acidic.0 to 4. There should be an interval of 4." . How to Always Be Well The Hay System promoted the practice of eating three meals per day with meal one being alkaline foods only. Heart-dilated and near death. while processed and refined foods left a high acidic environment after digestion. grains and potatoes. History Dr. was developed by Gary A. Hay spent the following decade studying naturopathy and food combining to reduce the acid end-product of digestion. Alkaline foods are carbohydrate rich. vegetables and fruit.5 hours between each meal. C.e. such as rice. His theories went on to encompass food-combining. Dr. and meal three comprising starchy foods with salads. Hay began eating only natural foods. Neither should these be combined with a protein of concentrated sort as these protein foods will excite too much hydrochloric acid during their stomach digestion. Martin in the 1970s. whereas incorrect combination would cause even alkaline foods to leave a less desirable acidic digestion end-product. because the acid will neutralise. etc. and Robert O.

Nature of the diet The Atkins diet involves limited consumption of carbohydrates to switch the body's metabolism from metabolizing glucose as energy over to converting stored body fat to energy. called ketosis. This may for some create an unsatisfying feeling after Page 93 of 113 . begins when insulin levels are low. Leptin. A review study published in Lancet concluded that there was no such metabolic advantage and dieters were simply eating fewer calories because of boredom. Reduced insulin levels induces lipolysis which consumes fat to produce ketone bodies.0 MJ) per day. He later popularized the method in a series of books. Atkins made the controversial argument that the low-carbohydrate diet produces a metabolic advantage because "burning fat takes more calories so you expend more calories". probably because β cells have low levels of GLUT5. glucose or starch. is however not triggered following consumption of fructose. insulin is lowest when blood glucose levels are low (mostly before eating). One effect is a tendency to decrease the onset of hunger. and the American Diabetes Association recommends that diabetics count each gram as half a gram of carbohydrate. Fructose (for example. Atkins' New Diet Revolution (2002). blood sugar levels are used to determine a patient's daily insulin requirements). Atkins' Diet Revolution in 1972. In his book Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution. Dr. officially called the Atkins Nutritional Approach. Atkins stated that he used the study to resolve his own overweight condition. an appetite regulating hormone. On the other hand. In his second book. Atkins states in his 2002 book New Diet Revolution that hunger is the number one reason why low-fat diets fail and that the Atkins diet is easier because one is allowed to eat as much as one wants. He cited one study where he estimated this advantage to be 950 calories (4. starting with Dr. the latter made of chains of glucose) affect the body by increasing blood sugar after consumption. as found in many industrial sweeteners) has four calories per gram but has a very low glycemic index and does not cause insulin production. he modified parts of the diet but did not alter the original concepts. Net carbohydrates can be calculated from a food source by subtracting fiber and sugar alcohols (which are shown to have a smaller effect on blood sugar levels) from total carbohydrates. caloric carbohydrates (for example. perhaps because of longer duration of digestion (fats and proteins take longer to digest than carbohydrates). (In the treatment of diabetes. Professor Astrup stated. provides little or no food energy and does not significantly affect glucose and insulin levels. This process. because of its low digestibility. in normal humans. is a lowcarbohydrate diet created by Robert Atkins from a research paper he read in the Journal of the American Medical Association published by Gordon Azar and Walter Lyons Bloom. "The monotony and simplicity of the diet could inhibit appetite and food intake". The Atkins Diet restricts "net carbs" (digestible carbohydrate grams that affect blood sugar less fiber grams). Fibre. Sugar alcohols contain about two calories per gram.Trafford College Lifestyle Management ATKINS DIET The Atkins diet.

vegetables. Some studies suggest that the diet could contribute to osteoporosis and kidney stones. In these tissues they are converted back into acetyl-CoA in order to enter the Krebs cycle. the excess acetyl-CoA in the liver is converted to ketones (ketone bodies). there is no glucose that can trigger the insulin response. Nevertheless. the company formed to market foods which work with the Atkins Diet. the Atkins diet decreases or eliminates the need for drugs to treat these conditions. and glucagon to be released to maintain energy metabolism. When there is no glucose-insulin response there are some hormonal changes that cause the stored fat to be used for energy. Because of this. epinephrine. the body is forced to use fats as a primary fuel source. Main effects The effects of the Atkins diet remain a subject of much debate. The Atkins Blood Sugar Control Program (ABSCP) is an individualized approach to weight control and permanent management of the risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some studies conclude that the Atkins diet helps prevent cardiovascular disease.Trafford College Lifestyle Management consumption which might promote binge behavior that culminates in an increased blood triglyceride level arising from fructose conversion by the liver. or so-called "good" cholesterol. Atkins Diabetes Revolution. that are transported to other tissues. In ketogenic diets there is production of ketones that contribute to the energy production in the Krebs cycle. Preferred foods in all categories are whole. and it causes the liver to start breaking glycogen into glucose. and increases the amount of HDL. recommends that no more than 20% of calories eaten while on the diet come from saturated fat. In the adipose cells. although restrictions for low glycemic carbohydrates (black rice. white bread). Atkins Nutritionals. Blood glucose levels have to decrease to less than 3. unprocessed foods with a low glycemic index. etc. there is no glycogen in the liver to be broken down. These fatty acids go to the liver and muscle where they should be oxidized and give acetyl-CoA that enters the Krebs cycle directly. Glucagon is produced when blood glucose is too low. so the liver converts fats into free fatty acids and ketone bodies. A University of Maryland study.) are the same as those for high glycemic carbohydrates (sugar. Ketogenic diet The induction phase of the Atkins diet is a ketogenic diet. for people whose blood sugar is abnormally high or who have Type 2 diabetes mellitus.58 mmol/L for growth hormone. and this process is called ketosis. states that. Ketogenic diets rely on the insulin response to blood glucose. growth hormone and epinephrine initiate the triacylglycerol to be broken down to fatty acids. in which test subjects were given calorie increases whenever their weight started to drop. Page 94 of 113 . Since the dieter does not eat any more carbohydrates. Atkins' book. showed higher LDL cholesterol and markers for inflammation. lowers the low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. However. the causes of Type 2 diabetes remain obscure. Because ketogenic dieters eat few carbohydrates. and the Atkins Diet is not accepted in conventional therapy for diabetes.

A Swedish prospective study with a follow-up of approximately 10 years came to the conclusion that elderly Swedish men on a carbohydrate-restricted diet (however 40% carbohydrates compared to the Atkins recommended 4%) had very low hazard ratios. However. measured total energy expenditure in the patients was the highest in the very low Page 95 of 113 . A 2007 study done at Stanford University Medical School. In addition. and a low glycemic index diet. A 2012 study done at Boston Children's Hospital compared a very low carbohydrate diet (the Atkins diet) with a low fat. weight loss. cancer. contrary to popular belief that low-carbohydrate diets damage the heart. studies are emerging which evaluate low-carbohydrate diets over much longer periods. Barry Sears. some research has directly addressed other areas of health affected by lowcarbohydrate diets. and epilepsy. high carbohydrate diet. most directly relevant scientific studies. one study found that women eating low-carbohydrate. For example. a key factor in the failures of dieting. low-fat diets. as such. and systolic blood pressure were also found to have improved to greater levels compared to the other diets. and LEARN diets in a randomized group of 311 obese premenopausal women over a period of 12 months. Reduction of the resting metabolic rate as a result of dieting. triglyceride levels. compared the Atkins diet with the Zone. described as "potentially harmful metabolic and emotional side-effects" (although it should be noted that one of the researchers of this study. Secondary factors such as HDL-C. highfat/protein diets had the same or slightly less risk of coronary heart disease.4 for cardiovascular mortality. have occurred in the 1990s and early 2000s and. Although there has been some research done throughout the twentieth century. Until recently a significant criticism of the Atkins Diet was that there were no studies that evaluated the effects of Atkins beyond a few months. with a hazard ratio of 1. The study found that weight loss was significantly higher for the Atkins diet compared to the other three diets. are relatively new. both those that directly analyze the Atkins Diet and those that analyze similar diets. and fat loss while the ketogenic diet showed slightly higher risks of inflammation and somewhat lower perceived levels of vigor. was the least in the very low carbohydrate diet. One study comparing two levels of low-carbohydrate diets (ketogenic--the lowest carbohydrate level--and non-ketogenic) found that both had positive effects in terms of insulin sensitivity.2 for all-cause mortality compared to controls and a hazard ratio of 1. The A to Z Weight Loss Study. Ornish. markets The Zone as a competing low-carbohydrate diet). Researchers and other experts have published articles and studies that run the gamut from promoting the safety and efficacy of the diet to questioning its long-term validity to outright condemning it as dangerous. In addition to research on the efficacy of Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets. controlled studies as long as two years and survey studies as long as two decades.Trafford College Lifestyle Management Scientific studies Because of substantial controversy regarding the Atkins Diet and even disagreements in interpreting the results of specific studies it is difficult to objectively summarize the research in a way that reflects scientific consensus. compared to women eating high-carbohydrate. Other studies have found possible benefits to individuals with diabetes.

Trafford College Lifestyle Management carbohydrate diet. trended somewhat higher in the very low carbohydrate diet. a marker for possible future cardiovascular disease. A possible negative side effect was that CReactive Protein levels. Page 96 of 113 . suggesting that a very low carbohydrate diet would be the most likely to produce a sustained weight loss.

with genuine health benefits. Page 97 of 113 . In 2006 Audrey Eyton published "F2". The dieter will need to consume more water than usual to prevent constipation. and based on the work of Denis Burkitt. created in the 1980s by British author Audrey Eyton. which claims to be faster and more effective and campaigns against low-carbohydrate diets. reducing the urge to overeat. and promoting a healthy digestive system. The disadvantages include excessive flatulence in the first few weeks and having to eat food that is harder work to chew and swallow. founder of Slimming Magazine.Trafford College Lifestyle Management F-PLAN DIET The F-plan is a high fibre diet designed to induce healthy weight loss. The diet works by restricting the daily intake of calories to less than 1. such as making the dieter feel "full" for much longer than normal. a revised version of the F-plan written in the light of subsequent medical discoveries.500 whilst consuming well-above the recommended level of dietary fibre. particularly the Atkins Diet. Nevertheless. Some people also express a dislike of the texture of such a high fibre diet. The fibre has a number of beneficial effects. the diet is very effective when followed faithfully and remains a popular choice of diet.

though more recently. rather than diet modification. as the preferred method of changing urine pH. and can range from 0-14. difficulties in effectively predicting the effects of this diet has led to medications. Conversely. cheese. it has been hypothesized that diets high in "acid ash" (acid producing) elements will cause the body to try to buffer (or counteract) any additional acid load in the body by breaking down bone. National Academy of Sciences.S. and a pH level of 7 being neutral. fish.Trafford College Lifestyle Management ALKALINE ASH DIET The term alkaline diet (also known as the alkaline ash diet. This acceptance of the acid-ash hypothesis as a major modifiable risk factor of Page 98 of 113 . The term "alkaline diet" has also been used by alternative medicine practitioners. The relationship between diet and acid-base homeostasis. a high pH corresponding to an alkaline fluid. poultry. Current hypotheses More recently. Since the acid or alkaline ash designation is based on the residue left on combustion rather than the acidity of the food. with the proposal that such diets treat or prevent cancer. Diet composition According to the traditional theory underlying this diet. which have stated foods high in potassium and magnesium such as fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of osteoporosis through increased alkaline ash production. Alkaline ash is produced by fruits and vegetables. and can therefore be used to treat or prevent diseases. Acidity is measured by the pH level of the fluid. acid ash diet. foods such citrus fruits that are generally considered acidic are actually considered alkaline producing in this diet. eggs. except cranberries. and the acid alkaline diet) describes a group of loosely related diets based on the belief that certain foods can affect the acidity of bodily fluids. leading to weaker bones and increased risk for osteoporosis. alkaline acid diet. with a low pH corresponding to an acidic fluid. the available weight of scientific evidence does not support this hypothesis. poultry. However. These claims are not supported by any evidence and make assumptions about how such a diet would work that run counter to current understanding of human physiology. acid ash is produced by meat. The "acid-ash" hypothesis has been considered a risk factor for osteoporosis by various scientific publications. low energy levels as well as other illnesses. and grains in order to make the urine more alkaline (higher pH) in order to change the environment of the urine to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections and kidney stones. "alkaline ash" (alkaline producing) elements will theoretically decrease the risk of osteoporosis. heart disease. cheese. This theory has been advanced in a Position Statement of the American Dietetic Association in a publication of the U. has been studied for decades. this diet has advocated for avoiding meat. including the urine or blood. Traditionally. or the regulation of the acid-base status of the body. and grains. prunes and plums. though the medical applications of this theory have largely focused on changing the acidity of urine. as well as other scientific publications.

also advocates avoiding processed foods. Other meta-analyses which have investigated the effect of total dietary acid intake have also found no evidence that acid intake increases the risk for osteoporosis as would be expected under the acid-ash hypothesis. Recent systematic reviews have been published which have methodically analyzed the weight of available scientific evidence. growth hormone metabolism or back pain. which can foster disease. goes against "everything we know about the chemistry of the human body" and has been called a "myth" in a statement by the American Institute for Cancer Research. and caffeine. change the blood pH minimally and transiently. Proposed mechanism. This result suggests use of this diet to prevent calcium loss from bone is not justified. and can involve specific exercise and nutritional supplement regimens as well. A review looked at the effects of dairy product intake. was largely made without significant critical review by high quality systematic analysis. These claims have been mainly promoted on websites. which have been hypothesized to increase the acid load of the body through phosphate and protein components. Because of the body's natural regulatory mechanisms. there is no evidence to support any of these claims. at most. and evidence basis Advocates for alternative uses of an alkaline diet propose that since the normal pH of the blood is slightly alkaline. advocating its use in the treatment of various medical conditions including cancer.Trafford College Lifestyle Management osteoporosis by these publications. and have been mainly directed at a lay audience. effects. white flour. in addition to avoiding meats and other proteins. This review found no significant evidence suggesting dairy product intake causes acidosis or increases risk for osteoporosis. It has also been speculated that this diet may have an effect on muscle wasting. the goal of diet should be to mirror this by eating a diet that is alkaline producing as well. and books. This proposed mechanism. which do not require a special diet to work. This version of the diet. eating an alkaline diet can. magazines. white sugar. and treat cancer and heart disease. Alternative medicine Alternative medicine practitioners have promoted a diet regimen which they call an "alkaline diet" as well. While it has been proposed that this diet can help increase energy. direct mail. however. Unlike the pH level in the urine. a selectively alkaline diet has not been shown to elicit a sustained change in blood pH levels. These advocates propose that diets high in acid producing elements will lead the body in general to become acidic. nor to provide the clinical benefits claimed by its proponents. Page 99 of 113 . and have found no significant evidence to support the acid-ash hypothesis in regards to prevention of osteoporosis. lose weight. in which the diet can significantly change the acidity of the blood. A metaanalysis of studies on the effect of dietary phosphate intake contradicted the expected results under the acid-ash hypothesis with respect to calcium in the urine and bone metabolism. though there is no conclusive evidence to confirm these hypotheses.

phytonutrients. There is no evidence to support this proposal. "Extreme" dietary plans such as this diet have more risks than benefits for patients with cancer. it is the cancer that creates the acidity. The rapid growth of cancer cells creates the acidic environment. This proposal ignores the fact that while cancer tissue does grow in acidic environment. the acidic environment does not create cancer. portions of his diet such as the emphasis on eating green leafy vegetables and exercise would likely be healthy. as well as protein and calcium. and that an alkaline diet can be used to treat these conditions. A version of this diet has also been promoted by Robert O. Although it has been proposed that this diet will increase "energy" or treat cardiovascular disease. Other proposed benefits from eating an alkaline diet are likewise not supported by scientific evidence. Page 100 of 113 . it could result in a less-balanced diet with resulting nutrient deficiencies such as essential fatty acids. Possible disadvantages Because the alkaline diet promotes excluding certain families of foods. and that a proper alkaline diet can change the environment of the body to treat cancer." It has also been proposed that acid causes rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Young as a method of weight loss in his book The pH Miracle.Trafford College Lifestyle Management A similar proposal by those advocating this diet suggests that cancer grows in an acidic environment. However. It has been recommended that patients with a history of kidney disorders or other medical conditions that require frequent physician monitoring such as severe diabetes mellitus should not attempt this diet without physician supervision as you can run the risk of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) with this type of diet. there is no evidence to support these assertions. the "obscure theory" on which his diet is based and the reliance on complicated fasting regimens and nutritional supplements means that this diet "is not a healthy way to lose weight. The proposal also neglects to recognize that it is "virtually impossible" to create a less acidic environment in the body.

Trafford College Lifestyle Management Page 101 of 113 .