A PRACTICAL SUMMER
DELHI TRANSCO LIMITED
(220 KV GRID SUBSTATION AT SARITA VIHAR)
NATIONAL POWER TRAINING INSTITUTE (NR)
BADARPUR, NEW DELHI
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
MR. RAM SINGH (A.M.)
MR. HANS KUMAR (J.E.)
AVNISH KUMAR KATIYAR
B.TECH. POWER ENGINEERING (6th SEM.)
ROLL NO. – 02315303710
I am highly indebted to Mr. Ram Singh (Asst. Manager, 220 KV DTL S/S Sarita Vihar)
for their valuable support without which the project could have not been worked out the
way it has. I am very much thankful to Mr. Hans Kumar (J.E. 220 KV DTL S/S Sarita
Vihar) who helped me immensely in understanding the basics and complexities of along
with additions that made the quality of report better.
I would also like to extend a note of thanks to all other employees of Delhi Transco
Limited who helped me directly or indirectly in successful completion of my project.
Last but not the least, I would like to thank my parents & all my fellow trainees who
have been a constant source of encouragement & inspiration during my studies & have
always provided me support in every walk of life.
AVNISH KUMAR KATIYAR
1.1 Introduction to Delhi Transco Limited
1.2 DTL Network
1.3 Grid Diagram of Delhi
2. Introduction to Substation
3. 220/66/11 KV Substation Sarita Vihar
3.1 Single Line Diagram
3.2 Description of SLD
3.3 Parts of Substation
3.4 Equipments used in Substation
4. Description of Substation Equipments
4.1 Transmission Lines
4.2 Bus Bar
4.4.2 Power transformer
4.4.3 Parts of Power Transformer
4.4.4 Transformer Cooling
4.4.5 Protection devices
4.4.7 Technical Specifications
4.5 Instrument Transformer
4.5.1 Current Transformer (CT)
4.5.2 Potential transformer (PT)
4.5.3 Capacitor Voltage Transformer (CVT)
4.6 Circuit Breaker (CB)
4.6.1 Types of CB
4.6.2 Technical Specification
4.7 Capacitor Bank
4.9 Wave Trap
5. Protection System
5.1 Over Voltage Protection
5.1.1 Ground Wire
General Safety Precautions
11.1.3 Maintenance Schedule
9.5 Thermo Scanning
10.4 Primary and back up protection
9.7 Earthing System
6.2 SF6 Circuit Breaker
9.3 Relays and protection circuit
.4.4.2 Over Current protection
5.4.2 Earth Screen
PLCC and SCADA System
Operation and maintenance of Substation
9.3 Lightning insulator
5.4 Maintenance Schedule Table of
9.2 Maintenance activity
8.3 Earth fault protection
5.1 Oil filled power transformer
9.1.5 Transmission lines
is also committed to promote energy conservation not only in its own establishments but
also in the entire Delhi. which is one of the
lowest transmission loss level in the country. DTL has been responsibly playing its role in establishing.84 per cent in 200-203 to 1. Transmission loss level has been
reduced from 3.1 AN INTRODUCTION TO DELHI TRANSCO LIMITED
Delhi Transco Limited.38 per cent in 2009-10. Added to that. To ensure adequate and efficient power
supply.78%. Plus the vgision-2021.
After unbundling of DVB the distribution sector has been handed over to private
companies while the generation and transmission are still with the government. The company has done a lot to educate and sensitize the
general public about the need of energy conservation. DTL has been continuously upgrading its biggest achievement has been its
ability to handle the highest ever peak demand of 4720 MW in July 2010. Over
the years. being the focus of socio-economic and
political life of India. The modern technologies are
being implemented in DTL by way of constructing GIS sub stations and laying XLPE
220 KV cable by employing cable link techniques and would be the largest network of
its kind in India.
Being the capital of India and the hub of commercial activities in the Northern Region.
coupled with the prosperity of population. Delhi is assuming increasing eminence among the great cities of
the world. as a State Transmission Utility of the National Capital.
. DTL has also been
assigned the responsibility of running the State load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) which is
an apex body to ensure integrated operations of power system in Delhi. a successor company of erstwhile Delhi Vidhyut board. came
into existence on 1st July 2002. The total
availability of its transmission system stood 98.
operating and maintaining the EHV (Extra High Voltage) network. INTRODUCTION
1. DTL has evolved as a most dynamic performer. aiming to make Delhi global Metro politic and world
class city demand greater infrastructure to enrich many services of infrastructure
development. the load requirement of Delhi has been
growing at a much faster pace. Upgrading.1. keeping pace with the
manifold challenges that confront the ever increasing demand-supply power situation
It contains the line diagram of the DTL network which connects all the networks of the 5
DISCOMs working in the Delhi region.
GRID DIAGRAM OF DELHI
the maintenance is also elaborate and the noise of those transformers
is also a big issue. the role of substation in the power system to
address the above mentioned issues is pivotal: the substations are the center of the
“nervous. musculoskeletal and cardiovascular” subsystems of the entire power
system “body”. The electric
power produced at the power stations is delivered to the consumers through a large network
of transmission & distribution. etc. distribution substation. switching substation
and some other types of substation. In addition. The
“cardiovascular” subsystem role is to sustain normal power flow and control the
synchronization.2. and may be changed
in voltage in several steps. control and
protection devices) which are installed in control house. To allow for flexibility in connecting
the elements. There are different kinds of substation such as
Transmission substation. collector substation. The CT saturation and open secondary CT circuit safety issue are primarily of
concern in such devices.
The substation includes the primary equipment (such as circuit breakers. Oil-insulated transformers usually have big size and have potential explosion
problems. transformers. INTRODUCTION TO SUBSTATION
Electrical power is generated. gas. transformers. generators and loads. transmission and distribution
system where voltage is transformed from high to low or in reverse using transformers. The “nervous” subsystem role of the substation is to allow the central system
to sense the operating states. a large number of breakers and disconnectors are used in order to allow
for maintenance and repair with a minimum of interruption.
instrument transformers. view status of the equipment.
In the primary side.) and the secondary equipment (monitoring. which occupy large space. The “immune” subsystem role is to develop self-defense means and
sustain self healing strategies. Electric power may flow
through several substations between generating plant and consumer.
An electrical substation is a part of an electricity generation. circuit breakers are used as high power switches. or air. The breakers also need an insulation media which may be oil.
Conventional current and potential transformers (CTs and VTs) are used to convert the
primary current and voltage to an operation range (0-5A and 115V) for metering and
protection. The “musculoskeletal” subsystem role is to maintain the
system topology. Oilinsulated transformers are used to step-up or step-down the voltage level for purposes
needed. The transmission network is inevitable long and high power
lines are necessary to maintain a huge block of power source of generation to the load
centers to inter connected Power house for increased reliability of supply greater. transmitted in the form of alternating current.
. immune. switch the equipment state and restore the power flows. It
also serves as a point of connection between various power system elements such as
transmission lines. The general functions of a substation may include:
Connection point for transmission lines
Switchyard for network configuration
Monitoring point for control center
Protection of power lines and apparatus
Communication with other substations and regional control center
Making an analogy with the human body. and make assessments of the
3. Power Grid
3.All interfaces between primary and secondary equipment are connected by hard-wired
cabling. which makes it
labor intensive for future maintenance and modification.
220/66/11 KV Substation. due to the large number
of wires in a highly electromechanically “polluted” substation switchyard environment. Different length and types cables are bundled as shown in Fig. BTPS CKT. 1
4.2. 220/66/11 KV GRID SUBSTATION AT SARITA VIHAR:
The 220 KV Grid Substation at Sarita Vihar is a Air Insulated Outdoor Substation. Pragati Powers
SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM
. BTPS CKT. No.There are four 220 KV incoming feeders for this substation coming
1. In addition. No. the
wiring may experience significant electromagnetic interference (both conducted and
The diagram of this grid station is explained as under:1) There are Four 220 KV incoming lines as one circuit from Pargati powers. the continuity of supply can be maintained by the other lines.
Line Current Transformer
V. one circuit
from Power Grid and two circuits from BTPS.
Line Circuit Breaker
Line capacitive voltage transformer (CVT). These four incoming lines are
connected to the double bus bar system through a number of equipments.
Line lightning Arrestor
DESCRIPTION ABOUT SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM
Figure attached shows key diagram of a typical 220/66/11 KV Sarita Vihar Grid Substation. The four lines
arrangement increases the reliability of the system.
2) As in the single line diagram the each incoming is connected to the bus bar in a
sequence with a number of equipments. All these
lines can be loaded simultaneously to share the grid station load. The equipments between the incoming lines
and the line bus bar is connected in a defined sequence as following:
I. In case there is a breakdown of
one incoming line.3.
Mathura road circuit no.
III. The 100 MVA Transformer is connected to line bus bar
through a number of equipments in as following defined sequence:
II. The advantage of
double bus bar system is that if repair is to be carried on one bus bar. There is again a bus coupler between the two bus bars
to couple them.
DMRC circuit no.
Mathura road circuit no.
Lightning Arrestor (LA)
II. It can enhance the incoming voltage by 3
to 4 KV.
Lightning Arrestor (LA) and then
VI. Here a Capacitor Bank is provided to increase the incoming voltage if
there is any voltage drop in the incoming.
Bus bar isolator
7) The second bus bar arrangement is also a two bus bar system each connected with
Potential Transformer (PT).
100 MVA transformer
6) The 100 MVA transformer steps down the 220 KV incoming to 66 KV and this output
is connected to second bus bar arrangements through a sequenced equipments as
4) Each line bus bar is connected with Potential Transformer (PT) to measure the bus
bar voltage.3) The Substation has double bus bar system. 1
. The transformer bank can be
connected to either of the line bus bar through the bus changer Isolator connected
between the two buses.
8) From the 66 KV bus bar there are four outgoing circuits transmitting power at 66KV
5) There is an arrangement in to step down the incoming 220 KV supply to 66 KV by
two transformer banks with capacity each of 100 MVA.
III. one main bus bar and the other spare
bus bar. The incoming can be connected to either bus bar with the help of an
arrangement of circuit breaker and isolators called Bus Coupler. the supply
need not to be interrupted as the entire load can be transferred to the other bus.
measuring equipments connected in the yard. one from
Maharani Bagh and two from BTPS.
Description about the 220 KV yard:
There are four incoming feeders of 220 KV i. one from Pragati Powers.
After the Lightening Arrestor a Capacitor voltage transformer is provided which
serves the function of measuring and protection.
DMRC circuit No.3
The substation can be broadly divided into two parts:
220 kV outdoor yards. These two 66 kV incomers from
the 66 KV bus bar is fed to the two Transformers of 20 MVA each.
9) The 20 MVA transformer steps down 66 KV into 11 KV and this 11 KV is supplied to
a number of sub circuits from the 11 kV bus bar.
The incoming 220 KV feeder is first connected to an Oxide Film Lightening arrestor
which protect all the other equipments from Lightening and ground the lightening if
falls on the incoming feeders.IV.3.
66 kV outdoor yards.e. There are a number of switching. These all equipments are controlled from the
Battery room. 2
And there are two circuits for 66/11 KV transmission.
Two buses named Bus-1 and Bus-2 of 220 KV each run in parallel to which all the
220 KV incoming feeders are connected and also the two 100 MVA transformers are
connected to step down 220 KV to 66 KV.
11 kV indoor yards. The 11 KV bus bar is also
connected with a capacitor bank of 5 MVAR
PARTS OF SUBSTATION
3.1 220 KV Outdoor Yard:
220 KV yard is an outdoor yard where 220 KV incoming is transformed into 66 KV and
connected to the bus bar arrangement on which four 66 KV outgoing feeder two circuit for
DMRC and two circuits for Mathura road.
Control room. From the 66 KV bus bar two outgoing feeders are
given as incomer to the 66/11 KV yard.
A Wave Trap is provided to trap the waves which may be dangerous to the
instruments here in the substation.
. 220/66/11 KV are connected to the 220 KV bus
used to step down the voltage from 220 KV to 66 KV. for measuring and protection.
The bus is connected with Potential Transformer for measuring the line voltage and
Horn gap lightening arrestor is provided just before and after the 100 MVA
transformers for protecting the transformer from lightening.
From circuit breaker the incoming feeder is connected to the 220 kv double bus bar
system through isolator arrangements so that the connection can be changed from
one bus to other bus.
The two transformer of 100 MVA.e.
Circuit Breaker (SF6 CB) is connected in line to open or close the circuit in normal
and abnormal condition.
Circuit breaker (SF-6 CB) is connected in the transformer circuit to open and close
the circuit in no load and full load condition and in normal and abnormal condition. This output is connected to the
66 KV bus bar.o
Current transformer (CT) is connected to drive the current measuring equipment and
also for protection i.
Line isolator with Earth switch is provided opening the circuit in no load condition and
earth switch (E/S) is to ground the extra voltage which may be dangerous for any of
the instrument in the substation.
A bus coupler is provided to couple the two buses for load sharing and line
All the circuits are connected through deferent switching.
CT is connected at required place for measurement of current and protection of lines.
The bus is connected with three capacitor banks of 20 MVAR for power factor
improvements and for increasing the incoming low voltage by 3 to 4 KV. measuring and protection
equipments like Isolators.
Here also a bus coupler is provided for coupling the buses for load sharing and
protection. Lightening Arrestors.
Each bus is connected to PT for measurement of voltage in line. CT. 1.3. and two
circuits are connected to the two 20 MVA transformer.3.2
66KV OUTDOOR YARD
There are two incomers of 66 KV coming from 220KV yard transformers. There are
two buses of 66 KV in parallel and are connected to the 66 KV incomers through
isolator arrangements for changing the connection from one bus to another. one for Mathura road circuit no 2 and two for DMRC.
Form the 66 KV bus bar six outgoing feeders are connected as one for Mathuara
road circuit no. Circuit Breakers.
Two transformers of 20 MVA each of rating 66/11 KV are connected to 66 KV bus by
bus – selection Isolator.
Receive power from
deliver power to
3. 22 Sarita ViIhar
On second half bus :
11 KV O/G S/Stn.o
The SF-6 CB (Circuit Breakers) is aligned in the circuit for tripping whenever any fault
occurs in the circuit.
There are 12 outgoing feeders connected to 11 KV bus.FEATURE/LOCATION
Rigid tubular support on positions
Flexible ACSR bus bar
supported from two ends of strain
11 KV O/G American Express
11 KV O/G Spare
A bus coupler is provided between the two buses for load sharing and line protection.
The 11 KV indoor substation is having vaccum circuit breaker (VCB) in all the
outgoing feeders.3. No.
Capacitor banks of 5 MVAR are connected in each phase of the Bus bar to increase
the voltage level if there is any drop in incoming voltage. EQUIP. BUS BAR
1. 66/11 KV and are connected to two 11KV bus i. 21 Sarita ViIhar
11 KV O/G Sewage Pump
11 KV O/G Jaitpur
11 KV O/G Saurav Vihar. No.
3. Bus no.
11 KV O/G Aali Village
11 KV O/G spare
11 KV O/G Saurav Vihar-1
11 KV O/G Indian Oil Corporation
11 KV O/G S/Stn.3
11 KV INDOOR YARDS (VCB ROOM)
There are two incomers of 11 KV coming from 66 KV yard transformers of rating 20
MVA.4 EQUIPMENTS USED IN SUBSTATION:S. The feeders are connected
in a sequence as:
On first half bus connected feeders are:
400 KVA Local Transformer.1 and bus no.
7. EHV depend on quenching normal
medium –SF6 MQ.B.
9. To compensate
shunt capacitor of
T.T. measuring decided by
TRANSFORMER protective zone measurement
(C.T. improves. Capacitor bank located at send
end or receive end of line.S.)
requirements. 11KV switched during
Used for EHV lines
to improve power
transformer. substation. TRANSFORMER
Locate at receiving STN and
DIST. AB etc.
2. MV/LT SW GR
control. VOH contran.C. 1.
Located each side of CB.B.
near transformer terminal.
EARTH SWITCH Mounted on frame of isolators.
Depend on rated voltage LV.2.
from part for MTC.
and control. Switching
Oil filled gapped core shielded. P.F. 66KV.
load period voltage.
3.L during low load.B and
protect spare gaps.)
generally for such I/C each bus
Banks rated -132KV. current.)
11. rex power.
Oiled filed 3
TRANSFORMER feeder side of C.
Connected B/W phase conductor Discharge
and ground first equip as seen surge to earth and
from incoming O/H line and also protect equipment.
on ckt to earth for
10. Provided with bypass C.
16. Disc type shaped.
Located in separate room near to To supply D.
necessary height to
which current is
→ Equipment body
To drop the sky
Ring type L.
Earth mat and earth electrode.A.
DESCRIPTION OF SUBSTATION EQUIPMENTS
Associate with protection relays To
locate in big hall. POLES
It is made by joining the heavy
materials with the help of nuts
and bolts of requirement shape
and size wherever necessary.
current form one
place to another.
tariff meter etc.
17. parallel in line. L.C.
Consist of two to five windings in
parallel of line.R. for
current from SA
O/H shielding and
Does not allow the
current to pass
CVT are used for
Figure Typical representations of bus bars
PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS USED IN BUS BAR ARE AS FOLLOWS:-
Electrical resistively at 20 deg 0. T he most commonly used material is Al.
For 66kv. 33kv lines: Panther conductors is used composite of Aluminum strands and
According to bus voltage the material is used. Is used because of its property & feature and also it is cheap.
For 400 KV line: Taran.
4. In 220kv Najafgarh there are two busbars running parallel to each other.In this category the EHV lines viz. 220kv. extra high voltage lines of 400kv.
The materials used in these conductors is generally Aluminum conductor steel reinforced
But Al. These high voltages are transmitted from one sub-station to other
sub-station through various types of conductors.2
It is a conductor to which a no. and
66kv are considered. of circuit is connected. Tulla and Marculla conductor. Cu.
For 220 KV line: Zebra conductor is used composite of Aluminum strands and steel
The purpose of using two buses is only for stand by. 132kv. in each of failure of one bus we can
keep the supply continue with help of other bus using isolators.0288
. one is main& other is auxiliary bus.
if a fault occurs on any section of the bus
that section can be isolated with out affecting the supply from other sections.
Single bus-bar arrangement.00403
0. the continuity of supply to the circuit can be maintained by
transferring it to spare bus bar. The incoming and out going lines can
be connected to either bus bar with help of bus bar coupler which consist of a circuit breaker
and isolators. Firstly.
repairs and maintenance of any section of the bus bar can be carried out by de-energizing
that section only.
The disadvantage of this type of system is that if repair is to be done on the bus-bar or a
fault occurs on the bus.00411
0. Any two sections of the bus bar connected by a circuit breakers and
isolators. This arrangement is
not used for voltages exceeding 33KV. Ordinarily.
II. the incoming and outgoing lines remain connected to the main bus
bar of fault occurring on it. Each bus bar
has the capacity to take up the entire substation load.
SINGLE BUS-BAR SYSTEM: It consists of a single bus-bar and all the incoming and outgoing lines are connected to it. This arrangement is used
for voltage upto 33KV. a “main” bus bar and a “spare” bus bar.
Single bus-bar system with sectionalisation.503
When a number of lines operating at the same voltage have to be directly connected
electrically bus-bar are used as the common electrical component. eliminating the possibility of complete shutdown. Bus-bar are copper or
aluminium bars and operate at constant voltage. of resistivity
SINGLE BUS-BAR SYSTEM WITH SECTIONALISATION : -
In this arrangement the single bus-bar is divided in to sections and load is equally distributed
on all the sections. It has two principle advantages.C
Temp coeff. Secondly. The incoming and outgoing lines in a substation are connected to the bus-bars. There is a complete interruption of the supply.923
0. The most commonly used bus-bar arrangements in
DOUBLE BUS-BARS SYSTEM: -
This system consists of two bus bars.
Double bus-bar arrangement
The fixed and moving conducting parts are
of copper or aluminium rods.
An isolator is a disconnecting switch is used upon same given part circuit after circuit
2. Isolators used in power system
are generally 3 pole isolator having three identical poles each pole consist of two or three
insulator posts mounted on a fabricate support. Thus isolators’ surge only has preventing the voltage from being applied to same
given section of bus.4. Isolator design is considered in the following aspects:
o Space Factor
o Insulation Security
o Ease of Maintenance
It is required in substation to disconnect a part of the system for general maintenance and
repairs. The design of isolators is closely related to
the design of substations. In other words. During the opening operation. conducting rods swing apart and
isolation is obtained simultaneously on all 3 poles. The three poles are mechanically
interlocked which operate together by operating a common operating mechanism which may
1. Pneumatic mechanism. This is accomplished by isolators. An isolator is essentially a knife switch and is
designed to open a circuit under no load. isolator switches are operated only
when the lines in which they are connected carry no current.
These are essentially off load devices although they are capable of dealing with small
charging currents of bus-bars and connections. Electric motor mechanism.
There some voltage lines due to changing current. for various reasons connected with safety and
convenience the transformer make this easily and economically possible.
A transformer is a static device by means of which electric energy from one electrical
circuit to another is transferred through the medium of magnetic field and without change
in the frequency. This voltage is
significant in high voltage system.
4. Normally earth switches are
maintained on the frame of isolator. Normally.4.ISOLATOR WITH EARTH SWITCH: The earth switch is connected between the line conductor and earth.4. on the
other hand s required for distribution . proceeding with the maintenance work. A very much lower voltage.2
Power transformer is the main and major requirement of a sub-station to step down the
supply voltage. it is opened
when the line is disconnected. This
voltage is discharge to earth by closing the earth switch. The rating of a transformer is taken according to the load requirement. The earth switch is closed so that the voltage trapped in line
is discharge to earth.
A high voltage is desirable for transmitting large powers in order to decrease the IR
losses and reduce the amount of conductor material.
Partially inverted disc / layer winding.
ix.4.Spiral or helical
iv.It not only supports the winding also provides the low
reluctance path for the magnetic circuit.R.L. It is made up of cooled rolled grain oriented
(C.C. Tertiary winding is placed next to the core over
v. winding H.
c. High voltage winding .
Tap Changer and O. Tertiary winding
Parts of power transformer:
i.Windings are arranged in concentric formation
with lower voltage winding next to core.G.
vi. Low voltage winding .
CORE: .) alloy. Steel is in the form of lamination on that the iron losses could be
avoided.T.Spiral / Helical / Disc
Various types of windings are used for coils these are as follows:a.
iii. main winding are placed.V.V.
o Conservator is provided to tank core of the expansion and contraction of oil.
iii. Of oil increases or decreases
there is continuous rise and fall in volume.Inter wound spiral or helical paper covered insulated copper
strips or continuously cable are used for making winding. For this an expansion vessel (conservator) is
to transformer tank having the capacity of oil level equal to 75% of total oil. but separate radiators are welded and afterwards bolted.
o A smaller oil expansion vassal is provided for the on load tapchanger. The fitting includes thermometer pockets. drain cock.
CONSERVATOR: . eye bolts for lifting. On
the outside is applied with anti corrosive primer paint and final of synthetic enamel. which
takes place during normal operation of the transformer.
o Wherever specified flexible separators or oil cell if provided in the conservator can
prevent direct contact of air with the transformer oil. and
larger ones from plain boiler plates.
cooling tubes are welded in. Tapping winding .They are constructed from welded sheet steel. rollers or
wheels for moving transformer position.
TANK: . conservators and breathers.As the temp.
iv. or waterproof gasket
being used at the joints. The lids may be of cast iron.
o Magnetic oil level gauge is fitted on the main conservator which can give alarm / trip
in the event of the oil falling below the pre-set level due to any reason.d.
Thermal bushings up to 36kv class.
BUSHING: Up to a voltage of 33kv. The oil inside the condenser bushings and will not be communicating
with the oil inside the transformer oil level gauge is provided on the expansion chamber
of the condenser bushings. this will find its
reduction insulation strength
of transformer to minimize this
the conservator is allowed to
breath only through silica gel
AIR CELL: -
vii.Of course.Both transformer oil and
celluloses’ paper are highly
hygroscopic .The moisture. if
not excluded from oil surface
in conservator. any type of
conductors can be effectively insulated
by air provided that it is at a sufficient
Distance from other conducting bodies
and sufficiently to prevent corona
phenomena.Higher current rated bushings
and bushings of 52kv class and above
will be of oil impregnated paper
The high voltage connections pass
from the winding to terminal bushing. ordinary
porcelain insulators can be used. Oil level and oil leakage may be checked regularly.
Oil in the condenser bushing is hermetically selected and it should not be disturbed in
Above this voltage the of conductor or
oil filled terminal bushing. or a
combination of two has to be
3150 Ampere are normally of plain
Porcelain and Oil communicating
type .Paper being
mineral oil .which absorb the
moisture in air before it enters
the conservator air surface
Tap changer are of two types:a) On-load Tap changer. contact must be made with the next .It is a flexible rubber bag placed inside the conservator and floats on the oil surface.
As the changing must take place on load.load tap changer selector is housed.
ON LOAD TAP CHANGER: As the name implies it sets a tap for
adjusting the secondary voltage in the
condition of on ‘load’.
b) Off-load Tap changer. in which the on.a further separate oil filled compartment is provided to house the diverter
switch which breaks the load current by an interrupted arc forming carbon . the contact for the tap changer are so arranged
that before one tapping is left .
viii. as such transformer tap changer must be
capable to varying the turn ratio without interruption of supply.
The tapping of the windings are brought out through a terminal board to a separate oil filled
compartment.therefore the oil I
the diverter switch compartment must be prevented from missing with the oil in the main
cell inflates or deflates surface of the air cell and the inner cell of air cell is provided with
ozone resistant . It is generally
connected to the primary side due to
current. It may be manually
operated or motor drive unit is initiated by a push button or relay. this eliminates
the possibility of contamination for oil filling.The dry air is sucked and do not come in contact with oil. The diverter switch diverts
IV. On a double wound
transformer the best position to place the tapping is at the neutral end of high voltage
winding . The tap is connected to the diverter switch of the tap changer. As the selector must not
break current .
On load tap changer is the device for changing the tapping connections of a winding.The positioning of the tapping on the lower voltage winding is not applied on
account of high current rating which would result. This could cause a
short circuited no.
The tap changer is operated by a motor operated driving mechanism by local or remote
control and a handle is fitted for manual operation in an emergency.
CHANGER. of turn and large current are prevented by the use of resistor or reactors. The break in the current prevented by transmission resistance tap changer. whilst
the transformer is connected is on load
When the transformer is connected to a system it is some time necessary to vary the voltage
on the secondary side to meet the load demands.4 COOLING EQUIPMENT: -
In Power transformer cooling are of following Types:
. pumps.4. oil flow through the winding and external cooler unit
attached to the tank by themo-Syphonic effect. ONAN with 50% efficiency
OFAN by means of radiators. the oil is directed through the winding by oil
pumps provided in the external cooler unit. OFAF with 100% efficiency
4. ONAF with 70% efficiency
External cooler unit /units consists of passed Steel sheet radiators mounted
directly on the tank or separator cooler banks for air –cooled transformer and
oil to water heat exchangers for water cooled transformer.Transformer is having a single or mixed cooling of ONAN. ONAF.
For OFAF/ODAF/OFWF cooling. & heat exchanger etc.5
For ONAN/ONAF cooling. fans.
7. Pressure relief valve
3. Broken-down core bolt insulation
3. It is
installed between tank and conservator. Oil level indicator
5. Winding temperature indicator
6. In this relay two mercury contacts are provided. one in upper part other
in lower part. Each float is filled with the mercury switch.
APPLICATIONS:Double element relays can be used in detecting miner fault in a Transformer
The alarm element will operate.1. after a specified volume of gas has collected to give an
alarm indicator. leads of a switch are connected to a
terminal box for tripping.
Examples incipient faults are:1. Shorted laminations
2. Earthing Arrangements
1. Buccholtz relay
2. Oil temperature indicator
4. Bad contacts
BUCHHOLTZ RELAY: It is used for protection of oil filled transformer from incipient faults below oil level. The
device comprises of a cast iron housing containing the hinged floats.
4. Over heating of part of winding.R.4. Of winding.
It is consist of a sensor bulb capillary tube and a dial thermometer the sensor bulb is fitted at
the location of hottest oil . it’s
temp. The winding hot spot of top oil temp.
OIL TEMPERATURE INDICATOR: It is the distance thermometer operated on principle of liquid expansion.V. The connection between the thermometer and the dial indicator
is made by steel capillary tube. At marshaling box. The pocket is to be filled with oil.
ALARM = 95 DEG. The bulb is enclosed in the pocket and the pocket is situated
on transformer’s hottest oil region.That sensor bulb and capillary tube are fitted with evaporation
A device for avoiding high oil pressure build up inside the transformer during fault a condition
is fitted on the top of the tank.
3. At marshalling
box hot spot temp.
PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE:
In case of major faults in the transformer like short circuit in the winding . Difference is simulative
by means of CT current fed to the heater coil fitted at top senses the top oil temp.
TRIPPING = 110 DEG.
This device is fitted with an alarm trip switch. The vapor pressure varies with temperature and is transmitted to a burden tube inside
the change in pressure which is proportional to the temperature.
2. Reading is proportional to the load current and oil temp. It indicates the top oil temp.The internal P. The pressure relief device allows rapid release of excessive
pressure that may be generated in the event of a serious fault.
WINDING TEMPERATURE INDICATOR: It also operates on principles of liquid expansion. Thus.
is build up to a very high level which may result in rapture of tank to avoid this P.
FANS ON =
PUMP ON =
60 deg C
75 deg C
.R. It has two switches one
for alarm and other for tripping. It indicates the top
The sensor bulb of
instrument is located in the hottest oil of the transformer the winding temperature indicates a
temperature of hottest oil plus the winding temperature rise above hot it .
EARTHING ARRANGEMENTS :a) Core Earthing
Connecting leads from core and end frame are being terminated at the top of the cover. Loads from mercury switch are brought into a terminal box positioned at the bottom
of indicator.i. One mercury switch is provided for low level alarm. The position of indicator on the conservator can be selected to
3. It can be made reusable by heating it at 100 deg C.
DEHYDRATING BREATHER: The conservator or the air cell is connected to the outside atmosphere through the breather
(silica gel) to make sure that the air in the conservator or cell is dry. The bulb is connected to the instrument having by means of two
flexible capillary tubes.
The instrument is provided with maximum temperature indicator the heating resistance is fed by
current transformer associated to the loaded winding of the transformer .
5. One capillary tube is connected to the measuring below of the instrument
and the other to compensation below.300degree) for easy
viewing by fixing mounting pad at desired angle. It can also be used as Content Gauge on other tanks where level of liquid inside the
tank in required to be indicated continuously on a dial. 75mm from bottom of
6. Suit site condition.
Winding temperature indicators consist of sensor bulb placed in oil filled pocket in the
transformer tank top cover. Float mechanism passes through the hole in pad. The Normally Open switch closes
when oil level drops to 10mm above Empty land i. core and frame becomes earthed . The measuring system is filled with a liquid which
changes its volume with rising temperature inside the instrument is filled with a heat resistance
which is fed by a current proportionate to the current flowing through the transformer winding.
7. Indicator can be mounted in titled position towards ground (max. the hot spot
temperature.The increase in the
temperature of the resistance is proportionate to that of the winding.
OIL LEVEL INDICATOR :This indication is manufactured for considering Transformer Applications:
= 90 deg C
= 100 deg C
Winding temperature relay indicates the winding temperature of the transformer and operates on
the principle of thermal imaging and it is not actual measurement.e.
for 48 hours. By
connecting them to tank cover.Insulation resistance
between the leads from core and end frame or between leads from core and earth point can
. When silica is saturated
with moisture its color changes to pink.
Transformer is on load.
THRERMO SYPHON FILTER
Thermo siphon filter is provided on large capacity. Air cell in conservator avoids
direct of oil with air and there by eliminating the chance of moisture absorption.
c) Earthing of Tank
For earthing of tank nut-bolts & studs are required to make perfect earthing between pads on
tank and external earthing strip. 220/66/11KV power transformer no. 100 MVA.
It is a well known fact that water is released to the oil for the paper insulation due to ageing
Maintenance & Operation
In order to avoid fault and disturbance. oil filled Power Transformer for keeping
the moisture level of insulating oil at a very low level. Possible rust damage is removed and the
surface treatment restarted to original state by means of primer and finish paints that are
dispatched with the transformer. At the time of initial erection and
commissioning of transformer.
Rust damage. Leads from end frame have been brought out for proper
earthing for end frame. a certain setting may appear in painting joint.7
SPECIFICATIONS OF TRANSFORMERS
1. most of the moisture present in the oil is removed by not oil
circulation. the thermos phonic action of liquid causes circulation of oil through
the filter.4.4. 2 (BHEL) make.
The frequency extent supervision and control is dependent on climate and environment and
service condition. 1 & no.
b) Tank to Tank Earthing :
Tank to tank cover earthing is done by connecting copper braid between tank rim and tank
cover with the help of the bolts used to tight tank cover and tank together. The moisture absorption of oil is eliminated by direction the our breather in by the
transformer during its operation through silica gel desiccant.Types of cooling
After energizing of the transformer. it is important that a careful and regular supervision
and control of the transformer and its components is planned and carried out.be checked by 500 volts megger. The absorbent filled in the Thermo siphon filter absorb moisture and keep the oil
dry. Touch damage up painting a regular inspection of the external surface
treatment of the reactor should be carried out. Thermo siphon filter helps in removing this moisture from oil.
ADVANTAGES OF INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER:1.81
9.T. And of P.33
5.T.No load voltage HV 220
Several instruments can be operated from a single I.
3.2.Line current LV (Amp)
875. is designed for 5A.62
Accessibility on H.
Low consumption of metering circuit.13
1751.T. There are two types:
1226. Temp.T. power and energy in conjunction
with the relevant instrument.Line current HV(Amp)
1751.Rating TV (MVA)
33. Transformer small capacity transformer. is reduced or say moderate because the secondary
Of C. Temp.C. voltages current.Noload voltage
2.Line current LV (Amp)
262. is easy.Rating HV & LV (MVA)
The replacement of damaged instrument is easy.Line
613. rise oil ( deg
Capacitor Voltage transformer.No load voltage LV(kv)
6. INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER: Transformer used A.5.74
8. measurement i.
1226. for 110V.T.
The size of I.
This E. Synthetic region or oil insulation. Is dangerous and may give
sever shock. The secondary winding is done with thicker
conductor having more number of turns.M.
They serve to isolate the measuring instrument from high Voltage
CURRENT TRANSFORMER: -
High current line can be reduced to low current to measure easily with the help of normal
secondary is open.M. Insulated porcelain at primary insulator. Some time. station at transmission
line in conjunction with AC measuring instruments. It should be always short circuit i. They are classified according to the use
are referred to as current transformer (CT) & potential transformer (PT). only a straight conductor also
serves the purpose of primary winding.1
They serve to extent the range of AC measuring instrument. A bar primary passing through the winding of core and terminal.F.
The secondary of the current transformer should be earthed to avoid the danger of shock to
2. To measure the very high current of the running line with out distributing it.
.5. there is no current in the secondary winding hence.M. Magnetic core made up of continuously wound strip nickel iron alloy of CRGO
Induced or the primary and secondary winding. It is step up transformer the primary windings consist
of thicker conductor having less number of turns. The CT’s are used to
reduce / stepping down A.
A 'CT' has following essential parts: 1. it should be clearly understood that the secondary
winding of the current transformer is never opened.C. of
primary will not be opposed and the cares will have high flux which will cause high E.
3. Winding having several turns wound on the insulated core. the M.
The current transformer is kept in category of instrument transformers.
The primary winding is connected in series with the line and the M I is connected across the
secondary of the current transformer.F.
Functions: 1. a spilt
core type current transformer is used.
5. from high value to lower value for measurement / protection /
2.Instrument transformer is used to measure AC at generating station.
B. Of turns.
The primary winding of a very few turns.The 5A / 1A current is sent to the relay and if the current exceeds this limit
then the relay operates and sends signal to the C.IS 2705
b) Highest system voltage (kv) .The secondary given 5A / 1A current which operates the ammeter to
note the current reading
b) Protection: .
Thus CT operates at secondary terminal near by being short-circuited.
One of the terminals of secondary winding is earth in order to protect – instrument
and personal in the vicinity in event of insulation breakdown.The CT has three coils different purposes. which then operates. and therefore there is no appreciation drop
Connected in series with the line carrying the current to be measured and therefore
primary current is dependent upon load connected in the system.245
a) Measurement: .
The secondary winding has large no. Being determined by the
turn ratio. exact no.
The current transformer is used with primary winding.
Ammeter of wattmeter current coil is connected directly across secondary winding
SPECIFICATION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS: Specification of 220 kV side CT –
.PROPERTIES OF CT:
The CT measures the current.
Rated primary current . The
primary of the potential transformer is having more number of turns of fine wire and
secondary is having less number of turns...5.T. the potential coil of wattmeter and relay from high voltage line. The S.W is linked with this flux causing the induction some voltage (generally
110V in case P. which produces the
The primary oftransformer4 is connected across the line carrying the voltage to be measured
and the voltage circuit is connected across the secondary winding to measure high voltage
1200V/0.W when connected to line carry some current.04A
1200V/0.T.) this voltage defects the voltmeter or the secondary of the P..W is connected across the line and S.27 /1
Insulation level (kv)
Kvp / Amp
1200V/0.. In which primary and
secondary are wound on magnetic core in usual transformers. Potential transformer is
used to operate voltmeter..2 POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER: Similar to CT it is another type of instrument transformer..... is
always connected to earth..
They may be of one phase or three phase.. The potential transformer is step down
transformer the P.460/1050
. It is also known as CVT (capacitor
voltage transformer). The P.
The scale is directly calibrated to obtain the actual voltage.T.T. It is used for measurement and protection...
The transformer is used to measure the high voltage known as potential transformer.W across the meter to measure the
line voltage. Electromagnetic P.5
ST current KA/ sec
... The secondary of the P.
1050 kv peak
. a ground terminal and at least
one set of secondary terminals for connection to the instrumentation or protective relay. an inductive element used to tune the
device to the supply frequency and a transformer used to isolate and further step-down the
voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay. The device has at least four terminals.SOME TERMS RELATED TO P. and hence the
secondary terminals.g. is often replaced by a stack of capacitors connected in series. C 2.3 VAR. In practice
the first capacitor. C1. a
high-voltage terminal for connection to the high voltage signal.
Capacitor Voltage Transformer:-
A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) is a transformer used in power systems to step-down
extra high voltage signals and provide low voltage signals either for measurement or to
operate a protective relay. which it can withstand.
(b) Rated Transformer Ratio: The ratio of rated primary voltage to the rated
(c) Rated secondary voltage: e. 130/ root (3) = 63..T.
CVT 220 kV rating
Type: WP-245 V
1.5 V for 30 sec. This
results in a large voltage drop across the stack of capacitors that replaced the first capacitor
and a comparatively small voltage drop across the second capacitor.5.
CVTs are typically single-phase devices used for measuring voltages in excess of one
hundred kilovolts where the use of voltage transformers would be uneconomical.T
(a) Rated Voltage: The voltage of the P. In its most basic form the device consists of three parts: two
capacitors across which the voltage signal is split.
It extinguishes the arc drawn between the contacts when the circuit breaker open.Ellec cap:
4400±10% PF of 50 H ± 5%
Nominal intermediate voltage
Spark over voltage:
Voltage divider ratio
Total thermal burden:
4. For the latter operation a relay is
used in the circuit breaker. The contacts can
be opened manually or by remote control whenever desired.
A circuit breaker is equipment which can be open are closed a circuit under a normal as well
as fault condition.
It provides adequate insulation between the contacts and from each contacts to
earth. When a fault occurs on any part
of the system. Many insulating fluids are used for arc extinction and the fluid chosen depend
upon the rating and type of the circuit breaker.
10 to 55°C
900 Kg. these contacts remain closed
and will not open automatically until and unless the system becomes fault. the trip coils of the circuit breaker get energized and moving contacts are
pulled apart by some mechanism. A circuit breaker essentially consists of fixed and moving
contacts. thus opening the circuit. It is so desired that it can be operated manually or by remote control under
normal condition and automatically under fault condition.6. called electrodes.
The insulating fluids commonly used are :Air at atmospheric pressure
Ultra high vacuum
. the basic construction of any
circuit breaker requires the separation of the contacts in any insulating fluid. Under normal operating condition.
Oil which produces hydrogen for arc extinction
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
4.2 Circuit breaker arrangements
TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER
I.SF6 has excellent insulating strength because of its
affinity for electrons i. The contacts of
the breaker an opened in a high pressure flow of SF 6 gas and an arc is struck between
them.The SF6 circuit breaker has been found to be very effect able for
high power and high voltage services. This loss of conduction electrons in the arc quickly builds up
enough insulating strength.
SULPHUR HEXAFLURIOD (SF6 )
In such circuit breaker sulphur hexafluoride gas is used as arc quenching medium. the electrons is absorbed by the neutral gas molecules may occur in
SF6 + e -> SF6
SF6 + e -> SF5 + F
. The conducting free electrons in arc are rapidly captured by the gas to form relatively
immobile negative ions . The SF 6
is electronegative gas and has a strong tendency to absorb free electrons.e whenever a free electrons collides with the neutral gas molecules to
form negatives ions.
VACCUM C IRCUIT BREAKER:
.The negative ion formed are relatively heavier as compared to free electrons and therefore
under a given electric field the ions do not attain sufficient energy to lead cumulative
ionization in the gas.
In closed position of the breaker. medium between the contacts quickly built up high dielectric strength and cause the
extinction of the arc.cm pressures from the
reservoir to the arc interruption chamber. the moving contact is pulled apart and arc
is structure between the contacts. The high.
II. after the breaker operates. The movement of the moving contacts is synchronized
with the opening of the valve. the contacts remains surrounded by SF6 gas at a pressure
of about 6KG/sq. which permits SF6 gas at 15Kg/sq.cm. When the breaker operates. which ineffective as charge carriers.pressure flow of SF6 rapidly absorbs the
electrons in the arc path to form immobile negative ions.
oil which is just sufficient for arc
extinguishing . it has superior quenching
properties then any other medium e. Low oil circuit
breaker employees solid materials for
insulations purpose and uses a small qty.g when contacts of the breaker are opened n vacuum . simple assembly. suitability for repeated operation.
III. The air blast circuit breakers are especially suitable for railways and arc furnaces. Since vacuum offers the high insulating strength.
MINIMUM OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER
One of the important development in the
design of oil circuit breaker has been to
reduce the amount of oil needed.
the interruption occurred first current zero with dielectric strength between the contacts
building at a rate of 1000 th of times higher then that obtained with other circuit breaker . modest maintenance are some of the main features of air
blast circuit breakers. Air blast circuit breakers is used for interconnected
reduction in total weight and reduction in
cost . the dielectric strength of
the vacuum is a 1000 times more than when
the gas is used as the interrupting medium . It used minimum amount of oil and is
only used for arc extinguishing the current
conducting parts are insulated by porcelain
or organic insulated material.By using suitable arc control devices. because of the large mean free path for the electrons . auto reclosure. ions and electrons do not come from the medium in which the
arc is drawn but they are obtained from the electrodes themselves by evaporating its surface
material . unit type multi break
constructions. venting. The other
advantages are reduction in tank size . In the
vacuum arc the neutral atoms. A compressors plant necessary to maintain high air pressure in the air
receiver.In such breakers (degree f vacuum being from 10 -7 to 10-5 tore) is used as arc quenching
medium. the arc extinguishing can be further
facilitated in low circuit breaker.
Thus a vacuum arc is different from the general class of low & high pressure arc .
where the breaker operates repeatedly.
Air blast circuit breaker
Since there exists a very high voltage between the conductor and the air reservoir.
Rated duration of short circuit current is 40 kA for 30 sec. The double arc extinguished chambers are mounted on
the top of the hollow insulator chambers. the entire
arc extinction chambers assembly is mounted on insulators.
Specifications of SF6 Circuit Breaker
Rated Gas pressure: 6 kg/cm2-g
First pole to clear factor 1.4 Air blast circuit breaker
High pressure air at a pressure between 20 to 30 kg/ cm2 stored in the air reservoir.
Rated ling charging breaker breaking current 125 Amp
Rated voltage 245 kV
Rated frequency 50 Hz
Rated normal current 2500 Amp
Rated closing voltage: 220 V dc
Rated opening voltage 220 V dc
Total Weight with Gas: 3900 Kg.lines and important lines where rapid operation is desired. Gas circuit breaker: low voltage side (66 KV)
Voltage rating: 72.5 kv
Rated lightening impulse withstand voltage: 350 kVp
. The current carrying parts connect the three arc
extinction chambers to each other in series and the pole to the neighboring equipment. Gas circuit breaker: high voltage side (220KV)
Voltage rating: 220kv
Rated lightening impulse withstand voltage: 1050 kVp
Rated short circuit breaker current: 40 kA
Rated operating pressure: 16. Three hollow insulator columns are mounted on the
reservoir with valves at their basis. Air is
taken from the compressed air system.
VAR is installed in receiving substation. The capacitor
any point in the system shunt capacitor are commonly
used in all voltage and in all size.
Capacitor banks are installed following purposes:
To improve the power factor of the system & there by regulating the system voltage
Reactive power compensation
To reduce the loss
Increased voltage level at the load
Reduced system losses
Increase power factor of loading current
Rated duration of short circuit current is 31.
The capacitor bank provides reactive power at grid
substation. The voltage regulation problem frequently
reduces so of circulation of reactive power.
Rated ling charging breaker breaking current 125 Amp
Rated voltage 72. reactive power can be
produced.Rated short circuit breaker current: 31.5 kA
Rated operating pressure: 16. which have always to be workout.5 kV
Rated frequency 50 Hz
Rated normal current 2500 Amp
Rated closing voltage: 220 V dc
Rated opening voltage 220 V dc
An AC system cannot function with the highest transmission capability at minimum cost and
at the highest efficiency unless the reactive compensation is carefully applied. staples control of
reactive power compensation of voltage control .5 kg/cm2-g
Rated Gas pressure: 5 kg/cm2-g
First pole to clear factor 1.5 kA for 3 sec.e.
Unlike the active power.
Capacitors are used to control the level of the voltage
supplied to the customer by reducing or eliminating the
voltage drop in the system caused by inductive
reactive loads. load substation for fast.7. transmitted and absorbed of course with in
the certain limit.
wind load etc. Suspension type
3. Pin type
2. The design of the insulator is such that the stress due to contraction and
expansion in any part of the insulator does not lead to any defect. Strain insulator
.13. Poly come type
insulator [solid core] are also being supplied in place of hast insulators if available
Benefits of using the capacitor bank are many and the reason is that capacitor reduces the
reactive current flowing in the whole system from generator to the point of installation.
High electrical resistance of insulator material in order to avoid leakage
currents to earth.
These insulators are generally made of glazed porcelain or toughened glass.
The insulator for the overhead lines provides insulation to the power
TYPE OF INSULATORS:
1. In general. It is desirable not to allow
porcelain to come in direct contact with a hard metal screw thread. the insulator should have the following desirable properties:
• High mechanical strength in order to withstand conductor load.
High relative permittivity of insulator material in order that dielectric strength is
high. The insulators provide necessary
insulation between line conductors and supports and thus prevent any leakage current from
conductors to earth.Fig.8
The insulators are connected to the cross arm of supporting structure and the power
conductor passes through the clamp of the insulator.
High ratio of puncture strength to flash over.
operating voltage of 33 KV the pin type insulators thus become too bulky and hence
strings are placed in the horizontal plane rather than the vertical plane. When the upper most shell is wet due
to rain the lower shells are dry and provide sufficient leakage resistance these are used for
transmission and distribution of electric power at voltage up to voltage 33 KV.
Suspension type insulators consist of a number of porcelain disc connected in series by
metal links in the form of a string. Its working voltage is 66KV. Each disc is designed for low
voltage for 11KV. These insulators are
.-Suspension type insulator
The strain insulators are exactly identical in shape with the suspension insulators.PIN TYPE:
Pin type insulator consist of a single or multiple shells adapted to be mounted on a spindle to
be fixed to the cross arm of the supporting structure.
4. It is connected to the main incoming feeder so that it can trap the
waves which may be dangerous to the instruments here in the substation. of a wave. For low voltage lines (< 11KV) shackle
insulator are used as strain insulator.3-Strain type insulator
Post type insulator
Post insulators have metal bolt down base as
opposed to threads. such as noise or other
signals are primarily teleportation signals and in addition.9
Line trap also is known as Wave trap. There is no hobby
numbering system for post insulators yet. Its
shape is like a drum. cast iron cap and
flanged cast iron base. Its function is of trapping wave. voice and data communication
It is a device used to exclude unwanted frequency components.
then signal loss is more and communication will be ineffective/probably impossible.used where line is subjected to greater tension.
function of this trap is that it traps the unwanted waves. If there were not to be there. What it does is trapping the high frequency
communication signals sent on the line from the remote substation and diverting them to the
telecom/teleprotection panel in the substation control room (through coupling capacitor and
insulators are used for bus bars. The hole in the cap is the threaded so that the bus bars can be
directly to cap.
. Post insulators
consist of porcelain body.
This is relevant in Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC) systems for communication
among various substations without dependence on the telecom company network.
The Line trap OFFERS HIGH IMPEDANCE TO THE HIGH FREQUENCY COMMUNICATION SIGNALS thus
obstructs the flow of these signals in to the substation bus bars. Many early multipart lines
are spotted with line post insulators as
replacements. Post insulators are also used in
substations to insulate high voltage switching
gear and transformers. Wave trap is an instrument using for tripping of the wave.
INTRODUCTION: There are different schemes adopted for the protection of various equipment of power
system against Over Voltage and heavy short circuit current.
B. Internal causes
2. External causes
INTERNAL CAUSES: A.Fig.
CAUSES OF OVER-VOLTAGE: The over-voltage may occur in the power system due to.
1. -Wave Trap
EXTERNAL CAUSES OF OVER-VOLTAGES: LIGHTNING: -
Lightning arrestors of surge diverters
5. The area of cross section of ground wires is based upon
their mechanical strength rather than electrical conductivity.1
PROTECTION AGAINST OVER VOLTAGES
It has been seen that the internal causes in increase the voltages of the power system really
double to that of the normal operating voltage where as the external causes may increase
the voltage several times (of the order of 200 MV) to that of normal operating voltage of
twice the value of normal operating voltage of the system for a reasonable length of time and
to provide protective devices for the voltage having value more than this.
1. Earth screens
3. between the separate charge in the same
cloud or b/w cloud and earth is caused lightning. These wires are earthed at regular
intervals preferably at every tower.
The main objections to the ground wires are. The common device used for
the protection of power system against over–voltages is:
1.1.1. Indirect stroke
EARTHING SCREEN: -
A network of copper conductors earthed at various points. one of more bare conductors
are run at the top f the tower known as ground wires. They also provide additional protective effect in
attenuating any travelling wave that may be set up in the lines.
Those devices are known as over voltage protection devices.An electrical discharge in our between clouds.
5. and placed over and above all the
substation is known as earthing screen.
LIGHTNING ARESSTOR OR SURGE DIVERTER: -
. These should have high
mechanical strength and be-non-corrosive. It protects the system from direct lightning strokes but does
not provide any protection against high voltage waves which may still reach at the terminals
The ground wires not only take the burnt of the direct strokes but also provide a certain
amount of electrostatic screening.1
To protect the transmission lines against direct lightning stroke. Direct stroke
2. This reduces the voltage induce in the line conductors by
the discharge of a neighboring cloud. the additional cost and the possibility of the
wire cracking and falling on the line conductors causing a direct short-circuit.
There are two main ways in which lightning stoke can effect a line i. It provides an electrostatic shield against external
fields and protects the system. by acting as short circuited
secondary of the line conductors. Ground wires
Value type arrestor
. Electrolytic arrestor
6. Horn gap arrestor
3. A good lightning arrestors or surge diverter should
have the following. Oxide film arrestor
7. Expulsion type arrestor
8. Rod gap arrestor
(a) It should not take any current on the working voltage of the system in other words it
should act as an insulator at normal working voltages.
TYPES OF LIGHNING ARRESTORS: There are many types of lightning arrestors which are used to protect the power system
against over-voltage some of them are:
1.The lightning arrestor or surge diverters is a device which an easy conducting path or
relatively low impedance path for the flow of current which the system voltage increases
more than the designed value and against it is original properties of an insulator at normal
voltage . Thyrite arrestor
5. multi gap arrestor
(c) It must be capable to carry the discharge current with out getting damage it self
under abnormal conditions.
(b) It must provide a conducting path as and when abnormal transient voltages occur on
A lightning arrestor voltages as on insulator at normal voltages but provides as easy path for
the flow of current at abnormal voltages.
to prevent damage to equipment and disruption of
service.Lightning arresters are protective devices for limiting surge voltages due to lightning strikes
or equipment fault or other events. Also
DIRECTION OVER-CURRENT PROTECTION: -
The over-current protection can be given directional feature by adding directional overcurrent protection responds to over currents for a particular directional flow if power flow is in
the opposite directions the directional over current protection remains un-operative. The directional relay recognizes the direction in which fault
occurs relative to the location of the relay.
and steel superstructures in
substations. power transformers.
Directional over current protection comprises over current relay and power directional relay
in a single relay casing the power directional relay does not measure the power but is
arranged to respond to the directional operation of relay is used where the selectivity can be
achieved by directional relaying.
VARIOUS OTHER KINDS OF
5. It is set such that it actuates for fault occurring in
Lightning arresters are installed
on many different pieces of
equipment such as power poles
and towers. bus structures.
one directional only. It does not act for faults occurring in the other direction another
interesting example of directional protection are that of reverse power protection of
DIRECTIONAL EARTH-FAULT PROTECTION : -
In the directional over-current protection coil of relay is actuated from secondary current of
line CT. where as the current coil by residual current.
In directional over-current relays. The voltage coil is actuated by secondary of line VT. In
directional earth-fault relay, the voltage coil is actuated by the residual voltage. Direction
earth fault relay sense the direction which earth fault occurs with respect to the relay
location; and it operates for fault in a particular direction. The directional earth fault relay
(single phase unit) has two coils. The polarizing quantity is obtained either from residual
current (IRS = Ia + Ib+ Ic) or
Residual voltage (VRS = Vae + Vbe + Vce), where Vae Vbe Vce are phase voltage.
One of the coils is connected in residual current circuits. This coil gets current during earth
faults. The other coil gets residual voltage. The coil connected in potential transform
secondary circuit gives a polarizing field.
PRIMARY AND BACK UP PROTECTION: -
There are times when the primary protection may fail. This could be due to failure of CT/VT
or relays, pr failure of circuit breaker one of the possible causes of the circuit breaker failure
is the failure of the trip-battery due to inadequate maintenance.
A relay is a low-powered device used to activate a high-powered device. Relays are used to
trigger circuit breakers and other switches in substations and transmission and distribution
The electrical quantities which may change under fault condition are:
4. Phase angle
Through the change in one or more of these quantities, the fault signals there
presence type and location to the protective relay is obtained. Moving detect the
fault, the relay operates close the trip circuit of the breaker. This result in the opening
of the breaker and disconnect the fault section.
TYPES OF RELAY
Basically relay are based on two principal:o
RES E/F +O/L
O/F protection +FFR
Group A trip relay
CB trouble relay
Group B trip relay
DR earth switch
1. Over Current Relay: - It is used in over current scheme. Over current protection is the
name given to protected relay scheme devised to rise in current in a protected circuit.
2. Differential Relay: - A differential relay is one that operates when the vector difference
of two or more quantities exceeds pre determined value.
3. Oil Surged Relay
4. Buccholtz relay
5. Gas operated relay
RELAYS OF 100 MVA AND 20 MVA TRANSFORMERS
OLTC Buccholtz relay
Main Buccholtz relay
Restrict earth fault relay
o Over current relay
Out of step blocking relay
Directional current relay
Directional earth fault relay
Fuse failure relay
Auxiliary relay type
Instantaneous Earth Fault relay
1. DIFFERENTIAL RELAY: -
A differential relay is “the relay that operates when the vector difference of two or more
similar electrical quantities exceeds a pre determined amount.” Almost every type of relay
when connected in a certain way can be made to operate as differential relay, mast of the
differential relays are of the “current differential type.” Fig.1 shows the over current relay
used as “differential relay” and operates when the currents at two points of the system are
unusual. For example of the current on at two ends of alternator, windings are unusual.
There is either a fault to earth or b/w phases. When there is continuous over current and the
current over current and the current on both sides are equal, than the relay will not sense the
fault. It will sense fault only if there is a difference of current on two sides of circuit.
The disc rotates to a point where it
operates a pair of contact that breaks the circuit and removes the fault condition.
3. Hence for this reason the fictitious operating impedance should not exceed
impedance setting. DIRECTIONAL
An REF relay works by measuring the actual current flowing to earth from the frame of the
EARTH FAULT PROTECTION RELAY :
The REF protection method is a type of "unit protection" applied to transformers or
generators and is more sensitive than the method known as differential protection. Any deviation of Z from the impedance setting canal bring about
variation in the operation zone length of the relay it effects the reliability of the relay
operation and venders the co-ordination of the protection on then adjoining circuit much
The non directional relay can operate for fault flow in either direction. DISTANCE RELAYS: Distance or impedance relays should have the least position spread in value of operating
impedance or reactance.A very important disadvantage in simple balance system is due to inequalities of current
6. The fluxes induce eddy current in
the disc which interact and produce rotational torque.
Fig : Differential Relay
2. where an aluminum or copper disc rotates
between the poles of electromagnet and damping magnet. Hence the differential CT’s should not be erroneous or should be identical. In order to achieve
operation for the fault flowing in a specific direction. it is necessary to add a directional
element to the non directional element. IDMT
The IDMT relay work on the induction principle.
This disadvantage can also be overcome by using a based beam relay. Such a relay which responds to fault flow in a
particular directional is called a directional relay
the currents are equal then the differential protection relay will not operate. If that current exceeds a certain preset maximum value of milliamps (mA) then the relay
unit.unit.6 FUSES :
. TRIPPING RELAY:
Figure Tripping Relay
This type of relay is in the conjunction with main relay.
7. If there is a
Differential protection can also be used to protect the windings of a transformer by
comparing the current in the power supply's neutral wire with the current in the phase wire.
REF protection is applied on transformers in order to detect ground faults on a given winding
more sensitively than differential protection. When main relay sense any fault
in the system. it immediately operates the trip relay to disconnect the faulty section
An auxiliary relay is used to indicate the fault by glowing bulb alert the employee.
as for as voltage.
• In the event of over voltage on the system due to lightening discharge or other
system fault. The resistance of earth and current path should be low enough to
prevent voltage rise between earth and neutral. The most generally material used for fuse element is a low melting point material
such as tin.
Depth in the soil. lead or zinc .
Neutral earthing of power transformer all power system operates with grounded neutral. circuit the neutral of the system is earthed in order to stabilize the
In a three phase.
• The earth fault protection is based on the method of neutral earthing.Fuses may be low voltage type or high voltage type : low voltage
can be further divided into two classes namely semi.
PROCEDURE OF EARTHING:
Technical consideration the current carrying path should have enough capacity to deal with
more faults current. The earth electrode is metal plate copper is used for
The neutral earthing is associated switchgear.Fuse is a essentially a short piece of metal ( or a fusible material ) inserted in a circuit which
melts when a predetermined value of current flows through it and thus breaks the circuits
.The protective element of the fuse is a fuse-link inserted in series with the circuit being
protected . These parts of equipment.
Specific resistance of soil surrounding in the neighbourhood of system electrodes.
are concerned do not attain dangerously high potential. they
are connected together to form a mesh.
Grounding of neutral offers several advantages the neutral point of generator transformer is
connected to earth directly or through a reactance in some cases the neutral point is earthed
through an adjustable reactor of reactance matched with the line.
The resistance of earthing system is depending on:
• Shape and material of earth electrode used.7
The provision of an earthing system for an electric system is necessary by the following
reason. which are normally dead. To sufficient
lowered earth resistance a number of electrodes are inserted in the earth to a depth. The earth electrode must be driven in to the
ground to a sufficient depth to as to obtain lower value of earth resistance. The resistance of earth should be for the mesh in
generally inserted in the earth at 0.5m depth the several point of mesh then connected to
earth electrode or ground conduction.enclosed rewire able fuse and the
cartridge type fuse.
This difference of potential results in voltage gradients. which is equal to the resistance of the earth mat
multiplied by ground fault current.
An earthed neutral system has the following advantages :A)
It provides a better protection against earth faults. The earth may be utilized to operate protective
relays to isolate the fault. transient voltages produced are very small.
It ensures nearly constant voltage of healthy phases because neutral point is not
also called the dog house. These are used to control the substation equipment to send
power from one circuit to another or to open or to shut down circuits when needed.
In the system.
Ground fault relaying is simple .
It requires lesser maintenance expense as compared to the unearthed neural
(isolated system. CONTROL ROOM
Control panel contain meters.The neutral earthing is provided for the purpose of protection arcing grounds unbalanced
voltages with respect to protection from lightening and for improvement of the system. At the same
time the earth mat conductor rise to voltage.
Persistent arcing ground can be eliminated by employing protective gear.
This system provides a better reliability of service .
It is safer for personal and equipment. The above two parts have common earth mat from which flat iron risers are
taken out to connect all the non-current carrying metal parts of the equipment.
SAFETY EARTHING :It is required to provide protection to the operating staff working in the yard and sub station
from any injury during fault condition by keeping the voltage gradient with
in safe limits. control switches and recorders located in the control building.
MEASURING INSTRUMENT USED:
ENERGY METER: To measure the energy transmitted energy meters are fitted to
the panel to different feeders the energy transmitted is recorded after one hour
regularly for it MWHr. It is also available in both the
forms analog as well as digital.
FREQUENCY METER: To measure the frequency at each feeder there is the
provision of analog or digital frequency meter.Fig.
AMETER: It is provided to measure the line current.
MVAR METER: It is to measure the reactive power of the circuit.
WATTMETERS: It is attached to each feeder to record the power exported from
GSS.It is also
available in both the analog and digital frequency meter.
MAXIMUM DEMAND INDICATOR: There are also mounted the control panel to
record the average power over successive predetermined period.
VOLTMETER: It is provided to measure the phase to phase voltage . meter is provided. BATTERY ROOM
Batteries are to be installed in a room in close vicinity of control room.
Maintenance of Battery
For effective and trouble free services of station batteries following maintenance activities
are suggested:o Battery Room and Ventilation
o Herein battery rooms door are kept closed. Thus
o Cells and Jars
o Leaky jars checked for cracks replaced if necessary. In the event
of failure of station supply if standby D.
o Intercell Connectors and Terminals
o Terminals cleaned for corrosion and sulphation.C. Plates inspected for signs of deterioration.
Battery room is the heart line of D.
There should be adequate provision for artificial lightning and the windows should be located
in such a way that direct sunlight on the cells be avoided. system the control
system should remain operative so we use D.C.
o Annual Maintenance
.C supply is not available then it will be dangerous for
the breaker and other protective equipment so also the communication system will be great
hampered and during such emergency there will be no communication for help or to transmit
information to the concerned authorities and the fault would be attended very late. RELAY..C supply. of cells. In case of failure of the A. signaling equipment. remote control apparatus. exhaust fan checked for air circulation. when on quick charge at high rate possible.
topping up etc. system. Exhaust fan for ventilation of
gases. control system through DC set.
Room temperature should be maintained b/w 20 C to 35C for getting best results.
Storage of the battery is the most dependable source of supply of DC power required for
closing and tripping of CB .
metal structures checked for corrosion and painted if necessary. Higher
temperature reduces the capacity.
Battery room should always be kept dry as damp room is dangerous due to possible
leakages from the battery.
o Output of charging equipment is adjusted for normal conditioning of battery.C. its commissioning and subsequent maintenance plays very important
meter should show as fraction of ampere.
o Base or Racks
o Wooden racks checked for cracks and deterioration. emergency light etc. Battery cells should be arranged on the stands in such a
way that each cell can be easily accessed for any maintenance purpose viz. SCADA. inspection. clean jars-wash covers are
wiped out.Battery is the heart of power system control and protection as all the power system
protection equipment and the communication equipments works on D. base pads for deterioration. This room should be
constructed in a such a way that it is well ventilated and the dimension of the room should be
such that it can easily accommodate the stands provided for supporting desired no.
Keep the distilled water container and keep some storage of
distilled water always ready for topping. FINAL
415 v +10% three phase 50 c/s
float charger capable of floating
cells of 2.C.3KV to 25KV) and is stepped-up to high voltage (765KV. main equipment from substation/power house to its subLDC has been
shown in a very simple form.
Power line communication & SCADA system
Delhi Transco Limited (DTL) has a very large network of high voltage transmission lines in
SP. DC output 110 cells while supplying a
load of 18 amp. specific gravity and
electrolyte is checked. Transmission lines transfer power from power houses to substations and from
one substation to many other substations or vice versa.65v per cell
Boost charge 220 v load at a max. No.
Transmission of Data
Below in Figure 1.
Of charging current of 20 amp.15 to 2.
Electrolyte level and add distilled water as it is necessary. ACID QUANTITY
1. A. 220KV &
132KV) for evacuating power into the grid network through transmission lines. of cells
Voltage of each cell which should be b/w 2.2 V per cell during trickle charge is
checked. Power is generated at low Voltage
(of the order of 3.
Communication for Power System
Following are mainly three inter-related areas of functions in DTL for management of power
ii. System Control Officers use this data to monitor
and analyze position of the grid.
iii. This data is processed in database
formats and is retrieved for different applications. provide inputs to transducers of SIC (Supervisory Interface & Control) & RTU (Remote
Terminal Unit) panel. microwave and fibre-optic. through Modem. If for
such extension extra potential free contacts are not available in the Control Panels.
Fibre-optic Communication System. DTL has got
its own three different type of communication systems. Telephone exchanges are connected with
the communication equipment.e. Such communication links can be of any type.
C) EMS. Contact
Multiplying Relays (CMRs) are used to provide potential free contacts. At sub LDC.e. installed on transmission
lines. a communication link has been shown.Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System.
i. In between substation &
PLCC-Power Line Carrier Communication. Circuit breakers & isolators' status are extended up to SIC panel. These formats or graphics are displayed or
printed as per requirement.Figure 1: Transmission of Data from substation/Power house to subLDC
Current Transformers (CTs) and Potential Transformers (PTs).Energy Management System
There are three different types of telecommunication systems in UPPTCL i. Each
RTU is automatically polled by Server of Sub LDC to obtain each data of repeats at least
once in 10 sec and is stored in the database of sub LDC. PLCC (Power Line Carrier
Communication). Its output is connected with data takes over.
Microwave Communication System. The output of RTU is
connected to the communication equipment. Modem output at receive side is connected with
the CFE (Communication End Frame).
Depending upon the type of
communication link.Sub-LDC's computer communicates with all RTU stations under
its control. message formatting. Analogue to digital converter converts this
current into binary pulses. displays and supporting
The system has been set-up to collect 'Counters' at regular intervals: typically 5 or 10
minutes. an entry is made into the appropriate alarm list. through a communication system.e.e. Secondary side of Current Transformers (CT) and Potential
Transformer (PT) are connected with 'Transducers'. MVAR. except for 33KV Bus isolator position
and LV side of generators. For those statuses. which are defined as an 'alarms'
and the indication goes into alarm. The output of transducers is available in
dc current form (in the range of 4mA to 20mA).
In SCADA system measured values. V.
Counters and (iii) Indications. directly or through Modem.Voice Frequency (VF) channels of all these systems have been integrated/interconnected to
make a hybrid communication system. The output of RTU.e. The brief overview of major 'functional areas' of
SCADA system is as below:
1. is sent to subLDC through communication links. containing information in the form of digital
pulses. RTU polling. For those statuses
that are not classified as 'alarms'. Microwave & Fibre Optic are multi-channels
communication systems and are also called 'Wideband communication system'. (i) Measurements. i. System values & status information below
66 KV have not been picked up for data transmission.
'Indications' are associated with status changes and protection.After receipt of data through communication system it is
processed. logs the change on the appropriate printer and also
enter it into a cyclic event list. data received from RTU is fed into the data
servers. are transmitted through telecommunication
channels to respective sub-LDCs. The measurement are then placed in database and are
checked against various limits which if exceeded generate high or low limit alarms. Communications . as
well as in the event list and an audible alarm is generated in the sub-LDC.
. Data process function has three sub-functions i. a SCADA system consists of a database. i. Data Processing .
'Measurements' retrieved from a RTU are converted to engineering units and
polynomial checking and message retransmission on failure are the activities of
'Communications' functional area. if necessary. subLDCs use all major functional areas of SCADA except the
'Supervisory Control/Command' function. the output of RTU is connected. analogue (measured value) data (MW. 220KV sub-stations have been installed. In general. At the end of the hour the units is transferred into appropriate hour slot in a
24-hour archive/history. At subLDC end. In DTL. on/off status). For this purpose Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) at
400KV. digital data (Circuit
Breakers/Isolators position i. and Open/Closed status information. with the
Hz Transformer tap position). Different inputs are interleaved in a sequential form and are fed
into the CPU of the RTU. PLCC is
single channel communication system.
database on a backup computer and the system is duplicated. Mimic Board
has a limitation that it cannot incorporate/add large volume of displays for substations/power
houses/transmission lines in 'active' form due to space constraint and congestion. the averaging of measured
values over a period of 15 minutes is stored to provide 24 hours trend.The alarm and event logging facilities are used by SCADA
data processing system.3. etc.g. to show the range of power flow at any moment i. Also in SLDC & subLDCs. Fail-over . thermal powerhouses. Supervisory Control/Remote Command .e. The state of the device is maintained
indicating whether it is 'on-line' or 'failed'. Typically. circuit
breaker trip command.e. i. But. Averaging of Measured Values . 'Nominal' or 'Maximum' of its line capacity. subsystem maintains a
history of selected system parameters over a period of time.
220KV and important 66 KV sub-stations.
6. yet it
is not used in U.e.Facilities have been provided in such a way that
an off-line copy of the SCADA database can be modified allowing the addition of new
RTUs. equipment. of three different colors.
SLDC Minto road has a large and active 'Mimic Board' in its Control room. These are sampled at a
pre-selected interval and are placed in historical database. transmission lines. Though. counters
and indications for the important sub-station/powerhouse.
in active and passive forms are required to be made in the Mimic diagram.There is a provision of manual entry of measured values.P. Alarm/Event Logging . there is provision of this function in this system. the SCADA system supports
averaging of all analogue measurements.The HDR.As an option. At the end of the day.
. Alarms are grouped into different categories and are given
different priorities. have 'achieve' (LED display) colored
7. Historical Data Recording (HDR) . shown in the mimic board. related/associated equipment have not been ordered. Manual Entry .
'Normal'. This mimic board
displays single line diagram of intra State transmission system i.
9. displays of single line diagrams
of RTU sub-stations/power house are viewed on VDUs of large size (21"). pickup points and communication channels. grid network of 400KV.
Outgoing feeders. As such. the
data is saved for later analysis and for report generation. Minto Road in near future. Quality codes are assigned to the recently received data for any
'limit violation' and 'status changes'.
8. Alarms are acknowledged from single line
diagram (or alarm lists) on display terminal in LDCs. For new substations and lines. Due to
this Mimic Board is going to be supplemented with a Video Projection System (VPS) at
SLDC. communication path. There is a 'backup' system.
4. which are uncovered by an
RTU or some problem is going on in its RTU.A 'Fail-over' subsystem is also provided to secure and maintain a
database of devices and their backups. Interactive Database Generation .This function enables the issue of
'remote control' commands to the sub-station/powerhouse equipment e.
and proper interpretation of test results and observation based on experience. blown out fuses.
Maintenance is a key activity for utilities in order to assure the proper operation of the
manufacturers guidance etc. attended to. The detection of incipient faults in electrical
equipment depends up on use of proper diagnostic tools. sparks. And it implies a huge amount of human and economic resources. tripping before full load. Preventive maintenance: Preventive maintenance calls for advance plan is made to
carry out preventive maintenance.
4. the extent of damage can be reduced and the equipment can be
reconditioned and put back in to service.1. Reliability centered maintenance: Reliability centered maintenance is generally carried
out on old equipment by conducting ‘ remaining life assessment studies’ and based on
. trouble shoots and
operated under specified conditions. reduced down time. loose contact. This can be achieved by establishing the new substation.
Detection of premature faults. Optimum utilization Availability of quality power.
breakdown of which does not affect power supply continuity.
3. The advantage lies in uninterrupted power supply. To meet the above
frequent trappings. Operation and Maintenance of 220KV Substation
9. excess temperature. Saving
Maintenance costs means that it is needed to proper operation of substation
increased availability of the equipment and reduction in maintenance cost. Any abnormality will be followed by warming
signal like variation in sound. its effective use. Corrective or breakdown maintenance: Corrective or breakdown maintenance is
carried out as and when necessary. Maintenance may be defined as the upkeep of the substation electrical
equipment in proper working and efficient condition to derive the Reliable and efficient
operation. Condition based maintenance: Condition base maintenance is based on condition
assessment of the equipment by tests ON or OFF the line. A large percentage of failure of electrical
equipment are due to deterioration of insulation.9. the equipment has to be checked. The availability of reliable and quality power has made the job of substation
more important. many of these failure can be anticipated by regular application of simple
tests and timely maintenance . Minimizing revenue losses etc.
1.2. with most
efficient and reliable equipments and taking more care in their operation and
maintenance. This is ideal for prevention of
equipment failure and other associated consequent damages. abnormal operating
condition etc. This applies only to low value and auxiliary equipments.
9. If the fault condition leading to failure is detected in the
early stage itself.
quarterly and yearly
Maintenance schedule is categorized into daily. 20MVA)
Check and re-condition of silica jelly.
Check earthing connection
Check jump connections
Check OLTC motor drive and control panel
a) Lubricate bearing and cleaning
b) Check the gear box oil level
c) Check operation of limit switch.
8. Documentation/ computerization on maintenance: The documentation is a record of
the type of maintenance activity carried out. Equipment failure analyses: Equipment failure analysis is the major responsibility of
maintenance personnel to prevent repeated failure of equipment and provide inputs foe
necessary change in design parameters. sequence switch with transformer in off
d) Check gasket joints for oil leakage
HT Circuit breakers
Clean the porcelains
Check the connections for loose contact
Check tripping through relays
Check the wiring for loose contact
Vermin Proofing of control box
. new equipment design..
erection and subsequent maintenance technique. any abnormalities noticed during checking etc.
Check the working cooling fans. radiator.
chronologically documented and computerized for further analysis and action. The maintenance costs are also reduced.economics. Hot line maintenance of one line of double circuit\ line with
other circuit in live condition. is few
examples. Techniques for reducing down time: Techniques of reducing down time play a vital role
in continuity of power supply. pumps
Release gas from BH relay
Clean the bushing.
9. Spare management: Spares management ensures availability of right spares most
frequently required and at the right location and thereby help immediate restoration of power
7. weekly. life extension techniques are adopted without sacrificing reliability and
availability. body etc.
6. quality control plan.3.
Power transformer (100 MVA. deployment of emergency restoration system etc.
Check the alignment of isolator
Cleaning and applying petroleum jelly to contacts
GOS-HR fuses –Station yard Earthing
Check clean and grease the GOS and check contacts for erosion. panels and bus bars thoroughly. Check annunciation scheme
Lubricate moving/link mechanisms wherever recommended by manufacturer
HT: CT’s. contact erosion in VCB
Check 11 kV CT’s and PT’s connections
Check jump connection and replace PG clamps. breakers between phases
Check operation of breakers on local remote through relay and corresponding
Check and lubricate operating mechanism wherever necessary
Tighten the terminal connection of all auxiliary circuit and wiring
Check all earth connections between the panel and electrodes for tightness
and check the contact resistance of earth connection. clean insulators with
CTC or Petrol
Check II values of the bus bars and individuals.4.1: Maintenance Schedule for Oil-Filled Power Transformers
Maintenance or Test
Review equipment ratings
Check contact travel. otherwise action should
be taken to Bering the same to within limit immediately as it is very important
aspect for the safety of the equipment in any station.
Clean the porcelain and metal body
Check connection both primary and secondary for tightness
Check oil level
Take IR values
Check earth connection for proper contact
11 kV Switchgears
Clean the breakers.
the resistance should be within the prescribed limit. PT’s & Lightning arresters.
TABLE 9. clean
Check operation for proper closing of the insulator
Check the fuses and renew the same wherever HR fuses are provided
Check the earth resistance of earthing mat and all individual earthing if any.
physical. SFRA test
If problems are indicated by other
Cooling fans – inspect and test
Oil pumps and motors .DGA.Preventive maintenance
As Per manufacturer’s
Transformer physical inspection
Bushings – visual inspection
Quarterly and 3-5 years
Bushings . Turns Ratio
Inspect foundation.check oil level
Bushings – cleaning
Transformer and bushings Doble test
3-5 years (6 months to 1 year for
Transformer and bushings–
Insulating oil .inspect
Top oil and winding
Annually inspect and infrared scan
3-5 years calibrate
Oil level indicator operation
Pressure relief device
Annually inspect and perform
function test 3-5 years check oil
Sudden pressure relay
Annually inspect and perform
function test 3-5 years test per
Inspect foundation. rails.
and chemical tests
Annually after first year of
Leakage reactance. rails.inspect
Heat exchangers – inspect
Conservator and bladder . trucks
Annually inspect and perform
000 to 10. compare with
Record operations counter
Monthly. trip test. moisture test on
operations (more frequent if high
Overhaul disconnect. grounds.TABLE 9. annually.
linkage. bolts. power
factor insulation test.
and breaking switches
15 years or 5.000
. if required by
Verify operation and calibration of
temperature and pressure switches
Check lube points. operating mechanism
Overhaul breaker with new seals. nozzles
5 years10 to 15 years or 4. bolts. tightness of terminals.000 to 10.4.5 years
Check foundation. latch. paint
Check external screws.
electrical terminals tight
Contact resistance test.
contacts. grounding. heater
linkages screws.2: Maintenance Schedule of SF6 Breaker
Maintenance or Test
Review equipment rating
Per manufacturer’s instruction
Record gas pressure and
4.Gas cart maintenance
Per manufacturer’s instruction
TABLE 9.3: Maintenance Schedule for Relays and Protection Circuits
Maintenance or Test
Fault/load study and recalculate
Calibration and functional testing
Solid-state relays Calibration and
Upon commissioning 1 year after
commissioning and every 3 years
Microprocessor relays calibration
and functional testing
Protection circuit functional test.4. direct current [DC]
3-6 years Ambient dependent
.4: Maintenance Schedule for Arresters
Maintenance or Test
Review equipment rating
Visual inspection with binoculars
Quarterly to semiannually
Clean insulator and check
3-6 years Ambient dependent
3-6 years Ambient dependent
Doble test (power frequency
including lockout relays
Upon commissioning 1 year after
commissioning and every 8-10
and/or upon any changes and every 3-6 years
Check red light lit for lockout
relay and circuit breaker coil
Lockout relays Cleaning and
Thermo graphic Inspection:
During the thermo-visual inspection of sub-station equipment. By thermo scanning any incipient fault can
be identified in its initial stages if thermo scanning is done on regular interval. several hot spots are noticed
and these spots are due to loose joints. Four types of
fault are graded from zero to three indicating normalcy to sever fault.000.5: Maintenance Schedule for Transmission Lines
Maintenance or Test
Review equipment ratings
Visual inspection with binoculars
9.5 THERMO SCANNING
A sub station having worth crores of rupees can be scanned in two days time for which
charges for scanning comes around Rs.insulation resistance. The temperature difference between the hot spots
and normal spot is reported and this aspect indicates the severity of the fault. 30.9. power factor)
Replace all silicon carbide arresters
with metal oxide varistor type
As soon as possible
This is done with thermo vision camera based on FLIR system.
Thus damage of equipment worth of crores of rupees can be avoided and also this
technique prevents disruptions of power to
Customers in case of damage of equipment.4.
they get caught leading to accidents.
(h) Ensure all machines control of the machine is in your access.
(j) For any injury whether small or big get first aid first.
(g) Ensure all guards in position before M/C working on job.
(d) Keep the work area clean.
(f) Lubricate the M/C part with both hands.
(b) Long and unruly hairs are dangerous particularly when working near
revolving part.GENERAL SAFETY PRECAUTION REQUIRED
(a) Don’t wear loose garments.
(c) Do not smoke near prohibited area. Use cotton waste brush etc. dry and free of obstructions. Look and report any accident
(e) Do not touch or operate equipment unless are authorized so.
(i) Ensure all tools are in good conditions.
DTL is not only an industry in itself but also offers vocational
training to engineering graduates as well as professionals.
provided an opportunity to encounter big and sophisticated equipments of the Sub-Station.
This phase of practical training has proved to be quiet fruitful.
The architecture of the Sub-Station and the way various equipments are linked together to
work as a unit and methodological approach in working of whole s/s is controlled renders the
impression that engineering is not just learning the structured description and working of
It has been really a knowledgeable experience pursuing training at DTL. New Delhi was a learning experience. beneficial in every respect.
It was definitely a knowledgeable experience and pride to be a part of 220 kv Sarita Vihar s/s
for such a short period of time. but greater part is of planning proper management. And this opportunity to gain practical knowledge. 220 KV Sarita Vihar
sub-station. imparted by
very able personals of DTL at Srita Vihar. It is beyond doubt.
No doubt it showed that mere theoretical and bookish knowledge need to be supplemented
with able practice knowledge.