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EFFECTIVITY OF CLOVE (Syzygium aromaticum) AS ANTIBIOTICS ON Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

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Annisa Fatmawati, 2Dr. dr. Akrom, M.Kes

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Pharmacists Profession Program, Faculty Of Pharmacy, Ahmad Dahlan University, Yogyakarta 2 Faculty Of Pharmacy, Ahmad Dahlan University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Email: annisafatma20@gmail.com ABSTRACT

Introduction: Bacterial infections in humans are found in various countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P.aeruginosa ) is a gram-negative bacteria that can cause infections in humans. The study , reported that highest prevalence of infection was found in the age group 35-50 years old man. Prevalence rates ranged from 10.5 to 30% P.aeruginosa and one study from India reported a prevalence rate of 20.3%. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) has antibacterial activity with active substances eugenol. Objective: This article aims to review the scientific research on the effectiveness of clove ( Syzigium aromaticum) as antimicrobial on P.aeruginosa. Methods: Sistematic review of the methodology developed by the Cochrane Collaboration. Source of data derived from Pubmed and Google Scholar. PICO search method: antimicroba, Syzygium aromaticum, P.aeruginosa, effectivity. Journals published from the years 2000-2013 are used, with the restriction English language. Results: This review is an article which first collect and discuss information about the clove as antimicrobials in bacteria P.aeruginosa. Several studies have been conducted, showing that Syzygium aromaticum in the form of infusion, decocta, essential oils, extracts of ethanol , and methanol extracts can inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) has efficacy as an antimicrobial/ antibiotic that can inhibit the growth of gram-negative bacteria P.aeurginosa. Key word: Syzygium aromatium, eugenol, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antimicroba

Introduction Bacterial infections in humans are found in various countries. P.aeruginosa bacteria is one of the gram-negative bacterium that can cause infections in humans. The highest prevalence was found P.aeruginosa infection in humans in the age group 35-50 years. Prevalence rates ranged from 10.5 to 30% P.aeruginosa and one study from India reported a prevalence rate of 20.3% (Mohanasoundaram, 2011). Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) has traditionally been used as a spice in cooking and fragrances on drinks. Cloves have antimicrobial activity (Nascimento et al., 2000; Bergkvist et al., 2007; Saeed and Tariq, 2008), antioxidants, antinociception, antiviral, and anticancer (Rojas et al., 2013). The content of active ingredient in clove which are compounds having antimicrobial activity is eugenol (Kamatou, 2012; Rojas et al., 2013).

Methods The preparation of review journals conducted by reviewing journals from the internet relating to the effectiveness of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) as an antimicrobial. The method used in the study report is analyze and report back the results of the study.Design research in journals that serve as source of journal with a review of experimental studies in vitro methods. Inclusion criteria in the review journal on extract and oil from Syzygium aromaticum as antimicrobial against P.aeruginosa inhibition results in the form of inhibition zone data. Exclusion criteria in the review on journal is extract of Syzygium aromaticum for other effects (antifungal, antioxidant, antinociceptive and antivirals).

Results Searched scientific research journals of clove ( Syzygium aromaticum) as antimicrobial on the website Googlescholar and PubMed, obtained total of 227 journals. The results of the literature selection on the antimicrobial activity of clove contained on Table I.
Table I. Result of the literature selection S. aromaticum as antimicrobial P.aeruginosa
No 1 Journal Title Susceptibility Pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Against Antimicrobial Agents and Some Plant Extracts with Focus on its Prevalence in Different Sources Antibacterial Activity of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) With Metal Ion Effect Against Food Borne Pathogens In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Clove Against Gram Negative Bacteria Antibacterial Activity of Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals on Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Author Kamel et al., 2011 Method Experimental in vitro Result The ethanolic extract of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) at concentration of 100 mg/ ml can inhibit bacterial growth activity in P.aeruginosa Extract ethanol and methanol of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) can inhibit P. aeruginosa and the addition of metal ions does not increase the inhibitory effect Infuse, decocta, and Syzygium aromaticum oil showed maximum inhibitory activity against P. aeruginosa Growth of P. aeruginosa can be inhibited maximally by the extract of clove (Syzygium aromaticum)

Discussion The Research of Krishnan et al., (2012) reported that natural compounds cloves, showed activity as an anti-quorom sensing in bacteria P. aeruginosa. Quorum sensing is a process of communication between bacterial cells in which the bacteria use the production and detection of extracellular chemicals called autoinducers to monitor cell population density. Quorum sensing allows bacteria to synchronize gene expression groups, thus acting simultaneously to effect infection (Leung & Blasser, 2009). Inhibition of intercellular cel communication (antiquorom sensing) by Syzygium aromaticum on bacteria P. aeruginosa may be the basis for the development of alternative antibiotics latest products to treat bacterial infections that arise, without causing antibiotic resistance (Krishnan et al., 2012).

Conclusion Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) has efficacy as an antimicrobial inhibits the growth and as an anti-quorom sensing in gram-negative bacteria P.aeurginosa. The antimicrobial activity of clove as that can be an alternative treatment to reduce the occurrence of antibiotic resistance. Reference
Bergkvist, Tony P., Heather Cavanagh, Jenny Wilkinson, & Michael Andersson, 2007. Antimicrobial activity of four volatile essential oils. Master thesis in Pharmacy, Göteborg, Sweden. Kamatou, Guy P., Ilze Vermaak & Alvaro M. V., 2012. Eugenol—From the Remote Maluku Islands to the International Market Place: A Review of a Remarkable and Versatile Molecule. Molecules 2012, 17, 6953-6981; doi:10.3390/molecules17066953. Krishnan, Thiba., Wai-Fong Yin & Kok-Gan C., 2012. Inhibition of Quorum SensingControlled Virulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Ayurveda Spice Clove (Syzygium Aromaticum) Bud Extract. Sensors 2012, 12, 4016-4030; doi:10.3390/s120404016. Leung Ng, Wai & Bonnie L. Bassler. 2009. Bacterial Quorum-Sensing Network Architectures. Annual Review of Genetics Vol. 43: 197-222-2009. Mohanasoundaram, K.M., 2011. The Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern in the Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Tertiary Care Hospital; 2008–2010 (A 3 Year Study). Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2011 June, Vol-5(3): 491-494 Nascimento, Gislene G. F.; Juliana Locatelli; Paulo C. Freitas; & Giuliana L.S., 2000. Antibacterial Activity of Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals on Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology (2000) 31:247-256. Pandey, Amit & Parul Singh., 2011. Antibacterial Activity of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) With Metal Ion Effect Against Food Borne Pathogens. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 2011, 1 (2):69-80. Rojas , Diego F.C., Claudia Regina Fernandes de Souza & Wanderley P.O., 2013. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): a precious spice. Asian Paific Journal of Tropical Biomed 2013; 4(2): 90-96. Saeed, Sabahat & Perween Tariq. 2008. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Clove Against Gram Negative Bacteria. Pak. J. Bot., 40(5): 2157-2160, 2008.

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Pandey & Singh, 2011

Experimental in vitro

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Saeed & Tariq, 2008

Experimental in vitro

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Nascimento et al., 2000

Experimental in vitro