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# 12/30/13

Principal Strains

Principal Strains & Invariants

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Introduction
This page covers standard coordinate transformations, principal strains, and strain invariants. Everything here applies regardless of the type of strain tensor, so both \boldsymbol{\epsilon} and {\bf E} will be used here. Coordinate transformations of 2nd rank tensors were discussed on this coordinate transform page. The transform applies to any strain tensor, or stress tensor for that matter. It is written as {\bf E}' = {\bf Q} \cdot {\bf E} \cdot {\bf Q}^T Everything below follows from two facts: First, the tensors are symmetric. Second, the above coordinate transformation is used.

2-D Principal Strains
In 2-D, the transformation equations are \begin{eqnarray} \epsilon'\!_{xx} & = & \epsilon_{xx} \cos^2 \theta + \epsilon_{yy} \, \sin^2 \theta + 2 \left( {\gamma_{xy} \over 2} \right) \sin \theta \cos \theta \\ \\ \epsilon'\!_{yy} & = & \epsilon_{xx} \sin^2 \theta + \epsilon_{yy} \, \cos^2 \theta - 2 \left( {\gamma_{xy} \over 2} \right) \sin \theta \cos \theta \\ \\ {\gamma'\!_{xy} \over 2} & = & (\epsilon_{yy} - \epsilon_{xx}) \sin \theta \cos \theta + \left( {\gamma_{xy} \over 2} \right) (\cos^2 \theta - \sin^2 \theta) \end{eqnarray} The equations are written in terms of \gamma / 2 to emphasize that half of all the shear values are used in the transformation equations. This page performs full 3-D tensor transforms, but can still be used for 2-D problems.. Enter values in the upper left 2x2 positions and rotate in the 1-2 plane to perform transforms in 2-D. The screenshot below shows a case of pure shear rotated 45° to obtain the principal strains. Note also how the {\bf Q} matrix transforms.
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www.continuummechanics.org/cm/principalstrain.html

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continuummechanics. The blue square aligned with the axes clearly undergoes shear. These are the principal values of the pure shear deformation in the global coordinate system. But the red square inscribed in the larger blue square only sees simple tension and compression.12/30/13 Principal Strains The figure below shows the deformed shapes corresponding to the pure shear case in the tensor transform webpage example.html 2/11 .org/cm/principalstrain. y x www.

3 \over 0.\epsilon_{xx}) \sin \theta_P \cos \theta_P + \left( {\gamma_{xy} \over 2} \right) (\cos^2 \theta_P .311 \end{eqnarray} www. = \. 2-D Principal Strain Example Start with the strain tensor \boldsymbol{\epsilon} = \left[ \matrix{ 0.20 } \right] The principal orientation is \begin{eqnarray} \tan (2 \theta_P) & = & {2 * 0.20 \over 2} \pm \sqrt{ \left( {0. \epsilon_{min} = {\epsilon_{xx} + \epsilon_{yy} \over 2} \pm \sqrt{ \left( {\epsilon_{xx} .50 + 0.50 .\sin^2 \theta_P) This gives \tan (2 \theta_P) \.\epsilon_{yy} \over 2} \right)^2 + \left( \gamma_{xy} \over 2 \right)^2 } They could also be obtained by using {\bf E}' = {\bf Q} \cdot {\bf E} \cdot {\bf Q}^T with {\bf Q} based on \theta_P.30 \\ 0. can be computed by setting \gamma'\!_{xy} = 0 in the above shear equation and solving for \theta to get \theta_P.50 .\epsilon_{yy} } \. is {\bf Q} = \left[ \matrix{ \. They are written as \epsilon_{max} and \epsilon_{min}.12/30/13 Principal Strains In 2-D. Only one subscript is usually used in this case to differentiate the principal strain values from the normal strain components: \epsilon_{11}.org/cm/principalstrain.\.\. \theta_P. and \epsilon_3.20) } \\ \\ \\ \theta_P & = & 20. {2 \epsilon_{xy} \over \epsilon_{xx} .\.611.\epsilon_{yy} } The transformation matrix.50 & \. \epsilon_2. -0.30 & -0. \epsilon_{22}. \cos \theta_P & \sin \theta_P \\ -\sin \theta_P & \cos \theta_P } \right] Inserting this value for \theta_P back into the equations for the normal strains gives the principal values. \epsilon_{min} & = & 0. 0.30)^2 } \\ \\ \\ \epsilon_{max}. = \. {\bf Q}.(\text{-}0. \epsilon_{min} & = & {0. the principal strain orientation. \epsilon_{max}.20 \over 2} \right)^2 + (0.\.continuummechanics. the principal strain angle.0. Principal Strain Notation Principal strains can be written as \epsilon_1. and \epsilon_{33}. or alternatively as \epsilon_1 and \epsilon_2. 0 = (\epsilon_{yy} . {\gamma_{xy} \over \epsilon_{xx} .3° \end{eqnarray} The principal strains are \begin{eqnarray} \epsilon_{max}.html 3/11 .

30 & -0.\.3°.\cos(20.3^\circ) \\ \sin(20.3° from the X-axis.311 } \right] \end{eqnarray} This confirms that the 0. The \epsilon_{22} value is 90° from the first.3^\circ) & \sin(20.0.\.0.30 \\ 0.3^\circ) } \right] \\ \\ \\ & = & \left[ \matrix{0.50 & \.000 \\ 0. That's why an attractive alternative is y \begin{eqnarray} \left[ \matrix{\epsilon'\!_{11} & \epsilon'\!_{12} \\ \epsilon'\!_{12} & \epsilon'\!_{22} } \right] & = & \left[ \matrix { \.3^\circ) & -\sin(20.\.611 principal strain value in the \epsilon_{11} slot is indeed 20.000 & -0.html 4/11 .3^\circ) } \right] \left[ \matrix{0.\.3^\circ) & \.\.3^\circ) & \cos(20. www.12/30/13 Principal Strains The only limitation to using these equations for principal values is that it is not known which one applies to 20.continuummechanics.3° and which applies to 110.\.20 } \right] \left[ \matrix { \cos(20.org/cm/principalstrain. This page performs tensor transforms.3^\circ) \\ \sin(20.\.611 & \.\cos(20.\. x 3-D Principal Strains Coordinate transforms in 3-D are \left[ \matrix{E'_{11} & E'_{12} & E'_{13} \\ E'_{12} & E'_{22} & E'_{23} \\ E'_{13} & E'_{23} & E'_{33} } \right] = \left[ \matrix { q_{11} & q_{12} & q_{13} \\ q_{21} & q_{22} & q_{23} \\ q_{31} & q_{32} & q_{33} } \right] \left[ \matrix{E_{11} & E_{12} & E_{13} \\ E_{12} & E_{22} & E_{23} \\ E_{13} & E_{23} & E_{33} } \right] \left[ \matrix { q_{11} & q_{21} & q_{31} \\ q_{12} & q_{22} & q_{32} \\ q_{13} & q_{23} & q_{33} } \right] The second {\bf Q} matrix is once again the transpose of the first.

org/cm/principalstrain. It's important to remember that the inputs to both pages must be symmetric.continuummechanics.html 5/11 .12/30/13 Principal Strains And this page calculates principal values (eigenvalues) and principal directions (eigenvectors). In fact. both pages www.

338 } \right] The max and min principal strains are in the E_{33} and E_{11} slots. \left| \matrix{E_{11}-\lambda & E_{12} & E_{13} \\ E_{12} & E_{22}-\lambda & E_{23} \\ E_{13} & E_{23} & E_{33}-\lambda } \right| = 0 This can be expanded out to give \begin{eqnarray} (E_{11}-\lambda)\big[(E_{22}-\lambda)(E_{33}-\lambda)-E^2_{23}\big] & ..\epsilon_{min} This applies in both 2-D and 3-D. will equal the principal values of the strain tensor.095 \end{eqnarray} The manual way of computing principal strains is to solve a cubic equation for the three principal values.\epsilon_{min} \\ \\ & = & 4.243 \\ \\ & = & 4. For the principal strain tensor above {\bf E} = \left[ \matrix{ 0.0.338 } \right] Maximum Shear The maximum amount of shear at any point is easy to calculate from the principal strains.243 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1. The maximum shear always occurs in a coordinate system orientation that is rotated 45° from the principal coordinate system. respectively.256 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 4.(E_{11} + E_{22} + E_{33}) \lambda^2 + www.338 .html 6/11 . It is simply \gamma_{max} = \epsilon_{max} .12/30/13 Principal Strains enforce this.org/cm/principalstrain..243 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1. So the max shear orientation is obtained by rotating the principal coordinate system by 45° in the (1-3) plane. The \lambda values.256 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 4.continuummechanics. once computed. The eigenvalues above can be written in matrix form as {\bf E} = \left[ \matrix{ 0.and expanded out even further to give \begin{eqnarray} \lambda^3 . The max shear value itself is \begin{eqnarray} \gamma_{max} & = & \epsilon_{max} . The equation results from setting the following determinant equal to zero.& \\ E_{12}\big[E_{12}(E_{33}-\lambda)-E_{23}E_{13}\big] & + & \\ E_{13}\big[E_{12}E_{23} (E_{22}-\lambda)E_{13}\big] & = & 0 \end{eqnarray} Invariants .

This is universal.org/cm/principalstrain.. And the only way for this to happen in the above equation is for the equation itself to always be the same. This means that the combinations of strain components.12/30/13 Principal Strains (E_{11}E_{22}+E_{22}E_{33}+E_{33}E_{11}-E^2_{12}-E^2_{13}-E^2_{23}) \lambda . but no one should actually calculate a determinant based on tensor notation rules because it is very inefficient. \begin{eqnarray} I_1 & = & \text{tr}({\bf E}) \\ \\ I_2 & = & \left| \matrix{E_{11} & E_{12} \\ E_{12} & E_{22}} \right| + \left| \matrix{E_{11} & E_{13} \\ E_{13} & E_{33}} \right| + \left| \matrix{E_{22} & E_{23} \\ E_{23} & E_{33}} \right| \\ \\ \\ I_3 & = & \text{det}({\bf E}) \end{eqnarray} They can be written in tensor notation as \begin{eqnarray} I_1 & = & E_{kk} \\ \\ I_2 & = & {1 \over 2} \left[ \left( E_{kk} \right)^2 .. which serve as coefficients of the \lambda's. For any stress or strain tensor.I_3 = 0 where \begin{eqnarray} I_1 & = & E_{11} + E_{22} + E_{33} \\ \\ I_2 & = & E_{11}E_{22}+E_{22}E_{33}+E_{33}E_{11}-E^2_{12}-E^2_{13}-E^2_{23} \\ \\ I_3 & = & E_{11}E_{22}E_{33}-E_{11}E^2_{23}-E_{22}E^2_{13}-E_{33}E^2_{12}+2E_{12}E_{13}E_{23} \end{eqnarray} Although probably not initially apparent. So the equation can be written as \lambda^3 . its principal strains had better be the same three values. I_1 is directly related to the hydrostatic component of the that tensor. www.\\ (E_{11}E_{22}E_{33}-E_{11}E^2_{23}-E_{22}E^2_{13}-E_{33}E^2_{12}+2E_{12}E_{13}E_{23}) = 0 \end{eqnarray} "Now consider this. And that's why they are called invariants. I_2 tends to be related more to the deviatoric aspects of stress and strain. Their values must not change. Physical Interpretation of Invariants The physical interpretation of the invariants depends on what tensor the invariants are computed from." No matter what coordinate transformation you apply to the strain tensor. must be invariant under coordinate transformations. although not exclusively.continuummechanics. the invariants are actually familiar quantities.E_{ij} E_{ij} \right] \\ \\ \\ I_3 & = & \epsilon_{ijk} E_{i1} E_{j2} E_{k3} \end{eqnarray} I_3 is in tensor notation.I_1 \lambda^2 + I_2 \lambda .html 7/11 . no matter the transformation.

0.10 \\ 0.10)(0.20)^2 .(-0. I_3 does not seem to have any physical significance as the determinant of a stress or strain tensor.0.40 \\ \\ I_2 & = & (0.continuummechanics. Invariant Example This example will start with a random strain tensor and demonstrate that the invariants are invariant under coordinate transformations.028 \end{eqnarray} Now rotate the coordinate system by some random amount shown in the screenshot.10 } \right] Its invariants are \begin{eqnarray} I_1 & = & 0.30 & -0.50 + (-0.30 & \.10)^2 \\ \\ & = & -0.10) + (0.50 & \.50) .21 \\ \\ I_3 & = & \text{det}({\bf E}) \\ \\ & = & -0.html 8/11 .0. I_3 = V_F / V_o.\.20 \\ 0.20) + 0.(0.10 & \.\.\. the ratio of deformed to initial volume.20 & -0.\.50) (-0.org/cm/principalstrain. The transformed strain tensor is now www.20)(0. In that case.20) + (-0.30)^2 .20 & -0.10 \\ \\ & = & 0. But it does when applied to the deformation gradient. which is 1 for incompressible materials like rubber.12/30/13 Principal Strains Finally.\.\.(0. Start with the strain tensor {\bf E} = \left[ \matrix{ 0.

346 & 0. Let's compute the principal strains and then recompute the invariants to demonstrate again that they are invariant.html 9/11 .12/30/13 Principal Strains {\bf E}' = \left[ \matrix{ \.437) + (0.437)(0.106)^2 .308) (-0.40 \\ \\ I_2 & = & (0.308) .(0.035 & 0.continuummechanics.308 + (-0.org/cm/principalstrain.035 \\ \.\.437 } \right] And the "new" invariants are \begin{eqnarray} I_1 & = & 0.(0.\.346) + 0.346) + (-0.655 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & -0. the two different starting points lead to the principal values being listed in www.106 & -0.028 \end{eqnarray} So they are indeed invariant.371 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0. Just for grins..(-0.\.308 & -0.273 \\ -0.\..273 & \.106 & 0.346)(0.035)^2 \\ & = & -0.273)^2 .\.0.437 \\ & = & 0.115 } \right] Curiously. 0. The principal strains are {\bf E}' = \left[ \matrix{ 0.21 \\ \\ I_3 & = & \text{det}({\bf E}) \\ & = & -0. 0.\.

371)(0. \sin^2 \theta + 2 \left( {\gamma_{xy} \over 2} \right) \sin \theta \cos \theta \\ \\ \epsilon'\!_{yy} & = & \epsilon_{xx} \sin^2 \theta + \epsilon_{yy} \. The final.115) \\ \\ & = & -0. 2-D Invariants In the 2-D world.115) + (0. \sin^2 \theta + 2 \left( {\gamma_{xy} \over 2} \right) \sin \theta \cos \theta + \\ \\ & & \epsilon_{xx} \sin^2 \theta + \epsilon_{yy} \.655)(-0.655 + (-0.655)(-0. This is typical and has no special meaning. The determinant is especially easy.655) \\ \\ & = & -0. Recall the transformation equations are \begin{eqnarray} \epsilon'\!_{xx} & = & \epsilon_{xx} \cos^2 \theta + \epsilon_{yy} \. while the normal strain terms combine to give \begin{eqnarray} \epsilon'\!_{xx} + \epsilon'\!_{yy} & = & \epsilon_{xx} ( \cos^2 \theta + \sin^2 \theta ) + \epsilon_{yy} ( \sin^2 \theta + \cos^2 \theta ) \\ \\ & = & \epsilon_{xx} + \epsilon_{yy} \end{eqnarray} So it works again.40 \\ \\ I_2 & = & (0. We'll prove it for I_1 here. Calculating Principal Values Manually in 3-D www.\epsilon^2_{12} \\ \end{eqnarray} In 2-D.2 \left( {\gamma_{xy} \over 2} \right) \sin \theta \cos \theta \\ \\ {\gamma'\!_{xy} \over 2} & = & (\epsilon_{yy} .371) + 0. physical answer is the same. calculating the invariants one last time using the principal values gives \begin{eqnarray} I_1 & = & 0. there are only two invariants.115)(0. things are just simple enough to directly prove the invariance of invariants.\epsilon_{xx}) \sin \theta \cos \theta + \left( {\gamma_{xy} \over 2} \right) (\cos^2 \theta .\sin^2 \theta) \end{eqnarray} So \epsilon'\!_{xx} + \epsilon'\!_{yy} is \begin{eqnarray} \epsilon'\!_{xx} + \epsilon'\!_{yy} & = & \epsilon_{xx} \cos^2 \theta + \epsilon_{yy} \.21 \\ \\ I_3 & = & \text{det}({\bf E}) \quad = \quad (0. \cos^2 \theta .2 \left( {\gamma_{xy} \over 2} \right) \sin \theta \cos \theta \\ \end{eqnarray} and the shear terms cancel.371) + (-0. The {\bf Q} will accommodate the different listing orders. Finally.12/30/13 Principal Strains different orders.html 10/11 .continuummechanics.028 \end{eqnarray} And so it works again.115 \\ \\ & = & 0. Note how the invariant calculations are rather simple when all the off-diagonal terms are zero.org/cm/principalstrain. \cos^2 \theta . \begin{eqnarray} I_1 & = & \text{tr}(\boldsymbol{\epsilon}) & = & \epsilon_{11} + \epsilon_{22} \\ \\ I_2 & = & \text{det}(\boldsymbol{\epsilon}) & = & \epsilon_{11} * \epsilon_{22} .371)(0.

the principal values are \begin{eqnarray} \epsilon_1 & = & 2 \.9 I_1 I_2 + 27 I_3 \over 54} Then calculate another intermediate quantity.. independent of coordinate transformations.I_3 = 0 Recall that the resulting \lambda's will be the principal values of the stress or strain tensor.continuummechanics. Mooney-Rivlin's Law and coefficients will be discussed on this page. \theta. Q and R. but it is even a constant value. This is especially relevant to {\bf F}^T \! \cdot {\bf F}.I^2_1 \over 9 } \qquad R = {2 I^3_1 . Ref: http://mathworld...wolfram.html Hydrostatic & Deviatoric Strains 11/11 . So not only is it a constant.. \sqrt{-Q} \. independent of coordinate transformations and the state of deformation. Start with \lambda^3 ." And recall that the product of any matrix with its transpose is always a symmetric result. and the invariants will need to be calculated up front. The first step is to calculate two intermediate quantities. As an added teaser. \sqrt{-Q} \. \cos \left( {\theta + 2 \pi \over 3} \right) & + & {1\over 3} I_1 \\ \\ \\ \epsilon_3 & = & 2 \.12/30/13 Principal Strains Here's how to compute the roots of a cubic equation.com/CubicFormula.html Summary This principle of invariant quantities under coordinate transformations is in fact universal across all matrices that are symmetric and being transformed according to {\bf A}' = {\bf Q} \cdot {\bf A} \cdot {\bf Q}^T where {\bf A} is "any symmetric matrix. Table of Contents Green Strains www.org/cm/principalstrain. always equal to 1. \cos \left( {\theta + 4 \pi \over 3} \right) & + & {1\over 3} I_1 \end{eqnarray} Note that minus signs are easily confused here because they are present in the original cubic invariant equation being solved. we will see that the 3rd invariant of {\bf F}^T \! \cdot {\bf F} for rubber always equals 1 because rubber is incompressible. applied to principal values.I_1 \lambda^2 + I_2 \lambda . \theta = \text{cos}^{-1} \left( R \over \sqrt{-Q^3} \right) And finally. so this result would qualify. \sqrt{-Q} \. Q = { 3 I_2 . \cos \left( {\theta \over 3} \right) & + & {1\over 3} I_1 \\ \\ \\ \epsilon_2 & = & 2 \. whose invariants are used in the Mooney-Rivlin Law of rubber behavior.