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Acetophenone Uses Acetophenone is used in perfumery as a fragrance ingredient in soaps, detergents, creams, lotions, and perfumes; as a flavoring agent

in foods, nonalcoholic beverages, and tobacco; as a specialty solvent for plastics and resins; as a catalyst for the polymerization of olefins; and in organic syntheses as a photosensitizer. Health Hazard Information Acute Effects:

Acute exposure of humans to acetophenone vapor may produce skin irritation and transient corneal injury. One study noted a decrease in light sensitivity in exposed humans. ( ,!" Acute oral exposure has been observed to cause hypnotic or sedative effects, hematological effects, and a #eakened pulse in humans. ($,!" %ongestion of the lungs, kidneys, and liver #ere reported in rats acutely exposed to high levels of acetophenone via inhalation. (!" &ests involving acute exposure of rats, mice, and rabbits have demonstrated acetophenone to have moderate acute toxicity from oral or dermal exposure. ('"

Chronic Effects (Noncancer): (o information is available on the chronic effects of acetophenone in humans. )egeneration of olfactory bulb cells #as reported in rats chronically exposed via inhalation. *n another study, chronic inhalation exposure of rats produced hematological effects and, at high doses, congestion of cardiac vessels and pronounced dystrophy of the liver. ( ,!" *n t#o studies, no effects #ere observed in rats chronically exposed to acetophenone in their diet. ( ,!,+" ,-A has not established a .eference %oncentration (.f%" for acetophenone. (+" &he .eference )ose (.f)" for acetophenone is /.$ milligram per kilogram body #eight per day (mg0kg0d" based on general toxicity in rats. &he .f) is an estimate (#ith uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude" of a daily oral exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups" that is likely to be #ithout appreciable risk of deleterious noncancer effects during a lifetime. *t is not a direct estimator of risk but rather a reference point to gauge the potential effects. At exposures increasingly greater than the .f), the potential

Alcohol *n chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in #hich

the hydroxyl functional group (1O2" is bound to a carbon atom. *n particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms. An important class of alcohols are the simple acyclic alcohols, the general formula for #hich is %n2 n3$O2. Of those, ethanol (% 2+O2" is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, and in common speech the

#ord alcohol refers specifically to ethanol.Other alcohols are usually described #ith a clarifying adjective, as in isopropyl alcohol (propan-2-ol" or wood alcohol (methyl alcohol, or methanol". &he suffix -ol appears in the*4-A% chemical name of all substances #here the hydroxyl group is the functional group #ith the highest priority; in substances #here a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy- #ill appear in the *4-A% name. &he suffix -ol in non1systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol" also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. 5ut many substances, particularly sugars

(examples glucose and sucrose" contain hydroxyl functional groups #ithout using the suffix.Alcoholic beverages has been consumed by humans since prehistoric times for a variety of hygienic, dietary, medicinal, religious, and recreational reasons.-rimary alcohols (.1%2 1O2" can be oxidized either to aldehydes (.1%2O" (eg acetaldehyde as described belo#" or to carboxylic acids (.1%O 2", #hile the oxidation of secondary alcohols (.$. %21O2" normally terminates at the ketone (.$. %6O" stage. &ertiary alcohols (.$. .!%1O2" are resistant to oxidation. ,thanol7s toxicity is largely caused by its primary

$" &he impurities present in a li8uid pull its t#o fixed points a#ay from each other i.e. the freezing point is lo#ered #hile the boiling point is raised. " &he depression in freezing point and the elevation in boiling point increases #ith increase in the concentration of the solute or impurity i.e. these are the colligative properties that depends only on the no. of moles of the solute. &hey are independent of the nature of the solute.