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1.

The diagram below shows the structure of a chromosome as it might appear at the end of
prophase of mitosis.

(a)

Name the parts labelled A and B.


A .................................................................................................................................
B .................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

During metaphase of mitosis, the chromosomes become attached to the equator of the
spindle. Name the stage of mitosis that follows metaphase and describe the events that
occur in this stage.
Stage ...........................................................................................................................
Events occurring ........................................................................................................
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(3)

(c)

Explain the significance of the stage you have named and described in (b).
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(1)

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(d)

Mitosis forms part of the cell cycle. Name one other stage of the cell cycle and state what
occurs in the stage that you have named.
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(2)
(Total 8 marks)

2.

The diagrams below show cells from a garlic plant at five different stages of mitosis as seen
using a light microscope. These stages are in the wrong order.

(a)

Give the correct order in which the five stages take place by using the letters AE.
1st stage ............

2nd stage ............

4th stage ............

5th stage ............

3rd stage ............


(2)

(b)

(i)

Name the part of a garlic plant which is used to prepare a slide showing the stages
of mitosis.
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(1)

(ii)

Name a stain which is used to make the chromosomes easy to see.


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(1)

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(c)

Name the process which must occur in the genetic material before the chromosomes
become visible.
(i)

Name of the process .........................................................................................


(1)

(ii)

State what happens to the genetic material during this process.


...........................................................................................................................
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(1)
(Total 6 marks)

3.

The diagrams below show four stages of mitosis.

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(a)

(i)

Write the letters of the stages in the sequence in which they occur during mitosis.
........... .......... .......... ...........
(1)

(ii)

Name stage D.
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(1)

(b)

The graph below shows how the quantity of DNA varies with time in a cell cycle.
4
Q u a n tity o f D N A
/ a rb itra ry u n its
3

10

15

20

25

T im e /h o u rs

(i)

Explain the changes in the quantity of DNA that take place:


between 10 to 15 hours
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at 20 hours
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(2)

(ii)
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What is happening- in the cell between 15 and 20 hours?


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(1)

(iii)

What is the minimum length of time that interphase would occupy in this cell
cycle?
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(1)
(Total 6 marks)

4.

(a)

The table below describes some of the key events that occur during mitosis Complete the
table by writing the name of the stage of mitosis next to its description.
Key events

Stage

Chromatids separate and move to opposite poles of the


dividing cell.
Chromosomes shorten and thicken. The nuclear
envelope breaks down and the spindle forms.
The spindle fibres break down, the nuclear membrane
re-forms and the chromosomes elongate.
Chromosomes line up on the equator of the cell, attached
to spindle fibres by their centromeres.
(4)

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(b)

The graph below illustrates the change in DNA content during the cell cycle

M ass o f D N A /
a rb itra ry u n its
6
C

4
3

2
G

0
0

(i)

10

12

14

16

18

20

26

22
24
T im e / h o u rs

Calculate the percentage of the cell cycle time spent in G 1.

Answer...................................................................
(3)

(ii)

At which point, A, B, C or D, does chromosome replication (the S phase) begin?


Explain your answer.
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(2)
(Total 9 marks)

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5.

Mendel studied the inheritance of distinct phenotypes of the garden pea. The results of some of
his experiments are summarised below.
Phenotypes of
F1 generation

Phenotypes of
F2 generation

Ratio of phenotypes
in F2 generation

All round

5754 round : 1850


wrinkled

3.11 : 1

Yellow green seeds

All yellow

6022 yellow : 2001


green

3.01 : 1

Long short stems

All long

787 long : 277 short

2.84 : 1

Crosses between
parental phenotypes
Round wrinkled seeds

(a)

Select one of the crosses and explain how the inheritance of specific alleles could result
in the F1 and F2 ratios obtained. Use full genetic diagrams and suitable symbols.

(4)

(b)

Describe a suitable breeding experiment that could be used to determine the genotype of a
plant in the F2 generation that shows the dominant characteristic.
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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

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6.

(a)

The white clover, Trifolium repens, is one of the plants found growing as a weed in many
lawns.
Leaves of the white clover are divided into three leaflets which often have characteristic
white patterns visible on their surface. The two basic forms of the pattern are a chevron
and a large patch. The diagram below shows these two patterns.

c h e v ro n p a tte rn

p a tc h p a tte rn

The basic form of the white pattern is governed by a single gene, V. Plants homozygous
for the allele VC will have the chevron pattern. Plants homozygous for the allele VP will
have the patch pattern.
If a clover plant with the chevron pattern is crossed with a plant with the patch pattern,
the offspring have leaflets with a mixed chevron and patch pattern, as shown in the
diagram below.

m ix e d p a tte rn

(i)

State the term used to describe the form of inheritance, shown in white clover,
where the heterozygote offspring show the mixed pattern on their leaflets.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

A cross between two white clover plants, each with the mixed pattern, was carried out.
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(ii)

State the expected ratio of the phenotypes in the offspring of this cross.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

In the space below, draw a genetic diagram to show how this expected ratio was
achieved.

(3)

(b)

The ABO blood grouping in humans is governed by three alleles IA, IB and IO. The four
phenotypic blood groups for this system are A, B, AB and O.
With reference to both similarities and differences, compare the inheritance of ABO blood
groups in humans with the inheritance of leaflet patterns in white clover.
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(4)
(Total 9 marks)

Vyners School