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Electrical Engineering Department COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Wah Campus


Computer Architecture
Computer Organization

Operating Systems Digital Logic Design

Hands-on experience using TTL & CMOS ICs Basic Troubleshooting of Digital Circuits

High-level Programming Languages Experience in MS Office/LaTeX

for assignments and presentations.


Multimedia Projection System

IBM-compatible PC
Microsoft Windows XP
Microsoft Visual C++

Any other Language as per students choice

Microsoft Office or LaTeX

for documentation and presentation

Reference Books
Q. Li and C.Yao, CMP Books, 2003

& Material

Real-time Concepts for Embedded Systems Embedded Microprocessor Systems

Stuart R. Ball, Second Edition, NewNE Press, 2000

Real- Time Systems and Software

A. C. Shaw, Wiley, 2001

Embedded Systems Design

Arnold S Berger, CMP Books, 2002

Real- Time Systems

N. Nissanke, Prentice Hall, 1997

MPLAB ICD2 Handbook

Xilinx EDK Concepts, Tools and Techniques

Students Introduction

Personal Introduction
Name City of Residence Favourite Subject Hobbies Rank yourself with-in the class

What do you think about this subject?

Creating Groups & Seating Plan

Possible projects
MP3 Player

Digital Camera

Robot Navigation Universal Remote Control Hardware Web Server

Get ready...

For Labs on MCUs & FPGAs


EEE415 Real-time Embedded Systems


Electrical Engineering Department COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Wah Campus

What is an Embedded System?

An electronic device that includes a programmable computer, but is not a general-purpose computer
Fax machines Digital cameras Mobile phones etc.
Millions of PCs Billions of embedded systems

Real-time Embedded Systems (RtES)

Real-time Embedded systems are designed to do some specific task with real-time constraints.
Requirements with deadlines

Examples of RtES

RtES in Communications

Telecommunications systems
Telecom switches Mobile phones Base Stations

Computer Networking
Routers Switches Bridges

RtES in Consumer Electronics

Mp3 players etc. Game consoles Digital cameras

Household appliances
Printers Microwave ovens Washing machines Dishwashers etc.

RtES in Transportation Systems

Inertial guidance systems GPS receivers

Electric/hybrid vehicles Anti-lock braking system (ABS) Electronic Stability Control Traction control (TCS)


Top of the range cars contain over 50 dedicated embedded systems

RtES in Medicine

Vital signs monitoring

Electronic stethoscopes

Medical imaging

Characteristics of RtES
Dedicated to specific tasks Real-time constraints Cost sensitive Power sensitive Short design times Harsh operating environments Fail-safe operations

Categories of RtES

Several ways to categorize

Hard versus Soft Fail-safe versus Fail-operational Deterministic versus Probabilistic Distributed versus Single-chip Portable versus Stationary Guaranteed-timeliness versus best-effort Resource-adequate v resource-inadequate

RtES Design Constraints

The hardware and software are normally developed together in order to satisfy the system requirements:
Correct functionality Cost Size Performance Power consumption Time-to-Market etc.

Design Procedure
Business Requirements Detailed Specification Platform Selection

HW/SW Partitioning

Software Synthesis

Hardware Synthesis


System Integration

Interface Synthesis