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Masterarbeit

von:

Maximilian Freudling

Hochschule München Fakultät Feinwerk- und Mikrotechnik, Physikalische Technik Photonik

Referent: Koreferent: Betreuer: Tag der Einreichung:

Prof. Dr. Johannes Roths Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Rolf Heilmann Dr. Volker Klein, Kayser-Threde GmbH 28. Juli 2011 München 2011

Table of Content

1. 2. 3. Abstract _________________________________________________________________________________________ 4 Introduction ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5 Theory ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 9

3.1.

3.1.1. 3.1.2. 3.1.3.

Radiometry __________________________________________________________________________________ 9

Radian intensity _____________________________________________________________________________________ 9 Radiance ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 10 Irradiance _________________________________________________________________________________________ 11

3.2.

3.2.1. 3.2.2. 3.2.3.

**Integrating sphere ________________________________________________________________________ 13
**

The integrating sphere radiance _________________________________________________________________ 13 Temporal response of an integrating sphere ___________________________________________________ 14 Flux on a detector _________________________________________________________________________________ 14

3.3.

3.3.1. 3.3.2.

**Fibre optics _________________________________________________________________________________ 16
**

Step-Index Fibres _________________________________________________________________________________ 16 Graded-Index Fibres ______________________________________________________________________________ 19

3.4. 3.5.

3.5.1.

**The photon _________________________________________________________________________________ 21 Single photon counting ___________________________________________________________________ 22
**

Counting loss ______________________________________________________________________________________ 22

3.6.

Diffraction Gratings _______________________________________________________________________ 24

4.

**Internal Calibration Chain ________________________________________________________________ 25
**

4.1. 4.2. Functional description of the internal reference chain _____________________________ 26 Laser pulse treatment ____________________________________________________________________ 27

5.

Methodology _________________________________________________________________________________ 28

5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5.

5.5.1. 5.5.2. 5.5.3.

Signal dynamics ___________________________________________________________________________ 28 Pulsed versus cw signal __________________________________________________________________ 29 Approach of the breadboard ____________________________________________________________ 30 Realisation of the breadboard __________________________________________________________ 31 Instruments ________________________________________________________________________________ 32

Diode laser ________________________________________________________________________________________ 32 First integrating sphere and power meter ______________________________________________________ 32 Fibre optics ________________________________________________________________________________________ 33

2

5.5.4. 5.5.5.

Second integrating sphere _______________________________________________________________________ 34 Single photon counting module and universal counter ________________________________________ 34

5.6. 5.7.

5.7.1. 5.7.2.

**Data acquisition ___________________________________________________________________________ 35 Error propagation _________________________________________________________________________ 36
**

Error propagation of the calculated efficiency _________________________________________________ 36 Error propagation of the measured efficiency __________________________________________________ 37

5.8.

Temporal response of an integrating sphere _________________________________________ 38

6.

Results_________________________________________________________________________________________ 39

6.1. 6.2.

6.2.1. 6.2.2. 6.2.3.

**Temporal response of the integrating sphere ________________________________________ 39 Efficiency of the internal calibration chain ___________________________________________ 42
**

Expected efficiency _______________________________________________________________________________ 42 Measured efficiency ______________________________________________________________________________ 45 Calculated and measured efficiencies ___________________________________________________________ 47

7.

Discussion ____________________________________________________________________________________ 49

7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 7.4.

7.4.1. 7.4.1. 7.4.1.

Temporal response of the integrating sphere ________________________________________ 49 Efficiency of the internal calibration chain ___________________________________________ 50 Temporal behaviour of optical fibres __________________________________________________ 51 Environmental effects ____________________________________________________________________ 52

Long-term stability of Spectralon _______________________________________________________________ 52 Beam sampler _____________________________________________________________________________________ 52 Fibre optics ________________________________________________________________________________________ 52

8. 9.

Conclusion ____________________________________________________________________________________ 53 Reference _____________________________________________________________________________________ 55

10. Appendix ______________________________________________________________________________________ 60

3

To ensure the long-term stability of the internal calibration chain. According to these results. Abstract This thesis is investigating the feasibility of the internal calibration chain of the microsatellite LIDAR mission MERLIN. In order to characterise this calibration chain and the several optical components. a breadboard experiment was planned and realised. the internal calibration chain can be considered as feasible. Investigations of the temporal responses of optical fibres and integrating spheres showed weak expanding effects of the laser pulses and can thus be neglected. This breadboard experiments reached the required attenuations between 10 and 14 orders of magnitude and confirmed the expected calculated values. 4 . the disturbing environmental effects of the optical components were studied and evaluated as not critical.1.

launcher rocket and operating the satellite. 2011]. 2007). MERLIN Dem Methangehalt auf der Spur. methane is the second major anthropogenic reason for global warming. especially energy production and land use [Group. Germany supplies a modified version of the LIDAR instrument. Therefore. Where France is responsible for the overall system. the Franco-German Council of Ministers decided to start a microsatellite mission monitoring the trace gas methane in Earth’s atmosphere. MERLIN is a cooperation between the French space agency CNES and the German national research centre for aeronautics and space DLR. the collected data does not tell much about the amount of methane emission. however the increase in concentration can clearly be related to human activities. 1 Light Detection and Ranging 5 . the global warming potential of methane is 23 times higher than for carbon dioxide. Introduction During the current times of a global warming. it became obvious that certain atmospheric trace gases (so-called green house gases) are playing a vital role in the energy balance of the lower atmosphere. In pursuance of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC. Besides carbon dioxide. This mission is called MERLIN (Methane Remote Sensing LIDAR1 Mission) and will provide more detailed information about methane emission and fluxes [Ehret & Schaadt. based on a time scale of 100 years. 2010].2. So far. Figure 1: The microsatellite MERLIN.

[Ehret & Schaadt. 1993]. This disturbing effect can be compensated by normalizing the received signals by the energy of the emitted pulses (equation 2-1). Figure 2: Principle of remote sensing for MERLIN. Since these pulses are emitted as consecutive pulse pairs with a separation of approximately .645µm.The space borne measuring instrument of MERLIN is based on a Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL). This LIDAR emits laser pulses in two slightly different wavelengths λon and λoff in nadir-direction towards Earth. The methane absorption at this wavelength can be neglected. To normalize the received signal. Reflected laser pulses from Earth’s surface. the averaged column content of Methane can be computed. 2011] By the ratio of the incoming echo intensities Ioff/Ion. However. the ratio of the ground return signal 6 . MERLIN Dem Methangehalt auf der Spur. are detected by a receiver unit of the satellite. The online wavelength λon is turned precisely to the absorption line of methane at about 1. the pulse energy of even high-sophisticated lasers may vary by a few per cent and thus affect the received signal. but all other optical properties are the same as for the λon pulses. the reflection coefficient of earth ground is approximately the same [Klein & Werner. λoff is marginal aside the absorption line of methane and used for a reference measurement. respectively cloud tops.

The diffracted beam is directed into an integrating sphere while the rest continues in nadir direction towards ground. Furthermore. To detect the reference signal after occurring parasitic light has vanished. To normalize the signals. potentially occurring energy inhomogeneities (“hot spots”) within the laser beam have to be removed. & Abshire. French-German Climate Mission (MERLIN).over the reference signal (proportional to the pulse energy) is generated for both wavelengths. In order to monitor the energy of each emitted pulse. promises high measurement sensitivity and an accuracy of 0.1% [Ehret. 7 . an internal attenuation of about 14 magnitudes is required. A minor part is picked up by an optical multimode fibre. By means of this integrating sphere the light becomes homogenised. This attenuation has to be very stable for associated pulses. In addition. Since the internal reference signal needs to be of the same strength as the very weak ground return signal. 2010]. is collimated onto a beam splitter by a lens. Flamant. a small fraction is extracted by a diffraction grating. the fibre optics has a certain length to delay the signal as well. an internal calibration chain is used to measure both ground return signal and reference signal with the same detector. A second integrating sphere is connected to the end of the delay line removing potential energy concentrations caused by fibre optics. the energy of each emitted pulse has to be monitored with high accuracy. In order to avoid uncertainties due to different detector sensitivities. This beam splitter combines the reference and the terrestrial return signal to project both on the instrument detector consecutively. Then the methane content is proportional to: 2-1 This measurement principle is called Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) LIDAR. the calibration chain is required to be longterm stable and independent of environmental influences (ageing) in space. The light exiting through a pinhole of the second sphere.

The project includes also conception and the detailed planning to realize and characterize the breadboard experiment. Additional studies should give information about long-term stability and dependence of environmental influences. 8 . In order to investigate the feasibility of such an internal calibration chain a breadboard experiment has to be realised analysing and characterising the several elements.Figure 3: Principle sketch of the internal reference chain. Another important aspect is the homogeneous spot on the detector.

2005] 3-1 Is the spot on the sphere a circle. not only the total flux of a light source is important. which is the area on a sphere divided by the squared radius of the sphere (equation 3-1). Such a cone is mathematically defined as the solid angle Ω.1. 2002]. [Hecht. This radiant intensity can be imagined (Figure 4) as the emitted radiant flux through a minimized cone in a certain direction [Ashdown & Eng. Radian intensity For many applications. which is the radiant flux Φ in a certain direction.1. the solid angle can be derived in spherical coordinates as: [Schröder & Treiber. Theory 3. Radiometry For Earth remote sensing. 2007] 3-2 where the interval for goes from 0° to the angle α and for φ from 0 to 2π to get a spherical segment (Figure 5).3. [Hecht. 2005] Figure 4: Solid angle. The successive section explains basics and advanced topics.1. 3. 9 . understanding radiometry is vital. More information about the source can be obtained from the radiant intensity . It deals with the measurement of electromagnetic radiation from the ultra violet to the infrared part of the spectrum.

[Kühlke. defined as: [Hecht. Additionally.Figure 5: Solid angle in spherical coordinates. the radiant intensity is the radiance integrated over the emitting area and leads to: 3-6 10 . Radiance Information about brightness of a light source gives the radiance what means how much light is emitted in a given direction from an infinitesimal area. [Wikipedia.1. 2007] By solving this integral the solid angle becomes an easy expression: 3-3 The radiant intensity is the radiant flux dΦ per solid angle dΩ in a given direction.2. 2005] 3-4 3. This can be expressed in terms of the radiant intensity and the differential area of the light source: 3-5 With 2004] is the effective emitting area towards the given direction. Due to this relation the radiant flux is the radiant intensity integrated over the solid angle.

Irradiance The irradiance is defined as the differential light flux which incidents on an infinite small surface (equation 3-7).3. [Kühlke. To follow the next steps two more geometric relationships need to be introduced: 3-10 3-11 11 . Figure 6: Irradiance by an expanded circular emitter.1. Furthermore the solid angle is given by: 3-9 It is the projected solid angle of the receiving area AE from every point of the circular ring on the emitter in Dependence of θ. [Wolf. 2004] The transfer of radiation from the emitter to the receiver can be easily described by the differential form of the fundamental equation of radiative transfer: 3-8 With the area element of the emitter which is in this case a circular ring (see Figure 6).3. 1998] 3-7 Irradiance by an expanded surface-emitter In this subchapter the irradiance on a surface caused by an expanded circular surfaceemitter is discussed. The emitter follows the Lambert’s cosine law with the radiance L0=constant and has the distance d to the receiver.

the flux on a detector can be expressed as in shown equation 3-16 [Kühlke. 3-12 By integrating over the radius r in the interval from 0 to the boundary of the emitting surface R the term arises as: 3-13 After the integral is solved the transfer of radiation becomes : [Kühlke. it yields to the converted equation of radiative transfer. 2005] 3-15 3-14 and with the emitter area Regarding to equation 3-15 and using the relationship that is equal to the solid angle. 2004][Hecht. 12 . 3-16 This is the definition of the radiance in a converted form and a proof of the derivation as well.If one applies the projected solid angle to equation 3-9. 2004].

So the fraction of the radiant flux received by A2 is only the ratio of A2 over AS. a convenient way of writing the relation between port and sphere area turned up. Since the distance and assuming that the infinitesimal area dA1 exchanges radiation with a finite area A2 equation 3-17becomes 3-18 Where AS is the surface area of the whole sphere. the integrating sphere is often used for measuring optical radiation. The integrating sphere radiance To derive the radiance in an integrating sphere we start with the expression of the radiance L of a diffuse surface (equation 3-19). Considering the exchange of radiant flux from the emitting surface dA1 to the receiving surface dA2 (Figure 7) the exchange factor is given by: 3-17 Figure 7: Geometrical relationship of the exchange factor. 2011] 3. Integrating sphere Because of the diffuse reflecting surfaces in the sphere a spatial integration of the radiant flux is possible.2. the projected solid angle π and the illuminated area A.1. the reflectance ρ. 3-19 With the input flux Φi. [Labsphere. 13 . Integrating Sphere Radiometry and Photometry. To do so. Since the losses of the input ports Ai and exit ports Ae the area A has to be modified. the port fraction f (equation 3-20).2.3. Hence.

the impulse response .3. Temporal response of an integrating sphere Usually integrating spheres are used as steady state devices.2. Starting with equation 3-14 and the geometric relationship . Flux on a detector To determine the flux on a detector it is necessary to know the derivation in chapter “Irradiance by an expanded surface-emitter” which describes the radiant flux received by an expanded emitter. 2011] 3. 3-22 of the integrating sphere has to be convolved with the input signal h The term of the impulse response is shown in equation 3-23. the equation can be written as: 3-25 14 . [Labsphere.2. To get knowledge about the output signal .3-20 After a few conversions and expanding an infinite power series it leads to formula 3-21: 3-21 This equation is used to predict the radiance of the surface of an integrating sphere for a known input flux and geometric dimensions. 3-23 Where the time constant τ is calculated as: 3-24 With the velocity of light c and the diameter of the integrating sphere DS.2. However if rapidly varying light signals as laser pulses are introduced into the sphere. the exit signal may be distorted. 2011] 3. [Labsphere. Integrating Sphere Radiometry and Photometry. A possible stretch of the signal is caused by the multiple diffuse reflections. Integrating Sphere Theory and Applications.

By inserting the sphere surface radiance equation 3-26. for these reasons it leads to equation 3-27. Integrating Sphere Radiometry and Photometry. Furthermore. the losses at the air/fibre interface caused by Fresnel’s reflection must be considered. the flux on a detector turns up as shown in 3-26 Figure 8: Flux on a detector. 3-27 Finally the throughput of an integrating sphere into an optical fibre is [Labsphere. the sin2θ can also be written as the numerical aperture( in air the refractive index is n=1). 2011]: 3-28 15 . 2011] If an optical fibre is replacing the detector. Integrating Sphere Theory and Applications. [Labsphere. The reflectance at the fibre face is R.

b) A skewed ray propagating in an abitrary path. 2007] In fibres with a large core diameter multiple ray paths with different incident angles are possible.3. is slightly higher than the refractive index in the cladding Figure 9: Optical fibre. Fibre optics Based on the principle of total reflexion light is guided by optical fibres over a long distance with only weak attenuation. These different paths are called modes and propagating with individual velocities through the fibre. The refractive index of core and cladding is slightly different. Figure 10: a) A ray passes through in meridional plane. [Saleh & Teich. 2005] 3. Through the higher refractive index of the core waves are guided by 16 . the consequence of this difference is insignificant and is not treated anymore. due to the unequal distance they travel.3.1.3. The total reflexion is caused by the fact that the refractive index in the core (Figure 9). A small difference in the consideration is that rays can pass either in the meridional plane or in an arbitrary path. However. Step-Index Fibres A simple type of waveguide is the step-index fibre whose profile has a circular core and an annular cladding around (Figure 9). [Mitschke.

3-30 Therefore. 2007] By applying Snell’s law and assuming the surrounding medium is air (n=1). Another often used parameter is the fractional refractive index which describes also the two different refractive indexes (equation 3-31). Rays which incident with a larger angle than the acceptance angle (related to the fibre axis) are unguided. The corresponding angle inside the core is (see Figure 11).total reflection. the relation between acceptance angle and refractive indexes can be derived as: 3-29 In optics. the fractional refractive index can approximately be written as: 3-33 17 . the numerical aperture indicates the difference of the refractive indexes. The numerical aperture NA is the sine or the acceptance angle multiplied by the refractive index of the surrounding medium ( ). [Saleh & Teich. 3-31 A relation between the numerical aperture and the fractional refractive index is given by equation 3-32. Figure 11: Numerical Aperture of a step-index fibre and the acceptance angle. 3-32 Since the refractive indexes have only a slight difference. a more conventional way is to express the relation in terms of the numerical aperture (equation 3-30).

[Jahns. Due to the different angles of the rays interference circles arise. Assuming that the fibre has the length . If the difference of phase and group velocity is ignored. the following equation 3-34 can be assumed: 3-34 For a of a few per mills two rays have an adjustment of half a wavelength against each other after less than an millimetre. By integrating spatially over the whole fibre diameter. 2005] With the results of the captor above knowledge has the maximum value and the . Caused by several modes and their different velocities in a multimode fibre. The unequal velocities are caused by several modes that have to pass unequally long distances in the fibre. 2007]. [Mitschke. which is transmitted by such a fibre. 2005] However the consequence of the unequal running times is still effective. Destructive interference occurs. This causes a spread of a pulse.Modal Dispersion Transmitting pulses by an optical multimode fibre modal dispersion plays an important rule. [Mitschke. a mode travels with the velocity shortest running time . 2001] Figure 12: Modal Dispersion: two modes in a multimode step-index fibre. 18 needs . For the rays travelling in the fibre axis the resulting (equation 3-35) is given by: 3-35 Whereas the mode with the maximum angle the longest running time (equation 3-36). The next steps are to estimate the order of magnitude. a ray propagating under the angle passes the length . a short pulse is broadened in a wide pulse or even in diverse pulses [Saleh & Teich. the interference can be neglected.

3-38 To have a relation between the possible transmitting frequency and the length the modal bandwidth has been introduced (equation 3-39). has a pulse enlargement of about 25ns. In other literature the FWHM-definition of the pulse duration [Saleh & Teich. This frequency is the inverse value of the pulse enlargement (equation 3-38).2. [Jahns. The modal bandwidth divided by the fibre length gives knowledge about the possible 3. 3-37 A fibre with a length of 1km and a fractional refractive index no consideration of skewed rays. Graded-Index Fibres To avoid or rather abate pulse enlargement a special type of multimode fibre is used. 3-39 Usually. the simplest case of pulse enlargement is estimated. This is just a rough estimation with a few simplifications and For many applications it is more important to approximate the possible transmitting frequency. 2001] .3-36 The pulse enlargement is then given by the maximum minus the minimum running time (equation 3-37) [Mitschke. the modal bandwidth is denoted in mega Hertz times kilometre transmitting frequency. where the pulses are still separated from each other. This type has a radius dependence of the refractive index (Figure 13).3. 19 . 2005]. In this assumption. 2007] or average pulse duration of all delaying effects [Jahns. 2001] is used.

[Mitschke.Figure 13: Refractive index of a graded index fibre depends on the radius. 3-41 The pulse enlargement of a graded-index fibre is better with the factor (about three magnitudes) than for the step-index fibre. There are still off-axis-rays. 2002] 20 . Due to the parabolic refractive index profile the propagating light follows a curved ray through the fibre. The pulse enlargement for the optimal profile ( ) is given by equation3-41. [Mitschke. 2005] The mathematical description is: 3-40 Where is the profile exponent that determines the gradient of the fibre. For the and hence. however the smaller refractive index at the boundary compensates the enlarging effect largely. All calculation for the transmitting frequency and the modal bandwidth are the same as for the step-index fibre (see chapter “Modal Dispersion”). 2005][Voges & Petermann. the optimal profile (smallest running time difference) the exponent refractive index has a parabolic shape.

4. Bohr. 2007]. For the localization properties in space and time light is described by the wavelike character. The photon In the early 20th century investigations of Planck. So at the end it is: 3-44 3-45 21 .3. [Paschotta. Whereas Planck’s conclusion is that a light quantum or “photon” has a certain energy which is proportional to the frequency of the light waves (equation 3-42). De Broglie and a few other physicist of quantum mechanics caused that the argument light has not only a wavelike nature becomes more important. 2001] 3-43 with where c is the velocity and λ the wavelength of light in free space. Schrödinger. 2010] The proportional constant is called Planck’s constant and has the value 3-42 . as well as for the effects of diffraction and interference[Saleh & Teich. Heisenberg. By this assumption the amount of photons N in a known radiant flux and time interval can be calculated as: [Jahns.

depending on the active area and the quality of the crystalline structure. see the following derivation. 2010]. if coherent photons are detected (Poisson distributed). The average rate of detected count without any incident light is defined as the dark count rate. Single photon counting The classical way to detect single photons is to use a photomultiplier tube. However. 2007] over the number of (all incident photons) is the same ratio as above (equation 3-47). 3-47 22 . such devices need a high voltage in the range of thousands of volts and have to be well cooled.1. the APD module is unable to record the second one. Counting loss Due to the dead time of an APD module. the number of photons lost in the dead time detected photons [Saleh & Teich. 3. 2007]. This assumption is only valid. 3-46 over the total acquisition time and the dead time is equal to the of the counter product of the rate of recorded photons Additionally. Each current pulse needs to decay. 2007]. A possibility with less effort is to use an avalanche photodiode (APD) in the Geiger mode.5.5. Quantum efficiencies are up to 75% [Elmer. If a photon incidents within the dead time after the detection of a previous one. This dark count rate is crucial for the minimum count rate and can be reduced by cooling the APD [Paschotta.3. Geiger mode means that the applied reverse voltage is slightly under the breakdown voltage. To estimate the probability of losing a photon and compute the actual count rate. Typical rates for Silicon-based APD in the visible and near-infrared spectral region (350-1050nm) are down to a few ten Hertz. counting losses occur. So even a single incident photon precipitates an avalanche breakdown and creates a large current pulse that signifies the arrival of a photon [Saleh & Teich. This decay is determining the dead time in which no other photon can be detected. The fraction of the total dead time (equation 3-46).

The correction factor is specific for the APD and depends on the count rate ( ). the rate of photons actually hitting the active area of the APD can be calculated with equation 3-51. 2005]. 3-51 The correction factor is usually measured previously. minus the 3-48 By transposing equation 3-48 to separate the detected photons the following equation 3-49 occurs[Becker. 2007] 23 . this equation applies. 3-50 Finally. 3-49 Only if a lost photon does not cause an appreciable dead time. [Elmer.The recorded rate can then be estimated as the rate of detected photons portion of detected photons during dead time (equation 3-48).

3-52 In the equation above is the wavelength. the number of the diffraction order and the period of the grating[Golub. and the groove refraction Figure 14: A diffraction grating type transparent plate with periodically varying thickness. 3-53 It can be differentiated between transparent plate and reflection diffraction gratings. For small angles of diffraction. This angle can be determined by the well-known grating equation 3-52.3. This portion is called the diffraction efficiency and depends on the arbitrary groove shape with the period index [Golub. Therefore. An incident beam is converted into three beams with a diffraction angle to each other. 2009]. Diffraction Gratings A diffraction grating is a periodical spatial structure on a plane surface. 2004]. As well as the angle of diffraction the portion of incident beam power in a given diffraction order can be modulated. 24 . the angle can be approximated as the fraction of the wavelength over the period times the diffraction order (equation 3-53)[Saleh & Teich. 2004]. 2007]. The varying thickness solution is normally made of fused silica. which modulates phase and amplitude of an incident wave. an incident beam is converted in several leaving beams with an angle of diffraction to each other (Figure 14Figure 1). what is usually the case. which is very applicable for space requirements [Meister. Transparent plate diffraction gratings can either be realized by varying the thickness or grading the refraction index of the plate periodically.6.

The last reason for a varying return signal is the changing laser pulse energy. This effect can reach values of upon 5% and cannot be removed. the mentioned two disturbances are equal for both wavelengths and cancel each other out. Moreover. Firstly. In order to get reliable measurement results the energy calibration is required to be performed with high accuracy for consecutive pulses. However.4. Since the IPDA measurements are only relative and the pulses are recorded immediately as consecutive pairs. Furthermore. Only the light with the wavelength λon is absorbed and is therefore the parameter of interest. which is absorbed by the atmospheric trace gas methane. An additional argument for the one detector solution is that two detector have different long-term properties. receiver optics and detector’s responsivity. Thus. the internal calibration chain is needed to attenuate the reference signal to be of the same strength as the very weak ground return signal. the varying laser pulse energy has to be recorded to compensate this disturbing effect. Hence. the microsatellite mission MERLIN is an IPDA (Integrating Path Differential Absorption) LIDAR-system. which could cause a significant error over time. 25 . Another aspect is to delay the reference signal as long as occurring stray light needs to vanish. Therefore. A third influence is the lost light. Internal Calibration Chain As explained in the introduction. the optical efficiency of the optical components as filters. to avoid disturbing effects. which is purely based on intensity measurements of the optical ground return signals. This requirement is due to possible inhomogenities of the optical sensitivity across the detector area. external natural effects as atmospheric extinction and Earth albedo affect the return signal as well. the ground return signal is about 14 orders of magnitude weaker than the emitted laser pulse. potentially occurring energy inhomogeneities (“hot spots”) within the laser beam have to be removed. Also. the emitted pulse energy and the ground return signal needs to be recorded by the same detector. the calibration chain is asked to be long-term stable and independent of environmental influences in space. The intensity of the return signals mainly depends on four factors.

4.1.

Functional description of the internal reference chain

In order to monitor the energy of each emitted pulse, a small fraction is extracted by a diffraction grating [1] (numbered components are shown in Figure 15). The diffracted beams point into an integrating sphere [2] and the rest continues through the sphere in nadir direction towards Earth [A]. Due to the diffuse reflecting surface of the integrating sphere and the high number of reflexions the light becomes homogenised. A minor part is collected by multimode fibre optics [3]. The optical throughput of an integrating sphere depends only on sphere’s geometry, the numerical aperture and the reflectance of the substrate (equation 3-28). All three properties are well-known and have a good short- and long-term stability. To detect the reference signal after occurring parasitic light has vanished, the fibre optics has a certain length to delay the signal as well. Another positive aspect is that the emitter and receiver unit can be spatially separated, because the optical connection is just a flexible fibre. In front of the receiving unit a second integrating sphere [4] is connected to the end of the delay line removing potential occurring energy concentrations caused by fibre optics. Light exiting through the pinhole [5], which is placed at the exit of the second sphere, is collimated onto a beam splitter [7] by a lens. The aperture [6] in front of the receiver section determines the amount of light and can be used for further intensity adjustments. The beam splitter combines the reference and the terrestrial return signal [B] to project both onto the instrument detector [8] consecutively.

Figure 15: Sc hematic representation of the internal reference chain with numbered components.

26

4.2.

**Laser pulse treatment
**

is assumed. In this height a and a pulse

For all following considerations an orbit height of round trip of a laser pulse takes separation of

. The orbit velocity is

causes an along-track offset of

on Earth’s surface. The next

chart (Figure 16) illustrates a time sequence of these pulses.

Figure 16: Events on the detector in a time sequence.

When the first pulse (

) is emitted the reference signal reaches the detector. Two ) is fired and the

hundred microseconds after the first pulse the second one ( ground return signal,

reference signal reaches the detector, as well. The detector monitors the first pulse’s after the first pulse was fired. Correspondingly, the return later. This sequence is periodically . In order to achieve a good signal-to-noise ratio, the signal of the second pulse is recorded 200 repeated with a frequency of

data are averaged over n pulses, covering approximately 50km ground track.

27

5. Methodology

This chapter explains the approach and realisation of the internal calibration chain breadboard. Since the system laser and the detector unit are developed contemporaneously a few compromises need to be made.

5.1.

Signal dynamics

and with a spectral difference of only an associating pulse pair .

The IPDA instrument of MERLIN emits at two wavelengths . Due to the fact that the wavelengths are very close together, they can be treated equally. The system fires every (separation ) with a nominal pulse energy of

As mentioned in chapter 3.4 light can be treated as either an electromagnetic wave or discrete photons. To calculate the attenuation this dualism is used to determine the amount of photons in one pulse. Based on Planck’s energy equation (equation 3-42) the number of photons within a . Previous numerical simulations provided information about intensity of the ground return signal. For the simulations an orbit height of mirror) with a diameter of backscattered laser pulse is about for the wavelength and a telescope (primary and for . With are assumed. So the number of received photons of a pulse (operating wavelength ) is

the known number of the backscattered photons the required attenuation of the internal calibration chain can be computed. These values are for the online and for the offline wavelength. Furthermore, the ground albedo varies by a factor of 10. The long-term stability of the internal signal is required to stay in the same magnitude and hence in the dynamic range of the detector.

28

Figure 17: Transfer of pulse energy into a mean power. the transferred mean 29 . Pulsed versus cw signal As the internal calibration chain is purely attenuating light without any signal modulation.5. For continuous signals it is easier to monitor the measurements and avoids complex data recording. the integrated pulse energies of the laser signal can be transferred into a mean power (cw mode). the breadboard can also be setup to work in continuous wave (cw) mode. Another expression of this transfer gives the following equation: 5-1 Assuming a pulse repetition rate of power is . In order to estimate comparable light intensities.2. The next graph (Figure 17) is shown for a better understanding. and pulse energies.

it was necessary to design the breadboard for a different wavelength.5. the supplier ensures the performance and it is not needed to be tested in this breadboard experiment. the signal to noise ratio input intensity we assume an APD module with a dark count rate of should be the square root of the photon number N reaching the detector in a given time interval (equation 5-2). The corresponding radiant flux for at the “high intensity” is 2 power 0 photons and a wavelength of 660nm can then be calculated with . Due to the attenuation. With this approximation a light source is required to have an optical requirements. a power meter (“high intensity”. 5-2 So for the postulated dark count rate the minimal number of photons at the detector is required to be 2 0 per second. This change of wavelength is possible because only fibre optics and sphere substrate are wavelength dependent and both have well-known spectral properties. Without the beam sampler the optical power can be reduced by the factor 0 0 . Thus. attenuated light). to get a good signal to noise rate (SNR) the input intensity would be much too high. 2005]. To approximate the . In order to work with moderate intensities and get a good SNR. Approach of the breadboard To realise the breadboard. A difficult aspect was to find a single photon counting module at with a low dark count rate to avoid a the thermal very high input intensity. the number of photons 0 times higher. it was important to reach the right attenuation and primarily proof the theory of the reference chain’s calculations. . Hence the needed optical power for the breadboard is 30 . Hence. the first step was to find and choose a suitable light source. Since the diffractive grating is especially designed for the equation 3-45. As described by Becker [Becker.3. silicon based APD modules with dark count rates down to 2 00 and many suitable light sources are available. Due to the small band gap of an APD at energy causes a high number of dark counts. For the visible spectrum range. before the attenuation) and a single photon counter (“low intensity”.

4. 31 . the breadboard has been designed and an overview is shown in Figure 18. The APD module has a fibre input.5. This laser operates with a wavelength of and points through an aperture into the first integrating sphere. At the exit of the second sphere. The electrical pulses generated by the APD module are measured by an universal counter. The aperture avoids irradiation of stray light into the sphere (see Figure 19). Figure 18: Overview of the breadboard. as it is easier to connect the components by fibre optics than by free beam optics. As mentioned before. Realisation of the breadboard According to the principle described in chapter 4 “Internal Calibration Chain”. a fibre connector is placed and an APD module is connected via an optical fibre. In the top right corner of the picture the diode laser is visible. the diode laser emulates the portion of the laser pulse which is diffracted by the diffractive grating. A minor part of the light inside the sphere is collected by the first optical fibre and guided to the second integrating sphere.

In addition.1. in a spectral range from to and data can be In order to avoide irradiation of stray light into the sphere an aperture is placed in front of the input port. A list of all instruments and their part numbers are given in Appendix A. Additional advantages are the temperature stabilisation thanks to an included TEC controller and a computer interface (USB) for a comfortable control. The substrate inside is SpectralonTM which . This criterion leads to the choice o the diode laser CUBE 660-100C which has a RMS noise of bandwidth up to 0 and 0 for a bandwidth above . on the opposite is a port plug (180°). This sensor is a silicon based photo diode. Figure 19 illustrates the two above mentioned instruments. 32 . the . Every port has a diameter of the inner diameter of the sphere is is a sintered material with a reflectance of at . First integrating sphere and power meter The first and bigger integrating sphere 819C-SL-3. Diode laser An important requirement of the laser is the low output RMS noise.5. 180° and South Pole) and is designed for measurements of collimated beams. It is calibrated with the integrating sphere and both together have an uncertainty of to . The maximum with a maximum . The power meter 1918-C has a range from read out via an USB interface. In the far field. and .3-CAL has an integrated power meter sensor. 5. Instruments The next couple of paragraphs provide an overlook of the instruments and describe their properties. the integrating sphere has four ports (0°. It works at a wavelength of 0 0 modulation bandwidth is output power of 00 spatial mode is 00 for a . An image of the laser is shown in Figure 19.2. 90°. All data are from the suppliers’ specifications. One port is the input (0°). 5.5. Fall and rise time are shorter than 2 and the beam quality is 2.5.5. another has a fibre connector (90°) and at the last port is the sensor of the power meter (South Pole).

22 0. Notation SI50 SI365 SI600 SI1000 GI62 GI100 GI50 GI62_2 SI105 Type step step step step graded graded graded graded step Core diameter [µm] 50 365 600 1000 62. Fibre optics To connect the two integrating spheres and the single photon counting module.22 0.5 3. 5.3. In Table 1 a Attenuation @850nm [dB/km] 2 4 6 6 3. optical fibres with a length of list of all fibres is given.2 12 Bandwidth @850nm [MHz/km] not specified 25 9 not specified 160 200 500 200 not specified The column “Type” distinguishes the step and graded refractive index profile.29 0. 33 .37 0.37 0.275 0.22 Table 1: List of the optical fibres.5. To avoid disturbing effects of stray light all plugs and cables are light insulated.5 105 Numerical Aperture 0.275 0.7 3. An overview of the fibre’s supplier gives Appendix B.5 100 50 62.5 2. All connections are with FC/PC fibre connectors.Figure 19: Diode laser and first integrating sphere with integrated power meter.2 0. are used.

. which has a reflectance of 5.5. To avoid complicated free beam optics. This sphere has a Spectraflect substrate on the inside. Every port and two have a fibre connector.5. . The APD module has a wavelength range of with a peak photon detection efficiency of about Furthermore.5. however the typical rate is around . at (see Figure 20). Single photon counting module and universal counter The detection unit consists of the single photon counting module SPCM-AQRH-12-FC and the universal counter A53220A. the detector has a FC/PC 34 .4. This module has a maximum dark count rate of connector. it has an active area diameter of . A graph of the correction factors over the count rate is shown in Figure 21. For each recorded photon the module emits a TTL pulse (minimum pulse width of and a ) with a death time after every pulse. Figure 20: Detector efficiency (Datasheet). Second integrating sphere The second integrating sphere has only a small inner diameter of has a diameter of at . The corresponding correction factors are generated with help of the calibration data.5. A plug closes the third one.

Other properties of the universal counter are coupling (AC/DC). the universal counter 53220A is set by a time gate. the standard deviation is calculated and both values are sent to the computer. 35 .Figure 21: Correction factor over count rate (Datasheet). this instrument has a computer interface (USB) to control all settings and read the measurement data. Another important property. Appendix F). For the summation of the APD module’s pulses. In addition. Data acquisition In order to communicate with the measurement hardware.6. In addition. read and store the data and properties (Appendix E. is the wavelength. The gate can . This environment is programmed to set. impedance ( 0Ω/ MΩ) and minimum level of a pulse. The power meter 1918-C measures the mean power in a given interval. a Labview-environment is used. 5. It has a time resolution of be set between and and totalizes the counts of a given gate time. which can be set. To count the TTL pulse of the detector module the universal counter 53220A is used.

5-3 Where the absolute throughput error of an integrating sphere follows the basic formula (equation 5-4). 36 . fibre transmissions the integrating spheres .1. for the whole derivation have a look on Appendix C and Appendix D. In this chapter only the results of the derivation are displayed.5. 5-5 Whereas the errors of the fibre transmittances. interface losses and the beam sampler just depend on their respective uncertainties.7.7. losses at interfaces and the throughput of (equation 5-3). 5-4 which leads to the final equation 5-5. In Appendix C the whole derivation is elucidated. [Stollenwerk] 5. Error propagation of the calculated efficiency The absolute error of the calculated efficiency depends on the uncertainties of the beam sampler . Error propagation In order to indicate the uncertainty of the measurement data a Gaussian error propagation is done.

5-6 As shown in Appendix D .5.2.7. Error propagation of the measured efficiency To determine the uncertainty of the measured efficiency ( . the relative error can be expressed as: 5-7 37 . the error of the actual count rate and emitted photons need to be known (equation 5-6).

For these measurements.2 (equation 3-23) gives a rough estimation. Thereby the light gets converted into a electrical signal and can be recorded by the same oscilloscope (2). After the first measurements. Temporal response of an integrating sphere Since integrating spheres are usually used as measurement instruments for cw signals. the following explained experiment was done. The aim of the assembly is to characterize the pulse shape change due to the first integrating sphere. Again the electrical signal is recorded by the oscilloscope (3) and can be compared to the other pulse shapes. The photo diode has a bandwidth of minimum 150 MHz what corresponds to a maximum rise time of . To proof this theory and the occurrence of other disturbing effects. only the temporal information is important and a different voltage scale at the oscilloscope does not play any role.2. The emitted laser pulse beams through a neutral density filter (to not destroy the photo diode) onto the photo diode PDA10A at the first position (PD1). The subsequent sketch (Figure 22) shows the arrangement of the experiment. Figure 22: A schematic sketch of the experiment “Temporal response of an integrating sphere”. Only the convolution function in chapter 3. To do so. the photo diode is placed on the second position (PD2) where it detects the temporal response of the integrating sphere.5.8. the electric pulse of the pulse generator which triggers the laser needs to be recorded (1) by an oscilloscope (LeCroy). not much information about the temporal response exist. since: 5-8 38 .

In Figure 24 the trigger pulse is compared to the laser pulse. Since the signals cannot be recorded simultaneously.8. the experiment to investigate the temporal response of the integrating sphere was accomplished and the results are illustrated below. the photo diode is placed at position one (PD1) and the by a neutral density attenuated laser pulse is recorded. 39 . Results 6. however without the delay time of the laser. Figure 23: Pulse of the pulse generator. A second function of the trigger pulse (Figure 23) is to modulate the diode laser. To gain knowledge about the optical laser pulse. The pulse has a rise and fall time of and a width of . Temporal response of the integrating sphere As described in section 5. the pulse generator triggers all instruments with a fix repetition rate and thus all pulses can be compared to each other. the FWHM-method was used. Due to the circuity of diode laser the laser pulse has a delay time of . The rise and fall times are defined for the values to of the signal maximum.1.6. Determining the pulse width.

. Furthermore. 40 . Both curves are shown in the same plot (no delay time) to highlight the time dependence. The rise time is . The temporal response of the integrating sphere and the induced laser pulse are displayed in Figure 25. But this effect is not of special importance.Figure 24: Pulses of the pulse generator and the diode laser. the laser pulse has a width of and the fall time behavior is of interest. because primarily the temporal Afterwards the photo diode is placed at the second position (PD2) and the neutral density is removed. As shown above. the laser pulse has a varying intensity.

Observing Figure 25. Additionally. with the temporal response of the integrating sphere. Figure 26: Pulse of the pulse generator and diode laser. the integrating sphere causes a which is cognizable in Figure 26. The pulse width of is about the same as for the laser pulse. the rise time of and the fall time of time delay of are longer. 41 . However. In this graph the pulses of the laser and pulse generator are also illustrated. it becomes obvious that the pulse after the integrating sphere has a more uniform shape and small intensity maxima vanish.Figure 25: Pulse of the diode laser and the temporal response of the integrating sphere.

For all following results of the breadboard experiment.4 mm 1mm 25. the beam sampler is not implemented in the breadboard experiment.015 0. The properties of the first integrating sphere and optical fibre are summarized in Table 2.2. Part Sphere diameter Input aperture 1.4 mm 1mm 3 100 µm 4µm 0.2 (equation 3-28). Exit aperture Number of ports Fibre core Numeric aperture Rho (Reflectivity) Value Uncertainty 83. As mentioned in the chapter 4. Exit aperture 2. a major part of the thesis is to build a model and calculate the total efficiency. For the total efficiency calculations. the portion of the diffracted beam is estimated to . In Table 6 the total efficiency and the efficiency without the beam sampler are denoted. The throughput of an integrating sphere is treated chapter 3. the efficiency without the beam sampler is used.8 mm 1mm 25. Efficiency of the internal calibration chain In order to reach the right attenuation of the internal calibration chain.1.6.990 0.005 Table 2: Properties of the first integrating sphere.4 mm 1mm 25. To calculate the throughput (equation 3-28) a list of all needed parameters are collected in Table 3.2. 6. Expected efficiency The total efficiency of the calibration chain depends on the efficiencies of the following components: Beam sampler First integrating sphere Transmission loss of the first optical fibre Losses at the interface fibre/air Second integrating sphere Transmission loss of the second optical fibre Losses at the interface fibre/air. 42 .29 0.

90E-01 4. 43 .38E-02 2.85E-09 2.89E-02 1. All optical cables are attenuation coefficients are listed in Table 1. long and the Losses at the interface fibre/ air occur through Fresnel’s reflexion and are estimated to the usual value . 2002]. The properties of the second integrating sphere are shown in the table (Table 4) below. The attenuation coefficient of optical fibres has usually the unit decibel per kilometre and the efficiency of an optical fibre is given by: 6-1 with the length [Voges & Petermann.54E-02 5.07E-04 8.07E-04 2.00E-04 7.Di (Input aperture) Ai (Input area) De1 (Exit aperture) Ae1 (Exit area) De2 (Exit aperture) Ae2 (Exit area) Ds (Sphere diameter) As (Sphere surface) f (Port fraction) Df (Fibre core) Af Fibre core area Numeric aperture Reflectance at air/fibre Rho (Reflectivity) Pout / Pin (Throughput) 2.00E-02 0.21E-02 6.54E-02 5.54E-02 5.99 3.07E-04 2.64E-07 m m2 m m2 m m2 m m2 m m2 Table 3: Parameters and throughput of the first integrating sphere.

The values are generated with two numerical aperture of . Di (Input aperture) Ai (Input area) De (Exit aperture) Ae (Exit area) Ds (Sphere diameter) As (Sphere surface) f (Port fraction) Df (Fibre core) Af Fibre core area Numeric aperture Reflectance at air/fibre Rho (Reflectivity) Pout / Pin (Throughput) 1.005 Sphere diameter 25.00E-02 0.3 mm Number of ports 2 Fibre core 100 µm Numeric aperture 0.85E-09 2. one gets the total efficiency.3E-03 3.75E-06 6.3 mm Exit aperture 6.08E-02 m m2 m m2 m m2 m m2 Table 5: Parameters and throughput of the second integrating sphere. 44 graded index fibres with a .95 Table 4: Properties of the second integrating sphere.015 0.95 3.29 Rho (Reflectivity) 0.00E-04 7. the throughput can be calculated with equation 3-28 and the parameters from Table 5.90E-01 4. By building the product of all several efficiencies. In the next list (Table 6) all efficiencies of the several components and the total efficiency are shown.54E-02 2.4 mm Input aperture 6. The transmission loss and the losses at the interface fibre/ air of the second fibre are the same as for the first one.12E-05 2.30E-03 3.03E-03 3.12E-05 6.Part Value Uncertainty 1mm 1mm 1mm 4µm 0. As previously mentioned.

the module has to be turned on five minutes before the measurement start. The dark count rate has the value with a standard deviation of . correction factors and SNRs are shown. the mean recorded count rates with standard deviations. The mean value and the standard deviation of the count rate are computed in a excel calculation.2.005 3. the dark count rate of the APD module needs to be determined. 6. 45 .26E-15 Table 6: Total efficiency of the internal calibration chain. . Measured efficiency Before the measurements can start. the optical power and count rate is recorded at least 300 times with an gate time. The photon detection efficiency is assumed to be For every measurement.60E-01 1. Therefore. to ensure the proper operating temperature of the chip.60E-01 3.96E-01 9.Component Beam sampler Throughput first integrating sphere Transmission loss first optical fibre Losses at interface fibre/air Throughput second integrating sphere Transmission loss second optical fibre Losses at interface fibre/air Efficiency without beam sampler Total efficiency Efficiency 0.64E-07 9.2.75E-06 9. In Table 7.25E-12 6.96E-01 9.

50E+05 5.E+04 2.E+02 Correction factor 1.00 1.95E+05 3.E+03 2.67E+04 1.12 1.20 1.73E+05 1.42E+04 2.90E+04 2.88E+04 1.01E+05 3.E+03 7.E+04 3.31E+06 1.E+04 6.09E+06 5.5 / SI50 SI365 / SI50 SI600 / SI50 ND1 SI600 / SI50 SI1000 / SI50 ND1 SI1000 / SI50 ND2 SI50 / SI50 GI100 / GI100 SI62.00 1.E+03 6.E+02 2.E+04 3.10E+04 2.01E+05 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.E+02 2.05 1.E+03 2.] 9.E+02 4.E+03 4.15E+04 9.10 1.12E+04 2. correction factor and SNR of the measurements.00 1.78E+05 3.E+02 2.00 1.E+02 5.E+02 1. 46 .00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.52E+06 7.E+02 2.30E+04 5.00 1.95E+06 8.Fibre combination GI100 / GI100 SI 50 / GI100 GI100 / SI50 SI62.E+03 3. the actual count rate must be divided by the number emitted photons (equation 6-2).00 SNR 474 172 169 66 8751 1183 10342 5868 940 61 470 187 21703 2729 3166 14129 2461 941 1198 9645 184 66 92 146 38 36 291 184 609 118 Table 7: Recorded count rates with standard deviation.E+03 2.] 1.E+04 3.517E+05 5.00 1.21E+04 1.00 1.76E+04 Standard deviation recorded counts [count/sec.E+02 8.E+03 2.E+02 2.E+02 3.E+02 5.00 1.99E+04 6.10 1.87E+05 3.013E+06 4.83E+05 3.95E+04 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.E+04 1.80E+06 3.51E+04 5.94E+04 4. 6-2 The number of emitted photons is calculated by Planck’s equation (3-45) and the optical power.5 / GI100 SI365 / GI100 SI365 / GI100 ND1 SI600 / GI100 ND1 SI1000 / GI100 ND1 SI1000 / GI100 ND2 SI1000/GI62 ND2 SI600/ GI62 ND2 SI365/ GI62 GI100/ GI62 GI50/ GI62 GI100 / GI50 SI105 / GI 50 GI62_2 / GI50 GI50 / GI62_2 SI 105 / GI62_2 GI100 / GI62_2 GI100 / SI105 GI50 / SI105 Mean recorded counts [count/sec.00 1.E+02 1.00 1.E+02 5.E+03 5.35 1.00 1. To calculate the measured efficiency.E+02 6.88E+06 3.

7E-11 7.2.2.2E-11 1.E-14 5.E-11 2.E-12 2.E-12 2.E-14 5.5 / SI50 SI365 / SI50 SI600 / SI50 ND1 SI600 / SI50 SI1000 / SI50 ND1 SI1000 / SI50 ND2 SI50 / SI50 GI100 / GI100 SI62.E-14 3.E-14 2.E-14 2.8E-13 6.0E-10 7.E-12 4.E-12 4.E-14 7.E-14 8.E-15 1.5E-11 7.E-11 2.E-13 4.E-13 2.6.E-14 9.E-14 Measured efficiency 6.E-14 Uncertainty expected efficiency 5.E-13 4.7E-11 7.7E-13 2.1E-11 1.E-13 8.E-12 2.E-14 1.E-14 2.E-14 2.3E-12 1.E-11 2.E-11 7.4E-12 1.E-14 6.E-11 3.5E-11 1.E-14 1.E-14 3.E-14 5.5E-13 Uncertainty measured efficiency 6.E-15 1.5E-13 9.E-13 7.E-14 5.E-11 3. Calculated and measured efficiencies In this subsection.E-13 9.E-12 4.1E-11 3.5 / GI100 SI365 / GI100 SI365 / GI100 ND1 SI600 / GI100 ND1 SI1000 / GI100 ND1 SI1000 / GI100 ND2 SI1000/GI62 ND2 SI600/ GI62 ND2 SI365/ GI62 GI100/ GI62 GI50/ GI62 GI100 / GI50 SI105 / GI 50 GI62_2 / GI50 GI50 / GI62_2 SI 105 / GI62_2 GI100 / GI62_2 GI100 / SI105 GI50 / SI105 1.E-11 2.3E-11 2.E-14 2.2E-11 1.E-12 4. The efficiencies for all sensible combinations of fibres are displayed in Table 8.E-12 4.E-14 2.E-11 6.E-13 1.1 and 6. Expected efficiency GI100 / GI100 SI 50 / GI100 GI100 / SI50 SI62.E-15 6.2E-13 2.E-14 2.2 and the uncertainties are calculated according to the error propagations of chapter 5.4E-13 3.E-11 1.8E-13 1.E-12 1. The data are generated as mentioned in chapter 6.E-14 9. 47 .6E-11 1.3.9E-13 4.E-14 5.E-11 1.5E-14 3.E-14 2.E-11 9.5E-11 4.2E-13 1.6E-11 3.E-14 2.E-11 1.E-11 8.2E-10 2.1E-13 8.3E-14 1.E-12 8.0E-13 2.E-13 4.3E-13 8.2.E-15 5.E-12 1.E-13 2.E-12 2.E-14 6.E-15 4.E-14 Table 8: Expected and measured efficiencies for different fibre combinations.7E-14 4.E-12 8. the results of the calculations and measurements of the efficiency are compared with each other.1E-10 8.8E-13 1.E-14 4.E-14 1.7.E-12 9.3E-12 4.E-13 3.2E-14 1.E-14 2.0E-13 2.E-13 4.E-12 3.E-14 1.3E-13 7.0E-10 2.1E-11 2.E-12 1.E-12 2.E-11 8.7E-11 3.6E-14 6.E-11 1.

48 . However. the error bars of the measured efficiency is too small to be observable in this graph. the data are plotted with error bars in Figure 27. Figure 27: Measured over expected efficiencies of the breadboard experiment with error bars.For a better illustration of the efficiencies and uncertainties.

49 . Only the shape of the curves are compared to each other and is decisive. the rise and fall times are in the same dimension. In addition. As shown in Figure 26 (section 6. it is not necessary to have the signal voltages accurately on the same level. The pulse duration is of the same strength as the time constant and has the value of . the temporal response of the integrating sphere and laser pulse have roughly the same width.1. for a sphere diameter with a reflectance As just qualitative information about the stretching effects is greater of interest. For this reasons temporal disturbing effects of the integrating spheres can be neglected. The area under all curves has to be equal and the time scale of all measurements is the same. Temporal response of the integrating sphere By this experiment.1). The pulse stretching is described by the convolution (3-23) with the corresponding time constant τ (3-24).7. Discussion 7. the temporal consequences of multiple diffuse reflections are investigated.

Efficiency of the internal calibration chain One aim of the breadboard experiment is to estimate the proper efficiency.2. . Thus. In Figure 27. the expected over the measured efficiencies with error bars are illustrated. the corresponding fibre was investigated and the following picture of the fibre faces (Figure 29) were 50 . are measurements with the step index fibre taken.2. computations and measurements are done and presented in chapter 6. The uncertainties of the several components cause an error and hence a variable attenuator to set the required efficiency of the internal calibration chain is needed. Therefore. Conspicuous in this chart is that the four encircled data points. The straight line indicates the points where the expected and measured values are equal. To identify the data points Figure 28 displays these with coloured dots. which all differ from the theory. Almost all data hit the straight line in consideration of the error bars. It is most important to reach the right order of magnitude. rather than the exact efficiency.7. Figure 28: Measured over expected efficiencies of the breadboard experiment with traceable data.

Thiel. Their pulse enlargement is approximately a factor smaller than for step index fibres. because the pulses would be stretched too much. However. For this values and by using equation 3-39 the modal bandwidth is required to be 51 . the enlargement for a length of . 7.3. In the above photographs a damage of the cladding is visible. special attention should be paid to a high accuracy of the optical fibres. the fibre is not circular and the cladding has a strongly varying thickness. Due to these results. Temporal behaviour of optical fibres As already mentioned in chapter 3. optical fibres may increase the duration of laser pulses.3. 2010]. By assuming at least pulses. In section 0 is more information about this effect. the expected and measured values match well.Figure 29: Fibre face of the 365µm step index fibre. what can cause a strong dependence on gamma and proton radiation[Göpel. Additionally. & Glier. should not be longer than . If the four data points of the 365µm-fibre are not considered. For the design of the proper internal calibration chain. graded index fibres are usually doped. These reasons can cause a much bigger error as assumed and thus the fibre is not included for the following evaluations anymore. Additional advantages bring graded index fibres. the theory to compute the efficiency of the calibration chain is confirmed. This enlargement it proportional to the core diameter and hence fibres cannot have an arbitrary large cross section.

beam sampler and fibre optics have to be balanced.4. disturbing environmental effects have to be considered and the corresponding counter actions need to be planed.7. [Bruegge. Ott [Ott.4. The volume diffuser is used in many space missions and hence it is already space qualified. Fibre optics In many space missions optical fibres are embedded and hence a plenty of fibres are space qualified. Spectralon is a suitable material for the substrate of the integrating spheres. [Meister. It is a common material for optical components in space and tests showed that there is almost no disturbing effect for gamma and proton radiation.1. 1993][Chommeloux & Gourges.1. 7. However. This is important to have the full performance of the LIDAR system over the whole operating time (3 years). For this reason. gamma and proton radiation occurs and their consequences on the sphere substrate. In respect to the existing experiences it is not critical to find applicable optical fibres.1. radiation tests should be made in a later phase of the project to ensure the performance. 52 . Furthermore. Disturbing environmental effects as solar radiation and atomic oxygen (in this orbit weak) are blocked by the satellite’s shield. Environmental effects A further and important aspect of the internal calibration chain is the long-term stability of the optical transmission. Stiegman. For this reason. Radiation Effects Data on Commercially Available Optical Fiber: Database Summery].4. these consequences are discussed. Beam sampler Since the diffraction grating is etched out of pure fused silica it depends only on the environmental properties of this glass. In the next three subsections. In the satellite is vacuum and the temperature is constantly a few degrees Celsius. The orbital height is about and the measurement equipment is geometrical shielded from space. A summary of commercially available optical fibre give the Databases from Melanie N. 1998] 7.4. & Rainen. Long-term stability of Spectralon Spectralon is a translucent tetrafluoroethylene based polymer (PTFE) and a wellestimated reflection standard. 2009] 7.

& Glier. 1993]. 53 . graded index fibres are usually doped what can cause disturbing environmental effects [Göpel.8. This stretching effect was measured for spheres in the right dimension. To avoid disturbing temporal effects of optical fibres it is important to use fibres with the suitable modal bandwidth in respect of the length. However. Most sensitive to environmental effects and thus the biggest contribution concerning the long-term stability of the internal calibration chain have the beam sampler. Conclusion In this master thesis. With the breadboard experiment at an operating wavelength of 660nm. Integrating Sphere Radiometry and Photometry. The required total efficiency is about [Ehret. the feasibility of the internal calibration chain of the microsatellite mission MERLIN was investigated and evaluated as feasible.e. i. the substrate of the integrating sphere and the optical fibres. Graded index fibres provide a much higher modal bandwidth with the same diameter as the corresponding step index fibre [Jahns. the transfer to the proper operating wavelength of 1645nm is considered as not critical. Thiel. Radiation Effects Data on Commercially Available Optical Fiber: Database Summery]. French-German Climate Mission (MERLIN). 2011]. attenuations between 10 and 14 orders of magnitudes were reached. Further work in a later phase of the mission is to realise the breadboard for the proper operating wavelength of and characterise it with the real laser and detector. Flamant. It is very weak and can be neglected. the integrating sphere substrate Spectralon has been used for several space missions and is space qualified [Bruegge. & Abshire. Since the beam sampler is purely made of fused silicon what is nearly independent of environmental influences. Due to multiple diffuse reflections inside an integrating sphere the duration of laser pulses may expand [Labsphere. Due to the wellknown spectral properties of the used components. Stiegman. because of the uncertainties of the used components a variable attenuator will be required to adjust the exact total efficiency of the internal calibration chain. The results of the measurement confirmed the expected calculated values. & Rainen. However. Furthermore. Optical fibres are an often used component in space and hence there are many studies and summaries about environmental properties [Ott. optical fibres and integrating spheres. 2010]. 2010]. it is suitable for space applications [Meister. 2001]. Another important aspect of the breadboard investigations was the temporal response of the components. 2009].

environmental tests to investigate influences of radiation. vibration and temperature variations are required.Additionally. 54 .

55 . München: Oldenbourg.. Becker. New York: John Wiley & Sons.und Raumfahrt e. Hecht. DLR. (2010).9. Oberpfaffenhofen. M. Golub. P. & Abshire. (2010). Investigation of the Radiation Response of Optical Fibres for the ExoMars Raman Instrument. & Googmann.. H.. R. (2011. (2007). A.. Göpel. & Rainen.) Retrieved 02 21. (2001). W. September 8th). (2005). 382. Hugenschmidt. Thiel. Flamant.dlr. P. A. Chommeloux. SPCM-AQRH Single Photon Counting Module. & Schaadt. J. Ehret. Infrared Detectors and Systems. Munich. (2004). G. M. S. A. Germany: ISROS.de/rd/desktopdefault. Elmer. P. (2002)... 2011. S.dlr. Jahns. Berlin: Springer. Komponenten und Systeme. (2011).. French-German Climate Mission (MERLIN). MERLIN Dem Methangehalt auf der Spur. Photonik: Grundlagen. Frech-German Climate Mission (Merlin)-User Requirements Document. (1993). B. J. from http://www. Spectralon diffusers used a in-flight optical calibration hardware. Optics & Photonics News. & Gourges. Canada. Laser Beam Splitting By Diffrative Optics. Advanced Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting Techniques. E. Lasermesstechnik: Diagnostik der Kurzzeitphysik. Heidelberg: Springer.. S. (2007). Photometry and Radiometry. E.V. (2005). J. Stiegman. & Eng... C. Group. Reference Ashdown. G. (2010). (1998). & Glier. Oberpfaffenhofen: DLR. M. J. Oberpaffenhofen: DLR. Bruegge. (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft. Ballard. Use of Spectralon a a diffuse reflectance standard for in-flight calibration of earth-orbiting sensors. G. M. SPIE 3427 . Optik. (1996). P. A. München: Oldenburg.de Ehret.aspx/tabid6238/10300_read-22638/: www. W. I. Heart Consultants Limited.

C. (2003). Niebuhr.. Berlin: Springer. M.labsphere. M. (2007). RP-photonics. (1981). Dodson. L. (1984). Greenbelt Maryland. Ott. Glasfasern. May 16). M. R. Papula. Measures. from www. Integrating Sphere Radiometry and Photometry. Optical fiber cable assemly characterization for the Mercury Laser Aleimeter. G. M. from www. A. Fiber optic cable assemblies for sapce flight II: thermal and radiaton effects. M. Maryland. Ott. New Jersey: Wiley & Sons. A. Retrieved January 2011.rp-photonics.com/technical/technical-guideaspx. N. R. B. (RP Photonics) Retrieved June 1. Test report. Paschotta. N. Halme. M. Radiation Effects Data on Commercially Available Optical Fiber: Database Summery. Springer.. (1993). Sherma.com Saleh. & Werner. Ott. Integrating Sphere Theory and Applications. EnMAP VNIR Prism Glass. P. M.. Kühlke.rp-photonics. Schröder. F. Mathematische Formelsammlung. Maryland. C. M. (2010.. B. J. S. Macmurphy.labsphere. München: Elsevier. 2011. V. Technology validation of optical fiber cables for space flight enciroments. (2007). (2005).. Labsphere. E.. N.. & Treiber. (2011). & Butusov. Optical Fiber Systems and Their Components.. J.html: www. (2011).. P. & Lindner. Technische Optik. Munich. M. & Friedberg. H. S. Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications. & Teich. Frankfurt: Harri Deutsch. M.com/encyclopedia. Würzburg: Vogel. Greenbelt. Physikalische Messtechnik mit Sensorik. 56 . Mitschke. Labsphere. G.. Maryland. Meister. Ott. (2009). (2004). Optik: Grundlagen und Anwendungen. Fundamentals of Photonics. from www. & Freidberg.Klein.com/technical/technical-guideaspx. Malabar: Krieger. Retrieved January 2011. München: Oldenbourg. N. (1996).. Hoboken. Fernmessung von Luftverunreinigungen: mit Lasern und anderen spektroskopischen Verfahren. D. Proctor. Wiesbaden: Vieweg & Sons.

A. (1998). (2002). Introduction to Radiometry. & Petermann. Berlin: Springer. L. Physikalisches Praktikum.org Wolf. Bellingham: SPIE. Wikipedia. Optische Kommunikationstechnik_Handbuch für Wissenschaft und Industrie. 57 . Retrieved June 7..Stollenwerk.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Solid_angle23. May 3).wikipedia. Voges. (2007. K.png: http://en. E. from http://en. Fehlerfortpflanzung. 2011. W.

2011]. _________________________________________ 31 Figure 19: Diode laser and first integrating sphere with integrated power meter. _________________________________________ 39 Figure 24: Pulses of the pulse generator and the diode laser. _____________________________________________________________ 16 Figure 11: Numerical Aperture of a step-index fibre and the acceptance angle[Saleh & Teich. ______________________________________________ 6 Figure 3: Principle sketch of the internal reference chain. MERLIN Dem Methangehalt auf der Spur. [Mitschke. 2005] 20 Figure 14: A diffraction grating type transparent plate with periodically varying thickness. ______________________________ 27 Figure 17: Transfer of pulse energy into a mean power. ______________________________________________________________ 26 Figure 16: Events on the detector in a time sequence. ________ 33 Figure 20: Detector efficiency (Datasheet)._______________________________________ 34 Figure 21: Correction factor over count rate (Datasheet).Table of Figures Figure 1: Mechanical drawing of the microsatellite. 2005] _ 18 Figure 13: Refractive index of a graded index fibre depends on the radius. ____________________________ 29 Figure 18: Overview of the breadboard. 2007] ____________________________________________________________________ 17 Figure 12: Modal Dispersion: two modes in a multimode step-index fibre[Mitschke. ________________________________ 5 Figure 2: Principle of remote sensing for MERLIN [Ehret & Schaadt. 2007] ______________________ 10 Figure 6: Irradiance by an expanded circular emitter[Kühlke. 2005] ______________________________________________ 9 Figure 5: solid angle in spherical coordinates [Wikipedia. __ 41 58 . 2007] ______________________________________ 16 Figure 10: a) A ray passes through in meridional plane. ____ 24 Figure 15: Shematic representation of the internal reference chain with numbered components. An incident beam is converted into three beams with a diffraction angle to each other. b) A skewed ray propagating in an abitrary path. 2004] ___________________ 11 Figure 7: geometrical relationship of the exchange factor ___________________________ 13 Figure 8: Flux on a detector ___________________________________________________ 15 Figure 9: Optical fibre [Saleh & Teich. ____________________________ 8 Figure 4: solid angle [Hecht. ________________________ 40 Figure 25: Pulse of the diode laser and the temporal response of the integrating sphere. ___________________________ 35 Figure 22: A schematic sketch of the experiment “Temporal response of an integrating sphere”. __________________________________________________________________ 38 Figure 23: Pulse of the pulse generator.

____________________________________________________________________ 60 Appendix c: Error propagation of the calculated efficiency. __________________________________ 66 Appendix e: Front panel of the Labview program. ____________________________________________ 68 Appendix f: Block diagram of the Labview program. _________________________________ 61 Appendix d: Error propagation of the measured efficiency. with the temporal response of the integrating sphere. _____________________________________________________________________ 48 Figure 28: Measured over expected efficiencies of the breadboard experiment with traceable data. correction factor and SNR of the measurements. ___________________________________ 45 Table 7: Recorded count rates with standard deviation. _____________ 47 Table of Appendixes Appendix a: List of Instruments. _______________________________________________________________ 60 Appendix b: Fibre suppliers.________________________________ 51 Table of Tables Table 1: List of the optical fibres.__________________________________________________________________________________ 46 Table 8: Expected and measured efficiencies for different fibre combinations. ___________________________________________ 42 Table 3: Parameters and throughput of the first integrating sphere. ____________________________________________________________________ 50 Figure 29: Fibre face of the 365µm step index fibre. _________________________________________________________ 41 Figure 27: Measured over expected efficiencies of the breadboard experiment with error bars. ________________________________________ 44 Table 5: Parameters and throughput of the second integrating sphere. ______________________________________________________________ 33 Table 2: Properties of the first integrating sphere. _________________________________________ 69 59 .Figure 26: Pulse of the pulse generator and diode laser. ____________________ 44 Table 6: Total efficiency of the internal calibration chain. _______________________ 43 Table 4: Properties of the second integrating sphere.

Device Diode laser First integrating sphere Power meter Single photon counting module Second integrating sphere Universal Counter Photo diode Oscilloscope Pulse generator Supplier Coherent Newport Newport Perkin Elmer Sphere Optics Agilent Technologies Thorlabs LeCroy Agilent Technologies Type CUBE 660-100 819C-SL-3. Appendix Appendix A: List of Instruments.3-CAL 1918-C SPCM-AQRH-12-FC SPH-1-3 53220A PDA10A 44MXs-A 81150A Appendix B: Fibre suppliers. Notation SI50 SI365 SI600 SI1000 GI62 GI100 GI50 GI62_2 SI105 Supplier Fiberguide Industries Newport Newport Newport Newport ofs ofs ofs ofs 60 .10.

61 To determine the absolute error of an integrating sphere . Starting with equation 5-3. the uncertainty of the length and the attenuation coefficient 10-3 The uncertainty of a beam sampler is due to the manufacture. . we start with equation 5-4. (equation 10-3). 5-3 With the absolute error of the losses at an interface fibre/air is given by 10-1 and the relative error is then: 10-2 To calculate the relative error of the fibre losses must be known.Appendix C: Error propagation of the calculated efficiency. the several components need to be determined.

Beginning with the reflectance of the fibre surface : 10-4 Numerical aperture : 10-5 Fibre area : 10-6 62 .5-4 The derivations of the several elements are done in the next few steps.

the following expression turns up (equation ).Sphere surface : 10-7 Reflectance of the sphere’s substrate : 10-8 Port fraction : 10-9 By inserting all derivations in equation 5-4. 10-10 After a conversion. 63 . the relative error of an integrating sphere leads then to the final function 10-11.

The error of the sphere surface ( ): 10-12 Port area ( ): 10-13 Fibre area ( ): 10-14 64 . the following relations are introduced.10-11 Since a few elements of equation 10-11 depends on other variables.

Port fraction first sphere ( ): 10-15 Port fraction second sphere ( ): 10-16 65 .

To derive the uncertainty of the actual can be count rate. The error of part 10-19 Whereas equation 10-20 shows the error of part . the whole expression of the uncertainty is 66 . the errors of the actual count rate and the emitted photons have to be determined. the errors of the two parts need to be combined. This formula leads from Planck’s equation (3-45) and depends on the errors of the wavelength optical power .Appendix D: Error propagation of the measured efficiency. To derive the uncertainty of the measured efficiency (equation 5-6). 10-20 The combination of both part’s errors error of the actual count rate and is then given by (equation 10-21): leads to the whole 10-21 After substituting the functions of (equation 10-22): and . 10-17 and Based on equation 3-51 the actual count rate can also be expressed as: 10-18 This function is divided in two parts calculated by equation 10-19 and . For the calculation of the emitted photons error equation 10-17 is used. 5-6Fehler! Verweisquelle konnte nicht gefunden werden.

5-7 67 . the uncertainty of the actual count rate is described by equation 5-7.10-22 Finally.

Appendix E: Front panel of the Labview program. 68 .

69 .Appendix F: Block diagram of the Labview program.

70 .

71 .

72 .

dass ich die Masterarbeit mit dem Titel „Long-term stable internal calibration chain for a spaceborne Integrated Path Differential Absorption LIDAR system“ selbständig verfasst.Maximilian Freudling Geb. 4 der Rahmenprüfungsordnung. gemäß § 31 Abs. Datum ________________________ Unterschrift 73 . noch nicht anderweitig für Prüfungszwecke vorgelegt. ________________________ Ort. am 7. keine anderen als die angegebenen Quellen oder Hilfsmittel benutzt sowie wörtliche und sinngemäße Zitate als solche gekennzeichnet habe. April 1985 Erklärung Hiermit erkläre ich.

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