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Sayyid Qutb's Milestones

Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sayyid Qutb's Milestones, But Couldn't Be Bothered to Find Out
El er Swenson
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Introduction Qutb and the Muslim Community Qutb and Shari'ah Law, the Islamic Vanguard and Slavery Qutb on Sex, Women and the Family Qutb on olitics! rogressive Islam, "ationalism, #emocracy, Socialism Qutb on olitics! $acial %&uality and Freedom Qutb and non'Muslims! (he West Qutb and non'Muslims! Christians, )ews and Freedom o* $eligion Qutb and eace*ul Co'%xistance with non'Muslims Qutb and the Future +ddendum

+,-.O
Who is Sayyid Qutb, and what's so s#e/ial about his boo0 Milestones, a0a Signposts1

Qutb ,-./0'-.001 was an %gy2tian government bureaucrat, author, literary critic and *inally an Islamic 2olitical leader, but is most *amous as an Islamist theoretician3 4e grew u2 in 5ritish'occu2ied %gy2t and was im2risoned and executed in "asser6s inde2endent %gy2t3 (hough he came *rom a 2ious rural bac7ground, he studied Western literature extensively and wrote literary criticism as well as 2oetry, short stories

and articles3 Qutb s2ent two years in +merica ,which he loathed1 and came bac7 a determined *undamentalist3 4e became one o* the leading members o* the %gy2tian Muslim 5rotherhood, the *irst and largest mass Islamist grou23 +*ter the 5rotherhood *ell out with the ruling +rab nationalists in %gy2t and an attem2t was made on the li*e o* 2resident 8amal +bdul "asser, the nationalists6 leader, Qutb was im2risoned3 -/ years later, accused o* another 2lot against the government, he was hanged3 9-: Qutb wrote many boo7s, but his most *amous and widely read by *ar is Milestones, generally considered one o*, i* not the most in*luential Islamist tract ever written3 Milestones ,Ma'alim 'ala Al-Tariq1, was an immediate best seller and is said to have been 2ublished in close to ;,/// editions 9;: +t the time o* writing it was also available in *ull text on at least two websites! htt2!<<www3youngmuslims3ca<online=library<boo7s<milestones<ind ex=;3as2 htt2!<<en3wi7i2edia3org<wi7i<Ma>;?alim=*i'l'(ari& Some accolades *or Milestones and Qutb6s in*luence! 333 regarded as the *ather o* modern *undamentalism and described by his ,+rab1 biogra2her as @the most *amous 2ersonality o* the Muslim world in the second hal* o* the ;/th century,@3333 Qutb was the most in*luential advocate in modern times o* Aihad, or Islamic holy war, and the chie* develo2er o* doctrines that legitimise violent Muslim resistance to regimes that claim to be Muslim, but whose im2lementation o* Islamic 2rece2ts is Audged to be im2er*ect3333 @Is (his the Man Who Ins2ired 5in LadenB@ $obert Irwin, Guardian, "ovember -, ;//(he essential charter o* the Aihad movement '' its Mein Kampf '' is Sayyid Qutb6s Milestones333 @(ruly, madly, dee2ly devout,@ )onathan $aban, Guardian, March ;, ;//; +nd lest anyone thin7 such testimonials come only *rom non'Islamists, here6s an Islamist 5ritish convert to Islam, 4amid +lgar, writing be*ore .<--! Sayyid Qutb 333 some ;C years a*ter his death is still the most influential ideologue of the Islamic movement in the contemporary Arab orld 333 Ma'alim fi 'l-Tariq 9Milestones: must de*initely count among the historic documents o* the contem2orary Islamic movement3 9D:

What's this boo0 li0e1
Ene o* the most common %nglish language editions o* Milestones ,and the one *rom which &uotes and 2age numbers on this F+Q come *rom1 was 2ublished by (he Mother Mos&ue Foundation in -.C-3 It loo7s li7e an oversiFed 2am2hlet3 It6s *ull o* ty2os and has no index, no notes, no introduction to tell you who the author is, or even when the boo7 was *irst 2ublished3 +s *or the content, non'Islamists ,and in *act most everyone1 will *ind Milestones badly in need o* an editor, alternately re2eating some 2oints over and over while s7i22ing over others that beg to be ex2lained *urther3 Marxist author (ari& +li assessed it @re2etitive, banal, unins2iring3@ "o doubt this is in 2art because Milestones was written in 2rison and smuggled out, and also because it was written *or the @vanguard@ o* the revival o* Islam rather than average Muslims ,never mind non'Muslims13 5e that as it may, although only -0/ 2ages, non'Islamist readers may *ind it the lonnnggggest -0/ 2ages they6ve ever read3

Why was this FAQ /reated1
In*luential and com2act as it is, Milestones is in some ways the ideal 2lace to begin learning about radical Islam3 +nd i* in *act it is @the Mein Kampf@ o* the al Qaeda, it may not only be interesting but rather im2ortant to understand3 )ust as $adical Islamists were able to 2lan and carry out terror attac7s because o* their *amiliarity with the West, so too the West may be able to turn the tables and de*end itsel* better by understanding how their would'be murderers and destroyers thin73 En the other hand, i* the 2ortrayal above o* Qutb ,or more generally the Islamist revival1 is slander, as some allege ,see below1, that also would be im2ortant to clear u23 (he 2roblem is, Qutb6s writing is so bad many non'Muslims and non'Islamists won6t have the 2atience to ma7e their way through the whole thing, or through the whole thing care*ully3 (his F+Q, then is an attem2t to ma7e Milestones easier to understand by brea7ing it down 2oint'by'2oint and clari*ying it3 Such 2oints include the &uestions! Was Qutb an anti'Western *anatic as some o* the &uotes in the *irst +nswer indicateB Er has the West @chosen to dub@ Qutb and the Islamic religious revival in general @as *undamentalist, as *anatic, as anti'Western, as anachronistic, as what not, when nothing could be *arther *rom the truth@B 9G: +re *ollowers o* Qutb in reality merely 2ious and 2roud Muslims who demand res2ect and sensitivity *or their religion and 2eo2le, but are willing to give the same to others in returnB When does Qutb thin7 violence is necessaryB Is he @care*ul to em2hasiFe that 9Aihad: does not necessarily mean the use o*

violence333@B ,@+ Fresh loo7 at Sayyid Qutb6s Milestones@ by Mu&tedar Hhan1 #id he re*rain *rom @invit9ing: 2eo2le to any clandestine movement@ or @instigat9ing: them to violence and destructive activities@B 9I: When Qutb tal7s about @com2lete *reedom,@ @*reedom o* man *rom servitude to other men,@ and @a 2ractical religion@ ,2hrases he uses re2eatedly1, what does he really meanB Can the enemies o* Qutb6s enemies ,e3g3 the *oes o* im2erialism and global ca2italism1 ma7e common cause with *ollowers o* QutbB

Q"-B and -2E 3"S!+3 CO33",+-Y
What does Qutb thin0 o4 the /onte /o unity1 #orary 3usli

(hat it doesn6t exist3 @(he Muslim community has long ago vanished *rom existence3@ It6s @been extinct *or a *ew centuries3@ 4ow can this beB Well, without the @laws o* 8od,@ i3e3 Shari'ah law, Islam does not exist, so today6s Muslims, or 2eo2le who call themselves Muslim, live in not in an Islamic world, but in !ahiliyyah, 2re'Islamic ignorance3 333 the Muslim community has long ago vanished *rom existence 333 we can say that the Muslim community has been extinct *or a *ew centuries, *or this Muslim community does not denote the name o* a land in which Islam resides, nor is it a 2eo2le whose *ore*athers lived under the Islamic system at some earlier time3 It is the name o* a grou2 o* 2eo2le whose manners, ideas and conce2ts, rules and regulations, values and criteria, are all derived *rom the Islamic source3 (he Muslim community with these characteristics vanished at the moment the laws o* 8od became sus2ended on earth3 923.: Eur whole environment, 2eo2le6s belie*s and ideas, habits and art, rules and laws '' is !ahiliyyah, even to the extent that what we consider to be Islamic culture, Islamic sources, Islamic 2hiloso2hy and Islamic thought are also constructs o* !ahiliyyahJ 923;/:

What e5a/tly is wrong with 6Jahiliyyah6 so/iety1
%verything3 !ahiliyyah is everywhere!

@ . 4ast.@ is by .-: + live'and'let'live co'existence with it is unthin7able! Islam cannot acce2t or agree to a situation which is hal*'Islam and hal*'!ahiliyyah 333 (he mixing and co'existence o* the truth and *alsehood is im2ossible3 923-D/: But i4 3usli s #ray.-: "o com2romise with it is tolerable! We will not change our own values and conce2ts either more or less to ma7e a bargain with this "ahili society3 "everJ 923.Qutb6s1 de*inition not a Muslim3 (he 2roblem with these @"ahili@ Muslims is not that they believe in other deities besides 8od or because they worshi2 anyone other than 8od. still they have relegated the legislative attribute o* 8od to others and submit to this authority3 923C. is shir#. although he may claim to 2ro*ess this religion3 9230/: @Ebedience to the Shari'ah. "ahili conce2ts. 6to obey6 is 6to worshi263 333 +nyone who serves someone other than 8od in this sense is outside 8od6s religion. is@ not Aust as im2ortant as the *ive 2illarsM it is @even more necessary than the establishment o* the Islamic belie*@ .the others in &uestion being human beings1.23C. "ahili traditions and "ahili leadershi233 923.1 in ma7ing a Muslim a Muslim3 (hus . or @8od6s rule on earth.2olytheism13 923GI: Lou may not thin7 you are worshi2ing 2riests or 2residents when you obey the regulations or laws legislated by their governance. go on 2a77.: . according to the Shari'ah. #ro/lai that there is no 8od but 8od and 3uha ad is his #ro#het.1 +nyone who does not obey traditional Shari'ah. 333 the Muslim community 333 vanished 333 the moment the laws o* 8od became sus2ended on earth333 923. how /an they be ignorant #agans 9i:e: Jahili.: +nd @acce2ting the sovereignty o* others besides 8od. . but 9that: their way o* li*e is not based on submission to 8od alone3 +lthough they believe in the Knity o* 8od. o* 8od.(he whole world is stee2ed in !ahiliyyah333 923-/'--: !ahiliyyah is evil and corru2t. whether it be o* the ancient or modern variety3 923-D.: We must 333 *ree ourselves *rom the clutches o* "ahili society. but you are3 (he ro2het ' 2eace be on him ' clearly stated that. give al s.as noted above1.

Christian or )ewish logic. without any rhyme or reason and only *or the sa7e o* ex2ressing an o2inion 33313 923-/C'--/: . medicine. 2hysics. com2arative religion 333 sociology . learning and in*ormation@ or @to solve some scienti*ic or legal 2roblem3@ . administration . then it is necessary that the Muslim community be restored to its original *orm3 923.23-?'-C1 @Cut 9themselves: o** *rom !ahiliyyah. the origin o* the li*e o* man 333 2hiloso2hy. not as in*ormation or solutions to 2roblems3 S2eci*ically. astronomy. went wrong1 In deviating *rom the model *or Muslims '' the original @Com2anions o* the ro2het3@ I* Islam is again to 2lay the role o* the leader o* man7ind.excluding statistics and observations1 333 #arwinist biology .23-.@ i3e3 the rest o* the world.23.limited to its technical as2ects1. only the Quran333 . $oman. ersian. and not @*or the sa7e o* discussion.@ a li*e o* @ignorance o* the #ivine Law3@ (hey renounced @the !ahili environment.21 dran7 was the Quran. agriculture. etc3.Where does Qutb thin0 the Umma 93usli /o unity.9which: goes beyond the sco2e o* its observations. the com2anions isolated themselves *rom the !ahiliyyah learning and culture o* non'Muslims and loo7ed to the Qur6an *or orders to obey./1 Qutb later contradicts this *irst 2rescri2tion. and @se2arating 9them:selves com2letely *rom 9their: 2ast li*e. art.' .-1. '' i3e3 anything other than the Qur6an3 @(he s2ring *rom which the Com2anions o* the ro2het .: Knli7e Muslims o* today.@what the +lmighty Creator had 2rescribed *or him@1. industry. technology. military arts333 923-/. the Com2anions 333 +voided any contamination *rom non'Islamic culture or learning '' 8ree7.23-01 $ead the Qur6an as orders to be *ollowed . its ideas and conce2ts3@ . its customs and traditions. biology. declaring it EH to study some Western 7nowledge 333 chemistry. as a source o* @instruction *or obedience and action@ .: although not others! 2rinci2les o* economics and 2olitical a**airs and inter2retation o* historical 2rocesses 333 origin o* the universe. 2oetry.

Q"-B A. they will reach their 2er*ection in the 4erea*ter3 923. is a 2art o* the universal law and is as accurate and true as any o* the laws 7nown as the Nlaws o* natureN333 923CC: and thus can no more be denied than the laws o* gravity or nuclear 2hysics3 Shari'ah is so wonder*ul it achieves the @results@ o* heaven .23. its results are not 2ost2oned *or the next li*e but are o2erative even in this world3 4owever. -2E +S!A3+C =A.23-/?1 So i4 la/0 o4 Shari'ah is the /ause o4 the de ise o4 true +sla and the 3usli /o unity./1 Shari'ah is also a 2art o* that universal law which governs the entire universe. *rom @belie*@ to @administration and Austice@ to @2rinci2les o* art and science3@ . including the 2hysical and biological as2ects o* man3 %ach word o* 8od. a rule or guidance.Y What is so s#e/ial about the Shari'ah.8"A. o* course.-: (he Shari'ah is not Aust a legal code but everything legislated by 8od. how does Qutb #ro#ose to reestablish Shari'ah1 Well.< SHARI'AH !AW. through . it brings @total harmony between human li*e and the law o* the universe3@ It @is the only guarantee against any 7ind o* discord in li*e@ '' whether mental or 2hysical3 It brings both @2eace o* mind@ and @2eace and coo2eration among individuals@3 .: So in addition @the movement@ is needed3 I* through N2reachingN belie*s and ideas are con*ronted. or 68od's rule on earth.though not absolutely 2er*ectly1 right here on earth3 333 when harmony between human li*e and the universe ensues.<. S!A=E. through 2reaching to 2ersuade 2eo2le o* the Shari'ah's necessity. whether it is an inAunction or a 2rohibition. a 2romise or an admonition. but the abolition o* man'made laws cannot be achieved only through 2reaching3 (hose who have usur2ed the authority o* 8od and are o22ressing 8od6s creatures are not going to give u2 their 2ower merely through 2reaching3 923I.6 that it is indis#ensable to +sla 1 5ecause the Shari'ah is 8od6s law.

and behind all these. it has no recourse but to remove them by *orce so that when it is addressed to 2eo2les6 hearts and minds they are *ree to acce2t or reAect it with an o2en mind3 9230D.230D1 Later on he ex2ands the list o* the @many 2ractical obstacles in establishing 8od6s rule on earth@ to include not Aust @the 2ower o* the state.1 So how will these 6 aterial obsta/les6 in the way o4 Shari'ah be re oved1 (hrough *orce3 (his movement uses 333 2hysical 2ower and !ihaad *or abolishing the organiFations and authorities o* the "ahili system which 2revents 2eo2le *rom re*orming their ideas and belie*s but *orces them to obey their erroneous ways 9i3e3 what they want to do: and ma7e them serve human lords instead o* the +lmighty Lord3 923II: N(here is no com2ulsion in religionMN but when the above mentioned obstacles and 2ractical di**iculties i3e3 the 2olitical system o* the state. the military 2ower o* the government . racial. the socio'economic system based on races and classes. class.: Material obstacles is also described as @the 2olitical system o* the state.: Who will do this 4or/e4ul re oving o4 the 6organi>ations and authorities o4 the Jahili syste the whole hu an environ ent61 (he Islamic vanguard *or whom Milestones is written3 ::: 4ow is it 2ossible to start the tas7 o* reviving IslamB It is necessary that there should be a vanguard which sets out 333 and 7ee2s wal7ing on the 2ath.23?. the whole human environment3@ . ?. the social system and traditions@ but @in general. the military 2ower o* the government3@ . the socio'economic system and behind all these. marching through the vast ocean o* .Nthe movementN material obstacles are tac7led3 Foremost among these 9material obstacles: is that 2olitical 2ower which rests on a com2lex yet interrelated ideological.not to mention @the whole human environment@1 are 2ut in 9Islam6s: way. social and economic su22ort 333 For the achievement o* the *reedom o* man on earth '' o* all man7ind throughout the earth '' it is necessary that these two methods should wor7 side by side3 (his is a very im2ortant 2oint and cannot be overem2hasiFed3 923I.

or that they can choose to remain in the servitude o* other human beings. ma7ing some men lords over others3 9230-: . 333 every individual o* this society must moveJ (o se2arate themselves *rom insidious !ahiliyyah against which 333 the struggle goes on and the !ihaad continues until the #ay o* $esurrection3 923-/-'D: Will the vanguard 4or/e others to a//e#t the Shari'ah1 Qutb is ambiguous on this 2oint3 En the one hand Qutb calls *or waiting and delaying the legislation o* the Shari'ah until 2eo2le are @ready@ and have acce2ted Islam3 (he course 2rescribed by 8od *or this religion is 333 *irst. then this *aith tells them.2otentially13 When the number o* 5elievers reaches three. distinct *rom that !ahili society 333 (hese three individuals increase to ten.11 . a distinct Islamic community.!ahiliyyah which has encom2assed the entire world3 923-. and the thousand increase to twelve thousand923-/-'D: 5ecause !ahiliyyah is all around him.23C. belie* ought to be im2rinted on hearts and rule over consciences '' that belie* which demands that 2eo2le should not bow be*ore anyone exce2t 8od or derive laws *rom any other source3 (hen. the hundred to a thousand. various laws will be legislated according to the 2ractical needs o* that society3 923DI: En the other hand Qutb also indicates that some things can6t wait *or belie* to be im2rinted3 Islam gives 2eo2le com2lete *reedom to acce2t or not to acce2t its belie*s 333 4owever this *reedom does not mean that they can ma7e their desires their gods.@Ma7ing some men lords over others. when such a grou2 o* 2eo2le is ready and also gains 2ractical control o* society.: (he Islamic society is born out o* a 9vanguard: movement 333 the origin o* this movement 9is the *aith o*: a single individual 333 +s soon as this single individual believes in this *aith. the Islamic community comes into existence . N"ow you are a community. the ten to a hundred. and its residual in*luences in his mind and in the minds o* those around him. is the 2ractice o* )ews and Christians o* @obeying laws which were made by 333 2riests and rabbis@ and is @not 2ermitted by 8od3@ .@ he ex2lains.

G?: +s *or the severity o* Shari'ah. the wrongness o* charging interest on loans and @*ree mixing o* the sexes@ are mentioned only in 2assing3 resumably he thought his other wor7s ex2lained it well enough or that his audience already 7new enough about it3 Qutb does ma7e it clear Shari'ah does not give a lot o* leeway in what 2eo2le can do333 Its system extends into all as2ects o* li*eM it discusses all minor or maAor a**airs o* man7indM it orders man6s li*e 333 2eo2le should devote their entire lives in submission to 8od. D/: But isn't it true that Qutb e #hasi>ed the 6#ra/ti/al6 nature o4 +sla and the i #ortan/e o4 the Shari'ah serving the needs o4 the 3usli /o unity1 +ccording to one o* Qutb6s de*enders333 333 (he most remar7able as2ect o* Qutb6s boo7 is his insistence on an a22roach in 6stages6 and the re2eated assertion that the need *or im2lementing Islamic law would not arise until every member o* the community had com2letely submitted to the sovereignty o* +llah and by that agreed to live under +llah6s laws3 Laws would then be *ramed merely to serve the needs o* . hearts and souls were 2uri*ied. drin0ers lashed. and adulterers stoned1 Curiously *or someone describing Shari'ah as the solution to all 2roblems o* humanity. social or individual. so there will be very little @occasion@ to 2unish wrongdoers3 Qutb6s goal is to restore the @Muslim community 333 to its original *orm3@ . does divine law or Shari'ah di44er 4ro /urrent an& ade law1 Aren't the #unish ents o4 the Shari'ah rather severe & thieves hands /ut o44.. but must re*er to 8od6s inAunctions concerning it and *ollow them3 923D. s#e/i4i/ally. should not decide any a**air on their own. and the *ear o* 8od6s anger too7 the 2lace o* 2olice and 2unishments3 923.1 5ac7 then 333 333 Austice was 8od6s Austice 333 Morals were elevated. Qutb never gives any exam2les o* how 2articular 2ieces o* @divine@ legislation are su2erior to e&uivalent 7inds o* @man'made@ law3 Laws against *ornication and drin7ing li&uor.23.2ow. the ho2e o* #ivine reward. and the 2leasure o* 8od. and with the exce2tion o* a very *ew cases. Qutb claims that ..almost all1 2eo2le will Aust naturally want to obey 8od6s laws. there was no occasion even to en*orce the limits and 2unishments which 8od has 2rescribedM *or now conscience was the law'en*orcer.

*rom which he cannot deviate by a hair6s breath3 (hus he is inca2able o* ma7ing laws *or a system o* li*e which can be in com2lete harmony with the universe or which can even harmoniFe his 2hysical need with his external behavior3 (his ca2ability belongs solely to the Creator o* the universe and o* men. whose social needs. Who not only controls the universe but also human a**airs. the Shari'ah then 2liantly @satis*9ies:@ by sha2ing itsel* @according to the 2ractical needs@ and @actual conditions@ o* the society3 . and Who im2lements a uni*orm law according to 4is will 923C. according to its *orm.this 6living community o* Islam63 + *ar cry *rom the 2erce2tion that a hand*ul o* Islamists are out to im2ose an essentialiFed Shari'ah on all Muslims and non'Muslims living in Muslim lands3331 @+ Fresh loo7 at Sayyid Qutb6s Milestones@ by Mu&tedar Hhan Qutb describe the Shari'ah in what seems li7e two contradictory ways! ?. @Kni*orm law@ o* utter 2er*ection beyond human com2rehension3 @+s accurate and true as any o* the laws 7nown as the Nlaws o* nature. which has submitted itsel* to the law o* 8od and is weary o* laws emanating *rom other sources. conditions or tem2erament.23DG'DI1 '. various laws will be legislated according to the 2ractical needs o* that society3 923DI: 4ere6s the second! Man cannot understand all the laws o* the universe. when such a grou2 o* 2eo2le is ready and also gains 2ractical control o* society. nor can he com2rehend the unity o* this systemM he cannot even understand the laws which govern his own 2erson. +s a @2ractical religion@ with @general laws@ or @a method *or legislation.@ 2atiently waiting to *ind a @viable society@ o* true Muslims.23C.: 333 that uni*orm law being the Shari'ah3 4ow can 2eo2le legislate @according@ to their @needs@ and at the same time be @inca2able o* ma7ing laws *or a 9harmonious: system o* li*e@B (he con*usion may stem *rom what @2ractical@ means3 Most Westerners will assume it means 2ragmatic as o22osed to doctrinaire '' using what wor7s and throwing out what doesn6t3 5ut when Qutb .N@ and *rom which a human being @cannot deviate by a hair6s breath. then indeed this religion 2rovides a method *or the legislation o* laws according to the needs o* such a society3923DG: +*ter everyone has become a good Muslim then. is a Muslim society. and i* it *inds a viable society which.1 4ere6s the *irst! Islam *irst loo7s at the 2revailing conditions.@ let alone mold or sha2e3 .

23DD1 he6s contrasting it not with in*lexible doctrine. 2oetry readings.and rewriting1 them to get it right.23?I1 +4 Qutb didn't a0e /lear the s#e/i4i/s o4 divine law or Shari'ah.says! @(his is a 2ractical religionM it has come to order the 2ractical a**airs o* li*e. &uestioning whether or not they will serve @the 2ractical needs@ o* society isn6t being 2ractical it6s being blas2hemous3 4ow could they notB 8od would never allow itJ So while saying that @various laws will be legislated according to the 2ractical needs o* that society@ sounds to Westerners as though people will be legislating the laws. and music 2rograms on the grounds that they brought men and women together and distracted 2eo2le *rom religious activities333 333 cou2les were 2hysically attac7ed *or violations o* u2right Islamic moralsM *ilms could not be shownM concerts and evening dance could not be held 333 +ll artistic and cinematic exhibitions were considered N2rovocations against the "ama'atN 333 which were shut down by Islamists wielding iron bars3 90: So when Islamists in Cairo had to chose between Qutb6s contradictory admonishments '' @remove@ the @obstacles@ o* "ahili society @by *orce. @Legislation is a #ivine attributeM any 2erson who concedes this right to such a claimant 9li7e a national 2arliament.@ . state legislature. city council:.23DG1 that aren6t en*orced in real li*e3 Since 8od6s laws are harmonious. cinema. &uasi'heavenly. the @vanguard@ Islamic societies that he tal7ed about have s2routed u2 in his home country %gy2t and 2rovided a number o* exam2les o* their own Shari'ah Nrule3N +t Cairo Kniversity. *or exam2le an Islamist !ama'at Islamiyya grou2 created a Shari'ah Muslim community and shut down theater. it may be Qutb6s use o* the *uture tense is misleading3 Islamic Legislation has already been done '' by 8od3 +s he says elsewhere. but with @abstractions and theories@ . has acce2ted 9the claimant: as #ivine3@ . whether he considers 9the claimant: #ivine or not.@ or wait until @society@ was @ready@ *or true Islam '' they chose the *ormer3 . what have his 4ollowers said or done about instituting Shari'ah1 In the last *ew decades *ollowing Qutb6s death. writing . 2er*ect.

socialiFed them.23. o*ten em2loyed thousands o* such slaves3 While domestic and commercial slaves were relatively well'o**.. but no longer3 For Qutb.1 . and the blac7s em2loyed in the salt mines o* the Sahara and the gold mines o* "ubia3 (hese were herded in large settlements and wor7ed in gangs3 Large landowners.II 4iAra1 (he revolt lasted over -/ years3 D//.Slavery e5isted in the early 3usli so/iety Qutb so ad ired. but the +*ricans who ex2lored *or @material resources@ were FanA slaves wor7ing in mines3 What6s worse is the *orm o* slavery Qutb 2ic7s out *or 2raise was not in any way benevolent or enlightened li7e domestic or military slavery in Islamic lands3 For exam2le.sic1 material resources3 923-/I: 4e doesn6t use the word slaves. or crown lands. the education o* +*ricans in @the Aoy o* wor7@ by early Muslim slave masters is an exam2le o* why the Muslim community should be @restored to its original *orm@J . at the same time Qutb attac7s !ahiliyyah as 2er2etuating @the slavery o* one man over another.@ he enthuses about the use o* +*rican slaves in the early Islamic world as a sort o* benevolent raising u2 o* the 2oor +*ricans3 When Islam entered the central 2art o* +*rica. +# . though it was ore hu anely regulated than in other so/ieties: Qutb didn't #lan to bring that ba/0./// died when the rebels sac7ed and burnt 5asra3 9C: It6s *air to say most Muslims thin7 slavery was acce2table at that time. it clothed na7ed human beings. did he1 Ironically. these lived and died in wretchedness3 E* the Saharan salt mines it is said that no slave lived there *or more than *ive years 333 9?: "or were 2lantation slaves in the (igris and %u2hrates river valley treated tenderly3 OanA there were discontented enough to revolt in C0C'0. though. and taught them the Aoy o* wor7 *or ex2loring . re2orts o* conditions in the Saharan salt mines are that no slave survived wor7ing in the mines *or more than *ive years3 OanA slaves used to drain the salt *lats o* southern Ira&. brought them out o* the dee2 recesses o* isolation.

they are deluded in their thin7ing 333 Second. or 8odBN and. and simultaneously be a *ollower o* this religion 333 923C0: (he 2unishment levied by the traditional Shari'ah against murtad . NIs not the good o* man7ind the criterion *or solving actual 2roblemsBN 5ut again we will raise the &uestion which Islam raises itsel*. SEC.an a2ostate1 li7e you is death3 5etter watch your mouthJ Q"-B O. N8od 7nows and you do not 7now3N (he good o* man7ind is inherent in the #ivine Laws sent down by 8od to the ro2het 333 I* at any time men thin7 that their good is in going against what 8od has legislated.6 but do we really 0now what it was li0e ba/0 then ?A)) years ago1 One thing we do 0now is that three o4 the 4our original /ali#hs & the 6right4ully guided /ali#hs6 && died by assassination@ And even i4 the original Shari'ah was wonder4ul.< -2E FA3+!Y What does Qutb thin0 o4 e5tra rights1 arital se5 and gay 4e considers tolerance towards homosexuality as gross exam2le o* the lac7 o* morality in !ahili society3 . then *irst o* all. WO3E. A.. and which it answers! that is. N#o you 7now better.+' starting to have doubts@ Qutb tal0s about the 6total har ony6 and 6#ea/e and /oo#eration a ong individuals6 and how there were al ost no lawbrea0ers to #unish when the 3usli /o unity was in its 6original 4or . a lot has /hanged in the illenniu or so sin/e 8od's law was a##lied on earth: Berha#s there isn't 7ust one syste o4 Shari'ah bestowed by 8od on hu anity: Wouldn't it be better to use a broader a##roa/h and /onsider adding other #rin/i#les && li0e the good o4 hu anity && as the basis o4 law1 Surely 8od wouldn't disa##rove o4 that@ Qutb has already given your &uestion some thoughtJ (he &uestion may be as7ed. they are unbelievers3 It is not 2ossible *or a 2erson to declare that in his o2inion good lies in going against that which 8od has legislated.

but because o* the danger to state secretsJ@ . thus s2ending her ability *or material 2roductivity rather than in the training o* human beings.0/s . and the u2bringing o* children is the most im2ortant *unction o* the *amily. exclaiming that @these a**airs are not considered immoral because o* sexual deviations. and i* the relationshi2 between man and woman is based on lust. illegitimate sexual relationshi2s.involving Christine Heeler.C1 I* 333 *ree sexual relationshi2s and illegitimate children become the basis o* a society. she 2re*ers to become a hostess or a stewardess in a hotel or shi2 or air com2any. then such a civiliFation is Nbac7wardN *rom the human 2oint o* view. and i* woman is *reed *rom her basic res2onsibility o* bringing u2 childrenM and i*. and the basis o* the *amily is the division o* labor between husband and wi*e. the meaning o* NmoralityN is limited to such an extent that all those as2ects which distinguish man *rom animal are considered beyond its s2here3 In these societies.23.li7e everything else in society1 is Islam3 Family 2reservation cannot inter*ere with the 8od'given right o* divorce. sexy and *lirtatious. are not considered immoral3 923. as it does in the West where 333 .C1 What does Qutb thin0 o4 Wo en's !iberation1 Qutb vehemently o22oses the idea o* a woman being @*reed *rom her basic res2onsibility o* bringing u2 children@ to ta7e a Aob as @a hostess or a stewardess in a hotel or shi2 or air com2any@ . et3 al31.C: Qutb mentions the sex and s2y scandals in 8reat 5ritain o* the -. more valuable and more honorable than the develo2ment o* human character. or N!ahiliN in the Islamic terminology3 923.C: <oes Qutb Es#ouses 6Fa ily =alues61 +t *irst it might a22ear so3 4e certainly thin7s childrearing duties and traditional sex roles leave no room *or sexual e&uality or women6s individual *ul*illment in careers or sex3 I* the *amily is the basis o* the society. even homosexuality.In all modern "ahili societies. then such a society is indeed civiliFed 3333 923.C: 5ut 2re'eminent over the *amily . and the division o* wor7 is not based on *amily res2onsibility and natural gi*tsM i* woman6s role is merely to be attractive. 2assion and im2ulse. on her own or under social demand.23. because material 2roduction is considered to be more im2ortant.common Aobs *or women bac7 then13 (his violates the @division o* wor7@ between the sexes @based on *amily res2onsibility and natural gi*ts3@ .

brother. other than what 8od and 4is Messenger '' 2eace be on him '' have 2rescribed and ex2lained. *ather.A!+S3.A-+O.ESS+=E +S!A3. blood relations3 Islam *reed all humanity 333 *rom the chains o* blood relationshi2s '' the biological chains '' so that they might rise above the angels3 923-. . then I shall do so3N . and then they are also Aoined through blood3 923--C'--.G: 333 a Muslim has no relatives exce2t those who share the belie* in 8od 333 + Muslim has no relationshi2 with his mother. wi*e and other *amily members exce2t through their relationshi2 with the Creator.un*air and cumbersome laws o* marriage and divorce 333 are contrary to the demands o* 2ractical li*e3 923-D. *or exam2le N2rogressive Islam3N 923.D: .23--. and call it. BO!+-+CS$ B.: Islam even re2laces the *amily unit. *asting and 4aAA are regularly observedM and the Islamic society is not one in which 2eo2le invent their own version o* Islam. <E3OC.1 Qutb6s contradiction! I* @the *amily is the basis o* the society@ then @society is indeed civiliFed3@ 5ut @blood relationshi2s@ are @chains@ *rom which @Islam *reed all humanity3@ Q"-B O.anti'Islamic1 *ather.ACY. saying Ni* it is the 2leasure o* 8od and 4is ro2het that I cut o** his head. SOC+A!+S3 What does Qutb thin0 o4 #rogressive +sla 1 "ot much3 (hose who subscribe to what they call @2rogressive Islam@ are not real Muslims3 Islamic society is not one in which 2eo2le call themselves NMuslimsN but in which law has no statusM even though 2rayer.: Qutb relates as exem2lary the story o* +bdullah bin +bdullah bin Kbayy. who o**ered to behead his .O8.

0: What does Qutb thin0 o4 <e Very little3 o/ra/y1 #emocracy in the West has become in*ertile to such an extent that it is borrowing *rom the systems o* the %astern bloc. in which the *inal decisions are re*erred to human beings. his Muslim 5rethren and their 7indred 2ublications all su**ered *rom su22ression at the hands o* "asser6s dictatorshi2. or sel*'determination i* not *ree elections3 5ut he ma7es not mention o* any o* the 2rinci2les commonly held to be necessary *or some 7ind o* democracy3 Qutb does say that any system.23C. e:g: Arab +ll nationalistic and chauvinistic ideologies which have a22eared in modern times. assembly. is doomed to *ailure because it dei*ies human beings by designating others than 8od as lords over men3 (his declaration means that the usur2ed authority o* .: 4e also 2resents as evidence that Christian and )ewish societies are lost to !ahiliyyah 2agan ignorance the *act that they @have established assemblies o* men which have absolute 2ower to legislate laws3@ .N is un*urled across the earth333 923. you might logically ex2ect Qutb to 2ut in a good word *or *reedom o* s2eech.1 +s Qutb. association. 2ress. all the movements and theories derived *rom them have also lost their vitality3 In short. and in which the source o* all authority are human. es2ecially in the economic system. all man'made individual or collective theories have 2roved to be *ailures3 923C: Qutb o**ers as 2roo* o* the *alsity o* nationalism the *act that it would have been much easier *or the ro2het Muhammad to unite +rabs under a message o* +rab nationalism 333 instead o* bearing tortures *or thirteen years due to the o22osition o* the 2eo2le in authority in the 2eninsula 333 5ut the +ll'Hnowing and +ll'Wise 8od did not lead 4is ro2het '' 2eace be on him '' on this course 3333 (he way is not to *ree the earth *rom $oman and ersian tyranny in order to re2lace it with +rab tyranny3 +ll tyranny is wic7edJ (he earth belongs to 8od and should be 2uri*ied *or 8od and it cannot be 2uri*ied *or 4im unless the banner.What does Qutb thin0 o4 nationalis nationalis 1 4e thin7s it an error and a *ailure3 . N"o deity exce2t 8od. under the name o* socialism3 923?: +n o2inion that has not withstood the test o* timeJ 9.

thus elevating themselves to the status o* lords and reducing others to the status o* slaves3 923IC: (he 2ossibility that regular. the +ll'Wise 8od 333 7new that this was not the way3 4e 7new that true social Austice can come to a society only a*ter all a**airs have been submitted to the laws o* 8od333 923.8od be returned to 4im and the usur2ers be thrown out '' those who by themselves devise laws *or other to *ollow. let alone ex2lored3 2ow about Ca#italis 4ates it3 1 the ex2loitation o* individuals and nations due to greed *or wealth and im2erialism under the ca2italist systems are but a corollary o* rebellion against 8od6s authority 333 923--: Loo7 at this ca2italism with its mono2olies.: ::: So/ialis then1 ErganiFing the 2oor to rise u2 against the rich and redistribute wealth e&uitably is also an error. devoid o* human sym2athy and res2onsibility *or relatives exce2t under the *orce o* law333 923-D. as is claimed by the ex2onent o* the materialistic inter2retation o* history o* Nscienti*ic socialism3N (hey are the values and the morals which develo2 those characteristics in a human being which distinguish him *rom the animals and which em2hasiFe those as2ects o* his 2ersonality which raise him above the animals333 923. nor are they N2rogressiveN and changeable. its usury and whatever else is unAust in itM at this individual *reedom. having no roots and stability. o* the voters is never mentioned.0: . rather than lords. as is the Marxist way o* loo7ing at the world3 @#eclaring war against the class o* nobles@ who @mono2oliFed all wealth and commerce@ and @distributing it among the 2oor@ would have been an e**ective way *or Muhammad to gain authority3 5ut the +ll'7nowing. o2en and honest elections might 7ee2 human lawma7ers servants.0'?: 4uman values and human morals are not something mysterious and unde*inable.

daFFling the whole world.and wrong1 attem2ts by Muslims to meet non'Muslims hal*way3 Islamic socialism in 2articular is an intolerable deviation *ollowed only by the @enemies o* man7ind3@ Muslims should not @2ro2ose similarities@ between the Islamic and non'Islamic @system or manners@ .EE<O3 What <oes Qutb thin0 about ra/is 1 Initially he seems to su22ort racial e&uality3 5eing dar7 s7inned. Qutb is disdain4ul o4 Western&style so/ialis or #luralist liberal de o/ra/y.N or sometimes by saying that the current economic or 2olitical or legal systems in the world need not be changed exce2t a little to be acce2table Islamically3 923-DG: 4e is adamant that there is no com2romise to be made on the issue o* nationalism and socialism3 Islam 333 is the only #ivine way o* li*e 333 those who deviate *rom this system and want some other system. or similar corru2t theories are truly enemies o* man7indJ 923I-: Q"-B O. Qutb ex2erienced segregation visiting 2re'civil rights +merica3 In Milestones he tal7s re2eatedly o* the need to end race and class divisions in society as was done in the wondrous era o* early Islam3 9(he original: Islamic society became an o2en and all'inclusive community in which 2eo2le o* various races.AC+A! EQ"A!+-Y and F.such as socialism1 to 2lease them 9non'Muslims: as some do today when they 2resent Islam to the 2eo2le under the names o* NIslamic #emocracyN or NIslamic Socialism. there remaining no trace o* these low animalistic traits 333 (heir intermingling gave rise to a high level o* civiliFation in a very short s2an o* time. and com2ounding the essences o* all the human ca2abilities.OK.: (hus they 9the early Muslims: all came together on an e&ual . whether it be based on nationalism 333 class struggle. ideas and wisdom o* that 2eriod333 923G. languages and colors were members. but how about so e 0ind o4 non&Western +sla i/ <e o/ra/y or +sla i/ So/ialis 1 NIslamic SocialismN and NIslamic #emocracyN are to Qutb exam2les o* unnecessary . BO!+-+CS$ . nations.

G?: +nd not *reedom *or non'Muslims to run their own societies or obey their own religious leaders3 +lthough he6s a bit coy. assembly. with their minds set u2on a single goalM thus they used their best abilities.@ Qutb strongly believes Islam did +*ricans a *avor 2utting them to wor7 as slaves in dangerous mines . Qutb wrote elsewhere that the +mericans6 love o* AaFF music was one . a22arently thin7ing this @develo2ed the &ualities o* their race to the *ullest3@ +s *or +*rican . develo2ed the &ualities o* their race to the *ullest3 923I/: 5ut i* Contem2orary anti'racists may assume e&uality is 2art o* inclusiveness. association. Qutb does not3 4e was angered by +merican whites who thought him racially in*erior.see slavery heading above1.or +*rican'+merican1 culture.@ run li7e a mantra through Milestones3 (he words @*ree.*ooting in the relationshi2 o* love.@ Qutb ma7es it clear Islam must rule Whatever system is to be established in the world ought to be on the authority o* 8od.@ @*reeing@ and @*reedom@ a22ear I0 times by my count in one cha2ter ..@ @com2lete *reedom. should not decide any a**air on their own. deriving its laws *rom 4im alone 9230-: E**ensive !ihaad is re&uired o* Muslims *or the establishment o* the sovereignty o* 8od and 4is Lordshi2 throughout the world 333 and the im2lementation o* the rule o* . that doesn6t mean he doesn6t thin7 others are racially in*erior to him3 #es2ite his tal7 about an @e&ual *ooting in the relationshi2 o* love.@ and the need to do away with @one man6s lordshi2 over another. but must re*er to 8od6s inAunctions concerning it and *ollow them 333 923D.cha2ter *our1 alone3 5ut li7e @inclusive. never using words li7e @con&uest. and it is created by "egroes to satis*y their love o* noise and to whet their sexual desires 333 9-/: What does Qutb thin0 o4 4reedo 1 4e6s all *or it3 hrases about @the *reedom o* man *rom servitude to other men.o* many1 reasons he detested +merica 333 )aFF is his 2re*erred music.@ the word @*reedom@ seems to have a di**erent meaning to Qutb than it does to us3 What does he mean by *reedomB "ot *reedom o* s2eech. or 2ress '' they are never mentioned3 "ot *reedom *or Muslims to choose how to live their lives3 (he Islamic system extends into all as2ects o* li*eM it discusses all minor or maAor a**airs o* man7indM it orders man6s li*e 333 2eo2le should devote their entire lives in submission to 8od.@ @*reeing human beings throughout the earth.

ma7ing some men lords over others3 9230-. only then is every 2erson in that society *ree *rom servitude to others.the #ivine Shari'ah in human a**airs 9230-: (he two @*reedoms@ Qutb tal7s o* are 333 ?. italics added: (his movement uses the methods o* 2reaching and 2ersuasion 333 and it uses 2hysical 2ower and !ihaad *or abolishing the organiFations and authorities o* the !ahili system which prevent people from reforming their ideas and beliefs but force them to obey their erroneous ays and ma7es them serve human lords instead o* the +lmighty Lord3 923II. italics added: When Islam releases 2eo2le *rom this 2olitical 2ressure o* 333 servitude to other men 333 it gives them com2lete *reedom to acce2t or not to acce2t its belie*s3 $o ever this freedom does not mean that they can ma#e their desires their gods% or that they can choose to remain in the servitude o* other human beings. the Shari'ah1M and When.G: '. the *reedom *or non'Muslims to acce2t or reAect Islam the religion . ex2ressed in its obedience to the #ivine Law.tal7ing about1 *reedom is such that even when he is telling us about what will be *orbidden he couches it in terms o* *reedom3 (his religion is really a universal declaration o* the freedom o* man *rom servitude to other men and from servitude to his o n desires. which is also a *orm o* human servitude3 923I?.i3e3 re2lacing non'Islamic government or @servitude to other men@ with Islamic government or 8od6s law. the sovereignty belongs to 8od alone. in a society. only then does he taste true *reedom 333 923. italics added:9-/: So what #oliti/al syste then does Qutb 4avor1 @8od6s rule on earth@ '' the Shari'ah3 (he way to establish 8od6s rule on earth is not that some consecrated 2eo2le '' the 2riests '' be given the authority to rule 333 (o establish 8od6s rule means that 4is laws be en*orced and that the *inal decision in all a**airs be according to these .though not Islamic authority13 When Islam releases 2eo2le *rom this 2olitical 2ressure o* 333 servitude to other men 333 it gives them com2lete *reedom to acce2t or not to acce2t its belie*s3 9230-: Qutb6s love o* . the re2lacement o* the rule o* men with the rule o* 8od .

and *ormerly Sudan1 where there has been considerable and sometimes violent disagreement over Aust what is 8od6s law3 What does Qutb have to sayB 4e only asserts that it won6t be a 2roblem3 8od6s religion is not a maFe nor is its way o* li*e a *luid thing 333 It is bounded by those 2rinci2les which have come *rom the Messenger o* 8od 333 (he 2rinci2les o* I"tihad and deduction are well 7nown.: . and nothing more is re&uired *or its im2lementation exce2t to hear it3 In this manner.: It may not be very 2ractical but it allows Qutb to claim . and gambling was 2roscribed. is a matter o* great interest in Islamist re2ublics li7e Iran . and there is no vagueness or looseness in them3 923CI: %n*orcement o* the law won6t be a 2roblem either3 eo2le will Aust naturally obey Shari'ah as they did in the early days o* Islam 333 the believers learn the Islamic regulations and laws with eagerness and 2leasure3 +s soon as a command is given. and all the habits o* the #ays o* Ignorance were abolished '' abolished by a *ew verses o* the Qur6an or by a *ew words *rom the li2s o* the ro2het '' 2eace be on him 333 923D. drin7ing was *orbidden. the heads are bowed. o* course. usury was 2rohibited.as mentioned above1 that Shari'ah will *ree man *rom the @servitude to man@3 Some have ex2lained the Qutbian system as revolutionary ta7eover o* the "ahili state by the vanguard *ollowed by @IslamiFation *rom above@. 2resumably by encouraging but not *orcing citiFens to be become Muslims3 9-.laws3 923IC: But 8od is not going to des/end to earth to ad inister 2is law@ A/tual hu an beings will have to do it: 2ow are these 7udgesDad inistrators going to be /hosen1 2ow will they handle dis#utes over inter#retation o4 8od's law1 And who will en4or/e their de/isions1 Inter2retation.

on the grounds that the non'Muslim needed to be @*reed *rom servitude to others@3 (he idea that these non' Muslims would su22ort the Muslim con&uerors and obey their laws extending @into all as2ects o* li*e@ . what about the non&3usli s: -hey don't believe in +sla . and sto2 them *rom *ollowing their religious leaders3 resumably those someones will be 2eo2le.@ and those obeying them will be in a *orm o* @servitude3@ It6s this claim '' that to con&uer non'Muslims would be to liberate them '' that6s 2robably Qutb6s most serious absurdity3 (he *irst Muslim con&uerors could ma7e some claim to be liberators i* not @a movement to wi2e out tyranny3@ (heir invasions and con&uests were o* lands were one elite ethnic<religious grou2 .ow wait a inute. what about the real&li4e organi>ation Qutb belonged to when he was alive: 2ow was that run1 For someone har2ing on the intolerability o* @serving human lords@ and the sel*'evident nature o* Islamic legal inter2retation. but governments *reely elected according to the local 2eo2les own constitution. its @in*ertility@ notwithstanding.230. so they won't 7ust naturally obey it: 2ow /an they be 4ree 4ro servitude to other en but 4orbidden to 4ollow #riests and rabbis and 4or/ed to live under a new #oliti/al syste whether they want to or not1 8ood &uestion3 Qutb s2eci*ically claims the con&uest o* non'Muslim states as @a movement to wi2e out tyranny and to introduce true *reedom to man7ind 333 @ .5yFantine 8ree7s or Sassanid ersians1 ruled over others.23D.1. obviously the same can6t be said *or non'Muslims3 Someone will have to ma7e them live under Shari'ah. rather than *ight bac7.1 5ut while at least some Muslims su22ort a return to traditional Shari'ah. and those others sometimes welcomed and su22orted their new Muslim rulers3 5ut today. democracy has s2read widely and there are *ew em2ires in non'Muslim lands3 +n invasion and ta7eover o* most countries adAacent to the Muslim world would mean overthrowing governments made u2 not only o* those non'Muslims6 own countrymen<women.Al I#h an al Muslimun1 was originally run organiFed more along military lines according to a glowing descri2tion o* the original written by a *ellow *undamentalist3 . the Muslim 5rotherhood .. or @men. is hard to ta7e seriously3 Aside 4ro that. so they don't believe in Shari'ah. you might thin7 any Muslim organiFation Qutb belonged to would be run by consensus3 5ut that organiFation.

&3"S!+3S$ -2E WESWhat does Qutb thin0 o4 Westerners who study +sla and the 3iddle East.(here was an undis2uted leader.@ where any decisions made by branches o* the brotherhood could be overruled3 Members were classi*ied by grades .: (he orientalists have 2ainted a 2icture o* Islam as a violent movement which im2osed its belie* u2on 2eo2le by the sword3 (hese vicious orientalists 7now very well this is not true 333 923?I' ?0: .230. *amilies and 2halanxes3@ +ll members had to ta7e a 5a6it or Eath o* allegiance that they would 2rotect the 5rethren even with their lives and have im2licit trust and con*idence in their su2eriors.O. and grou2ed into @nuclei. a0a the Orientalists1 (hey are mentioned re2eatedly.determined by examinations1.230. Shai7h 4assan al 5anna. @treachery@ . en*orcing their decisions even i* they 2ersonally di**ered with them3 +t every meeting each member had to renew his allegiance and re2eatM NI hear and I obey3N (he most trusted active members were thoroughly 7nown to Shai7h 4assan al 5anna3 %ach o* them was re&uired to 7ee2 a daily record o* his activities 333 9-D: So 2ow did these 3usli disagree ents1 Brethren handle theologi/al #isagreements weren6t allowed3 Leader 4assan al 5anna @was determined that al I#h an would never become a battleground o* theological dis2utes3@ 9-G: Q"-B A.23?I1 in s2reading disin*ormation on Islam3 Qutb believed Erientalists had misled Muslims into thin7ing that !ihaad should only be *ought de*ensively. 0.. and had s2read the lie that Islam sometimes converted 2eo2le by *orce3 (here is no room to say that the basic aim o* the Islamic movement was Nde*ensiveN in the narrow sense which some 2eo2le ascribe to it today.< . de*eated by the attac7s o* the treacherous ErientalistsJ 9230. cells.1 or @vicious@ . seated at @8eneral 4ead&uarters.1 or their being @wily@ . almost always in connection with their @shrewdness@ .230G1.

humanity and ha22iness 333 these *acts. when seen in the light o* Islam made the +merican 2eo2le blush3 Let there are 2eo2le '' ex2onent o* Islam '' who are de*eated be*ore this *ilth 333 they search *or resemblances to Islam among this rubbish hea2 o* the West 333 923-D. can @Austi*y its existence3@ Western society is immoral333 Loo7 at this ca2italism with its mono2olies. and the French %m2ire. the West is 2ursuing a @well'thought'out scheme@ to @demolish the structure o* Muslim society.: Western society is o22ressive333 3 3 3 3 consider the 5ritish %m2ire3 It is li7e the $oman society to which it is an heir3 It is based on national greed. unli7e the West. %uro2e and "orth +merica are @bac7ward.@ . by its very nature.23-D. which you call N*ree mixing o* the sexesMN 9-0: at this vulgarity which you call Nemanci2ation o* womenMN at these un*air and cumbersome laws o* marriage and divorce.G: 333materialistic3333 Materialism 333 in the *orm o* material 2roduction 333 is given the highest value@ in @the Knited States and %uro2ean countries 333 such a society is a bac7ward one 333 923. li7e animals.23?1.What does Qutb thin0 o4 the West1 Qutb6s loathing o* the West goes well beyond hatred o* im2erialism or materialism3 (o Qutb. devoid o* human sym2athy and res2onsibility *or relatives exce2t under the *orce o* lawM at this materialistic attitude which deadens the s2iritM at this behavior. its usury and whatever else is unAust in itM at this individual *reedom. the only civiliFed society.0: and its conce2ts a hindrance to clear thin7ing and intuition3 Qutb com2lains that when . in which the 5ritish nation has the leadershi2 and ex2loits those colonies annexed by the %m2ire3 (he same is true o* other %uro2ean em2ires3 (he S2anish and ortuguese %m2ires in their times. are bac7ward societies3 It is necessary to elucidate this great truth3 923. all are e&ual in res2ect to o22ression and ex2loitation3 923I/: Western society is bac7wards 333 (he Islamic society is. with its logic.@ a @rubbish hea2 333 *ilth 333 hollow and worthless@ . in all their various *orms. beauty. -D013 9-I: (hey have nothing to o**er the Muslim world3 (hough aware that Western CiviliFation 2ossesses nothing @which will satis*y its own conscience and Austi*y its existence@ .. which are contrary to the demands o* 2ractical li*eM and at Islam. and the "ahili societies.23--01 which.

and in 2articular with greater hostility toward Islam3 (his enmity toward Islam is es2ecially 2ronounced and many times is the result o* a well'thought'out scheme the obAect o* which is *irst to sha7e the *oundations o* Islamic belie*s and then gradually to demolish the structure o* Muslim society3 923--0: 333 but 7nows it itsel* has nothing to o**er the world 333 the Western world realiFes that Western civiliFation is unable to 2resent any healthy values *or the guidance o* man7ind3 It 7nows that it does not 2ossess anything which will satis*y its own conscience and Austi*y its existence3 923?: It may be this combination o* malicious worthlessness and a areness o* its worthlessness is what ma7es Qutb thin7 *reedom won6t be an issue when the West is con&uered by Islam3 Hnowing that their civiliFation6s @existence@ can6t be @Austi*ied. and not because they are Muslims3@ .@ Westerners will Aust go along with Islamic su2remacy3 But surely so ething is right with Western so/iety@ What about its s/ien/e and te/hnology that raised ?))s o4 illions 4ro #overty and gave it the #ower to /onEuer huge areas o4 the 3usli world1 (he @dynamic s2irit@ o* the West was only borrowed *rom Islam3 Modern %uro2e6s industrial culture did not originate in %uro2e but in the Islamic universities o* +ndalusia and o* the %ast3 (he 2rinci2le o* the ex2erimental method was an o**shoot o* the Islamic conce2t and its ex2lanation o* the 2hysical world. its 2henomena.23-D01 4ow will Muslims ta7e the lead in science and technologyB 5y *ollowing . its *orces and its secrets3 923---: Muslims reached their current state o* bac7wardness @by abandoning Islam.G: It is .: It is trying to destroy Islam3 (he Western ways o* thought 333 9have: an enmity toward all religion.the Western conce2t o* civiliFation was my standard 333 it had 2revented me *rom seeing with clear and 2enetrating vision 9its in*luences: had clouded my intuition and conce2ts3 923.in 2art1 res2onsible *or Muslim society6s @state o* inertia@ and lac7 o* @em2irical sciences@ because o* its invasions o* the Muslim world3@ Some o* the causes which led to this state o* inertia 9in the Muslim world: were 333 the invasions o* the Muslim world by the Christians and Oionists3 %uro2e removed the *oundation o* Islamic belie* *rom the methodology o* the em2irical sciences333 923---'--.

are nothing but a "ahili system at heart. and this system is erroneous.religious duty. which began with the $enaissance in the sixteenth century a*ter Christ and reached its Fenith in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. ./: 5esides. which will insure that blessings *all on all man7ind. and not to bless its mani*estations which have ta7en the garb o* NciviliFation3N 923-D0: Muslims have dri*ted away *rom their religion and their way o* li*e.$emember.such as a s2irit o* *ree in&uiry and &uestioning o* traditional belie*s1 might be necessary *or the develo2ment o* scienti*ic 7nowledge3 (he modern systems 333 which have daFFled many 9Muslims: and have de*eated their s2irits. and not because they are Muslims3 (he argument which Islam 2resents to 2eo2le is this! Most certainly Islam is better beyond imagination3 It has come to change !ahiliyyah.: . we needn6t 2ay so much attention to science! (he 2eriod o* resurgence o* science has also come to an end3 (his 2eriod.many made by *reethin7ing Muslims or non'Muslims1 had anything to do with a sense o* religious @res2onsibility@ such as he 2lans to ins2ire o* *uture Muslim scientistsM or whether something other than duty.1 +nd by *ollowing the Shari&ah. and have *orgotten that Islam a22ointed them as re2resentatives o* 8od and made them res2onsible *or learning all the sciences 333 923--.23--. not to continue itM to elevate man7ind *rom its de2ravity. does not 2ossess a reviving s2irit3 923C: . its hidden *orces and the treasures concealed in the ex2anses o* the universe3 923. 9and: leads in an easy manner to the 7nowledge o* the secrets o* nature. this was written in -.0?J1 Qutb has nothing to say about how and why the !ahili West develo2ed its science and technology so *ar beyond what it @stole@ *rom Muslim +ndalusia and @the %ast@ hundreds o* years agoM about whether the *amous groundbrea7ing scienti*ic discoveries o* the golden age o* Islam . which tells Muslims @Islam a22ointed them as re2resentatives o* 8od and made them res2onsible *or learning all the sciences3@ . hollow and worthless in com2arison with Islam3 (he argument that the 2eo2le living under it are in a better condition than the 2eo2le o* a so'called Islamic country or NIslamic worldN has no weight3 (he 2eo2le in these 9Muslim: countries have reached this wretched state by abandoning Islam.

E!+8+O. but dangerous deceivers and enemies o* IslamJ %nemies o* the 5elievers may wish to change this struggle into an economic or 2olitical 333 struggle so that the 5elievers become con*used concerning the true nature o* the struggle and the *lame o* belie* in their hearts becomes extinguished 333 We see an exam2le o* this today in the attem2ts o* Christendom to try to deceive us by distorting history and saying that the Crusades were a *orm o* im2erialism3 (he truth o* the matter is that the latter'day im2erialism is but a mas7 *or the crusading s2irit. those who claim Western im2erialism W+S"6( motivated by religion are not Aust in error.to Qutb1 really Aust a mani*estation o* religion3 It6s an ex2ression o* the same anti'Islamic !ahiliayyah hatred that launched the Crusades3 In *act.&3"S!+3S$ C2. since it is not 2ossible *or it to a22ear in its true *orm.O. What does Qutb thin0 o4 Gionis 1 Qutb mentions Oionism as 2artially to blame *or the bac7wardness o* the Muslim World3 3 3 Some o* the causes which led to this state o* inertia 9in the Muslim world: were 333 the invasions o* the Muslim world by the Christians and Oionists3 %uro2e removed the *oundation o* Islamic belie* *rom the methodology o* the em2irical sciences 333 923---'--. as it was 2ossible in the Middle +ges3 923-I.: 333 but mainly his interest is in the )ews3 ::: So what does Qutb thin0 o4 the Fews1 It6s hard to overstate Qutb6s hatred *or )ews3 4e teaches that )ews are . FEWS and F.'-0/: Q"-B and .+S-+A. it6s the other way around3 Western im2erialism in the Middle %ast is .EE<O3 OF .S.+s Qutb's hatred 4or Western /ivili>ation and devotion to +sla i/ revival really 7ust an e5#ression o4 his loathing o4 Western o##ression and i #erialis stated in ter s ore dear to his heart && i:e: in religious vo/abulary1 "o.

@ including a 2lan to ta7e control o* all the @wealth o* man7ind3@ 4e warns against the conce2t that @culture@ outside o* @science and technology@ is @the human heritage3@ (his is dangerous because ex2laining the 2ur2ose o* man and his historical role in 2hiloso2hical terms 333 is one o* the tric7s 2layed by world )ewry.cons2iring to @2enetrate@ governments all over the world to @2er2etuate their evil designs. #ur7heim and the )ew )ean' aul Sartre3 9-?: What does Qutb thin0 o4 Christians and Fews being 6Beo#le o4 the Boo06. @ eo2le o* the 5oo7@ . animal sexuality. s2reading ambiguities. es2ecially the limitations im2osed by *aith and religion. and they still do in the guise o* Erientalists3 (he 2u2ils o* the latter *ill today the 2ositions o* the intellectual li*e o* the countries whose 2eo2le call themselves Muslim3 (heir aim is clearly shown by the rotocols 9o* the %lders o* Oion:3 (he )ews are behind materialism. 9Muslims who thin7 the )ews and . whose 2ur2ose is to eliminate all limitations. the destruction o* the *amily and the dissolution o* society3 rinci2al among them are Marx.(ur battle !e s1. creating sus2icions3 (hey do li7ewise today3 (hey have 2lotted and they go on 2lotting against this nation3 4undreds and thousands have in*iltrated the Muslim world. so that )ews may 2enetrate into body 2olitics o* the whole world and then may be *ree to 2er2etuate their evil designs3 +t the to2 o* the list o* these activities is usury.ahl-ul-#itab1 +$% 2olytheists . Ma'ra#atuna ma'a al-'ahud . di44erent 4ro #olytheists1 (hat contrary to usual Muslim belie*. or when they ma7e 2ro2osals concerning Muslim society or Muslim 2olitics or economics. they became li7e those who Nassociate others with 8odN 9i3e3 2olytheists: 9230/: )ews and Christians are also dangerous to listen to or deal with because o* their @ultimate designs@ on Islam3 When the )ews and Christians discuss Islamic belie*s or Islamic history. Qutb ex2ands on his theory333 ith the +t the beginning the enemies o* the Muslim community did not *ight o2enly with arms but tried to *ight the community in its belie* through intrigue.mushri#13 333when the )ews and Christians NdisobeyedN 8od. Freud. the aim o* which is that all the wealth o* man7ind end u2 in the hands o* )ewish *inancial institutions which run on interest3 923--/'---: In another boo7 o* his.

so why does Qutb /onsider the #olytheist1 When Qutb tal7s about @others@ that Christians and )ews are @associating with 8od. according to the Shari'ah. when the )ews and Christians NdisobeyedN 8od. NWhatever their 2riests and rabbis call 2ermissible.: (his is not 2ermitted by 8od because it clear that obedience to laws and Audgments is a sort o* worshi2 9230/: Ebedience to clerics then ma7es 2eo2le o* the boo7 2olytheists3 +s evidence.Christians are: doing it with good intentions. nor did they worshi2 themM but they gave them the authority to ma7e laws. or with the wel*are o* the Muslims at heart or in order to see7 guidance and light 333 are indeed deluded3 923--G: In su22ort o* this Qutb &uotes several ayat and a hadith warning about the danger o* eo2le o* the 5oo7 leading Muslims in @to the state o* unbelie*@ and o* being untrustworthy '' N#o not as7 the eo2le o* the 5oo7 about anything3 (hey will not guide you3N . obeying laws which were made by them 9and: not 2ermitted by 8od333 923C. so to is *ollowing @laws@ legislated by 2riests and rabbis3 Sayth Qutb! )ews and Christians did not consider their 2riests or rabbis as divine. subAect to all the 2enalties such 2eo2le are deserving o* under traditional Islamic Law3 .6 whi/h 3usli s do not /onsider true onotheis be/ause it 6asso/iates others with 8od:6 But Fews don't believe in a divine trinity. and thus they worshi2 them3N 9Since: the ro2het '' 2eace be on him '' clearly stated that.23--D1 Christians believe in the trinity o4 6Father. Qutb &uotes a hadith .shir#1.narrative1 by (irmidhi where the ro2het says! N(hey 9the eo2le o* the 5oo7: have ta7en their rabbis and 2riests as lords other than 8odN +di re2orts! @I said. N(hey do not worshi2 their 2riests3N 8od6s Messenger re2lied. they consider as *orbidden. they acce2t as 2ermissibleM whatever they declare as *orbidden. they became li7e those who Nassociate others with 8odN 9230/: )ews and Christians are thus 2olytheists.)esus and the 4oly S2irit13 )ust as legislating and *ollowing any law not in the traditional Shari'ah is 2olytheism . Son and 2oly S#irit.@ he means religious o**icials. Nto obeyN is Nto worshi2N3 (a7ing this meaning o* worshi2. not deities .

his Islamic movement @does not use com2ulsion *or changing the ideas o* 2eo2le@ and @Islam does not *orce 2eo2le to acce2t its belie*3@ . or that they can choose to remain in the servitude o* other human beings.1 because @Nto obeyN is Nto . 9as long as they are: obeying the laws o* the 9Islamically'ruled: country which are themselves based on the #ivine authority3 9230-: (he idea that Islam ever did use com2ulsion is . not to say downright contradictory3 En the one hand! In an Islamic system there is room *or all 7inds o* 2eo2le to *ollow their own belie*s.he says1 sim2ly a lie concocted by Western scholars3 (he orientalists have 2ainted a 2icture o* Islam as a violent movement which im2osed its belie* u2on 2eo2le by the sword3 (hese vicious orientalists 7now very well this is not true333 923?I' ?0: So under the Qutbian syste then Christians and Fews would be able to /ontinue #ra/ti/ing their religion1 Welllll 333 again Qutb is ambiguous.23C.With his very di view o4 the religious #rede/essors o4 +sla does Qutb tea/h that Christians and Fews should be 4or/ed to abandon their religion1 "o3 +s Qutb re2eats several times.as 2reviously ex2lained1 re*ers to the obedience o* Christians and )ews to their religious leaders3 (hough these eo2le o* the 5oo7 @did not consider their 2riests or rabbis as divine@. 9as long as: obeying the laws o* the 9Islamically'ruled: country which are themselves based on the #ivine authority3 9230-: +nd again! when Islam releases 2eo2le *rom this 2olitical 2ressure o* 333 servitude to other men 333 it gives them com2lete *reedom to acce2t or not to acce2t its belie*s3 5ut in the next breath adds! 4owever this *reedom does not mean that they can ma7e their desires their gods.23I01 In an Islamic system there is room *or all 7inds o* 2eo2le to *ollow their own belie*s. 9and: not 2ermitted by 8od@ . obeying laws which were made by them. they @gave them the authority to ma7e laws. ma7ing some men lords over others3 9230-: @Servitude@ .

@ but must be 2re2ared to *ight against such countries3 +ny 2lace where the Islamic Shari'ah is not en*orced and where Islam is not dominant becomes the 4ome o* 4ostility .N@ and @this religion has come to annihilate such 2ractices 333@ .230/1 +s usual this raises all sorts o* &uestions Qutb does not begin to answer3 Setting aside the issue o* whether )ews and Christians *ollow their religious authorities any more slavishly than say the Muslim 5rotherhood *ollowed *earless leader Shai7h 4assan al 5annas.G'I: . is not a 2iece o* landM the nationality o* the Muslim. is not the nationality determined by a government 333 striving is 2urely *or the sa7e o* 8od. by which he is identi*ied. without someone to ma7e rulesB Would non'Muslim religious leaders be allowed to give +"L instruction or adviceB +nd what might be in store *or these 2riests and rabbis whose @2ractices@ are in line *or @annihilation@B #oubtless Christians and )ews will be wondering i* the banning o* any rules made by non'Muslim religious leaders isn6t Aust a way o* wea7ening or deca2itating com2eting religions. while allowing Qutbians deny any com2ulsion in religion and wor7 themselves u2 into a rage over the alleged slander o* @vicious orientalists3@ Q"-B and BEACEF"! CO&EC+S-A.O.)ar-ul$arb1 333 + Muslim will remain 2re2ared to *ight against it. Canada or /ountries in Euro#e && or 4or that atter any /ountry no atter who's in the a7ority && where it's /lear ost #eo#le do not want to live under Shari'ah and don't thin0 it's divine law1 + true Muslim not only has no loyalty to any country @where the Islamic Shari'ah is not en*orced.&3"S!+3S 2undreds o4 illions o4 3usli s live in /ountries where they are a inority: 2ow does Qutb thin0 3usli s should relate to non&3usli a7ority /outnries li0e +ndia. the ":S:.CE with . whether it be his birth2lace or a 2lace where his relatives reside or where his 2ro2erty or any other material interest are located3 (he homeland o* the Muslim.worshi2. in which he lives and 9u2on: which he de2ends. how exactly can a religion *unction without rules. *or the success o* 4is religion and 4is law 3333 923-.

which will be guarantee that they have o2ened their doors *or the 2reaching o* Islam 333 923?D: 5ut in reality.: +nd Qutb6s Islam is .by de*inition1 @dangerous to 9!ahiliyyah6s: 2ersonality. i* Islam leaves them alone in their geogra2hical boundaries to continue the lordshi2 o* some men over others and does not extend its message and its declaration o* universal *reedom within their domain3 5ut Islam cannot agree to this unless they submit to its authority by 2aying !i*yah. Muslims today must *ollow the model o* @non'de*ensive@ !ihaad war that recogniFes only two 7inds o* non'Muslims! .@ as his brand o* Islam aims to eliminate !ahiliyyah3 eace with non'Muslim society violates the duty o* !ihaad3 Qutb gives an elaborate ex2lanation o* how . and that some 2eo2le should not be lords over others3 9230D: eace with non'Muslim society is un*easible because !ahiliyyah won6t surrender without a *ight 3 !ahiliyyah is always ready and alive to de*end its existence consciously or unconsciously3 It crushes all elements which seem to be dangerous to its 2ersonality3 .contrary to what some @treacherous Erientalists@ have claimed1.i3e3 the Law o* the society1 be 2uri*ied *or 8od. )ar ul-Islam '' is in a condition o* 2eace or whether it is threatened by its neighbors3 When Islam strives *or 2eace. live in #ea/e with non& 3usli states1 4y2othetically 2erha2s3 It may ha22en that the enemies o* Islam may consider it ex2edient not to ta7e any action against Islam. its obAective is not that su2er*icial 2eace which re&uires that only that 2art o* the earth where the *ollowers o* Islam are residing remain secure3 (he 2eace which Islam desires is that the religion .What does Qutb thin0 o4 #ea/e1 Can 6+sla 6 9i:e: Qutb's ideal +sla i/ ho eland. no3 + situation where an Islamic and non'Islamic state live in 2eace*ul coexistence and do not threaten each other is a @su2er*icial 2eace3@ (rue 2eace does not and cannot exist unless @the obedience o* all 2eo2le@ is @*or 8od alone3@ It is immaterial whether the homeland o* Islam '' in the true Islamic sense. that the obedience o* all 2eo2le be *or 8od alone.23G01 (hose who have usur2ed the authority o* 8od and are o22ressing 8od6s creatures are not going to give u2 their 2ower merely through 2reaching3 923IC'.

23?I1 But isn't Jihaad 4or de4ensive #ur#oses these days1 Wasn't e5#ansive Jihaad 7ust a te #orary #hase o4 +sla 1 +s mentioned above.: 333 (hose who say that Islamic !ihaad was merely *or the de*ense o* the Nhomeland o* IslamN diminish the greatness o* the Islamic way o* li*e 333 923?-: 4e admits that Muslims were restrained *rom *ighting *or a brie* time @in Mecca and in the early 2eriod o* their migration to Medina.according to Qutb1 because .@ but that *ollowing this @Muslims were 2ermitted to *ight. non'Muslims who wish *or 2eace*ul co'existence with true Muslims must submit to Muslim authority3 +llowing a non'Muslim society to exist 2revents any Muslims within that society *rom really 5%I"8 Muslims .?. those who are @at war@ with Islam3 .as ex2lained above1 Muslims cannot really be Muslims without Shari'ah rule3 (he Muslim community 333 vanished 333 the moment the laws o* 8od became sus2ended on earth 923. there6s no room *or any land on earth not ruled by Shari'ah3 Islam has the right to ta7e the initiative333this is 8od6s religion and it is *or the whole world3 It has the right to destroy all obstacles in the *orm o* institutions and traditions 333 it attac7s institutions and traditions to release human beings *rom their 2oisonous in*luences.230D1 +ccording to this classi*ication system. those who submit to Muslim authority. and '.@ which as we have seen includes Christians and )ews3 . de*eated by the attac7s o* the treacherous ErientalistsJ 9230.: +nd in any case. then they were commanded to *ight against the aggressorsM and *inally they were commanded to *ight against all the 2olytheists. Qutb angrily and re2eatedly denounces the idea that !ihaad war @is merely *or de*ense.@ blaming this *oolish misconce2tion on those so'called Muslims @de*eated by the attac7s o* the treacherous 9Western: ErientalistsJ@ (here is no room to say that the basic aim o* the Islamic movement was Nde*ensiveN in the narrow sense which some 2eo2le ascribe to it today. living under Shari'ah and 2aying a s2ecial tribute tax .230G1 . which distort human nature and curtail human *reedom3 .called #himmies1.

: 333 com2letely di**erent *rom what they are use to 333 (he change *rom this !ayiliyya. China and all countries surrounding Muslim land to be the e&uivalent o* ersia and the 5yFantine %m2ire be*ore they were con&uered by Muslim armiesB It certainly sounds li7e it3 Q"-B and the F"-".+4 there are 4our stages o4 Jihaad 9H?I non&violent. and HAI violently e5#ansionist.1 #oes this mean Qutb considered India.230. siblings. Kmar +li.230D1 +nother time he 2oints out that limiting !ihaad to a de*ensive war ma7es no sense because it6s not what the *irst $ight*ully 8uided Cali2hs . which has encom2assed the earth.al-Khulafaa +ashidun1 '' +bu 5a7r. to Islam is vast and *ar'reachingM the Islamic li*e is the o22osite o* all modes o* "ahili li*e. 9where @2olytheists@ re2laces @aggressors@ as the enemy:M the initial or middle states are not a22licable3@ .E What /an 6true6 3usli s loo0 4orward to 4ollowing Qutb's #ath 9a//ording to Qutb. H'I 4ighting o#tional. HJI de4ensive 4ighting andatory.230-1 Its system extends into all as2ects o* li*eM it discusses all minor or maAor a**airs o* man7indM it orders man6s li*e 923D. /an 3usli s /hoose whi/h o4 the 4our to use de#ending on the /ir/u stan/es1 "ot according to Qutb3 @Enly the *inal stages o* the movement o* )ihaad are to be *ollowed.1 + total way o* li*e333 (he word religion includes more than belie*M NreligionN actually means a way o* li*e. children 333 . either in its conce2t or in the modes o* living which are derived *rom this conce2t3923-D/: 333 *ree o* relations with . whether ancient or modern3 923-DG: Islam cannot acce2t any mixing with !ayiliyya. %uro2e.@ .non'vanguard1 2arents.. or Ethman '' did3 (hey would never have re*rained *rom attac7ing and invading @the $oman and ersian 2owers@ sim2ly because they were @satis*ied@ that the @$oman and ersian 2owers@ had no aggressive intensions and @were not going to attac7 the +rabian 2eninsula3@ .

mischievous. then saw his head until it s2lit in twoM or would comb with iron combs between his *lesh and bones 333 923-I?: in their attem2t to ma7e a man renounce Islam3 9(his: exam2le 333 in which the 5elievers have no esca2e and the unbelievers are not 2unished 333 must not be *orgottenJ 333 5elievers '' the callers toward 8od '' should remain *ully aware that they can also meet this extreme end in the way o* 8od. @We will not be satis*ied until the whole world submits to the authority o* true Islam .: .: 333 and with much 2ain and su**ering3 While you might ex2ect Qutb to end his tract on an ins2irational note.333 a Muslim has no relatives exce2t those who share the belie* in 8od333 923--.23-I?1 and loo7 *orward to @traversing this road ever 2aved with s7ulls and limbs and blood and sweat3@ . @(his is the $oad. watching how the 5elievers su**ered and writhed in 2ain3 (hey sat there to enAoy the sight o* how *ire consumes living beings and how the bodies o* these noble souls were reduced to cinders and ashes 333 shouts o* mad Aoy would esca2e their li2s at the sight o* blood and 2ieces o* *lesh3 923-I/: or o* other torturers who 333 would catch a man. criminal and degraded 2eo2le 333 sat by the 2it o* *ire.23-IC1 What /an non&3usli s loo0 4orward to i4 Qutb's #ath is 4ollowed 9a//ording to Qutb. di**iculty.@ Qutb 2re2ares his *ollowers *or !ihaad with some vividly gruesome imagery3 4e reminds them not to *orget the story o* the Ma7ers o* the it. bury him hal*way in a hole dug in the ground. and they have no say in it3 923-II: 5elievers must be 2re2ared *or a @li*e until death in 2overty. torment and sacri*ice333@ . *rustration. im2osed by *orce and made u2 o* laws .as de*ined by me1.@ the dots to *ollow are *ew and close together! 8od6s Lordshi2 over the whole world 333 9+: vast ocean o* !ahiliyyah 333 encom2ass9es: the entire world 923-.a373a3 the traditional Shari'ah1 over anything and everything you do.1 +lthough Qutb never summariFes his vision by saying. he does something very di**erent3 In his concluding cha2ter. where sadistic heathens burned believers to death 333 333 arrogant. 2roclaiming the glories o* the new world to come in order to encourage his readers to Aoin the Islamic vanguard.

when seen in the light o* Islam made the +merican 2eo2le blush3923-D. 333 at this materialistic attitude 333 at this 333 N*ree mixing o* the sexesMN at this Nemanci2ation o* womenMN at these un*air and cumbersome laws o* marriage and divorce.23II1 333 by a vanguard that believes its Western enemy is simultaneously cons2iring to destroy Islam and aware Islam is su2erior 333 the Western world realiFes that Western civiliFation is unable to 2resent any healthy values *or the guidance o* man7ind3 It 7nows that it does not 2ossess anything which will satis*y its own conscience and Austi*y its existence3 923?:1 Loo7 at this ca2italism 333 at this individual *reedom. and that it is a universal 2roclamation o* *reedom o* man *rom servitude to other men.: 333 which will eliminate obstacles including virtually everything non' Islamic 333 (here are many 2ractical obstacles in establishing 8od6s rule on earth.9!ihaad: struggle is not a tem2orary 2hase but an eternal state '' an eternal state. which distort human nature and curtail human *reedom3 923?I: @We understand the true character o* Islam. 333 and the im2lementation o* the rule o* the #ivine shari'ah in human a**airs3@ 9230. the social system and . 333 these *acts. such as the 2ower o* the state. the establishment o* the sovereignty o* 8od and 4is Lordshi2 throughout the world.: Islam is not @a geogra2hically'bound system 333 Islam came into this world to establish 8od6s rule on 8od6s earth 333 923?G: 333 im2osed by *orce 333 Whenever Islam stood u2 with the universal declaration that 8od6s Lordshi2 should be established over the entire earth 333 the usur2ers o* 8od6s authority on earth have struc7 out against it *iercely and have never tolerated it3 It became incumbent u2on Islam to stri7e bac7 and release man throughout the earth *rom the gri2 o* these usur2ers3 9230I: 9(he Islamic movement to reestablish Islam: uses 333 2hysical 2ower and !ihaad *or abolishing the organiFations and authorities o* the "ahili system which 2revents 2eo2le *rom re*orming their ideas and belie*s but *orces them to obey their erroneous ways and ma7e them serve human lords 9non'Shari'ah government: instead o* the +lmighty Lord3 . as truth and *alsehood cannot co'exist on this earth 333 9230I: Islam has the right to ta7e the initiative 333 this is 8od6s religion and it is *or the whole world3 It has the right to destroy all obstacles in the *orm o* institutions and traditions 333 it attac7s institutions and traditions to release human beings *rom their 2oisonous in*luences.

Freud.munaafiqeen1 or enemies o* Islam.I-' . in general. #ur7heim and the )ew )ean' aul Sartre3 9-C: What /an 6Jahili6 3usli s loo0 4orward to i4 Qutb's #ath is 4ollowed 9a//ording to Qutb.traditions and. they . including the 2aying o* tribute tax and end to *ollowing o* religious regulations o* 2riests and rabbis3 %nemies o* Islam 9must: submit to 9Islam6s: authority by 2aying !i*yah 923?D: *reedom 9to re*use to be a Muslim: does not mean that 9non'Muslims: can ma7e their desires their gods. but whether @them@ re*ers only to non' Muslim non'Muslims or also to 2eo2le who consider themselves Muslims but who Qutbians do not. or that they can choose to remain in the servitude o* other human beings.since they are 2art o* the @whole human environment@1. the destruction o* the *amily and the dissolution o* society3 rinci2al among them are Marx.1 (his is the grou2 lying directly in the 2ath o* Qutb6s movement3 Li7e everyone else their lives will be dee2ly changed by true Islam and subAect to @*orce@ by the movement .: 333 and re&uire obedience to Shari'ah laws. animal sexuality.Western civiliFation has a @crusading s2irit@ to attac7 Islam1 333 to im2lacable hatred . whether they li7e it or not3 What ha22ens i* they do not heed Qutbian 2reaching and become @true@ Muslims.*or )ews13 (he )ews are behind materialism. is unclear3 Qutb says Islam @gives them com2lete *reedom to acce2t or not to acce2t its belie*s@ 9230-:. will ma7e a big di**erence3 I* Qutbians declare Muslims who resist their 2reaching hy2ocrites .including those running the government1 to vary *rom distrust 333 N#o not as7 the eo2le o* the 5oo7 about anything3 (hey will not guide you3N .23--D1 333 to hostility 333 . as have modernist Muslims 7illed or threatened with by death %gy2tian Islamists in the last decades3 htt2!<<english3alAaFeera3net<"$<exeres<?550IGF-'?#IC'G%?#'5. ma7ing some men lords over others3 9230-: (hose who do not convert to Islam should ex2ect the attitudes o* Muslims they meet .the @hy2ocrites@1 will be subAect to 2unishment under shari'ah law. the whole human environment3 Islam uses *orce only to remove these obstacles so that there may not remain any wall between Islam and individual human beings3 923?.

mischievous./+G0-#3htm htt2!<<www3derechos3org<wi<.: (wo movements dedicated to renewing Islam and overthrowing the %gy2tian government '' al-!ihaad al-Islami./: (he most direct connection between Milestones and terrorism is through Qutb6s brother Muhammad and al'Qaeda6s second'in' command +yman al'Oawahiri3 Muhammad *led to Saudi +rabia a*ter his brother6s execution and there carried on the torch.. a 2arliamentary s2ea7er .. or u/h o4 +sla i/ terroris 1 Much o* what6s been described above . one list o* Qutb'ins2ired grou2s included al-!ihaad al-Islami% alTa#fir a al-$i"rah% !und Allah% al-!ihaad% Tan*im al-. and over -// %gy2tian 2olice3 htt2!<<gemso*islamism3tri2od3com<timeline=egy2t3html 9. but 2revent the masses o* !ahili Muslims *rom becoming true Muslims3 (he @arrogant.C/s and . who saw o2en Muslims6 heads be*ore burning them alive is undoubtedly a re*erence to the !ahili authorities o* %gy2t who tortured Qutb and his Muslim 5rotherhood brothers in 2rison3 Many Muslims in %gy2t . @editing and 2ublishing@ Sayyid6s boo7s and 2reaching his ideas39./: In Saudi./s. and 2articularly !ama'at Islamiyya '' have been res2onsible *or hundreds o* deaths in %gy2t during the -. their im2act comes *rom trying to3 In the decades *ollowing Qutb6s execution more than a *ew grou2s devoted to armed !ihaad made news with terrorist attac7s3 5y the mid -. including those o* a 2resident . a head o* the counter'terrorism 2olice .+nwar Sadat1.MaAor 8eneral $aou* Hhayrat1.$i*aat el'Mahgoub1.<"3 What has been the i #a/t o4 Milestones1 +s it res#onsible 4or so e.e3g3 new military con&uests o* non'Muslims and AiFyah tax1 has not come to 2ass since Qutb6s death and isn6t li7ely to3 Kto2ian revolutionary visions li7e Milestones seldom ma7e an im2act *rom *ul*illing their 2romises. @one o* Muhammad Qutb6s students and ardent *ollowers was +yman al' .aniyyah alAs#ariyyah '' all violent insurgent grou2s3 9-.and elsewhere1 have already been slain by Islamists *or *ar less3 A<<E. criminal and degraded 2eo2le@ o* Milestones last cha2ter.C+0%./s.<egy2t3html What is certain is that lives o* the @authorities o* the !ahili system@ will be in real danger3 (hese 2eo2le not only *alsely declare themselves Muslims. doFens o* %uro2ean tourists and %gy2tian bystanders.

23?1 4uman beings have only two ways to go! 8od or Satan .shura13@ 9.rule by 2er*ect law.23--?1M good or evil . Milestones doesn6t s2eci*y what 7ind o* @*orce@ he thin7s will be necessary3 Some say Qutb was s2ea7ing in meta2hor3 9. the West<+merica. or the evil and corru2tion o* everything non'Muslim3 (here6s no middle ground3 Surely with all this in the balance. harmony.@ 9.23-IG1M a wonder*ul world . 2eace. believing Islam must @*irst 333 be im2rinted on hearts and 333 consciences@ .D: Oawahiri has 2raised Qutb in his writings3 Oawahiri has been called @Aihad6s main ideologist3@ (he leadershi2 o* his al-!ihaad al-Islami organiFation @com2rises the maAority o* al Qaeda6s ruling council . but out o* natural wic7edness '' torturing Muslims to death *or *un3 (here will be Westerners 2lotting cons2iracies against Islam as they have since the Crusades3 +nd there will be )ews trying to control the world so that they can ma7e everyone miserable3 What dishoonor can there be in 7illing 2eo2le this de2ravedBJ Violence shouldn6t be necessary *or long3 In *ighting their most 2ower*ul enemy.continued1 death o* Islam itsel* hangs in the balance3 +ction is not Aust vital but urgent3 @Man7ind today is on the brin7 o* a 2reci2ice3@ .C: (he worldview o* Milestones ma7es terrorism '' i3e3 extreme violence to demoraliFe the terrorists6 target with *ear '' com2elling in several ways3 (here is what Qutb and Qutbians believe 333 • (he sta7es are huge3 (he li*e or .and Austi*ied13 Qubtists will be u2 against a !ahiliyya *ighting not only to 2reserve itsel*. Muslims should not hesitate to use violence i* necessary3 Violence will be necessary .0: or attribute connections between terrorism and Qutb mainly to Western commentators3 9.Oawahiri@. 9. Muslims needn6t worry too • • .?: It could be the terrorists mentioned overshadow a larger but less media'attracting grou2 who 2atiently. discoveries o* nature1. he and other Aihaadis went into exile in +*ghanistan where he met bin Laden and became his @mentor3@ Oawahiri emerged as the new head o* al-!ihaad al-Islami and merged his grou2 into al Qaeda3 9.23DI1 be*ore Shari'ah rules3 5ut most commentators do attribute at least some blame to Qutb3 9.G: (here is some dis2ute over how much o* this 2osthumous Islamic terror was ins2ired by Qutb3 +*ter all..I: +nd o* course some Qutb su22orters either deny Milestones instigated @violence and destructive activities. 2eace*ully 2reach.Following the crac7down on terrorism there.: who a*ter returning to %gy2t went on to Aoin the above mentioned al-!ihaad al-Islami.

//-3 9D: Social !ustice in Islam by Sayyid Qutb.and not out o* wic7ednessJ13 . and the *rustration o* Qubtists with !ahiliyya6s *ailure to convert or colla2se in the *ace o* the necessity o* true Islam does not auger well *or 2eace3 .I. 9.Stoc7holm. not more3 (he one Islamist revolution the Muslim world has seen .: What ma7es Qutbism wonder*ul ma7es it im2ossible3 %veryone will be *ree *rom @servitude to other menM@ not even Islamic Audges or 2olice will be needed to u2hold 8od6s law3 (his 2romise has and will ins2ire and motivate *ollowers and Austi*y Qutbism .or God / the Islamist attac# on America3 8ranta. Sweden1. .ery *ew Westerners thin7 their civiliFation has no redeeming value3 .although somewhat di**erent in ideology than Qutbism1 has 7e2t *ew o* its 2romises3 .:Lisbeth Lindeborg )agens 0yheter.ury . nonsensical rationaliFation *or aggression and domination3 • • (his collision o* Qutbist 2assion and e&ually determined !ahili resistance.ery *ew +mericans @blush with embarrassment@ at the in*eriority o* their society in com2arison with Islam3 (hey do not see themselves engaged in cons2iracy against Islam3 (he vast maAority will see Qutbian 2romise o* @*reedom@ as a *limsy. .much about a long bloody cycle o* violence and retaliation that advocates o* nonviolence are always warning about3 (his enemy realiFes it6s no good3 It6s not li7ely to 2ut u2 much o* a *ight when it sees the *irmness o* its Islamic enemy and is reminded that all it has to do to ma7e the world a better 2lace is cease its wic7edness and acce2t true Islam3 333 and what they do not believe but will have to con*ront anyway! • Many Muslims will resist3 Most Muslims sim2ly don6t thin7 Islam is dead or that they aren6t Muslims3 Few are enthusiastic about the government that rules over them but only a minority these regimes are #ufr3 "or is the heartland o* the Muslim world *amous *or its enthusiasm *or revolt and revolution3 9.attem2ts1 to overthrow governments3 5ut even many 2ious Muslims living in Muslim lands who thin7 their government should be more Islamic will have serious doubts about it3 It6s li7ely to sound more li7e a *anatic6s uto2ian 2i2edream '' a reci2e *or chaos and *or less *reedom. translated by )ohn 4ardie. .e4eren/es 9-: $uthven. Malise A . translation .//.See What 4a22ens When Islamists (a7e owerB ' (he Case o* Iran1 Virtually all "on'Muslims will *ight Qutbism . Ect3 ..

author o* al-. -.oices of +esurgent Islam.C.3 9?: Lewis. along with resentment o* communist o22ression. @Summary o* re2ort by the %gy2tian Shura@ . merely describing Milestones as @encom2assing his radical. and the democratisation and liberalisation o* the *ormer Soviet bloc countries3 (he most success*ul o* the new democracies were those . the myth o* Qutb6s violent nature continues 3333 9I: 4asan. Harachi.. S3 5adrul. . and 4asan (urabi in Sudan. Ex*ord Kniversity ress.@ with non'%gy2tians and %gy2tian radicals all embracing it3 Leaders and sym2athiFers o* the 5rethren outside %gy2t.which at the time Milestones was 2ublished was the Islamist organiFation o* the +rab world1. $onald. 23-G 9C: Segal. 5ernard. all assimilated Sayyid Qutb6s analysis o* the Muslim 2redicament to one degree or another. "ovember -C. a7istan. and has been growing without interru2tion *or some time3@ #emocracy s2read through South +merica in @the late -. 6assion for Islam / shaping the modern Middle 7ast / the 7gyptian e8perience.:@(he number o* liberal democracies currently stands at an all'time high.00 2o2ular media labels him a terrorist. . such as Sa6id 4awwa and Marwan 4adid in Syria. he is considered the intellectual god*ather o* Esama bin Laden3 (he .. . in service to the 5ritish Crown3 #es2ite all o* these labels being inaccurate and misguided. Fathi La7an in Lebanon.+M@ 333 %ven a*ter his %xecution in -.$e2ort established by a bi2artisan committee o* Congress in .. Islamic ublications International.D. 23-.Al Ahram 5ee#ly. antiestablishment claims based on his inter2retations o* the Qur6an./. Syed 4utb Shaheed.//I '' -/!D. . Scribner.?/s and early -.C/s3 %conomic malaise in the -. -+lgar goes on to say that within the Muslim 5rotherhood .23GG1 9. Islamic history. and more recently.CD see also htt2!<<www3disin*o3com<site<dis2layarticleC0. -. the legacy o* Sayyid Qutb has hel2ed give rise to a new generation o* radical activists no longer a**iliated to the 5rethren! N+bd al'Salam FarA. edited by )ohn L3 %s2osito.C/s3 (his was *ollowed by nations in %ast and South +sia by the mid' to late -. and the social and 2olitical 2roblems o* %gy2t3@ htt2!<<en3wi7i2edia3org<wi7i<Sayyid=Qutb 90: .revised and introduction by 4amid +lgar. Islam's 9lac# Slaves / The (ther 9lac# )iaspora 3 Farrar. ..///. -. only some o* the %gy2tian old guard @disavowed Qutb6s ideas o* Islam.'-. $ashid al'8hannushi in (unisia. now incarcerated in the Knited States3 9G: @(he "ature o* Islamic $esurgence@ by Hhurshid +hmad *rom . . -.03html @Qutb! 5etween (error +nd (ragedy 2osted by alex on )an -/.//-. cited in Caryle Mur2hy. Wi7i2edia also 2ulls its 2unches on Qutb6s ideology.//.//G has de2icted Qutb6s 2hiloso2hy as one o* holy war and the 7illing o* innocents3 "ever does the re2ort &uote Qutb as ever saying that carnage was an answer to the condition o* his countrymen that were still living under 5ritish occu2ation and. +ace and Slavery in the Middle 7ast / an $istorical 7nquiry% Ex*ord Kniversity ress. the associated end o* the Cold War.ridat al-Gha'ibah 1The 0eglected )uty2% a text that su22osedly ins2ired the assassins o* +nwar Sadat to actM the grou2 labeled by the %gy2tian authorities al-Ta#fir a &l-$i"rah 33333 the amor2hous but evidently 2ower*ul grou2ings 7nown as al-!ama'at alIslamiyyah 1The Islamic Societies23 and their su22osed mentorM Shay7h NKmar N+bd al'$ahman.C/s. Straus and 8iroux. International Islamic ublishers. contributed to the colla2se o* the Soviet Knion.the u22er house o* 2arliament1. and oriented their movements accordingly3 Within %gy2t itsel*.

/s.-.@ by )ohn Calvert. and they are now members or candidate members o* the %uro2ean Knion3 (he democratic trend s2read to some nations in +*rica in the -. belie* ought to be im2rinted on hearts and rule over consciences '' that belie* which demands that 2eo2le should not bow be*ore anyone exce2t 8od or derive laws *rom any other source3 (hen.. cumbersome divorce laws. *rom being able @to acce2t or reAect it with an o2en mind3@ .@ Al-+isala. *rom above im2ose IslamiFation on %gy2tian society that had deviated to +rab nationalistic ideologies3@ *rom! @Sayyid Qutb@ by +hmed %l'Hadi htt2!<<www3icna3org<tm<greatmuslimD3htm 9-D: )ameelah.230D1 Shari'ah will wait until 2eo2le are @ready@ and have acce2ted Islam3 (he course 2rescribed by 8od *or this religion is 333 *irst. well'documented and sym2athetic descri2tion o* Qutb6s visit to +merica &uotes Qutb o*ten on the scandalous sexual behavior and materialist triviality o* +mericans.@ and establishing @a new social.1.geogra2hically and culturally closest to western %uro2e.0-. Shai#h $assan al 9anna and Al I#ha an al Muslimun . then obviously some 2eo2le are going to be made to acce2t Qutb6s Islam whether they want to or not3 +nd these enemies are angered by much more than what Qutb and Qutbists believe. economic and 2olitical system3 9-./th=century=waves=o*=democracy 9-/: Qutb. individual *reedom. but never on their racism3 9--: It6s hard not to get the *eeling that Qutb is at least bordering on the misleading when tal7ing about *reedom3 • Qutb tal7s re2eatedly about giving 2eo2le @*reedom@ *rom @servitude@ and wanting to remove @obstacles@ that @2revent 2eo2le *rom listening and acce2ting Islam@ ..23D. materialism.CI!C1 (he enemies o* the believers o22ose Muslims @only because 9the believers: believe in 8od3@ .C3 It maybe Qutb a2ologists overstate Qutb6s indignation with +merican<Western racism3 In his longest and angriest rant against the West in Milestones .I-c1 @+mn'Ica allati ra6ayt! *i miFan al'insaniyya. they are angered by what Qutbists are doing or trying to do! use 2hysical 2ower and "ihaad to annihilate the current social. usury. by &uoting the Qur6an! @(he enemies are angered 9with believers: only because o* their *aith3@ .. "o3.: @Sayyid Qutb recommended that a revolutionary vanguard should *irst establish an Islamic state and then.23DI1 • Qutb ex2lains the mentality o* those who will o22ose his Islamic vanguard. Qutb rubbishes ca2italist mono2olies. Sayyid . -DI?'0/.230-13 +nd i* that system @extends into all as2ects o* li*eM 333 discusses all minor or maAor a**airs o* man7ind@ .230-1.23-D. *ree mixing o* the sexes. . Islam and :hristian-Muslim +elations% Vol3II. &uoted in @N(he World is an Knduti*ul 5oyJN! Sayyid Qutb6s +merican %x2erience. i* the Qutb agenda includes using @2hysical 2ower and !ihaad *or abolishing the organiFations and authorities o* the !ahili system. when such a grou2 o* 2eo2le is ready and also gains 2ractical control o* society. 223C?'-/D!. Maryam.his *orm o*1 Islam3 En the other hand. most 2rominently in South +*rica3@ htt2!<<en3wi7i2edia3org<wi7i<#emocracyP. various laws will be legislated according to the 2ractical needs o* that society366 .23-I?1 +ll this ma7es sense i* Qutb6s 2olitical agenda is sim2ly one o* removing any 2rohibitions on *reedom to 2reach and *reedom to acce2t . but says nothing about racial discrimination3 Calvert6s long. economic and 2olitical system 333 a*ter annihilating the tyrannical *orce@ o* non'Islamic government .///. G?1 333 which it does.

that no one would wor7 *or the government.Mohammad Lusu* Hhan.e 6rophete et 6haraon by 8illes He2el1 In other words. *ormer Muslim 5rethren member and 2rison convict3 Firm believers in Qutb6s contention that "ahiliyya had overta7en the Muslim world. 2ublic a2ologies *rom the 2ress. 23D-0'?1 So either way Al-I#h an can6t be said to re*lect Qutb6s descri2tion o* true Islam3 9-I: Qutb6s direct ex2osure to the West was the two and hal* years he s2ent in the Knited States a*ter World War II3 5ut des2ite this length o* time and the *luency in %nglish that he gained. rabbi. -. .?'C13 Qutb doesn6t . Al-I#h an may have lost at least some o* its regimentation. semi'na7ed6 woman attem2ted to seduce him to @engineer his moral colla2se@ and tem2t him astray *rom Islam. .when +merican settlers hadn6t actually made it across the +22alachian mountains13 (he +merican $evolution itsel* was @a destructive war led by 8eorge Washington3@ +nd *ighting in the western Knited States with "ative +mericans was still underway while Qutb was studying in +merica . -. .N+bd al'Fattah al'Hhalidi. and the more @2ositively traditional@ belie*s o* the 5rotherhood6s @2etite bourgeois@ and @rural immigrant@ grassroots3 . .ID1.notwithstanding Qutb6s con*idence in there being no vagueness or looseness in the well'7nown 2rinci2les o* IAtihad and deduction13 Its s2lit was between al 5anna6s original doctrine *ollowing the re*ormism o* Muhammad +bduh.the release o* 0/ o* its members *rom Aail. . an agricultural engineer. becoming more a @*luid mass movement rather than a well'structured 2olitical organiFation@ according to Malise $uthven3 5ut without al 5anna. etc31 in return *or his release3 Following the governments noncom2liance and al'#hahabi6s murder.Islam in the 5orld.+merica that I Saw1! +merica 2ushed Latinos south toward Central +merica be*ore the $evolutionary war .or even honestly 2ortrayed1 +merican history. who would go to wor7 in the +rabian 8ul*. Lahore a7istan.23C?. .@ including a consensus on what Islam or Shari'ah was. that de*ectors *rom the cult would be 7illed and *inally that al'#hahabi would be 7idna22ed and 7illed i* necessary3 .CG.it had actually ended decades be*ore Qutb was born13 Some o* Qutb6s stories about his tri2 are also &uestionable '' sounding more li7e attem2ts to ins2ire outrage among his Muslim readers than to tell what actually ha22ened3 Qutb told his %gy2tian biogra2her that an @+merican agent@ in the *orm o* a Ndrun7en. he had even more 2ower over his *ollowers than al' 5anna had over his. C. one night on his voyage *rom +lexandria to "ew Lor73 .//.G. its *ounder al 5anna had been assassinated in retaliation *or the assassination o* the %gy2tian rime Minister and other violent attac7s3 Without al 5anna. customs.C?.-. the Society o* Muslims ./// %gy2tian 2ounds in cash. or behavior3 Qutb gave his version o* +merican history *or +rab readers in an earlier boo7. or mainstream Imams have over theirs3 9-G: ibid3 23-C 5y the time Qutb Aoined Al-I#h an . the Society 7e2t a2art *rom other %gy2tians and lived communally in rented *urnished *lats3 (hey gained notoriety and mountains o* bad 2ress when they 7idna22ed *ormer minister Muhammad al'#hahabi in )uly -. society members were rounded u2 and interrogated3 Musta*a6s M3E3 came to light and loo7ed very much li7e that o* the archety2ical cult leader o* Western countries! deciding *or his members who would marry who. there is serious &uestion as to whether he understood . Amri#a allati +a'aytu. the 2ublication o* Musta*a6s boo7.?? and made numerous demands . -.C/ 23-0'-? +nother exam2le o* Qutbists6 de2arture *rom the Qutb doctrine o* servitude'to'no' man was one o* the *irst Islamist grou2 to ma7e news in %gy2t *ollowing the execution o* Qutb.. a7a al-Ta#fir a'l$i"ra3 It was headed by Shu7ri Musta*a. and certainly much more than "ahili 2riests.)ama6at al'Muslimin1. enguin. Malise $uthven. it also lac7ed @a coherent set o* 2olicies ca2able o* being translated into action. Sayyid 4utb.

May 0. sexual behavior he witnessed was animal'li7eB Li7ely in 2art *rom his own 2sychological 2roAections3 4e describes the @+merican girl@ as being well ac&uainted with her body6s seductive ca2acity3 She 7nows it lies in the *ace.or had been1. 8ina Holata. a o2inion columnist and literary critic but was not a member o* the Muslim 5rotherhood . li7e animals. Sayyid 4utb 230/'0-1. . either had no 2remarital intercourse or 2remarital intercourse only with their *uture husband.I.0 @6(he world is an unduti*ul boyJ6! Sayyid Qutb6s +merican ex2erience@ by )ohn Calvert3 Islam < :hristian Muslim +elations3 March .G.@ who allegedly told an a22alled Qutb that (he issue o* sexual relations is 2urely a biological matter3 Lou 333 com2licate this matter by im2osing the ethical element on it3 (he horse and mare. why he thought the +merican government would *eel a need to undermine the *aith o* 2rominent Muslims by sending out women agents to have sex with them.as the (imes6 continued story headline 2ut it1.+merica that I Saw1.Sayyid Qutb @+mn'lca allati ra6ayt! *i miFan al' insaniyya. -D/-'03 -/I'0M N+bd al'Fattah al'Hhalidi. +merican Kniversity o* . there*ore live a com*ortable.23C?.//D htt2!<<www3n2r3org<tem2lates<story<story32h2BstoryIdQ-. -.. D/13 5ut very *ew +mericans had any 7nowledge o* or interest in the I7hwan at the time o* al'5anna6s death3 #iligent readers o* The 0e 'or# Times would 7now only that a @(errorist Leader Is Hilled In Cairo@ . %dward E3 Laumann. sim2le. May 0.5ear in mind that Qutb was a li*e'long bachelor. Qutb s2uttered @at this behavior. -. Amri#a allati +a'aytu.. . noted *or his sic7ly.undamentalism/ the Ideological and 6olitical )iscourse of Sayyid 4utb by +hmad S3 Moussalli.I#h an al-Muslimoon1 or any other 2olitical organiFation3 Qutb maintains that em2loyees at a hos2ital in Washington #C he was convalescing in @o2enly reAoiced@ at news o* the assassination o* I7hwan Su2reme 8uide 4asan al'5anna3 . .///3 v3 --.source! 4amudah.G1:.DD and -.0 11 Maybe also *rom an encounter with @a young +merican women at the 9educational: institute in 8reeley.//D htt2!<<www3n2r3org<tem2lates<story<story32h2BstoryIdQ-. and thirsty li2s3 She 7nows seductiveness lies in the round breasts. Little 5rown and Co3. . Sayyid 4utb. in this case +merican.ex2lain why he thought the women was an +merican agent. 2ale a22earance and introverted 2ersonality and there is no evidence o* his ever having had a sexual relationshi23 . according to the "ational 4ealth and Social Li*e Survey . which you call N*ree mixing o* the sexes3N@ 4ow did he get the idea that the Western. and that 5anna and the I7hwan were behind a series o* assassinations including that o* the %gy2tian 2remier a month and a hal* earlier3 %ven when he stayed in a small town were alcohol was illegal Qutb *ound little good to say about contem2orary +merican culture3 +merican males were @brutish3@ +merican women were vixens3 +mateur wrestling matches were @bloody@ and @monstrous@3 8rass *ront lawns o* in small towns symbolic o* +merica6s materialism and sel*ishness3 All Things :onsidered. &uoted in All Things :onsidered. Se8 in America / A definitive Survey by $obert (3 Michael. . &uoted in +adical Islamic .*rom Amri#a allati +a'aytu. and in ex2ressive eyes. CE.Al-+isala. .-? 2ages1 9-0: +t a time when an overwhelming number o* +mericans married as virgins or only had 2remarital sex with their *uture s2ouse. the *ull buttoc7s. the bull and the cow 333 do not thin7 about this ethical matter 333 and.+merica that I Saw1.C?. )ohn 43 8agnon.@ .ID?. . n3. 9source! *or exam2le over C/> o* the women surveyed who were born between -.ID?. and in the sha2ely thighs. and easy li*e3 . slee7 legs '' and she shows all this and does not hide it3 . or why they would target him3 +t the time o* his tri2 Qutb was.

D Caryle Mur2hy.... es2ecially in conservative 2ost'war +merica. -. middle'aged *oreigner. 8illes He2el.@(he hiloso2her o* Islamic (error. 23?G.. his 2ious disa22roval intensi*ied by her @body6s seductive ca2acity3@ 9-?: Sayyid Qutb.3 9. . or claims to be a Muslim is declared to be im2ure 333 For those who inter2ret Islamic law literally and rigorously./:8illes He2el..C: Qutb de*ined the times as Aahiliyya3 333 It meant that the members o* society as a whole were not longer viewed as Muslims3 In Islamic doctrine.1 Ebviously most +mericans. -. -G?. 23D-I1 and Lebanon . 230D 9.@ www32whce3org<&utb3html 9. Saudi +rabia. . le*t unclear his use o* the term "ahilyya and its dire conse&uence.//G. . 8illes He2el..@ 9essay: -.@ 0e 'or# Times. . 66Le ro2hRte et haraon ! aux sources des mouvements islamistes. Kniversity o* ennsylvania ress. .G: Oawahiri 2aid homage to Qutb in his boo7 Knights under the 6rophet's 9anner *rom! The 5ar for Muslim Minds / Islam and the 5est. -. state bin Laden was a student o* Muhammad Qutb but say nothing about Oawahiri3 9. @Ma6ra7atuna ma6a al'Lahud. (he ole Star o* %gy2tian Sala*ism. 23. March . -. o* Muslims as the ty2ical +merican attitude seems *ar more li7ely to have been either *iction or an undergrad6s attem2t to *rea7'out this u2tight.//.CI by %mmanuel Sivan13 "ot sure about (anFim al'Faniyyah al' +s7ariyyah3 9. called ta#fir3 it means that one who is.//03 9.$uthven. enguin.0: S3 5adrul 4asany Syed 4utb Shaheed. Islamic ublications International. )edda. who died be*ore he could *ully ex2lain his theories. .. did not<would not agree with this3 What Qutb 2assed on to thousands..D: *rom! The 5ar for Muslim Minds / Islam and the 5est. .66 Seuil.GG al!ihaad al-Islami% !ama'a al !ihaad% and al-Ta#fir a al-$i"rah were %gy2tian terrorist grou2s3 (here was a !und Allah in %gy2t .?: htt2!<<en3wi7i2edia3org<wi7i<Qutb circa early . Malise Islam in the 5orld. .I-3 ublished in boo7 o* the same name 9Ma'ra#atuna ma'a al-'ahud:. !ihad / the Trail of 6olitical Islam by 8illes He2el.//G. -..: More on Qutb and Oawahiri htt2!<<www3answers3com<to2ic<sayyid'&utb other commentators. 6assion for Islam / Shaping the Modern Middle 7ast/ the 7gyptian 78perience.C. 66$adical Islamic Fundamentalism! the Ideological and olitical #iscourse o* Sayyid Qutb66. 2erha2s eventually hundreds o* thousands.//D1.//G.. 5el7na2 ress.//G.C =nderstanding Terror 0et or#s by Marc Sageman.5eirut. li7e aul 5erman. 23DI.?/3 9-C: ibid3 9-. 5el7na2 ress. one who is im2ious to this extent 333 is condemned to death3 Qutb. Kniversity o* ennsylvania ress.C. =nderstanding Terror 0et or#s by Marc Sageman. 23I9.I: @Sayyid Qutb.. ?. -. -GC 9.: +hmad S3 Moussalli. ta#fir3 . . -. 23 . 23?. 5el7na2 ress. c. 23-?G.-: The 5ar for Muslim Minds / Islam and the 5est by 8illes He2el.//G.D. "ew Lor7 ! Scribner. 23 GG3 9.nd ed3..mentioned in +adical Islam / Medieval Theology and Modern 6olitics. +merican Kniversity o* 5eirut. this is a very serious accusation.

C/ 23-0'-? He2el.He2el.. +ace and Slavery in the Middle 7ast / an $istorical 7nquiry% Ex*ord Kniversity ress. Lahore a7istan. N4omosexuality in the +rab and Moslem. .//G . edited by )ohn L3 %s2osito. -. a Muslim lawyer *rom Sa2in.CI.ID?. &uoted in Islam as a Moral and 6olitical Ideal by Muhammad I&bal 23G. 23D-'. 8iles. A . #avid.CD All Things :onsidered. Sayyid.1 Bibliogra#hy +hmad.//D htt2!<<www3n2r3org<tem2lates<story<story32h2BstoryIdQ-... . ed3 S3 Li7os7y./.?/3 Qutb. . $uthven. =nderstanding Terror 0et or#s by Marc Sageman. !ihad% The Trail of 6olitical Islam% 5el7na2 ress o* 4arvard Kniversity. -. Hhurshid. Islamic ublications International.//G Lewis. Ex*ord Kniversity ress.//. +merican Kniversity o* 5eirut. (he Mother Mos&ue Foundation in -. -. Moussalli. Amri#a allati +a'aytu. Sageman.0'. -. Harachi. 23.///. Sayyid. Marc. 8ranta. -. )ameelah. Saudi +rabia. Syed 4utb Shaheed. Maryam. .C. Mohammad Lusu* Hhan. See also! Coo7. 8illes.. translation revised and introduction by 4amid +lgar. S3 5adrul. !ihad / the Trail of 6olitical Islam by 8illes He2el He2el. =nderstanding !ihad by #avid Coo7. 5el7na2 ress. Qutb. translated by )ohn 4ardie. Milestones. The 5ar for Muslim Minds / Islam and the 5est by 8illes He2el.or God / the Islamist attac# on America. Shai#h $assan al 9anna and Al I#ha an al Muslimun. . Sayyid. -. @(he "ature o* Islamic $esurgence@ *rom .. +adical Islamic . 8illes. -. Kniversity o* ennsylvania ress. May 0. 5ernard. Ma'ra#atuna ma'a al-'ahud.. )edda. .undamentalism/ the Ideological and 6olitical )iscourse of Sayyid 4utb by +hmad S3 Moussalli.. Sayyid.//I Sivan. Social !ustice in Islam by Sayyid Qutb.+merica that I Saw1.//. Malise.333 (he young wished to brea7 o** all contact with the state and 2unish the society *or its 2assive acce2tance o* an im2ous government 333 *rom! . Kniversity o* Cli*ornia ress. Lale Kniversity ress. . +adical Islam% Medieval Theology and Modern 6olitics. +hmad S3. -. %mmanuel. Qutb..: (o &uote the old maxim! NForty years o* tyranny are better than one year o* anarchy3N .oices of +esurgent Islam.N in :oming (ut. .*rom (artushi.ury . a7istan.CQutb. International Islamic ublishers.0 1 4asan.? 9.

. .//-. $onald. Straus and 8iroux. Islam's 9lac# Slaves / The (ther 9lac# )iaspora3 Farrar.Segal.