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**Image, Graphics and Signal Processing, 2011, 5, 22-29
**

Published Online August 2011 in MECS (http://www.mecs-press.org/)

**Finite Element Analysis of 4-Cylinder Diesel Crankshaft
**

Jian Meng,

School of Traffic and Vehicle Engineering Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong, China e-mail: mengjian@sdut.edu.cn

**Yongqi Liu, Ruixiang Liu
**

School of Traffic and Vehicle Engineering Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong, China e-mail: liuyq65@163.com Abstract—The stress analysis and modal analysis of a 4-cylinder crankshaft are discussed using finite element method in this paper. Three-dimension models of 480 diesel engine crankshaft and crankthrow were created using Pro/ENGINEER software The finite element analysis (FEM) software ANSYS was used to analyse the vibration modal and the distortion and stress status of the crankthrow.The maximum deformation, maximum stress point and dangerous areas are found by the stress analysis of crankthrow. The relationship between the frequency and the vibration modal is explained by the modal analysis of crankshaft. The results would provide a valuable theoretical foundation for the optimization and improvement of engine design. Index Terms—finete element analysis; modal analysis; strss analysis; crankshaft I. INTRODUCTION Crankshaft is one of the most important moving parts in internal combustion engine [1]. It must be strong enough to take the downward force of the power stroked without excessive bending. So the reliability and life of internal combustion engine depend on the strength of the crankshaft largely. And as the engine runs, the power inpulses hit the crankshaft in one place and then another. The torsional vebration appeas when a power impuls hits a crankpin toward the front of the engine and the power stroke ends. If not controlled, it can break the cuankshaft. Srength caculation of crankshaft becomes a key factor to ensure the life of engine. Beam and space frame model were used to calculate the stress of crankshaft usually in the past. But the number of node is limited in these models. With the development of computer, more and more design of crankshaft has been utilized finite element method (FME) to calculate the stress of crankshaft. The application of numerical simulation for the designing crankshaft helped engineers to efficiently improve the process development avoiding the cost and limitations of compiling a database of real world parts. Finite element analysis allows an inexpensive study of arbitrary combinations of input parameters including design

Footnotes: 8-point Times New Roman font; Manuscript received January 1, 2008; revised June 1, 2008; accepted July 1, 2008. 3 Copyright credit, project number, corresponding author, etc.

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parameters and process conditions to be investigated [2-5]. Crankshaft is a complicated continuous elastomer. The vibration performance of crankshaft has important effect to engine. The calculation of crankshaft vibration performance is difficult because of the complexity of crankshaft structure, the difficult determinacy of boundary condition. Dynamic matrix method and dynamic substructural method combined with FME were used to calculate the vibration of crankshaft. The method of three-dimensional finite element was carried to analysis dynamical characteristic of diesel crankshaft [6-9]. In the paper, 3-D finite element analyses are carried out on the modal analysis of crankshaft and the stress analysis of crankpin. And the FME software ANSYS was used to simulate the modal analysis and crankshaft. The results of natural frequencies and mode shape were obtained. And stress and deformation distributions of crankpin were obtained by using ANSYS software. The results are regarded as a theory basis to optimize the design of crankshaft and analysis the structure dynamics of crankshaft. II. A.

CRANKTHROW STRESS ANALYSIS

crankthrow model It is necessary to simplify the model in the stress analysis of crankshaft using ANSYS software. Because the 480 disel crankshaft structure is symmetrical and all the crankthrow is identical, one crankthrow model, one-half crankthrow model and one-quarter crankthrow model can be used to compute the static strength instead of whole crankshaft model. The three models are the equivalent in computing the static strength of 480 disel crankshaft, and the one-quarter crankthrow model uses the least computer resources. But the large stress and stress gradient appear at the one-quarter model section. This phenomenon will lead to the inaccuracy of simulation results. In this paper, one crankthrow model was used to calculate the static strength of crankshaft. The model was created by Pro/ENGINEER software, (see Fig. 1). As shown in Fig. 1, some tiny structure characteristics which had barely effect for the simulation results, such as rounding chamfers and oilhole, were simplified in the

I.J. Image, Graphics and Signal Processing, 2011, 5, 22-29

Copyright© 2011 MECS

PHYSICAL PARAMETERS USED IN SIMULATION Physical parameters Tensile strength ( MPa) Yield strength (MPa) Elongation (%) Reduction of cross sectional area (%) Impacting energy (J) Notched bar impact strength ( J/cm2) Rigidity (HB) Modulus of Elasiticity (GPa) Poisson ratio Density (g/cm3) Values 1080 930 12 5 63 78 217 210 0. According to the structure of crankthrow. Figure 3. The crankpin finite element mesh The quadratic parabola load distribution equation along the crankpin axis is assumed by: (1) Q = ax 2 + bx + c . when x=0. 5. crankpin neck surface force. angular velocity. The main physical dimensions of crankthrow are shown in Tab. Image. CRANKTHROW MAIN PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS Physical parameters Crankpin diameter (mm) Crankpin axial length (mm) Crankthrow main journal diameter (mm) Crank cheek thichness (mm) Crank cheek height (mm) Values 50 31 58 19 112 B. the crankpin model was meshed by solid45 which has 8 nodes tetrahedral feature. load distribution in the crankpin Figure 2. 3 shows the distribution function form. So the load applying on the crankpin neck surface becomes the critical factor of load boundary condition. In the paper. various bending moment and torque. Gravity. Fig. 2011. The physical parameters used in the crankthrow simulation are list in Tab.J. x When x=±L.etc. II. Graphics and Signal Processing. kinetic method is used to calculate load. 22-29 . centrifugal force. 2 shows the model after meshed by solid 45. Qx=Qmax. various bending moment and torque can apply to the model with the distributed force. The boundary conditions in the crankthrow model consist of load boundary condition and restriction boundary condition. The mechanics boundary conditions mainly involves: gravity.3 7. Crankthrow mode TABLE I. ANSYS software simulates the effects of guavity and centrifugal force itself based on the given gravity accelerative. And the load applying on the crankpin surface is supposed as distributed load. Boundary conditions The boundary conditions are the critical factors for the correctness of calculation. Qx=0. TABLE II. The material of crankthrow is 42CrMn. Fig. Then the model was imported to ANSYS software.Finite Element Analysis of 4-Cylinder Diesel Crankshaft 23 model. centrifugal force.9 Figure 1. The distributed load along the crankpin axis is a quadratic parabola distribution and along the radial direction within 120°is cosine distribution. the above formula can be written as: Copyright© 2011 MECS I. density and physical dimension. I.

The results are a=-Qmax/L2. Analysis After defining the boundary conditions. Qmax can be expressed in terms of (9) as the following expression. b=0. Image. R is the crankpin radius. Q(x. x is crankpin load bearing length. equation loaded method was used to exert the load on the crankpin surface. 2011. Y. The degrees of freedom of X. 22-29 . c=Qmax. 7. the k can be calculated by (7): π π π 3 cos k = 0 ⇒ k = / = (7) 3 2 3 2 Accordingly. The scheme of the crankthrow model after exertting the boundary conditions completely is illustrated in Fig. θ ) = Q × cos θ x 2 (8) 2 x 3 = Qx (1 − 2 ) × cos θ L 2 The total load applying on the crankpin neck surface can be caculated by the follow equation: Fc = ∫ =∫ L Figure 4. the load distribution along the crankpin axis can be obtained as follows: x2 (5) Qx = Qmax （ 1. Copyright© 2011 MECS Figure 6. 6 and Fig. The method to deal with the restriction boundary condition mainly based on the practical situation of crankshaft strcture. 9 Fc x2 3 (11) (1 − 2 ) × cos θ 16 LR 2 L where Fc is the total load acting on the crankpin neck surface. 5. 2 (3) 0 = aL − bL + c Qmax = c (4) The a. c can be obtained by solving the (2). θ)=0. As the number of elements is large. The largest load was used in this paper when the crankpin working at the largest toque.24 Finite Element Analysis of 4-Cylinder Diesel Crankshaft (2) 0 = aL2 + bL + c . The diagram of selected area after exertting equation load. the simulation can be started. θ ) = 9 Fc × 16 RL (10) C. b. x=-L-L [10. Accordingly.11]. While at the right crankthrow end surface the motion degrees of freedom of X. The selected crankpin surface area after exerting equation load is shown in Fig. θ ) ds dx x2 3 ) cos( θ ) Rdθ dx 2 2 L −L − ∫ π 3 π Qmax (1 − 3 (9) Figure 5. Deformation distribution (MPa) on the crankpin at the most critical loading condition I. The cosine load distribution equation along the radial direction within 120°is supposed by: Q ( x. the load distribution along the crankpin radial direction within 120°can be written as follows: 3 Q ( x. Pre-Condition CG solver was used in this paper. Z direction at the left crankthrow end surface are limited. Base on (11). 5. 3 π −L − 3 L ∫ π Q( x. 4. (3) and (4).J. The results of simulation are given in Fig. The scheme of the crankthrow model after exertting the boundary conditions completely 16 = RL × Qmax 9 where ds=Rdθ. Qmax = Rewriting (6) as: Q ( x. Y radial direction are limited.2 ） L where x = -L-L. When θ=π/3. Graphics and Signal Processing. θ ) = Qx × cos kθ (6) where θ=-π/3-π/3.

(22) may be written as matrix form AX = XT where ⎡α i β 2 ⎤ ⎢β α β ⎥ 2 3 ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎥. Based on (16) to (21). When the system is natural vibration. M is quality matrix. Then { Fi } becomes: Generalized eigenvalue problem ( K Φ r = M ΦΩ r ) translates into standard eigenvalue problem which is Lanczos vector towards to triangle matrix. use XTMK-1 premultiply and λ = Ω r −1 post-multiply in equation two sides. In this paper. Image. Graphics and Signal Processing. and near the central point. The maximum stress appears at the fillets between the crankshaft journal and crank cheeks. 3. 3.Finite Element Analysis of 4-Cylinder Diesel Crankshaft 25 As shown in Fig. the maximum deformation is 0. where K is rigidity vector. The simulation results corresponds to practical situation.J. The analysis of crankthrow deformation and stress provides a theoretical basis to optimize the design and fatigue life calculation. the dynamical balance equation is [12. For the system without damp or ignoring damp. structure dynamic properties of finite element method When the model was divided into finite element. such as subspace arithmetic. the balance equation can be written by: {Fi } + {Fs } = {F (t )} (13) The inertia force vector quantity can be substituted by quality matrix and node displacement vector.0685mm at the most critical loading condition. Lanczos arithmetic is used to calculate the natural frequency and fundamental main modes. 5. Lanczos arithmetic is appropriate for calculating the huge and complicated structure. The derivation steps of Lanczos arithmetic are given by the follows. The stress distribution of crankthrow at the most critical loading condition is illustrated in Fig. 2011. Reduction arithmetic. then use (23) and X T MX = I obtains the equation: (28) TZ = Z λ I. r).…. {Fs} is elastic force vector quantity. 7. A = K −1 M can be solved by (22): Axi −1 = β i xi + α i −1 xi −1 + β i −1 xi − 2 (22) where (i=1. {F(t)} is dynamic load vector quantity. The edge of main journal is high stress area. with the powerful functions of high operation speed and high precision. Thus the {Fs } can be written by: {Fs } = K α (t ) ∂2 α (t ) ∂t 2 (14) (25) The equation between original characteristic matrices and Lanczos vector is written as: Φ r = XZ (26) where (27) Φ r = [ϕ1ϕ 2 Lϕ r ] . Interactive arithmetic. CRANKSHAFT MODEL FORMULATION A. The elastic force vector can be substituted by node displacement vector and rigidity vector. 7. {Fc} is damping force vector quantity. 6. Substitution (27) into original eigenvalues. {F(t)l}= 0. From Fig. 2. x0 = {0} . 22-29 (15) Copyright© 2011 MECS .…. stress distribution (MPa) on the camshaft at the most critical loading condition ˆi Mx ˆi ) where β i = ( x 1/ 2 . Ⅲ.13]: { Fi } + {Fc } + {Fs } = {F (t )} (12) where {Fi} is inertia force vector quantity. 2. Lanczos arithmetic. T =⎢ β3 α 3 β 4 ⎢ ⎥ L L ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ L L⎥ ⎣ ⎦ X = [ x1 x2 L xr ] (23) (24) {Fi } = M Where α ( t ) is node displacement vector. α ( t ) is node displacement. so the oil hole or hole can not be ingrooved at this area. The maximum deformation appears at the center of crankpin neck surface. and the (13) can be transformed as the follow &&(t ) + K α (t ) = 0 Mα (16) The characteristic equation based on (1) is given by ( K − ω 2 M )ϕ (t ) = 0 (17) where ω is intrinsic frequency. Given vector xi (i=1. Then equation (18) can be solved by: uu r (18) K xi = Mxi −1 Orthogonalization: uu r (19) xi = xi − α i −1 xi −1 − β i − 2 xi − 2 where uu r (20) α i −1 = xi Mxi −1 Regularization: (21) x = x /β i i i Figure 7.974 Mpa. r). ANSYS software provides several arithmetic. we note that the maximum stress is 103. etc.

and with the increase of modal order. Considering these factors in establishment process. Crankshaft Model In the present research. Five surface radial symmetry constrains were exerted on the five main journals surface respectively. The structure of the crankshaft has more small fillets and fine oil hole. 13 and Fig.5 74 19 Figure 8. The premise of simplification is that it does not influence the dynamics characteristics of crankshaft. After automatic meshing. in the paper. axial displacement constrains were exerted on the two end face of crankshaft. the sixth mode is third-mode bending vibration in the YOZ plane. Wi 2 = 1/ λi 2 (i = 1. As shown from the Fig. the number of node equation increase greatly. II. 5. 10 and Fig. make the unit shape unsatisfactory and amplify the accumulative error. This would lower the simulation accuracy. the vibration is bending vibration under the low frequency. The model of four-cylinder crankshaft is shown in Fig. and the maximum bending I. Accordingly. both the crankshaft first and second vibration modes are the firs-mode bending vibration in the mutually perpendicular plane YOZ and XOZ. The maximum deformation of crankshaft appears at the third cylinder.5 58 58 31 29. the crankshaft model was meshed by 8-node hexahedron unit solid45. reducing the solution time and enhancing the simulation accuracy. 14 show that the crankshaft fourth and fifth modes are the second-mode bending vibration in the YOZ and XOZ plane. Because of the effect of load. Referring to Fig. The crankshaft finite element mesh Then the model was imported to the ANSYS software. and the mainly dimension parameters are shown in Table III. The physical Copyright© 2011 MECS D.J. 3-D entity model of crankshaft C.L . the lowest frequency is 116. 9.93 Hz. Boundary Conditions The crankshaft bears the constraints of main journals and longitudinal thrust bearing. TABLE III. and the maximum distortion appears at the first crankpin.26 Finite Element Analysis of 4-Cylinder Diesel Crankshaft The eigen solution of (28) is Z = [ z1 z2 L zr ] . the meshing accuracy is 3 grade. the crankshaft dangerous areas were further tessellated. CRANKSHAFT MAINLY DIMENSIONS Structure parameters Crankshaft length (mm) Crankthaft height (mm) Crank radius (mm) Main journal diameter (mm) rod journal (mm) Crankpin axial length (mm) Main journal axial length (mm) Counterweight radius (mm) Crank cheek thickness (mm) Values 538 148 67. Figure 9. The material of crankshaft is 42CrMn. the fourth cylinder and the crankpin between the third and fourth cylinder. 10 to Fig. In this simplified model. the frequency increase accordingly within the former six modes. The crankshaft has four crankthrows. the crankshaft model was simplified in establishment process. Ω r = λ−1 . (29) parameters used in the crankshaft simulation were list in Tab. B. crankshaft main journals appear bend deformation between the lower main-bearing half and upper main-bearing half. III. According to the structure of crankshaft. From the simulation results and the vibration modal shapes. 15. the real crankshaft was represented by a simplified model. a 480 diesel crankshaft was studied. the crankshaft third vibration mode is the firs-mode bending vibration in XOZ plane. 12. According to complicated structure of crankshaft. Graphics and Signal Processing. finite element mesh of crankshaft becomes very densely. These factors would extend the solution time. 8. The 480 crankshaft model was created by Pro/ENGINEER software. 2. Ω r = λ −1 . In view of the structure shape characteristics of crankshaft. the integral crankshaft should be applied when performing finite element model analysis. Then the modal analysis was carried out using the ANSYS software [14]. Fig. 2011. 14. Hence. Image. the chamfers which radius less than 5mm and the oil holes which diameter less than 12mm were ignored. three rod journals and two main journals. 11. 3-8. The former six modal parameters were list in Table. Modal Analysis The vibration characteristic of crankshaft was obtained with modal analysis. The 3-D crankshaft finite element grid model is shown in Fig. in order to enhance the simulation accuracy and avoid generating the macrocephalic mesh. As shown in Fig. As shown in Fig. r ) . 22-29 . And the longitudinal thrust bearing can prevent effectively the crankshaft axial movement and ensure the piston-and-connecting-rod assembly normally work. Then Φ r = XZ . The former six vibration modal diagrams of crankshaft are shown in Fig.

Fifth vibration mode of crankshaft Copyright© 2011 MECS I. TABLE IV. Second vibration mode of crankshaft Figure 14. 5. 2011. THE FIRST SIX MODAL PARAMETERS Modal orders Frequen cy (Hz) 1 2 3 4 5 6 116.J.7 316.58 344.Finite Element Analysis of 4-Cylinder Diesel Crankshaft 27 deformation appears at the fillet between main bearing journal and crankpin. Third vibration modal of crankshaft Figure 10.14 354.93 124.82 Figure 12.1 234. Fourth vibration mode of crankshaft Figure 11. 22-29 . Graphics and Signal Processing. Image. First vibration modal of crankshaft Figure 13.

K. The edge of main journal is high stress area. 899-908. 2002.” SAE Paper 951276. [14] L.” Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery .L. 951290. pp. The maximum deformation appears at the center of crankpin neck surface. september 1999 Myung-Rae. engine simulation. and engine noise in high speed engines. He has published 52 research papers since 2006 in the area of clean energy. Graphics and Signal Processing. lean methane oxidation and utilization.China in 1965. Mourelatos. 9 (2) . Hao Zhiyong.. 346-347.” Part 1-Background and application to free vibrations. 2004. “Integration of finite element analysis and design of experiments to analysis the geometrical factors in bi-layered tube hydroforming . LI. [13] S. 2009-2027. 179-184.P. Yongqi Liu was born in P. “Load Characteristics of Engine Main Bearing Comparison Between Theory and Experiment.earned his D. He is now a PROFESSOR as well as the DEAN of Thermal Energy and Power Engineering department in Shandong University of Technology. Wang. Liu. Y. the crankshaft model and crankthrow momal were created by Pro/ENGINEER software. Han Songtao. Jian Meng was born in P.2002. “Mode Analysis of Three dimensional Finite Element and Experimental Study on a 6102B Diesel Engine Crankshaft”. H. JiangSu. Proceeding of Vehicle Noise.Dae-Yoon. Olabi. ShanDong. 75-77. 74-77. And the maximum deformation was located at the link between main bearing journal and crankpin and crank cheeks. pp. Y.28 Finite Element Analysis of 4-Cylinder Diesel Crankshaft [5] A. 2001.” [D].S. 12(2). engine structure vibrations.1095-1101. pp. Alaswad. 2011. [3] [4] O kamura. 16. “A Review of Crankshaft Strength Analysis for Internal Combustion Engines. The resonance vibration of system can be avoided effectively by Appropriate structure design The results provide a theoretical basis to optimize the design and fatigue life calculation. Lu. Jiangsu University. and x. Then the model created by pro/Engineer was imported to ANSYS software. P.” Materials and Design. pp. pp. 2006. He is now a LECTURE of Thermal Energy and Power Engineering department in Shandong University of Technology since July. [7] [8] [9] Figure 15. 1990. Journal of Anqing Teachers College(Natural Science Edition). His research interests include clean energy.degree in the field of Farm Machinery Engineering in 2005 from Shandong University of Agricultue. C. pp. Mourelatos. 2005. The maximum stress appears at the fillets between the crankshaft journal and crank cheeks. A. Base on the results.” Steel times. Transactions of The Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery. “A crankshaft system model for structural dynamic analysis of internal combustion engines. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This research is partially supported by University Science and Technology Program of Shandong Province of China under Grant J10LD62 and Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province.R. Now he takes part in a National 863 High-tech Programme of China under Grand No.32(4) . Benyounis. Gui. Y.” Journal of Luoyang Technology College. Sun. 5. and S. Tai'an city. vol. In this paper.G. CONCLUSIONS Z. At present time. REFERENCES [1] [2] J. Haats and S. “Strength Calculation of Engine Crankshaft. “Modeling and Free Modal Analysis of the Crankshaft. 2000 [12] H. 35-37.” KSME International Journal ， Vol. Wambach. earned his B. 1995. The crankshaft deformation was mainly bending deformation under the lower frequency. pp. Chun. 20(2).” [D]. [11] Liu Tao. 2005. Z. W.” Influence of the Processing of Boundary Conditions on the Calculation of Crankshafet Strength”. T.China in 1979. he takes part in many research projects supported by Shandong Natural Science Foundation and now he is the chief of National 863 High-tech Programme of China under Grand No. ASME. Experimental study of the correction between crankshaft vibrations.R.” Combustion and engines，vol. Z. Xiang. Y. [10] Y. 8-10.China. “Lightweight crankshaft drives by forging. “The Performance Analysis and Optimal Structural Design for Crankshaft. Shandong University. 22-29 .J. Han. “An analytical investigation of the crankshaft flywheel bending vibrations for a V6 engine. kamura H. His research interests include clean energy.journal. Image. Hao. 2001. 14(1). 32(4). and near the central point.S. 2009AA063202. 79，pp. So this area prones to appear the bending fatigue crack. we can forecast the possibility of mutual interference between the crankshaft and other parts. pp.Hyuk. J. He was a co-author of Vehicle CAD Technology and Pro/E Application published by Beijing Industrial Press in 2009.degree in the field of Power Machinery and Engineering from Shanghai University of Technology in 2003. “A dynamic stiffnessmat rix approach to the analysis of three dimensional vibrations of automobile engine crankshaft. “Mode analysis of three-dimensional finite element and experimental study on a 6102B diesel engine crankshaft. 2001. Sixth vibration mode of crankshaft Ⅳ.R. 2009AA063202. Copyright© 2011 MECS I. SAE Paper. F. 1995. [6] O.S.” Transactions of Csice. China under Grant Y2006F63.degree in the field of Agricultural Machinery and Automation in 2002 and M. Li.Y.

J.degree from Dalian University of Technology in the field of Electronic Control Technology of Diesel Engine in 2005 and now he is a ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR of Thermal Energy and Power Engineering department in Shandong University of Technology. 5. Image. Working process simulation.R.China in 1963. and lean methane oxidation and utilization Copyright© 2011 MECS I. He got his D. His research interests include engine emission and control. 2011. 22-29 .S.Finite Element Analysis of 4-Cylinder Diesel Crankshaft 29 Ruixiang Liu was born in P. Graphics and Signal Processing.

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