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An Online Guide to Sequence Stratigraphy

The Accommodation Space Equation
Over long time scales (105 - 108 years), sediment accumulation is strongly controlled by changes in eustatic sea level, tectonic subsidence rates, and climatic effects on the production of sediment. everal of these factors are lin!ed to one another through the accommodation space e"uation. #his balance of terms is most easily e$plained for marine sediments, but can be modified easily to include terrestrial sedimentation. % number of processes can cause the surface of the oceans to move up or do&n relative to the center of the earth. #his distance from the sea surface to the center of the earth is eustatic sea level. 'n addition, the lithosphere can also move up or do&n relative to the center of the earth. (hanges in the distance from some arbitrarily chosen reference hori)on and the center of the earth are called uplift or subsidence. #he distance bet&een this reference hori)on and the sea surface is called relative sea level or accommodation space.

%commmodation space can be filled &ith sediments or &ater. #he distance bet&een the sediment*&ater interface and the sea surface is !no&n as &ater depth. #he accommodation space not filled &ith &ater is filled &ith sediment. #he rates of change of tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level, sediment thic!ness and &ater depth are lin!ed to one another through the accommodation space e"uation+ #,-. ,/

&here # is the rate of tectonic subsidence, - is the rate of eustatic sea-level rise, is the rate of sedimentation, and / is the rate of &ater depth increase (or deepening). #hese four variables are defined such that positive values correspond to tectonic subsidence and eustatic sea-level rise (factors that increase accommodation space) and sediment accumulation and &ater depth increase (factors that reflect filling of accommodation space). 0eversing the signs of these variables accommodates tectonic uplift, eustatic sea-level fall, erosion, and shallo&ing of &ater depth, respectively.

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#he accommodation space e"uation represents a simple volume balance, &ith the terms on the left controlling the amount of space that can be occupied by sediments or &ater and the terms on the right describing ho& much &ater or sediment fills the accommodation space. %s &ritten, the e"uation is an appro$imation. 'n reality, sediment thic!ness and &ater depth must be corrected for compaction of sediments and for the isostatic effects of ne&ly deposited sediment. #hrough section measurement, changes in sediment thic!ness can be !no&n, and through facies analysis, changes in &ater depth can be !no&n or appro$imated. 1o&ever, &ithout outside information, the rates of eustatic sea-level change and tectonic subsidence cannot be isolated, nor can their effects be distinguished from one another for a single outcrop. 'n other &ords, there is no uni"ue solution to this e"uation because it has t&o un!no&ns. #hus, it is impossible in most cases to ascribe &ater depth or sedimentation changes to eustasy or tectonics &ithout having regional control or outside information. 2ac!stripping is a method of analysis that iteratively solves the accommodation space to measure changes in relative sea level through time. %lthough as pointed out earlier that no uni"ue solution e$ists for this e"uation, solving it for relative sea level can provide useful insights into eustasy and tectonics. #hese data may then be used to date the timing of rifting and orogeny, to constrain estimates of lithospheric thic!ness, or to understand global (O3 cycles and global patterns of sedimentation.

Causes of Eustatic Sea-Level Change
(hanges in eustatic sea level arise from either changes in the volume of ocean basins or changes in the volume of &ater &ithin those basins. #he volume of ocean basins is controlled primarily by the rate of seafloor spreading and secondarily by sedimentation in ocean basins. 2ecause hot and young oceanic lithosphere is relatively buoyant, it floats higher on the asthenosphere and displaces oceanic &aters up&ards and onto continents. Older and colder oceanic lithosphere is denser, floats lo&er on the asthenosphere, and allo&s oceanic &aters to stay &ithin ocean basins. 4ong-term (103 !.y. - 105 !.y.) changes in the global rate of seafloor spreading can change the global average age and density of oceanic lithosphere, resulting in tens to a couple hundred meters of eustatic change. 5illing of ocean basins &ith sediments derived from continental &eathering is a relatively slo& and minor &ay of changing ocean basin volumes and is capable of meters to tens of meters of eustatic change over tens to hundreds of millions of years. #he three most important controls on the volume of sea&ater are glaciation, ocean temperature, and the volume of ground&ater. (ontinental and mountain glaciation is perhaps the most efficient and rapid means of storing and releasing ocean &ater. 6ue to %rchimede7s principle, ice caps over polar oceans do not affect eustatic sea level, so fro)en sea&ater must be placed on a landmass to lo&er eustatic sea-level. (ontinental glaciation is capable of driving high amplitude (10 - 100 m) and high fre"uency (1 - 100 !.y.) eustatic changes. 2ecause &ater e$pands at temperatures higher and lo&er than 8 degrees (, and because the depths of the oceans average around 5 !m, small changes in the temperature of sea&ater can lead to significant changes in ocean &ater volume. (hanges in &ater temperature can drive a fe& meters of eustatic change over short time scales (0.1 - 10 !.y.). Ocean &ater is continuously being recycled through continents as ground&ater and surface &ater, such as rivers and la!es. Over relatively short time scales (0.1 - 100 !.y.), changes in the amount of &ater se"uestered on the continents can cause up to a fe& meters of eustatic change.

Causes of Tectonic Subsidence
#ectonic subsidence is also called driving subsidence and is distinguished from the isostatic effects of sediment and &ater loads. #ectonic subsidence, as its name implies, is driven by tectonic forces that affect ho& continental lithosphere floats on the asthenosphere. #hree main mechanisms that affect this isostatic balance and therefore drive tectonic subsidence include stretching, cooling, and loading. tretching of continental lithosphere in most situations results in the replacement of relatively light continental lithosphere &ith denser asthenosphere. #he resulting stretched and thinned lithosphere sin!s, causing tectonic subsidence. tretching occurs in several types of sedimentary basins including rifts, aulacogens, bac!arc basins, and cratonic basins.

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#ectonic loading is particularly important in orogenic regions such as foreland basins. continue through the trough crossbedding of the shoreface. % parase"uence that spanned all of these facies &ould begin &ith bioturbated offshore mudstones. 2y genetically related. 5or e$ample. %s continental lithosphere cools. and coastal plain facies.(ooling commonly goes hand-in-hand &ith stretching. 2ecause the lithosphere responds fle$urally. for a typical siliciclastic &ave-dominated shoreline. that is. and be capped by a bac!shore or coastal plain coal bed. most parase"uences are asymmetical shallo&ing-up&ard sedimentary cycles. pass up&ards into the sea&ard inclined laminae of the foreshore. continental lithosphere is heated. leading to tectonic subsidence. and tends to uplift from its decreased density (the net effect in a stretched and heated basin may result either in uplift or in subsidence). (ooling subsidence decreases e$ponentially &ith time yet can cause a significant amount of subsidence hundreds of millions of years follo&ing initial cooling. 'n addition to these defining characteristics.uga. pass through the storm beds of the transition )one or lo&er shoreface. a single parase"uence at a single outcrop rarely passes through all of these facies. % parase"uence along a deltaic coastline http://www. 6uring stretching. all of the facies that do occur appear in the correct order as predicted by /alther7s 4a&. a typical sandy &avedominated parase"uence in an outcrop might include only offshore and transition )one facies. becomes less dense. a particular suite of facies should occur in a predictable order. foreshore. it becomes denser and subsides. or only shoreface. but in broad region surrounding the load. #ectonic loading can also produce subsidence. it is meant that all facies &ithin a parase"uence &ere deposited in lateral continuity to one another.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. /alther7s 4a& holds true &ithin a parase"uence. the subsidence occurs not only immediately underneath the load. but offshore facies &ould not be overlain by coastal plain facies &ithin a single parase"uence.html . (ooling subsidence is especially important on passive margins and in cratonic basins. o. but instead includes only a portion of this facies succession: ho&ever. #he additional &eight of tectonic loads such as accretionary &edges or fold and thrust belts causes continental lithosphere to sin!. Parasequences Expression 9arase"uences are defined as a relatively conformable succession of genetically related beds or bedsets bounded by marine flooding surfaces and their correlative surfaces. 'n reality.

such as offshore shales directly overlying foreshore sands or basinal shales directly overlying mid-fan turbidites. (ases &here /alther7s 4a& has been applied to sections hundreds to thousands of meters thic! are nearly al&ays incorrect.html . 5looding surfaces may also e$hibit small scale erosion. shale intraclasts. and possibly minerali)ed. but they &ould also be arrayed vertically in a shallo&ing up&ard order and facies relationships &ould obey /alther7s 4a&. the sea&ard movement of a shoreline.acent facies. or siliciclastic gravel: such lags are usually thin. accommodation space is created only at flooding surfaces and not during the bul! of a parase"uence. % parase"uence developed on a muddy siliciclastic shoreline &ould have a different suite of facies. and some evidence suggests that in some cases.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. #he shallo&ing-up&ard succession indicates that accommodation space is being filled more rapidly than it is being created. such that accommodation space is being created at a faster rate than it is being filled &ith sediment.uga. this radically reduces the scale at &hich /alther7s 4a& can be applied. 5looding surfaces may be mantled by a transgressive lag composed of shells. 5looding surfaces represent a relative rise in sea level. or hardgrounds that may be bored. Origin and Scale % parase"uence represents a single episode of progradation. that is. /alther7s 4a& cannot be applied across flooding surfaces. encrusted. although it &ould differ in the sedimentary structures developed. 5looding surfaces may display evidence of firmgrounds. usually of a meter or less. #he flooding surfaces that define the top and base of a parase"uence display abrupt contacts of relatively deeper-&ater facies lying directly on top of relatively shallo&-&ater facies. such as Glossifungites ichnofacies. and pass up&ards into entirely bioturbated and possibly coaly mudstones of the supratidal. #his sea&ard shoreline movement produces the familiar shallo&ing-up&ard succession seen &ithin parase"uences.&ould sho& a similar coarsening-up&ard succession. #hus. calcareous nodules. %lthough these rapid rises in http://www. % typical muddy shoreline parase"uence &ould start &ith cross-bedded subtidal sands. <iven that many parase"uences are meters to tens of meters thic!. continue &ith interbedded bioturbated mudstones and rippled sands of the intertidal. less than a meter thic!. 0oc!s lying above and belo& a flooding surface commonly represent non-ad.

2ecause parase"uence boundaries represent a primary depositional surface. cale is not part of the definition of a parase"uence.html . but &ill be composed of deeper &ater facies do&ndip and shallo&er &ater facies updip. parase"uence boundaries may become obscure in coastal plain settings and in deep marine settings because of a lac! of facies contrast necessary to ma!e flooding surfaces visible. but there &ill be a series of parase"uences. the facies composition of a single parase"uence changes predictably updip and do&ndip. flooding surfaces &ill tend to be relatively flat but dip slightly sea&ard at angles typical of continental shelves. parase"uences are commonly meters to tens of meters thic! and they commonly represent durations of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. that is. #his is not the case as some meter-thic! cycles clearly do not have a parase"uence structure and some hundred to thousand meter-thic! cycles do display a parase"uence structure. there &ill not be simply one parase"uence by itself. 5inally.uga. 2ecause of this. or retrogradational. 1o&ever. each parase"uence builds out or advances some&hat farther sea&ard than the parase"uence before. 9arase"uence ets and tac!ing 9atterns 'n most cases. #his produces an overall http://www.accommodation space are commonly attributed to eustatic sea-level rise. topography at the time of deposition. as &ould be e$pected. aggradational. a single parase"uence &ill not be composed of the same facies every&here. each parase"uence contains a some&hat shallo&er set of facies than the parase"uence before. ets of successive parase"uences may display consistent trends in thic!ness and facies composition and these sets may be progradational. Progradational Stac#ing 'n a progradational set of parase"uences. facies reflect increasingly shallo&er environments up&ards &ithin a parase"uence. %lthough a complete vertical succession of facies can be compiled from a suite of parase"uences. #hus. figure adapted from Van Wagoner et al. most parase"uences &ill display only a portion of the entire shallo&ing-up&ard succession of facies. (1990) 2ecause shallo& &ater facies &ithin a parase"uence &ill pinch out laterally in a do&ndip direction and deeper &ater facies &ithin a parase"uence &ill pinch out in an updip direction. Lateral and ertical !elationships "ithin a Parasequence One of the most po&erful aspects to recogni)ing parase"uences is understanding and applying the predictable vertical and lateral facies relationships &ithin parase"uences. %s stated earlier. =any authors confuse these typical scales &ith the definition of a parase"uence. some flooding surfaces are clearly attributable to earth"ua!e-induced subsidence or to delta s&itching or similar autocyclic mechanisms. and erroneously assume that any small cycle must be a parase"uence and that any long or thic! cycle cannot be a parase"uence.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat.

and only the lo&ermost parase"uences may contain offshore and transition )one facies. uch a set is called an aggradational parase"uence set or is said to display aggradational stac!ing. an aggradational parase"uence set can be recogni)ed by the similarity of facies composition in each successive parase"uence. figure adapted from Van Wagoner et al. 4i!e&ise. #his lac! of overall facies change results in no net vertical trend in &ater depth. &ater depth becomes shallo&er. each parase"uence contains essentially the same suite of facies as the parase"uences above and belo&. a progradational parase"uence set can be recogni)ed by the sea&ard movement of a particular facies contact at an e"uivalent position in a parase"uence. >o ne& deeper or shallo&er &ater facies &ill tend to appear near the top or base of the parase"uence set. 5or e$ample. and facies increasingly move farther sea&ard over time. across &hich &ater depth abruptly increases. a progradational parase"uence set can be recogni)ed by the progressive appearance of shallo&er-&ater facies up&ard in the parase"uence set as &ell as the progressive loss of deeper&ater facies up&ard in the parase"uence set. each parase"uence progrades to roughly the same position as the previous parase"uence. the contact bet&een the shoreline sands and the coastal plain facies at the top of each parase"uence &ill appear to move farther basin&ard in each successive parase"uence. 'n a single outcrop. in a set of progradationally stac!ed parase"uences. http://www.uga.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. 1o&ever. #hus.html . (1990) 'n a cross-section. accommodation space is filled more rapidly than it is created. the same contact at the base of each parase"uence &ill appear to move farther basin&ard in each successive parase"uence. -ach parase"uence is shallo&ing-up&ard and is bounded by a flooding surface. perhaps all of the parase"uences contain shoreface and foreshore facies. 9rogradational stac!ing results &hen the long-term rate of accommodation is e$ceeded by the long-term rate of sedimentation. the shallo&ing gained in one parase"uence overshado&s any deepening across the underlying flooding surface. 5or e$ample.shallo&ing-up&ard trend &ithin the entire parase"uence set and the set is referred to as a progradational parase"uence set or is said to display progradational stac!ing. but only the uppermost parase"uences may contain the coastal plain coal. 'n this &ay. 'n a single outcrop. resulting in a net sea&ard movement of facies relative to the previous parase"uence. Aggradational Stac#ing 'n an aggradational set of parse"uences.

'n this &ay.figure adapted from Van Wagoner et al. %lthough each parase"uence is shallo&ing-up&ard and is bounded by a flooding surface. #his net facies shift produces an overall deepening up&ard trend &ithin the entire parase"uence set and the set is referred to as retrogradational parase"uence set or is said to display retrogradational stac!ing. the contact bet&een the shoreline sands and the coastal plain facies at the top of each parase"uence &ill appear to stay at essentially the same position in each successive parase"uence. #he result is that each parase"uence contains a deeper set of facies than the parase"uence belo&.html . 5or e$ample. 5or e$ample. %ggradational stac!ing results &hen the long-term rate of accommodation closely matches the long-term rate of sedimentation. (1990) 'n a cross-section. accommodation space is filled about as rapidly as it is created. so aggradational parase"uence sets are commonly characteri)ed by relatively minor facies shifts that display no clear long-term trend. a retrogradational parase"uence set can be recogni)ed by the progressive appearance of deeper &ater facies up&ards &ithin the parase"uence set as &ell as the progressive loss of shallo&er &ater facies up&ards in the parase"uence set. resulting in no net shift of facies from one parase"uence to the ne$t.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. 0etrogradational stac!ing is also commonly called bac!stepping. !etrogradational Stac#ing 'n a retrogradational set of parase"uences. 5acies contacts rarely remain at e$actly the same position. and facies sho& no net land&ard or sea&ard movement. the shallo&ing in each parase"uence closely balances the deepening at the underlying flooding surface. in a set of retrogradationally stac!ed parase"uences. and coastal plain coals might be present in only the lo&ermost parase"uences. offshore facies might be present in only the uppermost parse"uences. an aggradational parase"uence set can be recogni)ed by the relative stability of any particular facies contact at an e"uivalent position in a parase"uence. &ater depth remains constant from one parase"uence to the ne$t. 'n a single outcrop. http://www. each parase"uence progrades less than the preceding parase"uence.uga.

5urthermore. the contact bet&een the shoreline sands and the coastal plain facies at the top of each parase"uence &ill appear to move farther land&ard in each successive parase"uence. 4i!e the definition of a parase"uence. and the follo&ing se"uence boundary. ma$imum flooding surface. every depositional se"uence is the record of one cycle of relative sea level. 2ecause of this. &hich are suites of coe$isting depositional systems. 0etrogradational stac!ing results &hen the long-term rate of accommodation e$ceeds the longterm rate of sedimentation. highstand systems tract.html . all depositional se"uences are composed of the follo&ing elements in this order+ se"uence boundary. transgressive surface. /hat the definition does emphasi)e is that every se"uence is bounded above and belo& by unconformities. 'n vertical succession. Depositional Sequences % depositional se"uence is defined as a relatively conformable succession of genetically related strata bounded by unconformities or their correlative conformities. http://www. &ater depth becomes deeper.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. %lthough each parase"uence is shallo&ing-up&ard. transgressive systems tract. continental shelves. surfaces that correlate updip to an unconformity. and submarine fans. depositional se"uences have a predictable internal structure consisting of ma. 'n this &ay. such as coastal plains.figure adapted from Van Wagoner et al. or by correlative conformities. %n unconformity is some&hat narro&ly defined here as a surface formed through subaerial e$posure and erosion. 5or e$ample. this definition obscures many of the significant features of a depositional se"uence. (1990) 'n a cross-section.or stratal surfaces and systems tracts. lo&stand systems tract.uga. producing a net overall deepening &ithin the parase"uence set. and facies increasingly move farther land&ard. the amount of deepening at the flooding surface e$ceeds the amount of shallo&ing in the follo&ing parase"uence. accommodation space is created more rapidly than it is filled. a retrogradational parase"uence set can be recogni)ed by the land&ard movement of a particular facies contact at an e"uivalent position in a parase"uence.

#hese flooding surfaces may display variable but commonly strong degrees of sediment starvation. so the continental shelf is relatively starved of sediment during ma. discussed in more detail belo&. although each component parase"uence is shallo&ing-up&ard. &ith no lo&stand fan. 'n siliciclastic systems. but at a very slo& rate. 'n siliciclastic systems.or transgressions. % relatively http://www. #his fan may contain a series of feeder channels as &ell as distinct fan lobes.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. the lo&stand systems tract may include t&o distinct parts.html . (1990) Lo"stand S$stems Tract #he lo&stand systems tract is the set of depositional systems active during the time of relatively lo& sea level follo&ing the formation of the se"uence boundary. #he lo&stand fan typically displays aggradational stac!ing and is overlain by the lo&stand &edge. 5ollo&ing the relative fall in sea level that produces the se"uence boundary. 6uring the late lo&stand. the lo&stand &edge may be characteri)ed by shelf-edge deltas and shorelines. #his slo& rate of accommodation coupled &ith relatively high supply of sediment results in the progradational stac!ing typical of the lo&stand &edge. allo&ing the incised valleys to flood and form estuaries.uga. relative sea-level begins to bottom out and and eventually begins to rise slo&ly. Transgressive S$stems Tract #he transgressive systems tract consists of a retrogradational set of parase"uences. 'n systems lac!ing a distinct shelf-slope brea! or in cases &here relative sea level does not fall sufficiently. 't is underlain by the transgressive surface and overlain by the ma$imum flooding surface. 6uring the time of lo&est relative sea levels on siliciclastic margins. 0iver sediment is trapped in these estuaries and is prevented from reaching the shelf: this trapping becomes even more effective during the transgressive systems tract. #he lo&stand &edge consists of a progradational set of parase"uences building out from the pree$isting continental slope. relative sea level begins to rise slo&ly. much sediment is trapped in estuaries. 2ecause the parase"uences bac!step. #he lo&stand fan consists of a basin-floor submarine fan. the lo&stand fan and the lo&stand &edge. flooding surfaces &ithin the transgressive systems tract are unusually prominent and display strong facies contrasts and pronounced deepening. the transgressive systems tract displays an overall deepening-up&ard succession. %s in any retrogradational set of parase"uences. 'f a distinct shelf-slope brea! e$ists and relative sea level has fallen sufficiently. only a lo&stand &edge may form.figure adapted from Van Wagoner et al. rivers begin to incise into the e$posed shelf and this sediment is shunted directly off the shelf edge to feed submarine fans.

paleosols may mar! an unconformity.acent environments. Surfaces Sequence &oundar$ #he se"uence boundary is an unconformity updip and a correlative conformity do&ndip. (oupled &ith the increased supply of sediment to the shelf as estuaries are filled. such as a ma. %s the parase"uences pass from aggradational to progradational stac!ing. 6uring the highstand systems tract. %t each flooding surface in the transgressive systems tract. a se"uence boundary is commonly mar!ed by an abrupt basin&ard shift in facies. #his abrupt shift is called a forced regression by some &or!ers to distinguish it from a normal regression in &hich a shoreline moves sea&ard simply due to sedimentation. this relief is generated principally by do&ncutting rivers. 'n siliciclastic systems. the correlative conformity may display no obvious http://www. the flooding surfaces are increasingly subdued at the e$pense of overall shallo&ing 'n siliciclastic systems. a ne& se"uence boundary begins to form: this se"uence boundary &ill begin to erode into the underlying highstand systems tract. the rate of relative sea level rise begins to slo& and relative sea level eventually begins to fall prior to the ne$t se"uence boundary.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. 'n places. 0egionally.uga. unconformities may display up to tens or sometimes hundreds of meters of relief. sandy &ave-dominated shoreline deposits may form. this surface is abrupt and /alther7s 4a& cannot be applied across it. estuaries have either been filled &ith sediment by the beginning of the highstand systems tract or are finally filled in the earliest phases of the highstand systems tract. (onse"uently. rivers are free to build sea&ard and form deltas. 'n the undissected regions bet&een rivers.or incised channel or a bevelling of structurally tilted underlying strata. and a retrogradational set of parase"uences forms. individual parase"uences of the # # are relatively thin nearshore sands &ith thinner offshore deposits and the # # as a &hole is therefore commonly "uite thin relative to other systems tracts. 'n portions of coastlines bet&een deltas. called interfluves. such as shoreface sediments directly overlying offshore sediments or mid-fan turbidites directly overlying basinal shales. %s relative sealevel continues to rise. Once sediment is no longer trapped in estuaries. accommodation space is created or destroyed at a relatively slo& rate.html .minor amount of sand is re&or!ed along the shoreline and little sediment is transported to the outer continental shelf. /here it is an unconformity. and their presence may be indicated by caliche nodules or rooted hori)ons. progradational stac!ing is increasingly favored over aggradational stac!ing. even lo&er systems tracts or entire se"uences may be removed during e$tremely lo& or long relative sea-level lo&stands. %s facies above and belo& such a basin&ard shift in facies commonly represent non-ad. the e$pression of those features in an individual outcrop may or may not be obvious. %n abrupt basin&ard shift of facies is manifested in an outcrop by an abrupt shallo&ing. %s relative sealevel begins to fall. #hroughout the highstand systems tract ho&ever. =inor submarine erosion may be associated &ith this abrupt basin&ard shift of facies. 5arther do&ndip. %ighstand S$stems Tract #he highstand systems tract consists of an aggradational to progradational set of parase"uences that overlies the ma$imum flooding surface and that is overlain by the ne$t se"uence boundary. accommodation space is produced at a faster rate than it can fill &ith sediments. 6o&ndip at its correlative conformity. the short term relative rise in sea level adds to the long term rise in relative sea level to produce an unusually rapid rise and a highly pronounced flooding surface. %lthough the highstand systems tract is most prone to erosional removal during se"uence boundary formation. it is a surface of subaerial e$posure and erosion: ho&ever. an unconformity may be mar!ed by obvious erosion.

#he ma$imum flooding surface represents the last of the significant flooding surfaces found in the transgressive systems tract and is commonly characteri)ed by e$tensive condensation and the &idest land&ard e$tent of the marine condensed facies. &hich may be starved of sediment because of sediment storage in ne&ly formed estuaries. (ondensation or slo& net deposition allo&s more time for diagenetic reactions to proceed. uch situations are common in slo&ly subsiding regions such as in cratonic regions and the land&ard areas of passive margins. in &hich sediment is either moving through the system as suspended load or as bedload. Transgressive Surface #he lo&stand systems tract is commonly capped by a prominent flooding surface called the transgressive surface. it may be produced by changes in the rate of tectonic subsidence or by changes in the rate of eustatic rise. particularly in nearshore settings. relative sea level begins to rise at an increasing rate. 'n updip areas characteri)ed by subaerial e$posure and erosion during the lo&stand systems tract. ediment starvation is not the only process leading to slo& accumulation rates. as long as those changes result in a net loss of accommodation space. phosphate. -arly models of se"uence boundary formation argued that the se"uence boundary formed at the time of ma$imum rate of fall.or flooding surface is formed. pyrite.facies contrast or other unusual features: the position of the se"uence boundary in these cases can only be appro$imated. slo& rates of sediment accumulation allo& burro&ing organisms more time to re&or! a given pac!age of sediment. #he slo& accumulation of sediment allo&s more s!eletal material to accumulate and condensed sections may be indicated by unusually fossiliferous hori)ons or shell beds. (arbonate cementation is allo&ed more time to proceed and hardgrounds may form. and siderite. the transgressive surface and se"uence boundary are merged into a single surface. #he transgressive surface represents the first ma. e"uence boundaries are generated by a relative fall in sea level. #he first of the series of these flooding surfaces is called the transgressive surface. #he transgressive surface may be accompanied by significant stratigraphic condensation. and phosphorite crusts. a ma. /hen this long-term rise is coupled &ith the shortterm rise that forms a parase"uence boundary. but subse"uent models suggest that the age of the se"uence boundary can range in age from the time of ma$imum rate of fall to the time of eustatic lo&stand. 'aximum (looding Surface #he ma$imum flooding surface caps the transgressive systems tract and mar!s the turnaround from retrogradational stac!ing in the transgressive systems tract to aggradational or progradational stac!ing in the early highstand systems tract. (ondensation.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. so burro&ed surfaces are common in condensed sections. 4i!e&ise. %s this is a relative fall in sea level. the preservation of relatively long geologic timespans in a relatively thin layer of sediment. so condensed sections are commonly enriched in normally rare authigenic minerals such as glauconite. #ypical features indicating condensation are discussed in more detail belo&.uga. and many condensed sections are characteri)ed by sediment bypassing.html . as &ell as become bored or encrusted by organisms.or flooding surface to follo& the se"uence boundary and is usually distinct from the relatively minor flooding surfaces that separate parase"uences in the lo&stand systems tract. lo& rates of accumulation allo& normally rare materials li!e micrometeorites and volcanic ashes to accumulate in greater abundances. can be indicated by many sedimentary features. manganese. and these may be subse"uently minerali)ed &ith iron. that is. /hen sediment moves through as http://www. 5ollo&ing the relatively lo& rates of accommodation during the lo&stand systems tracts. hales at condensed sections are commonly radiogenic as a result of increased scavenging of radioactive elements from the &ater column: such 7hot shales7 display a strong positive response on gamma ray logs.

'n cross section. http://www. the ma$imum flooding surface may merge &ith the transgressive surface. Type 1 and Type 2 Sequences >ot all relative falls in sea level occur at a fast enough rate to e$pose the continental shelf. the t&o se"uences differ in the name of the systems tract lying above the se"uence boundary but belo& the transgressive surface . %lthough there has been much subse"uent confusion about the application of these t&o types to outcrop studies.html . -arly seismic studies recogni)ed t&o types of se"uences reflecting the case of sea-level fall belo& the shelfslope brea! (type 1) and the case &here sea level does not fall belo& this brea! (type 3).uga. the condensed section is commonly characteri)ed by numerous internal erosion surfaces and can have a "uite complicated internal stratigraphy. 'n distal areas &here the transgressive systems tract is absent. a rapidly subsiding margin may still e$perience a relative rise in sea level. after &hich sea level rise begins to slo&. their definitions have been modified such that a type 1 se"uence no& refers to one in &hich there is a relative fall in sea level belo& the position of the present shoreline and a type 3 se"uence refers to a se"uence in &hich the relative fall in sea level does not force a shift in the position of the shoreline.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. provided the rate of eustatic fall is less than the rate of subsidence. the ma$imum flooding surface is recogni)able by the deepest &ater deposits &ithin a se"uence. 'n addition. (1990) #ype 3 se"uences (sho&n belo&) are similar to type 1 se"uences (sho&n above) in nearly all regards e$cept for the e$tent of the se"uence-bounding unconformity and its e$pression in the marine realm. the ma$imum flooding surface is mar!ed by the farthest land&ard e$tent of deep-&ater facies. rather than the time of ma$imum rate of rise. #ype 1 se"uences &ere discussed above in the preceeding sections: type 3 se"uences are discussed belo&. figure adapted from Van Wagoner et al. 'n outcrop. during a eustatic fall. ubse"uent models have demonstrated that the ma$imum flooding surface corresponds more closely in time &ith the highest stand of eustatic sea level. -arly models of se"uence stratigraphy argued that the ma$imum flooding surface coincides roughly &ith the most rapid relative rate of sea level rise. 5or e$ample.bedload but fails to accumulate significantly.

the se"uence bounding unconformity is e$pressed as for a type 1 se"uence.html . the shelf margin systems tract is capped by the transgressive surface. 'n the marine realm. none of the marine areas of the previous highstand are subaerially e$posed during a type 3 se"uence boundary. 'n other &ords.uga. 2y chronostratigraphically significant. 'n general. tectonically produced se"uence boundaries &ill be of different ages in different basins. but no incised valley forms as sealevel does not fall far enough for incision.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. 6etecting this subtle transition in marine sections may be difficult to impossible and many type 3 se"uence boundaries probably go undetected. at least &ithin a basin. correlation of these t&o surfaces over long distances becomes increasingly less reliable. %s stated above. ?pdip of these areas. the e$tent of the se"uence-bounding unconformity can reach sea&ard only to the position of the previous shoreline. 9arase"uence boundaries are commonly useful correlation hori)ons in local studies. -arly studies suggested that eustatically generated se"uence boundaries coincide &ith time of http://www. ome &or!ers have gone so far as to "uestion the e$istence of any type 3 se"uences.figure adapted from Van Wagoner et al. no basin&ard shift of facies occurs as in a type 1 se"uence. #he se"uence boundary has attracted the most attention as a potentially correlatable and chronostratigraphically significant surface. (learly. %lthough this is true along a cross-section parallel to depositional dip. the transgressive surface and ma$imum flooding surface can also be useful correlation mar!ers. (onse"uently. they are sensitive to regional changes in sediment supply and long-term accommodation driven by differences in subsidence rate. 2ecause individual parase"uences may loo! so similar. it is meant that all roc!s overlying the se"uence boundary are younger than all roc!s belo& the se"uence boundary. far more type 1 se"uences have been reported than type 3 se"uences. but no further. (1990) 'n a type 3 se"uence. #he shelf margin systems tract in a type 3 se"uence is e"uivalent in stratigraphic position to the lo&stand systems tract of a type 1 se"uence. and the type 3 se"uence boundary is characteri)ed only by a slight change in stac!ing patterns from increasingly progradational in the underlying highstand to decreasingly progradational (possibly aggradational) above the se"uence boundary. 5or depositional se"uences. the shelf margin systems tract is characteri)ed by aggradational stac!ing. 2ecause the transgressive and ma$imum flooding surfaces are defined by changes in stac!ing patterns (from progradational to retrogradational and from retrogradational to progradational. (hronostratigraphic %pplications =any of se"uence stratigraphic surfaces can serve as useful time-mar!ers. possibly in part reflecting their comparative difficulty or ease of detection. 4i!e the lo&stand systems tract. long-distance correlation of parase"uence boundaries is prone to error and must be chec!ed &ith other means of correlation. respectively). it is less certain along stri!e or in different sedimentary basins. throughout its e$tent.

ee (ampbell. %ighstand Systems Tract. !onformity.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. looding Surface. along &hich there is no evidence of subaerial or submarine erosion or nondeposition and along &hich there is no evidence of a significant hiatus. and characteri)ed by an aggradational to progradational parase"uence set. 1o&ever. authigenic minerals (such as phosphate. te$ture. as applied to cross-stratification. pyrite. more recent studies suggest that the timing of the se"uence boundary can vary from the time of ma$imum rate of fall to the time of the lo&est position of eustatic sea level. 4ayer of sedimentary roc!s or sediments bounded above and belo& by bedding surfaces. a bedset forms the record of deposition in an environment characteri)ed by a certain set of depositional processes. % term applied to a cycle of fourth order or higher. %nother term for relative sea-level. ystems tract overlying a ma$imum flooding surface.html .uga. including burro&ed hori)ons. &hich changes in response to changes in the volume of ocean &ater and the volume of ocean basins. !ondensation. then the se"uence boundary could differ in age by as much as 1*8 of the duration of a eustatic cycle. such that in vertical succession. a basin&ard shift in facies is characteri)ed by a shift to shallo& facies (and not a vertical shift to more basin&ard or deeper-&ater facies). %igh& requency !ycle. >ote that this is a lateral shift in facies. Basinward Shift in acies. including erosion. -"uivalent to =cCee and /eir7s coset. 'n this &ay. 2edding surfaces are synchronous &hen traced laterally: therefore. ?nconformities (se"uence boundaries) and flooding surfaces (parase"uence boundary) &ill pass laterally into correlative conformities. beds are time-stratigraphic units. defined at its base by the top of the lithosphere and at its top by the ocean surface. and enrichment in normally rare sedimentary components. that is. bedsets are &hat define sedimentary facies. and sedimentary structures. 9arase"uences and se"uences can each be considered highfre"uency cycles &hen their period is less than 1 million years. glauconite. 'n particular. overlain by a se"uence boundary. such as volcanic ash and micrometeorites. a shifting of all facies to&ards the center of a basin.ma$imum rate of fall in eustatic sea level and are therefore chronostratigraphically significant. 1@AB ( edimentology 8+B3A) for more information. "ustatic Sea #e$el.). tratigraphic condensation can occur not only through a cessation in the supply of sediment at the site of accumulation. but also in cases &here the supply of sediment to a site is balanced by the rate of removal of sediment from that site. etc. /here net sediment accumulation rates are slo&. 'f these modeling results are correct. 1@AB ( edimentology 8+B-3A) for more information. <lobal sea level. #hus. accumulations of shells. ee (ampbell. having a period of less than 1 million years. <lossary Accommodation. Bedset. /hen vie&ed in cross-section. hortened term for a marine flooding surface. lo& net rates of sediment accumulation. #&o or more superposed beds characteri)ed by the same composition. a variety of unusual sedimentologic features may form. 2edding surfaces are produced during periods of nondeposition or abrupt changes in depositional conditions. Bed. early cementation and hardgrounds. faster tectonic subsidence rates and higher rates of sediment supply may cause the timing of the se"uence boundary to be delayed. http://www. siderite. (an be thought of as the space in &hich sediments can fill. most commonly in deeper marine sediments. 2edding surface separating younger from older strata.

'sostatic Su(sidence. #he study of genetically related facies &ithin a frame&or! of chronostratigraphically significant surfaces. 0elatively conformable (that is.html . ystems tract overlying a type 1 se"uence boundary.elati$e Sea #e$el. Sequence Stratigraphy. including those ranging from the highest spring tides to some&hat belo& the lo&est tides. 5or e$ample. and characteri)ed by a progradational to aggradational parase"uence set. +arasequence Boundary. 4i!e&ise. such as burro&ing. 0elatively conformable (that is. and typically bounded by ma. . urface separating younger from older strata. as opposed to its earlier emphasis on eustatic sea level. uccession of genetically related parase"uences that form a distinctive stac!ing pattern. =arine flooding surface separating the underlying transgressive systems tract from the overlying highstand systems tract. 2ecause other flooding surfaces can have evidence of condensation (in some cases. and fossil accumulations. aggradational and retrogradational parase"uence sets. )arine looding Surface. genetically related succession of strata bounded by unconformities or their correlative conformities. Dertical movements of the lithosphere as a result of increased &eight on the lithosphere from sediments. 9arase"uences are typically shallo&ing-up&ard cycles. se"uence stratigraphy no& generally emphasi)es relative changes in sea level. across &hich there is evidence of an abrupt increase in &ater depth. although this turnaround may be gradational and characteri)ed by aggradational stac!ing. and a ma$imum flooding )one is recogni)ed instead. +eritidal. displays evidence of condensation or slo& deposition. but not al&ays. #he local sum of global sea level and tectonic subsidence. #owstand Systems Tract.or marine flooding surfaces and their correlative surfaces. 100 meters of sediment &ill drive about EE meters of subsidence (or less. more than the ma$imum flooding surface). +arasequence Set. 4ocally. 'n this case. containing no ma. or ice. #his surface also mar!s the deepest &ater facies &ithin a se"uence. +arasequence. #he ma$imum flooding surface commonly. ee progradational. Sequence. 'sostatic subsidence is a fraction of the thic!ness of accumulated material. a single surface defining the point of ma$imum flooding may not be identifiable. 9arase"uence set boundaries may coincide &ith se"uence boundaries in some cases. % marine flooding surface. a fall in eustatic sea level and tectonic uplift &ill have the same effect on accommodation. http://www.or unconformities).or unconformities).uga. containing no ma. #his flooding surface lies at the turnaround from retrogradational to progradational parase"uence stac!ing. hardgrounds. 2ecause of the e$treme difficulty in teasing apart the effects of tectonic subsidence and eustatic sea level in regional or local studies. % term applied to a cycle &ith a thic!ness of a couple of meters or less. 9arase"uences and se"uences can each be considered meter-scale cycles &hen they are thinner than a couple of meters. genetically related succession of beds or bedsets bounded by marine-flooding surfaces or their correlative surfaces.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. a rise in eustatic sea level and an increase in subsidence rates &ill have the same effect on accommodation. minerali)ation. )eter&Scale !ycle. condensation alone should not be used to define the ma$imum flooding surface. )a*imum looding Surface. overlain by a transgressive surface. urface may also display evidence of minor submarine erosion. Sequence Boundary. &ater. 5orm in response to relative falls in sea level. %ll of those depositional environments associated &ith tidal flats. depending on the rigidity of the lithosphere). 5orms in response to an increase in &ater depth.

5or e$ample. &ithout a brea!. and those t&o facies represent sedimentary environments that &ere originally ad. 5or a type 1 se"uence. 1@BB). and characteri)ed by a retrogradational parase"uence set. and characteri)ed by a progradational to aggradational parase"uence set. >ote that this is a much more restrictive definition of unconformity than is commonly used or used in earlier &or!s on se"uence stratigraphy (e. -nconformity. urface separating younger from older strata. 4in!age of contemporaneous depositional systems. http://www.or flooding surface follo&ing the lo&stand systems tract. most shelf margin systems tracts may be unrecogni)able as such and may be inadvertently lumped &ith the underlying highstand systems tract as part of one uninterrupted progradational parase"uence set. Transgressi$e Systems Tract. that can be observed beside each other at the present timeF (=iddleton translation from <erman). Tectonic Su(sidence. and lateral compression of the lithosphere. 5orms in response to a relative fall in sea level. stretching.. Transgressi$e Surface. ystems tracts are defined by their position &ithin se"uences and by the stac!ing pattern of successive parase"uences.Shelf )argin Systems Tract. transgressive. >ote that the lac! of a basin&ard shift in facies and the lac! of a relative fall in sea level at the depositional shoreline brea! means that there are essentially no criteria by &hich to recogni)e a type 3 se"uence boundary in outcrop.alther/s #aw states that F. these are the lo&stand. Overlying strata onlap this surface.acent to one another. may display evidence of stratigraphic condensation or slo& net deposition. Type 2 Sequence Boundary. li!e all of the ma. indicating a significant hiatus. =arine flooding surface separating the underlying lo&stand systems tract from the overlying transgressive systems tract. &hich are threedimensional assemblages of lithofacies. 'n depositionally updip areas. Dertical movements of the lithosphere. #ype 3 se"uence boundaries lac! subaerial erosion associated &ith the do&ncutting of streams and lac! a basin&ard shift in facies. =itchum. and hemipelagic depositional systems. #ypically. overlain by a ma$imum flooding surface. overlain by a transgressive surface. a do&n&ard shift in coastal onlap. a basin&ard shift in facies. minerali)ation. %lso called driving subsidence. hardgrounds.only those facies and facies areas can be superimposed. . (haracteri)ed by subaerial e$posure and associated erosion from do&ncutting streams. then the boundary is a type 1 se"uence boundary. 5orms &hen the rate of sea-level fall is less than the rate of subsidence at the depositional shoreline brea!.. &ith all of the time represented by the missing lo&stand systems tract contained &ithin the unconformity.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. 5orms &hen the rate of sea-level fall e$ceeds the rate of subsidence at the depositional shoreline brea! (usually at base level or at sea level). and highstand systems tracts. #ectonic subsidence is generated primarily by cooling. one facies passes gradationally into an overlying facies. deltaic. such as burro&ed surfaces. these are the shelf margin. and onlap of overlying strata. and highstand systems tracts. transgressive. for e$ample). this is the first ma. 5or a type 3 se"uence. the overlying transgressive surface may be erroneously inferred to also be a type 1 se"uence boundary. ystems tract overlying a transgressive surface. 'f this occurs. and fossil accumulations. the transgressive surface is commonly merged &ith the se"uence boundary. Systems Tract. a systems tract might consist of fluvial. #he transgressive surface. loading (by thrust sheets.html . ystems tract overlying a type 3 se"uence boundary. along &hich there is evidence of subaerial erosional truncation or subaerial e$posure or correlative submarine erosion in some areas. (haracteri)ed by subaerial e$posure and a do&n&ard shift in onlap land&ard of the depositional shoreline brea! (usually at base level or at sea level). >ote that this means that if such changes can be observed in outcrop and the underlying strata are marine. %t a /altherian contact. -ach se"uence consists of three systems tract in a particular order. Type 1 Sequence Boundary.uga. in the absence of any effects from changes in the &eight of overlying sediments or &ater. /ithout regional seismic control.or flooding surfaces &ithin the transgressive systems tract.g..

edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. /ater depth is reflected in sedimentary facies. http://www. #he effects of isostatic subsidence and compaction must be removed from &ater depth to calculate relative sea level. % very large number of studies that purport to describe sealevel changes (both eustatic and relative) are actually only describing changes in &ater depth..ater Depth. #his is typically done through bac!stripping.uga. the rate of tectonic subsidence must then be subtracted from the relative sea-level term. #o calculate eustatic sea level. #he distance bet&een the sediment surface and the ocean surface.html .

) (5ig. dIfinissant des sI"uences. %prJs l7e$amen pItrographi"ue et la dIfinition des faciJs et microfaciJs.1).-# ->D'0O>>-=-># (%02O>%#47identification des sI"uences en environnement carbonatI doit Ntre faite dJs le levI de terrain. e$+ calcaire argileu$ K brachiopodes succIdant K du calcaire algo-laminaire. "u7elle soit constituIe de segments de droite comme dans le premier cas ou "u7elle relie des points comme dans le second constitue la courbe lithologi"ue de la sIrie ItudiIe. '. 5ig. 8.en regard du point d7Ichantillonnage.1+ schImatisation d7une sI"uence IlImentaire rIgressive classi"ue.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. 4a courbe lithologi"ue (ette courbe reflJte la succession verticale des diffIrents faciJs ou termes lithologi"ues ou microfaciJs d7une coupe. '. (ha"ue sI"uence est caractIrisIe par ses limites.be*geolsed*sedim*complGsedim. on porte un point correspondant au microfaciJs identifiI en lame mince: les diffIrents points sont ensuite reliIs par une courbe (5ig.en regard de cha"ue banc ou unitI faciItale. il n7est pas moins important de comprendre leur enchaHnement vertical et latIral dans le temps et l7espace.32): . naguJre professeur K l7?42. "ncha0nement $ertical des milieu* de d1p2t3 1l1ments d/analyse s1quentielle 7il est indispensable de pouvoir reconnaHtre les divers milieu$ du domaine marin par l7interprItation des faciJs. (ette Ivolution verticale prIsente des coupures FnaturellesF. -M?->(.3+ plusieurs reprIsentations de la courbe des microfaciJs.. ?ne autre caractIristi"ue importante des sI"uences est leur emboHtement K plusieurs Ichelles d7observation (caractJre fractal)+ ceci a donnI lieu K une hiIrarchisation des sI"uences avec la dIfinition de sI"uences d7ordre 1.3%): .on peut aussi matIrialiser les microfaciJs par des batonnets: ceci permet d7affecter une variable supplImentaire au type de trait (pointillI. changement brutal de faciJs "ui soulignent en gInIral les limites de sI"uences.http+**&&&. 4a techni"ue ( permet d7affecter une variable supplImentaire au type de trait. -lle est construite trJs simplement de l7une des faOons suivantes+ . 6ans l7ensemble des sIries sIdimentaires.ac. (7est lors du banc par banc "ue se rIvJlent les divers types de surfaces remar"uables+ fonds durcis.html .e voudrais rappeler "ue l7on doit voir en %. -rrera. '. 5ig. '..3().ulg. l7e$amen de la Fcourbe lithologi"ueF aide aussi K l7identification des sI"uences. la succession des termes lithologi"ues ou faciJs caractIrise l7Ivolution des milieu$ de dIpLt.. son contenu (faciJs) et la nature et le sens de ses variations (5ig. etc.uga. '. on trace un trait de l7Ipaisseur de ce banc ou unitI avec comme abcisse le type de (micro)faciJs (5ig.) http://www. etc. (ette connaissance s7avJre indispensable K la comprIhension de l7Ivolution d7un bassin (aspect dynami"ue). plein. E. un prIcurseur dans le domaine de l7Itude des sI"uences et des corrIlations stratigraphi"ues basIes sur leur identification+ la sI"uostratigraphie (cf.htm '>#0O6?(#'O> '. (ette courbe. limites Irosives. 4ombard. '. d7Ipaisseur dIcroissante et de frI"uence croissante. 1@BA). . 3. 47Itude de cette courbe permet de (1) mettre en Ividence les coupures sIdimentaires (en fait les Ivolutions sIdimentologi"ues pour les"uelles la loi de /alther (18@8) n7est pas respectIe+ on voit se succIder deu$ faciJs "ui ne coe$istent pas latIralement dans le domaine de sIdimentation. -nfin.

les corrIlations sI"uentielles (sI"uostratigraphi"ues) ont l7immense avantage de s7affranchir des faciJs et de reprIsenter des lignes temps valables K l7Ichelle d7un bassin. ces sI"uences rIgressives et transgressives sont Ividemment constituIes de successions de faciJs diffIrents. i l7on envisage l7Ivolution des sI"uences au sein d7un corps sIdimentaire.des successions aggradantes (aggradation) oP les sI"uences sont en empilement vertical. en faisant abstraction le plus possible des modifications diagInIti"uesF. Ffining up&ardF.html . il faut impIrativement "ue l7ordre des faciJs soit choisi en fonction d7une mNme logi"ue. On trouve dans la littIrature un certain nombre de sI"uences Fclassi"uesF.des successions progradantes (progradation) oP les sI"uences sont en translation vers le bassin. en position relative dIplacIe soit vers le continent. des sI"uences rIgressives et transgressives. mais dont la mise en place a un caractJre instantanI par rapport K l7histoire du milieu de dIpLt+ ces sI"uences n7enregistrent donc pas d7Ivolution temporelle de l7environnement. par l7intermIdiaire d7une interprItation actualiste reposant sur la loi de /alther. en considIrant uni"uement l7ordre rIel de succession des faciJs dans la nature. 6iverses mIthodes statisti"ues peuvent aider K mettre en Ividence un tel ordre. voir plus haut). tou. l7ordre des faciJs sur l7a$e $ n7est pas arbitraire+ si l7on dIsire comparer les courbes lithologi"ues de deu$ coupes contemporaines mais de faciJs diffIrent ou si l7on entend Itudier le sens des variations de faciJs au sein des sI"uences. p. (es successions sont caractIrisIes par un Ipaississement progressif et l7augmentation des faciJs pro$imau$: .et (3) de mettre clairement en Ividence le sens de l7Ivolution des faciJs+ tendance K se rapprocher (rIgression) ou K s7Iloigner (transgression) de la ligne de rivage. 5@5)+ F(ha"ue formation ou cha"ue type de sIdiment a sa sIrie naturelle propre "ui doit Ntre Itablie indIpendamment des thIories gInIti"ues. 5ig. (et Fordre rIelF peut Ntre dIfini de la maniJre suivante+ dans toute sIrie sIdimentaire. sI"uences d7arriJre-rIcif. #ypes de sI"uences 4es sI"uences peuvent Ntre caractIrisIes par le sens d7Ivolution des faciJs "ui les constituent+ il e$iste ainsi. etc. avec les termes suivants+ calcaires-argiles-silts-sables-conglomIrats. Fthic!ening up&ardF.des successions rItrogradantes (rItrogradation) oP les sI"uences sont en translation vers le domaine continental. rItrogradante et aggradante par rapport K la palIoligne de rivage. par e$emple+ sI"uences pIritidales. soit vers le bassin. etc.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. c7est la cas de la FsIrie virtuelle gInIraleF de 4ombard. '.E)+ . uivant l7environnement de dIpLt. il est possible de distinguer trois types de successions (5ig. >otons "ue les turbidites et les tempestites constituent Igalement des sI"uences. 'l est Igalement possible d7utiliser la notion de Fmultiples sIries naturellesF proposIe par 6elfaud (1@B3. (es successions sont caractIrisIes gInIralement par un amincissement progressif et l7occurence de plus en plus frI"uente de faciJs distau$: .uga. l7ordre naturel des termes lithologi"ues est celui "ui est statisti"uement le plus frI"uemment rIalisI. mais elle peut aussi.E+ successions progradante. (ette logi"ue peut Ntre la granulomItrie (la pesanteur). '. On caractIrise souvent ces sI"uences par une e$pression soulignant la variation d7un paramJtre sIdimentologi"ue+ Fcoarsening up&ardF. -ncore faut-il s7assurer "ue les sI"uences "ue l7on observe rIsultent de phInomJnes rIgionau$ et non locau$+ des sI"uences de comblement d7un http://www. nous l7avons vu.ours par rapport K la palIoligne de rivage. 4ors de la construction de la courbe lithologi"ue. On parlera dans ce cas de sI"uences respectivement rIgressives et transgressives. Ntre celle de la succession des faciJs au sein d7un modJle de plate-forme (par e$emple les =5. (orrIlations sI"uentielles 9ar rapport au$ corrIlations lithostratigraphi"ues.

. mais partout. on pourrait avoir des boues K organismes pIlagi"ues passant K des faciJs bioclasti"ues d7avant-rIcif (. on propos est de dIfinir des unitIs sIdimentaires limitIes par des surfaces K valeur temporelle "ui correspondent K des pIriodes particuliJres de variations du niveau marin relatif. -lle reprIsente un outil permettant de reconnaHtre et de "uantifier les modalitIs de remplissage des bassins sIdimentaires. 67aprJs 9roust (1@@8). pIriodi"ues ou non. tectoni"ues (subsidence.en plate-forme e$terne.sI"uence rIgressive. en fonction du milieu de dIpart. comprenant les parasI"uences (S sI"uences gInIti"ues de <uillocheau.. sont enregistrIs dans les sIries sIdimentaires.. sommes des mouvements eustati"ues.8 schImatise les corrIlations sI"uentielles entre trois coupes IchelonnIes du littoral K la plate-forme e$terne. angree. leur caractJre pIriodi"ue et leur amplitude. =itchum.uga. ont ItI IlaborIs par un groupe de gIologues de la compagnie -$$on (Dail.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat.8+ corrIlations sI"uentielles et diachronisme des faciJs. 9osamentier. 4es concepts de la stratigraphie sI"uentielle.. '. correspondant K autant d7ordres de sI"uences de dIpLts.) et des flu$ sIdimentaires..plus au large.sI"uence rIgressive. On le voit. probablement de type Fthining up&ardF): . 100 Ca. etc.chenal par e$emple ne sont pas des phInomJnes K l7Ichelle d7un bassin. dIveloppIs K partir de la stratigraphie sismi"ue. l7Ivolution se fait dans le mNme sens+ il s7agit d7une sI"uence rIgressive. -lles diffIrent (1) par leurs causes et donc (3) par leur durIe.ectif est celui de la stratigraphie au sens Ithymologi"ue du terme+ accIder au$ relations gIomItri"ues et chronologi"ues K l7intIrieur d7ensembles sIdimentaires. 'l faut noter "ue les corrIlations sI"uentielles sont facilitIes lors"ue l7on utilise des FmotifsF caractIristi"ues. Dan /agoner. on aura par e$emple une succession du type boue lagonaire bioturbIe. 4a 5ig.html .les sI"uences K haute rIsolution.-M?->#'-44<InIralitIs (d7aprJs <uillocheau) 4a stratigraphie sI"uentielle est une mIthode dont l7ob. 4eur pIriode est gInIralement de 30 Ca. On peut distinguer+ . #0%#'<0%91'. 4a diffIrence entre les corrIlations lithostratigraphi"ues (diachrones) et les corrIlations sI"uentielles (synchrones) est Ividente. >ature de l7enregistrement sIdimentaire 9lusieurs ordres de variations du niveau relatif de la mer. dIformations intrapla"ues. Rervey. 5ig. 9our fi$er les idIes sur un e$emple concret.. (hacune des sI"uences est rIgressive et la succession est progradante. caractIristi"ues et modIlisation des diffIrents corps sIdimentaires). B00-@00 Ca. il suffit de penser au$ diverses sI"uences gInIrIes par une rIgression marine mineure+ .sI"uence rIgressive. un mNme phInomJne a des consI"uences variIes sur l7Ivolution des sIdiments. par e$emple une sI"uence rIgressive suivie d7une sI"uence transgressive trJs affirmIe.en milieu littoral. >ous verrons ci-dessous "ue ce problJme de Fl7Ichelle des causesF se pose pour la dIfinition des FparasI"uencesF. ici encore de type coarsening up&ard). mais voir remar"ue ci-dessous concernant les limites) et les groupements de parasI"uences (S groupements de sI"uences gInIti"ues). surmontIe de laminites algaires (. '.) dans la fin des annIes septante et publiIs en 1@88. (es variations. environ 800 Ca. ont des durIes variIes+ de la di)aine de milliers d7annIes K plusieurs di)aines de millions d7annIes. de type coarsening up&ard): . 4a stratigaphie sI"uentielle est rIsolument pluridisciplinaire et prIdictive (localisation. on pourrait observer des sables bioclasti"ues K crinoQdes surmontIs de faciJs rIcifau$ (. 4eur genJse correspondrait K des variations des http://www.

'.1 T 3). '. %u point d7infle$ion de chute.5. 5 ) est le point d7inversion entre une tendance K la progradation et une tendance K la rItrogradation (5ig. uivant les variations de potentiel d7accommodation. reprIsentI par la dIrivIe premiJre de la courbe de variation du niveau marin relatif.A).5. >otion d7accommodation+ contraintes stratigraphi"ues ?n des apports ma. la vitesse de crIation d7espace disponible est ma$imale.5. =5 ) est le point d7inversion entre une tendance K la rItrogradation et une tendance K la progradation (5ig.uga. -lles sont proches des sI"uences gInIti"ues de <uillocheau. 4es sI"uences de dIpLt (Funconformity bounded-unitsF) de durIe supIrieure K 1 =a 4es sI"uences de dIpLt sont des unitIs stratigraphi"ues composIes d7une succession relativement conforme de strates gInIti"uement liIes et limitIes K leur sommet et K leur base par des discordances (FunconformitiesF) et leurs surfaces corrIlatives.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. 47origine des B00-@00 Ca reste nIanmoins inconnue: . 4eur Ipaisseur est dIcamItri"ue K pluridIcamItri"ue. 4e paramJtre le plus fondamental est en rIalitI la vitesse de crIation ou de suppression de l7espace disponible ou potentiel d7accommodation. 4es parasI"uences sont les bri"ues IlImentaires de la stratigraphie+ c7est K cette Ichelle "u7est contrainte la gIomItrie des environnements sIdimentaires. plusieurs types de surfaces remar"uables dIlimitant des corps de gIomItrie diffIrente (ce sont les FcortJges de dIpLtF ou Fsystems tractsF) peuvent Ntre dIfinis (5igs.A+ schImatisation de concepts de la stratigraphie sI"uentielle. la vitesse de crIation d7espace disponible est minimale. en domaine marin. '. (es contraintes stratigraphi"ues sont valables "uel"ue soit la frI"uence de la variation du niveau marin relatif et donc "uel"ue soit l7ordre des sI"uences. '. '. 4a pIriode d7accommodation minimale (point d7infle$ion de chute) induit une surface d7Irosion en domaine continental (FunconformityF) et un dIplacement brutal des faciJs continentau$ vers la mer (Fdo&n&ard shiftF) (5ig. 4eur durIe est variable et comprise entre 30 et @00 Ca.5. 'l est nIgatif dans le cas contraire. 4a surface d7inondation ma$imale (Fma$imum flooding surfaceF. progradant (Flo&stand systems tractF. non pas les minima et ma$ima. 5ig.eurs des concepts dIveloppIs par -$$on est la notion d7FaccommodationF. dIformations intrapla"ues): F1e ordreF+ 10-50 =a. '. 4es rJgles de variation d7accommodation sont Igalement applicables K cette Ichelle. 4a tendance du systJme littoral est K la progradation ma$imale avec simple transit ou Irosion en domaine continental. 'l peut Ntre minimal mais positif "uand la vitesse de subsidence est supIrieure K la vitesse de chute du niveau de la mer. les sIdiments. 4a tendance du systJme littoral est K la rItrogradation*aggradation verticale ma$imale.A.html . '. 4eur Ipaisseur est comprise entre 1 et 10 m. 4e prisme de bas niveau ou de bordure de plate-forme.paramJtres orbitau$ de la terre (cycles dits de =ilan!ovitch-2erger). mais les points d7infle$ion. la diffIrence rIsidant dans les surfaces les dIlimitant "ui sont dans ce cas les surfaces d7inondation ma$imale. correspondant probablement K une combinaison de mouvements eustati"ues et tectoni"ues (subsidence rIgionale. 'l s7agit de l7espace disponible K tout instant pour piIger.B). '. en milieu marin entre deu$ surfaces de premiJre inondation ou surfaces de transgression (5ig. '.A). Fshelf margin systems tractF) est compris entre l7FunconformityF et la surface de premiJre inondation http://www. %u point d7infle$ion de montIe.les sI"uences apIriodi"ues de durIe supIrieure au million d7annIes+ FEe ordreF+ 1-5 =a: F3e ordreF+ E-15 =a. leur durIe est comprise entre 1 et 5 =a (5igs. 4es sI"uences haute rIsolution ou parasI"uences (30-800 Ca) 4es parasI"uences sont les plus petites sI"uences de dIpLts corrIlables K l7Ichelle d7un bassin sIdimentaire. 4a surface de transgression ou de premiJre inondation (Fflooding surfaceF.E). '. -lles sont dIfinies. 4es points criti"ues sont.8).5.

surface d7inondation ma$imale+ c7est la surface correspondant au$ milieu$ les plus profonds ou les plus proches du domaine marin: . elon la position de la parasI"uence dans le rapport d7emboHtement des cycles de =ilan!ovitch (1+5+8). ni domaine marin restreint et surtout. 4es lissages successifs de cette courbe permettent de faire apparaHtre les sI"uences d7ordre infIrieur. aggradant puis progradant (Fhighstand systems tractF) est compris entre la surface d7inondation ma$imale et l7FunconformityF. ur une coupe verticale. 4e modJle d7-$$on est donc un modJle simple "ui mar"ue une rIvolution conceptuelle. 47intIrNt de cette mIthode est double+ .5. 4es surfaces remar"uables sont dIfinies de la maniJre suivante+ . rItrogradant (Ftransgressive systems tractF) est dIlimitI par la surface de premiJre inondation et la surface d7inondation ma$imale. (7est la position d7une surface dans une Ivolution verticale de milieu "ui permet de "ualifier cette surface: . 'l a une valeur de guide mais il n7est pas une rIalitI universelle. '.FunconformityF+ accIlIration de la migration des milieu$ vers la mer (en domaine marin. il est possible de connaHtre leur frI"uence et donc. 5ig. par dInombrement.(5ig. le modJle de dIpLt ainsi construit permet d7associer simplement lithostratigraphie et chronostratigraphie. '.5+ reprIsentation schImati"ue du modJle de stratigraphie sI"uentielle d7-$$on. 5ig. -n particulier. (ette mIthode (5ischer. 4e principe est de repIrer sur la courbe lithologi"ue les plus petits cycles de dIplacement des milieu$ de sIdimentation (cycles transgression-rIgression)+ ils correspondent probablement au$ parasI"uences. accIlIration de la diminution de profondeur).5). 4a solution passe par l7Itude des modalitIs d7empilement des parasI"uences (le Fstac!ing patternF). <rUce au$ surfaces K valeur temporelle (FunconformityF et ma$imum d7inondation). 100. ?ne autre mIthode est fournie par l7interprItation des diagrammes de 5ischer (F5ischer plotF). de connaHtre la durIe des sI"uences d7ordre infIrieur.elle est rIsolument sIdimentologi"ue et sa fiabilitI est dIpendante de la prIcision de la )onation de milieu utilisIe (prIcision de la sIrie virtuelle). 1@A8) permet de dIterminer la sI"uence de dIpLt de Ee ordre et d7en http://www. 800 Ca.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat.elle permet une calibration en temps des sI"uences de dIpLts. -n effet. les parasI"uences tombent gInIralement dans une des gammes de frI"uence des cycles de =ilan!ovitch.A+ variations du niveau marin.html . 4e cortJge transgressif. 30. il n7a pas encore ItI vraiment validI sur les systJmes carbonatIs. -lle ne prIsage pas de la nature d7une surface en fonction de son e$pression lithologi"ue (par e$emple toute surface d7Irosion est une unconformity). plusieurs ordres de sI"uences emboHtIes peuvent gInIralement Ntre mis en Ividence. 47identification des diffIrents ordres de sI"uences emboHtIes (7est une des difficultIs fondamentales de la stratigraphie sI"uentielle.surface de transgression ou de premiJre inondation+ surface situIe au-dessus des milieu$ les moins profonds ou situIs le plus prJs de la terre: . 4e prisme de haut niveau. 4es corrIlations se font sur base des surfaces d7inondation ma$imale de mNme ordre.uga. surfaces remar"uables et cortJges de dIpLt dans le modJle d7-$$on. 4e prisme de bordure de plate-forme se dIveloppe K la place du prisme de bas niveau "uand la chute de niveau marin ne dInoie pas la plate-forme. il intJgre une marge passive+ la subsidence croHt avec la profondeur: le profil de dIpLt est simple+ il n7intJgre ni barriJre. '.

5ig. 47Ipaisseur des cycles subtidau$ s7avJre en effet contrLlIe par le tau$ de sIdimentation plutLt "ue par l7espace d7accommodation au contraire des cycles pIritidau$. 1@@E. 5igure '.us"u7au Fdo&n&ard shiftF) et une partie des dIpLts du cortJge de bas niveau (du Fdo&n&ard shiftF au point le plus bas du niveau marin). 5 #). 2+ diagramme de 5ischer de la coupe de /ellin. 'l considJre "ue le modJle d7-$$on souffre de deu$ faiblesses principales+ (1) ce modJle impli"ue "ue les oscillations K haute frI"uence responsables des parasI"uences sont tou.eure (limite de sI"uence) sur la"uelle se dIpose le prisme de bas niveau. 4e cortJge rIgressif est le seul cortJge dont les unitIs successives s7avancent de moins en moins loin vers le continent (FofflappingF): sa base correspond en prati"ue K la premiJre sI"uence d7ordre infIrieur "ui montre une surface d7Irosion marine K sa base: son sommet correspond K la surface d7Imersion ma. le mode d7empilement des sI"uences d7ordre infIrieur et la gIomItrie des corps sIdimentaires.suivre les variations en fonction du temps. 4e cortJge rIgressif 9lusieurs chercheurs. (omme pour les autres cortJges. 4a courbe de 5ischer (5ig.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. %fin d7Iviter toute mauvaise interprItation.8+ intIgration du cortJge rIgressif (F(0F ou F5 sI"uentielle. 4a ligne "ui relie la base de la section stratigraphi"ue au temps )Iro correspond alors au vecteur de la subsidence moyenne.uga.B) reprIsente l7Ipaisseur cumulative des cycles (a$e vertical) en fonction du temps (a$e hori)ontal). '. d7aprJs Casimi. on constate "ue le cortJge rIgressif reprend une partie des dIpLts du cortJge de haut niveau (depuis le dIbut de la chute du niveau marin . en pente nIgative. 67aprJs Casimi. l7identification du cortJge rIgressif est basIe sur sa position dans la sI"uence de dIpLt.html . 47interprItation des courbes de 5ischer donne alors les variations de l7espace d7accommodation en fonction du temps. #F) dans le modJle de stratigraphie ?ne alternative au modJle de stratigraphie sI"uentielle d7-$$on+ le systJme de . tandis "ue l7empilement de cycles peu Ipais. 4a courbe de 5ischer souligne alors les variations apparentes du niveau marin engendrIes par des variations de la profondeur d7eau liIes au tau$ de sIdimentation plutLt "u7au$ variations de l7espace d7accommodation. 4es sI"uences E. (ette mIthode impli"ue nIcessairement "ue cha"ue cycle reprIsente un intervalle de temps constant et "ue la sIrie de cycles analysIe s7est dIposIe pour une mNme valeur de la subsidence.8). i l7on compare le schIma Fclassi"ueF d7-$$on (5ig. 5erry a ItudiI (1@@1) le bassin mIso)oQ"ue du sud-est de la 5rance "ui permet des corrIlations lithologi"ues et biostratigraphi"ues fines entre des plates-formes carbonatIes (Rura) et des faciJs subpIlagi"ues (fosse vocontienne). 4es cycles individuels sont reportIs en fonction de leur niveau stratigraphi"ue audessus de ce vecteur de subsidence. '. '. correspondant K une pente positive. 67aprJs 9lint T >ummedal (3000). (e cortJge est en fait le pendant du cortJge transgressif et s7intercale entre le cortJge de haut niveau et le cortJge de bas niveau. reflJte donc une augmentation de l7espace d7accommodation induite par une IlIvation du niveau marin relatif.5) et le modJle de 9lint T >ummedal (5ig. 47interprItation de ces courbes doit Ntre cependant menIe avec grande prIcaution. 5erry . dont 9lint T >ummedal (3000) ont mis en Ividence l7e$istence d7un cortJge supplImentaire+ le cortJge rIgressif (Ffalling stage systems tractF.ours d7amplitude faible par rapport au$ oscillations re"uises pour les cycles de Ee ordre et (3) il http://www. reflJte au contraire une rIduction de cet espace lors d7une diminution relative du niveau marin.B+ %+ construction d7un diagramme de 5ischer. (+ sI"uences de Ee ordre dans le 6Ivonien moyen du bord sud du ynclinorium de 6inant. 1@@E.10 dIfinies dans la coupe de /ellin ont ItI reportIes sur la courbe de Ee ordre. 4a succession des cycles Ipais. il convient donc de tenir compte dans cha"ue cas de la composition des cycles par rapport au$ variations "ue prIsente la pente de la courbe de 5ischer. surtout "uand il s7agit de cycles mi$tes subtidau$ et pIritidau$. '. enregistrant des dIpLts pendant une phase de baisse du niveau marin (FrIgression forcIeF).

'. 47adaptation des concepts et mIthodes de la stratigraphie sI"uentielle K la plate-forme carbonatIe a ItI plus tardive et disons-le. le calcaire n7a pas la mNme signification selon le niveau hiIrarchi"ue sI"uentiel. durant les cortJges transgressifs. -n consI"uence. 5igure '. 'l observe cependant une relation entre les deu$ gammes de phInomJnes+ durant les cortJges de bas niveau. l7oscillation K haute frI"uence (parasI"uences) a une amplitude faible: par contre. les individus subissent des gradients de stress au cours des cycles de variation de l7accommodation avec des consI"uences sur la sIlection naturelle. il a valeur de bas niveau marin. il montre "ue les ensembles les plus calcaires de la sIrie de bassin sont les I"uivalents temporels de ces prismes de bordure de plate-forme. selon . ?ne application de la stratigraphie sI"uentielle K la gIomItrie des atolls a ItI tentIe par 1andford T 4ouc!s (1@@E) (5ig. 6es pistes pour l7interprItation des systJmes carbonatIs 1istori"uement.@+ modJle de correspondance entre sI"uences de plate-forme et de bassin en terme de variation du Ee ordre du niveau marin. 5erry. 5erry remar"ue aussi "ue les carbonates de plate-forme constituent non pas des prismes progradants de haut niveau marin mais bien des prismes de bordure de plate-forme. puis"u7K la logi"ue InergIti"ue s7a. (eci est tout K fait diffIrent pour les cycles K haute frI"uence (parasI"uences) oP le fonctionnement connu pour le Muaternaire s7appli"ue (plates-formes carbonatIes fonctionnelles en pIriode de haut niveau marin avec e$portation de matIriel carbonatI vers le bassin). la "uestion cache un problJme fondamental "ui a trait au dIcouplage possible des mIcanismes de contrLle des cycles sIdimentaires au$ diffIrentes Ichelles+ les relations de cause K effet entre climat. surimposIe K des cycles de frI"uence plus IlevIe.@). agiraient indirectement sur le climat pour amplifier l7amplitude des oscillations glacio-eustati"ues K haute frI"uence. http://www. =ais ces bouleversements. 4ors d7une augmentation de l7accommodation K plus long terme. -n rIsumI.oute toute la comple$itI du monde vivant.uga. notamment par une forte influence sur l7Ivolution des IcosystJmes. 'l semble "ue les variations de l7accommodation revJtent une importance considIrable pour les systJmes carbonatIs.10). de moindre diversitI. il a valeur de haut niveau marin: dans les sI"uences de Ee ordre. cette oscillation a une amplitude beaucoup plus forte. de nombreu$ problJmes sont restIs en suspens et n7ont pas encore trouvI de rIponse satisfaisante. -n fait.html . (e n7est pas Itonnant. le remplacement des IcosystJmes rIcifau$ par des communautIs pionniJres. 'l envisage donc (5ig. 6ans les parasI"uences. 4es rIcifs et constructions carbonatIes tendent ainsi K se dIvelopper au cours d7une diminution de l7accommodation K plus long terme. %u sein des communautIs. l7hypothJse d7une amplification momentanIe de l7oscillation K haute frI"uence du niveau marin au moment de l7ennoyage des plates-formes (ceci e$pli"uant l7e$istence parado$ale de forts abaissements du niveau marin avec Imersions rIpItIes dans les cortJges transgressifs ItudiIs). 5erry sIpare donc nettement les mIcanismes responsables des parasI"uences et les mIcanismes K l7origine des sI"uences de Ee ordre. par l7intermIdiaire d7une plus grande activitI volcani"ue associIe. le modJle de stratigraphie sI"uentielle d7-$$on a ItI dIveloppI en environnement siliciclasti"ue. <rUce K de bonnes corrIlations biostratigraphi"ues. '. tectoni"ue et variations du niveau marin peuvent n7Ntre pas les mNmes selon le niveau hiIrarchi"ue des cycles. plus laborieuse. peut e$pli"uer des parado$es tels "ue l7ennoyage des plates-formes carbonatIes et la vulnIrabilitI des IcosystJmes matures. 'l suggJre "ue les transgressions K l7Ichelle du Ee ordre sont le rIsultat de bouleversements tectoni"ues pIriodi"ues. 6es communautIs pionniJres tendent K se dIvelopper lors de l7augmentation de l7accommodation (avec production accrue de matiJre organi"ue). des communautIs clima$ se dIveloppent lors de sa diminution (avec production accrue de carbonate s"ueletti"ue).appli"ue au$ cycles de Ee ordre la dynami"ue sIdimentaire valable pour les cycles glacioeustati"ues K haute frI"uence et forte amplitude du Muaternaire.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat.

>ummedal.=.<. T R. A. #he carbonate feedbac! system+ interaction bet&een stratigraphic accommodation. %.9. 'n+ 6. '.. un rIcif frangeant se dIveloppe et des phInomJnes !arsti"ues affectent la plate-forme interne. . ecological succession and the carbonate factory. E@-85. 1@88.edu/strata/sequence/seqStrat. 9osamentier. oc. .)+ edimentary response to forced regressions. # # et 1 #. 5rance.. eds. (arbonate depositional se"uence and system tractsresponses of platform to relative sea-level change.C. 2ull.. 9. p. 8@@-518. 2ull. 1B3. <Iologie alpine. arg. 'n+ 0. particuliJrement en ce "ui concerne les environnements carbonatIs. 1@@1. 9our en savoir plus http+**strata. 5rance. 5B. . /ilgus. %n overvie& of the fundamentals of se"uence stratigraphy and !ey definition. 'n+ (.. R->. 4ondon p.4.(. >ord. 1ome&ood. 9ubl.-.5ig. E (3e sIrie). ')art T 6.geol. de la (-' et des ? %. ubsidence tectoni"ue. 9. 4outit. oc. 6urant le # #. 1@@A. 1@@8.<. Dan /agoner. (arbonate se"uence stratigraphy. 3000+ #he falling stage systems tract+ recognition and importance in se"uence stratigraphic analysis. R. 9roust. >otions IlImentaires de stratigraphie sI"uentielle illustrIes par un e$emple. 0. 1@@8. <eol. 1-1B. 1andford T 0. la diminution de l7accomodation provo"ue une augmentation de l7e$portation des sIdiments: ensuite. <Iol.1. l7Imersion frI"uente de la plate-forme amJne une diminution de la productivitI. 1ardenbol. =itchum./. <a&thorpe (eds. 1A5. oc. 9etrol. ed. 1. 5.uga. ea-level changes-%n integrated approach.. %nn. arg. 4ouc!s. %. 1unt T 0. <Iol. eustatisme et contrLle des sI"uences dans les bassins namuriens et &estphaliens de l7-urope de l7ouest. 'l s7agit cependant d7un outil trJs prometteur pour l7interprItation de l7Ivolution des bassins. <IomItrie d7un atoll au cours d7un 4 #. <Iol. la croissance rIcifale ne peut I"uilibrer la hausse du niveau marin "u7en pIriphIrie de la plateforme et une couronne atollienne se dIveloppe: les sIdiments sont e$portIs sur les flancs sous le vent: des sIdiments fins se dIposent dans le lagon.edu* . R. Mu7en penserV 47e$istence de controverses "uant K l7interprItation des sI"uences montre "ue la stratigraphie sI"uentielle est un domaine en dIveloppement "ui n7a pas encore atteint sa pleine maturitI.0. 8B-@@. #. %ssoc. 5erry. 9ubl. 6urant le 4 #.5.sc. Dail. mImoire hors-sIrie. http://www. <eol. on application doit Ntre effectuIe avec prudence. 83.<. 1@@E.html . B01-B15. %m. 18.0. =em. E-81. 5-35. oc. 1AB.10. (. 9lint T 6. ?ne alternative au modJle de stratigraphie sI"uentielle d7-$$on+ la modulation tectono-climati"ue des cycles orbitau$. Dachard. 6urant le dIbut du 1 #. 4ouc!s T R.