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# Hydrogeology notes Introduction Hydrology, hydrogeology, and geohydrology hydrology

study of the hydrologic cycle fluvial hydrology limnology runoff, stream flow, flood routing water chemistry

hydrogeology

root word is geology modified by hydro the study of water in geological materials the key is geology! anyone can determin the pumpage and drawdown from a well what is more difficult is understanding the geology and how water supply and water quality are affected by the geology stratigraphy and sedimentology control porosity, permeability, and continuity of strata chemical and physical diagenesis control the evolution or alteration of geological materials tectonic history controls structure, fractures, degree of metamorphism, etc.

geohydrology

root is hydrology geo is the modifier traditionally engineering applications of hydrology

Engineering and geological applications are different Engineering aspects do not emphasize geological environments, sedimentology, stratigraphy, structure, metamorphism etc.

The modern definition of Hydrogeology The interaction of water and rocks Name a geological system that is not dependent in an intimate way on water. The cornerstones of geology are

Mineralogy Petrology Stratigraphy Structure geomorphology

Glacial geology – obvious geomorpholgoy – obvious igneous petrology? Sedimentary petrology? Metamorphic petrology? Structural geology? Economic geology? A little background on the origins of hydrogeology The modern era you could say began with Henry Darcy Experimental work Developed an expression that describes the physics of groundwater flow Meinzer 1923 published a book on the occurrence of groundwater in the US one of his major contributions

through his development of water budgets for the Dakota Sandstone he noted that more water was being pumped than could be accounted for. He proposed that water-bearing rock formations must posses some elastic property that played an important role in how water was released from storage

Theis 1935

Recognized the analogy between groundwater flow and heat flow The physics of heat flow was well understood at the time, but he physics of groundwater was not His solution to the well pumping problem is commonly used today Hubbert 1940 Published his detailed work on the theory of groundwater flow Hubbert was interested mainly in groundwater flow at the scale of sedimentary basins Hubbert also published a important paper on the role of groundwater in thrusting

Hubbert and Ruby

Jacob Major contribution!! Theis had developed a solution for groundwater flow based on a heat flow analogy Jacob derived equations of fluid flow directly from equations describing the physics of groundwater flow Which by the way incorporated the elastic behavior of rocks Why is his contribution so important? His equation, which we will study later, is a differential equation Differential equations

Establish a relation between increments of a quantity and the quantities themselves We can therefore determine the relation between one state of nature and a neighboring state in both Time dt And space dx Thus differential equations can be an expression of the laws of nature

005% Distribution of Worlds water supply Ocean Ice caps / glaciers Groundwater Surface water Soil moisture Hydrologic cycle is the exchange of water among three phases ice/water/vapor and the transport of water around the globe Evaporation water to vapor requires heat Atmospheric transport moves mass and energy Oceanic transport moves mass and energy condensation .Hydrologic cycle occurrence of water oceans Ice caps and glaciers Groundwater Surface water soil moisture 97.14% 0.61% 0.2% 2.009% 0.

vapor to liquid releases heat precipitation releases potential energy runoff overland channeled moves mass releases potential and frictional energy infiltration soil moisture water table and groundwater transports heat stream flow 2 components groundwater contribution (base flow) runoff transports mass and energy The water profile Use figure of vadose and phreatic zones Characteristics of water We will be using mostly SI units meters / kilograms / seconds I want you to understand the physical quantities and the units fundamental units Mass length kg m .

J s-1) Watt (W) Momentum = force x time (N s) Newton (N) Heat capacity = energy / mass / °K (J kg-1 °K-1) Latent heat = energy / mass (J kg-1) Thermal conductivity = energy / time / length / °K (J s-1 m-1 °K-1) or (W m-1 °K-1) .time temperature velocity acceleration s °K m s-1 m s-2 Force (weight) = mass x acceleration (kg m s-2) Pressure = force / area (N m-2) Pascal (Pa) Shear stress = force / area (N m-2) Pascal (Pa) Energy (work) = force x distance (N m) Joule (J) Power = energy / time (N m s-1.

938 slugs ft-3 Weight density 9800 N m-3 980 dynes cm-3 62.46 lb ft-3 Heat capacity heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass by a unit amount 4186 J kg-1 °C-1 1 cal g-1 °C-1 Energy transformations and latent heat water is continually exchanged between liquid and vapor phases .freezing point = 0°C boiling point = 100°C Solid phase is less dense than liquid crystal structure takes up more space that the randon orientations of water molecules at 0°C many of the water molecules are bonded into the ice lattice configuration warming of water from 0 to 4 °C results in the deformation and collapse of this structure above 4°C many of the hydrogen bonds are completely severed and the molecules reside farther apart therefore the density of water is greatest at 4°C Mass density 1000 kg m-3 1 gm cm-3 1.

9 569.4 2355262.at temperatures between 0 and 100 °C high energy molecules will fly off from the bulk liquid temperature is a measure of the heat energy of a substance some molecules with greater than average energy will leave the fluid phase this process is called EVAPORATION when high energy molecules are removed the total energy of the remaining water is lower and therefore the temperature is lower for the temperature of the surface to be maintained heat must be added from radiation or the release of stored energy in the system change of state from water to vapor requires an input of energy 597.7 588.1 566.3 563.7 571.0 552.8 2402413.2 2402.4 2473138.0 2414.8 2426.0 583.0 2367050.6 2437776.1 2355.8 2461351.1 Hv J/kg 2496714.9 2308.4 .8 555.2 2449563.6 574.2 2390625.2 580.8 586.4 2390.9 2473.0 2308112.3 594.0 2484926.8 2367.8 2343475.6 2378.7 2319.2 Hv J/gm 2496.6 557.1 2461.3 cal / gm at 0°C temp 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 Hv cal/gm 597.4 2449.6 2437.4 2414200.0 2425988.5 2331.6 2319900.3 2343.6 2378838.7 2484.5 591.2 2331687.4 577.5 560.

5 543.8 2284537.400 J kg-1 .6 2260962.9 2296.4 J kg-1 ~334.4 546.0 Latent heat of fusion ~80 cal gm-1 334.5 2272.85 90 95 100 549.7 540.2 2272749.0 2296324.3 2284.7 2261.

O (m3) = dS (m3) what are the units of S if we are talking about water? what are the units of t what are the units of I and O or alternatively dS I(t).O(t) = dt for the case of drainage basin water balance studies - ET = (P + surface water input + imported water (human) + groundwater inflow) .(surface water out + groundwater out + reservoir evap + exported water ) .O = IN OUT = change in storage S Inflow Precip surface water groundwater inflow artificial condensation outflow groundwater surface water artificial evapotranspiration Movement of mass and energy I (m3) .Hydrologic Equation .Water Budget .Continuity Equation I .

± change in surface water storage ± change in groundwater storage Evaporation. ponds. droplets. puddles. and Precipitation Absolute. transpiration. and from soil that is free of vegetation Evaporation is a function of temp of water wind speed . however. the absolute humidity remains the same then the relative humidity goes up Evaporation occurs from free water surfaces lakes.1 in Fetter the maximum amount of water the air can hold varies with temperature Relative humidity ratio of absolute to saturation humidity absolute saturation x 100 if the relative humidity is < 100% then evaporation can occur dew point The temperature at which condensation occurs diurnal variations in relative humidity as Temp decreases the saturation humidity decreases if. and relative humidity Absolute humidity the mass of water in a volume of air kg/m3 or gm/m3 Saturation humidity . saturation.table 2.

**vapor pressure amount of radiation Relative Humidity
**

cloud cover haze shade tree cover

if radiation exchange and all other factors remained constant water temperature and evaporation rate would be constant if wind speed doubled evaporation would momentarily double there is no added radiation therefore energy would come from the system lowering the temp of the system as water temp decreses the evaporation rate would decrease also because more energy is required to evap water at a lower temp and the system has less heat to provide transpiration is --water pumped from the ground by vegetation only a small percentage of the water is used by the plant some vegetation is more efficient than other

Generally, transpiration is a function of amount and size of vegetation type of vegetation hours of daylight soil moisture Evapotranspiration sum of all water evaporated from free surfaces and that used by plants

Transpiration measurement generally difficult in natural settings because of the difficulty of separating away evaporation therefore

we measure Evapotranspiration since it is difficult to separate Evap from Transpiration they are measured together

Potential Evapotranspiration the amount of wate that will evaporate if there is at no time a deficiency of water in the evaporating system Land Pan for estimate of PET 4 foot diameter, 10 inches deep evaporation from the pan is greater than from actual lakes or forests use a correction factor that is <1.0 Empirical methods Thornthwaite Energy Balance methods

Actual Evapotranspiration is what it says - the actual evapotranspiration during parts of the year there may not be enough water available in the soil or plants to provide all that is capable of evaporating

Potential Evapotranspiration Actual Evapotranspiration

Precipitation Storage of moisture

soil moisture depletion

Jan

Feb

Mar Apr

May Jun

Jul

Aug Sep

Oct

Nov Dec

describe components of the diagram above

**estimation of precipitation - determining effective uniform depth. Measurement rain gauges Arithmetic average
**

simply the average of the rainfalls measured at stations within the drainage basin can be weighted if some areas are known to consistantly have greater or less precip

Theissen method connect adjacent precip recording stations with lines make a perpendicular bisector to each line sketch each polygon and use the central rainguage as the average over the area of a polygon

32" Isohyetal method contour the data 1.68" 4.21" 2.83" 1.38" 3.1.086" 2.21" .38" 2" 3" 3.83" 1" 1.21" 2.21" .086" 2.68" 4" 4.32" .

Runoff and Streamflow We can use the techniques described above to analyze effective depth of precip (effective uniform depth EUD) now we can evaluate how a drainage basin and all of its components respond to precipitation events Now lets look at detailed description of the Characteristics of a drainage basin size shape soils sediment bedrock vegetation topography how these characteristics affect infiltration runoff soil moisture groundwater recharge .

thickness of unsaturated zone. micro and macro topography) if infiltration capacity is exceeded puddles form some later infiltrates some evaporates interflow f(soil characteristics. geological materials) rarely are surface sediments and soils uniformly permeable .fate of precipitation interception f(vegetation) vegetation has a storage capacity all types of vegetation store forests greater that grass or crop once storage is exceeded precip reaches the ground surface infiltration f(soil characteristics) infiltration capacity the rate at which water can infiltrate depends of soil properties depends on moisture conditions depression storage f(soil characteristics.

micro and macro topography.generally stratified -.even the soils verticle movement of water may be retarded and horizontal movement may be favored interflow may eventually reach the water table overland flow f(soil characteristics. vegetation) if infiltration capacity is exceeded and depression storage is filled water flows overland may flow a short distance and infiltrate may flow a short distance and become channellized rills gullys throughflow and return flow same as interflow except emerges at foot of slope rather than entering stream direct precip on water bodies in some areas this total is very significant Example Lake Superior the groundwater reservoir some infiltrated water reaches the water table this is a dymamic reservoir groundwater is continually moving from sources to sinks Sources natural or artificial recharge groundwater sinks transpiration base flow to streams streams flow whether it is raining or not even after long drought this flow is generally provided by groundwater discharge .

artificial withdrawl let's now examine the role and response of streams to changing hydrologic events in the watershed Stream hydrographs flow of stream at one location as a function of time Baseflow is the groundwater contribution to stream flow Event hydrographs and Base-flow separation determine groundwater input to stream description of event (or storm) hydrograph C A-B baseflow recession B-C rising limb C-D falling limb D-E baseflow recession Discharge A B D E Time components of an event hydrograph .

Total streamflow Overland runoff (overland flow and channelled flow Baseflow Ground water recharge shown by the rise in the baseflow curve Baseflow separation Inflection point N Total streamflow fixed base method project baseflow ahead to time of runoff peak connect this point to a point on the falling limb that occurs at time N after the runoff peak .

2 (square miles) annual hydrographs typical humid climate overland flow and channel precipitation Discharge baseflow Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec long dry season Base-flow recession Discharge Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec intermittant stream .N is determined by D (days) = A 0.

Discharge Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec snow melt and groundwater discharge Discharge snow melt baseflow Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec gaining and losing streams gaining stream or effluent effluent because GW moves from the groundwater reservoir into the stream typical of humid climates like ours .

water table losing or influent that is influent to the GW reservoir water table Flood stage Normal Stage during a flood a stream can change from effluent to influent significant bank storage can occur .

Base-flow recession recession equation Q = Qo e-at Q = flow rate at some time after recession begins Qo = flow rate at beginning of recession a = recession constant for basin t = timesince recession began at the beginning of recession t=0 and Q = Qo the recession constant a can be expressed as 1 Q a = .---------------------------------------------Base-flow recession in the absence of precip the groundwater reservior will be depleted and stream flow will decrease . t lnQ o a is a number less than 1 a will be large for flat recessions (close to 1) a will be small (close to zero) for steep recessions it can be shown that limestone karst terranes have flat recessions because much of the drainage occurs in the subsurface it can be shown that glacial sediment and granitic terranes have steep recessions Determining groundwater recharge from baseflow recession .

time will yield a straight line on semilog plot the slope of the line is the recession constant in this case. the recession expression becomes Q0 Q = (t/t1) 10 Q0 = groundwater discharge at to t1 is the length of time one log cycle later t = any time of interest for which you want to know Q if t = t1 Qo then Q(t + one log cycle) = 10 since we have an expression for discharge at any time. Q0 Q = (t/t1) 10 then the volume of groundwater discharge to baseflow can be found by integrating Q over the time of interest t Qot1/2.3 Vol = ⌡ ⌠Q dt = 10(t/t1) to detailed steps of integration .Discharge 1000 100 J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M a plot of discharge vs.

all of the water is allowed to drain from the groundwater reservoir) Qot1 Vtp = 2.10-(to/t1)] =0 then Qt1 = .1 Qo the amount remaining at the end of one base flow recession and the total potential at the beginning of the next recession can be used to determine recharge between the end of one and the beginning of the next recession base flow remaining after one recession is equal to Qot1 Qot1 / 2.3 =10(t/t1) for the definite integral if to = 0 and t = infinity then (i.t 1 ⌠ (t/t1) ⌠10-(t/t1) = ⌡ 10 ⌡ to to -t1 = ln10 [10-(t/t1) .ln(10) else =t1/2.3 if to = 0 and t = infinity then [10-(t/t1) .10-(to/t1)] t and ln(10) = 2.3 10(t/t1) and the Q back in and Qot1/2.e.3 this is the total potential groundwater discharge (Vtp) or the volume that would be discharged if recession was allowed to drain all of the water from the ground Qo = base flow at beginning of recession t1 is the time to go from Qo to 0.3 = Vrem1 2.3 10(t/t1) vol remaining total potential amount discharged .

Small amounts of infiltration of snow melt occurs.Vrem1 this analysis assumes no consumptive uses by evapotranspiration or pumping A Minnesota example of an annual hydrologic cycle Winter snow accumulation Precipitation Evaporation (sublimation. transfer from snow directly to vapor phase) Because of the frozen conditions and the general absence of recharge. the groundwater reservoir is depleted and the water table lowered.ripening of snow pack melt. Spring snow melt warming . runoff. there can be periods of groundwater recharge during warm intervals Snow cover Frozen Soil Water table decline Winter Drop in the water through January or February. infiltration. Even though the ground is frozen.t1 = length of log cycle t = length of base recession for the year total potential at beginning of next recession Qot1 Vtp2 = 2. .3 groundwater recharge = Vtp2 .

infiltration.4 inches of water Melting of snow cover and saturation of soil Saturated soil Water table Early Spring Snow melts and the ground thaws. Spring rains. and groundwater recharge Along come spring rains which may total 6-8 inches Since the snow melt "conditioned" the unsaturated zone. Infiltration saturates and the soil and prepares the ground to receive recharge from spring rains. During this time the vegetation is just beginning to take up water from soil moisture Spring rains Saturated soil Water table rise Early Spring Rapid infiltration of spring rains leading to rapid water table rise. this rain water can now percolate through the already wet sediment and recharge the water table. Growth of vegetation As the Spring season progresses. From this point on there is little recharge except during large or extended periods of precipitation . the vegetation uses up much of the available water in the soil horizon and infiltration from precipitation stops.In many cases there is not enough water in the snow pack to wet the unsaturated zone. This wetting prepares the unsaturated zone to receive more moisture Therefore often snow melt alone does not involve recharge A typical winter snow pack may have 2 .

transportation. and if Fall rains are substantial some groundwater recharge occurs. actual evapotranspiration and potential evapotranspiration rains in the summer provide little recharge as plants use most of the available water Fall plant growth in decreasing Fall rains lead to infiltration and recharge Soil moisture depletion by vegetation stops Water table stabilizes Fall In the Fall the plants use less water. . Summer heat Evaporation.Soil moisture depletion by vegetation Water table rise Late Spring / Summer By late Spring and on into the Summer the plants are transpiring most of the available water leading to soil moisture depletion. Cooler wetter conditions prevail.

Porosity and permeability Porosity sediments. fractured rocks have porosity pore spaces within the medium .Lets examine the Pelican River Drainage Basin Inputs (if the system is bounded on all sides by groundwater divides) Precip Outputs Stream flow Evapotranspiration Groundwater flow What controls the rate of GW flow to the stream The properties of the geological materials Porosity Permeability Gradient of mechanical potential energy Slope of the water table or potentiometric surface Characteristics of geological materials .

Definition of Porosity (n) Vv n= V t Vv = volume of voids Vt = total volume Porosity of materials is dependent on several things Packing consider a sediment of uniform spheres porosity is highly dependent on the packing of the sediment cubic 47.95% Effects of grain size and sorting If all fragments are uniform in size then grain size matters not .65 % rhombahedral 25.

plates round will pack tighter rods and plates will have greater porosity Fabric and orientation imbrication .alignment of platy grains for example will reduce porosity Porosity range as low as 10 % for till because of the poor sorting sands from 20 to 50% clays from 30 to 60% Primary porosity void space from primary processes of deposition secondary porosity fractures joints solution cavities Effective porosity interconnected voids Sedimentary rocks Primary porosity . small spheres Mixtures of sizes lower the porosity the wider the distribution of sizes the lower the porosity shape of grains round. irregular.a box of 1mm grains has the same porosity at a box of bowling balls grain size alone will not change the porosity but consider the difference in surface area of large spheres vs. rods.

slumping.clastic sediment and the voids created during deposition modified during diagenesis secondary porosity cracks from drying. shrinking tectonic processes jointing faulting Plutonic and metamorphic primary porosity extremely low <1-2% secondary from joints and fractures sheeting from unloading fractures increased in size from weathering this may be a good place to emphasize the importance of geomorphology in the evolution of geological materials Fluid pressure and porosity Fluid pressure in porous media can vary Changing pressure changes the stress regime in pores Causes opening and closing in response to changes in fluid pressure Permeability Darcy's experiment Henry Darcy's experiment on the flow of water through sand published in 1856 .

h1 or L ∆h dh or in differential form dl is called the hydraulic gradient ∆L A is the cross sectional area through which the water is flowing K is the hydraulic conductivity .h2 and A were related to Q by a constant of proportionality he called K L the hydraulic conductivity dimensions h1 .h1 L h2 he found that Q ∝ h1 . h2 .h2 (hydraulic head) Q ∝ 1/L (length) Q ∝ A (cross sectional area) and that h1 .h1 Q = -KA L the term.h2 Q = KA L or in the familiar form h2 .

if we divide through by A then dh Q/A = q = -K dl and the result is in units of meters per second (ms-1) q is the discharge per unit area q is defined as the specific discharge m/s. measurements in a manometer. or the discharge per unit area even though q is meters per second it does not represent the velocity of the groundwater q. to determine gradient of potential but does elevation change really define a potential gradient? In a vertical column which way does water flow? and why? it is a response to the force of gravity therefore there is a gravitational potential or elevation potential In a horizontal column elevation plays no role. specific discharge. is the apparent velocity as if the aquifer were a pipe water moves only in voids voids account for a small percentage of the aquifer equal to the effective porosity (ne) therefore the average linear velocity is given by Q Kdh v = n A = . .n dl e e What is hydraulic head physical processes that involve flow require a gradient of potential heat flows from high temp to low electricity flows from high voltage to low the potential must be measurable at every point in a system Darcy's law uses hydraulic head.

but flow will occur if the pressure is higher at one end than the other. neither elevation nor pressure are adequate to describe potential Fluid flow through porous media is a mechanical process forces overcome friction transformation of mechanical to thermal energy mechanical energy at any point can be defined as the work required to move a unit mass of fluid from an arbitrary point to another point now we can relate that work to elevation and pressure as we speculated earlier P Elevation = z Pressure = p Velocity = v Density = ρ Vol of unit mass = v = 1/ ρ Elevation = 0 Pressure = p = po Velocity = v = 0 Density = ρ ο Vol of unit mass = 1/ ρ ο Work Has three components work required to lift the mass from z=0 to z w1 = mgz (force x distance) (1) work required to accelerate the fluid from vo to v mv2 m w2 = 2 (kg 2 m = force x distance) s (2) work required to raise the pressure from Po to P .

p V w3 = m ⌠ m dp and since m3 /kg = 1/ρ ⌡ po p dp ⌠ w3 = m (force x distance) ⌡ρ po kg N 1 m2 kg/m3 = Nm (3) (4) wtotal = w1 + w2 + w3 Nm = Nm + Nm + Nm Kgm2s-2 We can divide through by mass and define the fluid potential (φ m2/s2) is therefore p dp v2 φ = gz + 2 + ⌠ ρ ⌡ po (mass cancels out) (5) this is Bernoulli's equation for energy loss during fluid flow for porous media v ~10-5 while g and z and P are large therefore v can be neglected and p dp φ = gz + ⌠ ρ ⌡ po and and dp = (p-po) (6) .

φ = gz + (p-po) ρ (7) the first term involves elevation and the second pressure but where is head? ψ P h z z=0 in Darcy's analysis the fluid pressure is p = ρgψ + po where po is atmospheric pressure and ψ = (h-z) (8) It is clear at this point that ψ is the pressure head and z is the elevation head therefore p = ρg(h-z) +po (9) substituting 8 into 7 yields .

po ρ (10) and φ = gz + g(h-z) (11) φ = gz + gh -gz φ = gh (13) (12) since g is nearly constant φ and h are nearly perfectly correlated Our long exercise has led us to the conclusion that fluid potential at any point is equal to elevation head times the acceleration of gravity if we deal in gauge pressure and let po = 0 (atmospheric pressure = 0) from equations 13 and 7 p φ = gz + = gh ρ dividing by g z+ p =h ρg (15) (14) and from equation 8 p = ρgψ (16) therefore z+ψ=h and we have shown that hydraulic head is the sum of elevation head and the pressure head. What is Hydraulic Conductivity K is often referred to as the coefficient of permeability .φ = gz + [ρg(h-z) + po] .

and µ are related by another proportionality constant k k is a function of the porous media alone called the intrinsic permeability ρg K=kµ dimensions µ =k K ρg K = m/s ρ = kg/m3 g = m/s2 µ = N.sec/m2 and k=m2 k must be a function of the media alone pore space and grain size therefore k = Cd2 where C is a dimensionless constant describing shape of the pores and d is the pore diameter .Darcy addressed only water it is clear. that oil or alcohol will also flow through porous media but at a different rate for a denser fluid (greater specific weight (γ = ρg) ) the flow will be faster Specific weight is the force exerted by a unit mass under the influence of gravity as γ increases. g. ρ. K decreases ρg therefore K = f µ and K. however. K increases viscosity of the fluid µ as µ increases.

6 °C Estimation of K several methods have been devised and you book illustrates the most common Hazen method determined empirically K(cm/s) = C(D10)2 D10 is the effective grain size in cm corresponding to the 10% finer on a graph C is an empirically determined coefficient table of C in text Krumbein and Monk k = 760(GM)2 e(-1.31σ) k=intrinsic permeability GM = mean grain size in mm ø16 + ø50 + ø84 = 3 σ = phi standard deviation in mm ø84 .Hydraulic conductivity is always given for pure water at 15.6 subscripts refer to the % passing by weight permeameter slug test bail test pump test Units of measurement of permeability m/s .ø16 ø95 .ø5 = + 4 6.

∆h/∆y. ∆h/∆z gradient h = grad h = -K∇h = -Kx ∆h ∆h ∆h + -Ky + -Kz ∆y ∆x ∆z .cm/s ft/day 1 darcy = the permeability that will lead to a specific discharge of 1 cm/sec for a fluid with a viscosity of 1cp under a hydraulic gradient that makes the term ρg dh/dl equal to 1 atmosphere/cm What is gradient Driving force driving force in GW flow is gravity acting on the fluid mass ( a hydraulic head) for water to flow there must be a gradient of head Darcy's law in three dimensions to fully analyze groundwater flow we must consider flow in three dimensions and gradient of head drives the flow q=Kdh/dl dh qx = -Kx dx dh qy = -Ky dy dh qz = -Kz dz the total derivative dh/dl has three components ∆h/∆x.

Anisotropy of hydraulic conductivity and the hydraulic conductivity tensor Homogeneity or homogeneous homogeneous (not layered) hydraulic properties do not vary with position heterogeneous medium layered heterogeneity hydraulic properties vary with position K1 K2 K3 discontinuous heterogeneity faults large-scale stratigraphic trending heterogeneity facies deltaic lacustrine outwash } Heterogeneous sequence K=100 K=10 K=1000 Isotropic medium properties do not vary with direction Anisotropic .

properties vary with direction Ky Kx predominantly results from fabric Kx = Ky Homogeneous -Isotropic Kx = constant Ky = constant Homogeneous-Anisotropic Heterogeneous-Isotropic Heterogeneous-Anisotropic anisotropy of hydraulic conductivity to fully understand the flow in aquifers we need K in three dimensions Hydraulic conductivity ellipsoid .

there are actually 9 components of velocity Three in each plane e.y Ky Ks x Kx To fully resolve the anisotropy issue. the three components of velocity are therefore one in the x direction perpendicular to the plane and two in tangential to the plane qxx qxy qxz there are three corresponding velocities in each of the other two planes and they form a 2 dimensional array called a Tensor Remenber Scaler quantities Have magnitude such as speed Vector quantities Have magnitude and direction such as velocity Vectors are also called first ranked tensors Tensors Kxx Kyx Kzx Kxy Kyy Kzy Kxz Kyz Kzz . consider a plane perpendicular to the x axis.g.

however. describe fluid flow by the Navier . to describe the domain boundaries (grain surfaces) completely nor is it possible to solve the equations of flow over a large domain since area of flow changes there must be pressure changes all through the medium these changes are microscopic We measure macroscopic parameters .This is a symetrical second order tensor that has the property Kij = Kji In the special case where the principal direction of anisotropy coincide with the principal axes.Stokes equations and solve the equations within the fluid domain It is impossible. the six offdiagonal terms are zero We often purposely rotate the axes of our coordinate system so that they are perpendicular to the anisotropy to make the tangental terms zero The continuum approach to porous media In principle. flow in a porous medium may be viewed at the microscopic level we could therefore.

50 grains fractured sandstone may be a meter or more fractured bedrock must be large enough to average the parameters over space meters? Karst can be approximated as a porous medium continuum 10's of meters or 100's of meters Origin and spatial distribution of porosity and permeability Permeability ability of the rock to transmit water .Hydraulic conductivity Head gradients Specific discharge We therefore consider a porous medium to be a continuum Parameters we measure are averages of aquifer parameters Head is the average head over some volume K is the average hydraulic conductivity over some volume Representative elementary volume For our Darcian approach to porous media to be valid we must consider a volume large enough that our measurable parameters are averages sand or sandstone an REV may be 30 .

K decreases coarser samples exhibit a greater decrease in K as sorting decreases than fine samples Primary permeability Secondary permeability .D.for unconsolidated sediment . increases). K increases as sorting decreases ( S.the smaller the grain size the greater the frictional resistance between the surface area of the particles and the fluid statistics mean % standard deviation (sorting) grain size + - skewness Rules of permeability as d increases.

solution cavities. faults.eolian systems glacial systems marine processes waves currents longshore turbidity deep ocean currents depositional environments alluvial valleys and basins channel deposits point bars overbank sediment natural levees lacustrine basins shore and nearshore . shear zones depends on geologic processes by which the geologic materials were formed weathering transportation mechanisms depositional mechanisms We get water from the ground those buried aquifers were formed by geologic processes Continental processes rivers and streams .fluvial systems wind . fractures.joints.

THAT AFFECTS ITS HYDROGEOLOGIC PROPERTIES Aquifers and Aquifer characteristics Aquifer a geologic unit that can store and transmit water in usable quantities .offshore deepwater delta marine foreshore barrier island offshore continental slope and cont. rise abyssal plain reef carbonate banks deltas All of these systems were formed by specific physical processes that resulted in characteristics of primary porosity characteristics of primary permeability spatial variability of aquifer properties Post-depositional diagenesis and tectonic activity diagenesis compaction chemical alteration tectonics folding and faulting EVERY AQUIFER HAS AN ORIGIN AND A GEOLOGIC HISTORY.

has a hydraulic conductivity > 10-7 m/s . 10-5 cm/s confining layers aquiclude impermeable aquitard low permeability layer K < 10-7 m/s confining layer and leaky confining layer water table aquifer recharge takes place by seepage from the surface through an unsaturated zone directly to the water table confined aquifer aquitards on either side recharge may occur in the outcrop area by limited leakage from above or below Potentiometric surface Well placed in a confined aquifer Water level may rise above the top of the aquifer artesian Perched aquifer Equations of groundwater flow Ground water flows in response to differences in pressure and elevation between points in a .

Defining q =Q/A as the specific discharge. Darcy's Law is important because it provides a relationship between discharge and head differences and hydraulic conductivity Darcy's Law shows that the discharge (Q) (volume/time) of water through sediment between any two points is directly proportional to the head drop (dh). but inversely proportional to the length (dl) over which flow occurs dh dh Q = -KA dl or Q = = -T dl The . Darcy's Law reduces to dh q = -K dl To analyze groundwater flow in three dimensions. qy = -Ky . therefore. the cross-sectional area (A) and the hydraulic conductivity (K). Hydraulic head is a function of fluid pressure and elevation Differences in head between points in aquifer are used in describing the tendency of water to flow from one point to another. δ δh δh δh .aquifer.sign shows that water flows in the direction of decreasing head. generalization of Darcy's Law requires that the one-dimensional form be true in each direction. and qz = -Kz δx δy δz qx = -Kx Darcy's Law is an equation that describes the physics of groundwater flow Continuity requires that the mas rate of flow in and out of a control volume be equal Remember that I-O= S in the diagram below . which is the volume rate of flow per unit area (m s-1).

e.(Ox +Oy + Oz ) = δ(ρqx) δ(ρqy) δ(ρqz) ∆x ∆y ∆z + ∆y ∆x ∆z + ∆z∆x∆y δx δy δz = if we assume that density variation is negligable then we can divide by ∆x∆y∆z . Mathematically this can be stated with the equation below I-O= S S d ( ρn∆x∆y∆z ) dt (Ix + Iy + Iz ) . no change in the amount of water stored in a unit volume of aquifer over time) the amount of water entering a unit of volume of aquifer (see figure below) must equal the amount leaving the volume.it can be shown that even if we consider water to be compressible y ρ q ρqy + y²y ²x²z y ρqz ²x²y ρqx ²z²y ²y q ρqx +ρ x ²x ²z²y x x ρ qz + ρ ρqy ²x²z q z²z ²x²y z ²x z ²z Describes the mass rate of flow kg m x m2 = kg/s m3 s for mass conservation to be met under steady-state conditions (i.

δρqx δρqy δρqz δ + + = (ρ n) δt δx δy δz δρqx δρqy δρqz δn δh δρ ρ + + = + n = S s δx δy δz δt δt δt the change in porosity with time and the change in densith with time are the components of the specific storage. δx δz where How do we solve for q? substitute Darcy's Law δh δh δ δh δ δh δ -Kx + -Ky + -Kz = Ss δx δy δy δz δx δz δt Equation (5) is written in a generalized form. For the moment we will restrict ourselves to modeling homogeneous and isotropic systems . The final form of this equation that is used depends on whether the aquifer is isotropic or anisotropic and homogeneous or heterogeneous. and δρqx δρqy δρqz δh ρ + + = S s δx δy δz δt here the right side of the equation includes the time rate of change of density and porosity δh the mass rate of flow is therefore ρSs δt and if we divide through by ρ δqx δqy δqz δh + + = S s δx δy δz δt δqx would represent the difference between specific discharge leaving the element and that entering δx δqy δqz the element over the distance δx ( and are defined similarly).

for homogeneous aquifers δKx δKy δKz = = =0 δx δy δz respectively. divide by K to get and Ssδh δ2h δ2h δ2h + + = K δx2 δy2 δz2 δt which includes storativity. since K is constant. and δ2h δ2h δ2h + + = 0 Laplace's Equation δy2 δz2 δx2 Aquifer characteristics Transmissivity for a confined aquifer of thickness b the transmissivity is defined as T = Kb whereas K has units of velocity T has units of L2 / t a measure of the amount of water that can be transmitted by the full saturated thickness of the aquifer . and equation (5) simplifies to δh δ2h δ2h δ2h + K + K = S s δt δx2 δy2 δz2 K or δh δ2h δ2h δ2h K 2 + + = S s δt δy2 δz2 δx For an isotropic aquifer Kx=Ky=Kz. hydraulic conductivity and head change with time Steady State approximation (conditions do not change with time) in steady state there is no change in head with time.

Aquifer compressibility α if effective stress incresese more of the overlying weight is placed on the skeleton of the aquifer its volume will decrease compaction and settling will result total stress the weight of the rock and water overlying a plane some of this weight is borne by the fluid and some of this weight is borne by the skeleton of the rock effective stress that portion not borne by the fluid σe = σT . two mechanisms aquifer compaction because of increased effective stress .p if the hydraulic head in an aquifer declines then the pressure at some depth declines also therefore the effective stress increases more of the total stress is borne by the skeleton of the aquifer compaction and compression of the aquifer occurs since the porosity (or water holding capacity) is less water must be released from storage Specific storage Ss volume of water released from storage within a unit volume of the aquifer under a unit decline in hydraulic head.

expansion of the water from decreased pressure Ss = ρwg(α + nβ) α = aquifer compressibility β = water compressibility n = porosity Storativity S = Ssb volume of water the aquifer releases from storage per unit surface area per unit decline in head .

Potentiometric surface Confining layer Aquifer Potentiometric surface Confining layer Aquifer Head has decreased and the skeleton compresses In this case there must be a release of water from storage even though the aquifer remains saturated Volume of water lost from storage Vw = SA h Specific yield (SY) ratio of the volume of water that drains from a saturated rock under the force of gravity to the total volume of the rock Vol water drained vol of rock .

Select a governing differential equation that properly describes the system you are trying to model. For instance.Overview find a way of mathematically describing the aquifer you want to model translate known features of the aquifer(s) into numerical conditions which will be the inputs into your numerical model. 2h K 2 + x 2h + y2 2h = Ss z2 h t (Laplace's equation) describes the distribution of hydraulic head in an aquifer where there are no changes in aquifer conditions with time (steady-state conditions) h t = 0 and S is constant the aquifer is homogeneous (no layering or other heterogeneities) .for a water table aquifer a decline in head also releases water from storage by lowering of the water table and drainage of the water from the pores Specific retention (Sr) ratio of the volume of water retained by a saturated rock after all has drained out under the force of gravity to the total volume of the rock Vol water retained vol of rock porosity = SY + Sr Numerical modeling of groundwater flow Conceptual Outline of the Modeling Process . 1.

no aquifer perfectly fits all of these conditions even the most uniform aquifers have some variations in material characteristics that result in spatial variations in hydraulic conductivity and are subject to temporal variations in aquifer inputs (precipitation. discharge to streams) that cause water levels to fluctuate through time. and steady-state system. recharge) and outputs (evapotranspiration. over long enough periods of time and large enough areas these temporal and spatial fluctuations could possibly be regarded as being insignificant or averaging out The validity of this assumption depends on the scale of the area the length of the time period which you are trying to simulate. pumping. if you are trying to model groundwater flow in a stack of aquifers having different conductivities you will have to use a more complex governing differential equation .the aquifer is isotropic (aquifer has same conductivity in all directions). However. Obviously. For example. Tis constant therefore 2h 2 + x 2h + y2 2h =0 z2 It would be valid to use this equation in constructing your model only if the aquifer you want to model can be reasonably approximated as an isotropic. homogeneous. In general. the governing differential equation becomes more complex as more complicated aquifer conditions are considered.

e.the system is no longer homogeneous (several aquifers and aquitards having different conductivities). Boundary conditions represent the known conditions that are used in solving for the unknowns (heads) The validity of the results of a groundwater model are strongly dependent upon input of proper boundary conditions identification of proper boundary conditions sometimes relatively straightforward such as when a domain has distinct boundaries such as groundwater divides. The procedure involved in this process will be discussed further below.the fundamental question you should always ask yourself is HOW VALID ARE THE MODEL RESULTS?). This is a major source of error in constructing models of real systems must always be considered in interpreting output from any simulation (i. 3) Select proper boundary and initial conditions and aquifer properties as input Examples of boundary conditions specifying positions of and heads or discharges at rivers lakes pumping wells etc. the real world is always too complex to be accurately described in detail models involve making approximations concerning the true nature of the system. or lakes . rivers. . 2) Manipulate the governing differential equation make a finite difference or finite element approximation so that an algebraic expression which represents an approximate solution to the governing equation is determined.

4) Numerically evaluate the system of algebraic expressions that describe hydraulic heads at different positions in the groundwater system after plugging in the proper boundary and initial conditions and aquifer parameters.In other cases. It is at this point in the modeling process that it is especially important that the modeler have knowledge of groundwater systems so that reasonable boundary conditions can be chosen. Regional flow problem . spatial dimensions of aquifers or confining beds. This information must be obtained from field data and aquifer tests or by inverse calculation of aquifer parameters such as K or S from models if other features of the groundwater system (e.g. S. head distributions) are already known. It is also necessary to have at least some information on the physical characteristics of the groundwater system such as K. identification of proper boundary conditions is much more difficult and assumptions must be made concerning conditions at the boundaries of the system you want to model (e. assume fixed heads or groundwater discharges).g.

Methods of solution Groundwater divide h=cx +yo B' . manipulate the equation to solve the problem Analytical (mathematically exact) solutions to partial differential equations such as equations (5) and (6) can be used to calculate values for the unknown (head) at any point in the problem domain (aquifer).Crest of Hill River A Groundwater divide B h =0 x Aquifer h =0 x h =0 y Impermeable bedrock 1. select the governing differential equation as a first approximation steady state (not changing with time) homogeneous isotropic 2h + x2 2h + y2 2h = 0 z2 2. simplifying assumptions that must be made geometry of the problem domain boundary conditions often so limiting that such an analytical solution does not always yield useful results.

we can convert a partial differential equation into a set of N algebraic equations involving N unknowns. Finite Differences In order to do this using the finite difference method the aquifer domain must be discretized. By limiting our need to know the head to a reasonable number (N) of points (nodes). finite number of points in the problem domain.2 π ∑ m=0 cos[(2m+1)πx/s] cosh[(2m+1)πy/s] (2m+1)2 cosh[(2m+1)πyo/s Numerical solutions For this reason numerical approximations are often made so that the differential equation can be solved for more realistic conditions.y) inhomogeneous and anisotropic situations become very complex often the assumptions that are necessary make the solution unrealistic Toth's equation cs 4cs h(x.Analytical solution mathematical expression for head (or whatever) as a function of the coordinate system generally requires simplifying assumptions but provides an exact solution based on those assumptions for all (x. These N algebraic expressions can then be solved iteratively until head is calculated at each of the N node points. Numerical solutions yield values for only a predetermined. domain is divided into a finite collection of discrete points (nodes) .y) = yo + 2 .

j-1 . Each node represents a discrete area of aquifer space for which a single value of head will be determined. the smaller x y are the closer the finite difference method approximates reality since you will be solving for the head at more points.j hi. Obviously. However.j hi+1.j+1 hi-1.j hi. as x and y are made smaller and more node points are added a greater number of calculations larger modeling effort will be required. hi. require greater effort and more time to solve the problem The figure below shows a portion of a finite difference grid and the index numbering system we will use for the nodes.A grid is set up over the domain (aquifer in our case) with nodes at the intersection points (see figures 1 and 2). Theoretically. The nodes are separated by a distance and x in the x-direction and a distance y in the y-direction. there are infinite number of points at which you can solve for the head.

j-1) = . That is.j is obtained by approximating the first derivative (head gradient) x2 A central approximation to at points halfway between i and i+1 and between i and i-1 and then approximate the second derivative by taking a difference between the first derivatives at those points.j .j) x x x which simplifies to 2h (hi+1.2hi. the same principles would apply in the third dimension.j) = x2 ( x2) (8) and in the y direction 2h (hi.j . 2h at node i.hi.j) (hi.Node Centered Grid Note restrict our discussion to two dimensions to simplify our analysis.j+1 . 2h = x2 h x x 1 (hi+1. However.j + hi-1. In a finite difference approximation derivatives are replaced by differences between nodal points. y2 ( y2) (9) Adding (8) and (9) and setting the result = 0 yields the finite difference approximation to Laplace's Eqn.j + hi.2hi.hi-1.j . .

2h (hi+1.j + hi+1. hi+1. hi. The head at any point i.j + hi-1. hi. and hi-1.j.j-1. x and y can be different it the grid is set up so that it is rectangular x and y in some cases .j+1) .j) (hi. This expression is true for all nodes in the interior of the finite difference grid (reasonable conditions to enter for nodes a the boundaries of your grid will be discussed in the next section). 4 (11) __________________________________________________ For Lab Equation (11) is the equation you will enter into individual cells in your spreadsheet in order to calculate head at any node (corresponding to a cell in a spreadsheet).j + hi-1.j + hi.2hi.j-1 .j are all unknowns and are dependent upon each other.4hi. you should note that hi.j+1 + hi.to be rather than square. (Note that this does not have to be the case.j+1. In order to obtain values for al N unknowns. it is helpful to have rectangular grids or spatially variable discussed later) After manipulation hi+1. Equation (11) indicates that the head at any node is the average of the head at the four surrounding nodes.j = (hi-1. . However.j + hi.j+1 .j =0 is obtained.j-1) + = 2 + x ( x2) ( y2) 2h =0 y2 In the case of a square finite-difference grid x= y.j + hi.j .2hi.j is hi.j.j-1 + hi.

(AGAIN note that the convergence will not be complete since the finite difference method gives you only an approximate solution to your problem). This iterative evaluation and reevaluation of the system of equations will be performed by the spreadsheet program. _________________________________ The water table . with a few known conditions in the system of algebraic equations and if initial guesses are put into the interior nodes and the heads in the system of equations are solved repeatedly (in an iterative fashion sweeping through the system of equations time after time) then the calculated heads will gradually converge to a solution. if your model is properly constructed this approximate solution will give results that are adequate for almost all purposes.known conditions at the boundaries of the domain are entered so that in the system of N algebraic equations (one for each node) some heads will be known. However. Because for every unique problem there is a unique solution (of which the result arrived at by the finite difference method is only an approximation).

what must be the condition of the water in the pores of the porous media? it is under tension the capillary fringe p = atmospheric the water table is defined as the position where the pore water pressure in the pores = atmospheric fractions of a cm in gravel 1-2 meters in silt The unsaturated zone .soil moisture zone of aeration or vadose zone three phases sediment . at the water table the pressure head must be 0 and it follows that above the water table ψ < 0 if the pressure is less than 0.Unsaturated sediment Saturated sediment P ψ h z In the case above the pressure head at P = ψ and ψ > 0 this is the case when the sediment is saturated.

air water

saturation ratio Rs volume of water volume of voids Vw Rs = V v volumetric water content θ volume of water total volume of soil and voids Vw θ= V water in the vapor phase is at atmospheric pressure water in the liquid phase is below atmospheric pressure pore water pressure in the unsaturated zone is measured with a tensiometer transport of water in unsaturated zones is dominantly in the liquid phase vapor transport is relatively unimportant

Unconfined Flow equations Up to now the equations we have used are for confined flow gradient of head is independent of aquifer thickness note in an unconfined aquifer, the head (h) is the saturated thickness dh/dl h

for the confined case dh Q = -Kb dl

dh Q = -Kh dl δ if we substitute into the continuity equation and solve the Laplace form or the equation for flow in two dimensions is

δ

h2 δ 2h2 + 2 =0 2 δy δx

2

this is impossible to solve for anything but the simplest boundary conditions Steady flow in unconfined aquifer (Fetter, 143-147) dh Q = -Kh dx h is the saturated thickness of the aquifer

L h2

∫ Qdx = -K ∫ hdh

0 h1

Qx| L 0 = -K

h 2 h2 | h1 2

substitute boundary condition h2 h2 2 1 QL - q0 = -K 2 - K 2 1 QL = - 2 K h2 - h2 2 1 h2 - h2 1 2 1 Q=-2 K L 2 1 dh Q=-2 K dx

Dupuit Equation

Unsaturated flow and groundwater recharge ψ < 0 in unsaturated zone

and is refered to as the tension head or suction head the hydraulic head is still h=ψ+z measurement of ψ is done with a tensiometer porous cup attached to an airtight, water filled tube water moves from the tube to the soil until hydraulic equilibrium is reached vacuum is measured from a gage negative head is subtracted from the elevation head to determine hydraulic head Darcy's Law applies to unsaturated flow however, θ (moisture content) and K are functions of ψ (pressure head) dh and Q = K(ψ) dx As moisture content varies, K and ψ change

water is held in the voids by surface tention surface tention is reflected in the radius of curvature of each meniscus therefore

more water means larger radius of curvature and lower surface tension (lower tension heads = less negative pressure heads)

more water means smaller radius of curvature and higher surface tension (higher tension heads = more negative pressure heads)

relationship between ψ and θ and ψ and K ψ and θ and ψ and K exhibit hysteretic relationships (hysteresis)

-300 drying -300 -200 factor of 4 change? -200 y -100 wetting y -100 -0 10 20 30 water content Fully saturated when water content = porosity (30%) hydraulic conductivity -0 internal curves are scanning curves for partial wetting and drying to use a value of ψ to determine soil water content and K characteristics. the moisture history of the sample must be known Regional flow systems and flow nets Stagnation points Local Lake Intermediate Regional flow systems local intermediate regional stagnation points .

Equipotentials and streamlines Equipotentials h1 h2 h3 h4 Streamlines Equipotentials lines of equal hydraulic potential or hydraulic head **there can be no flow along an equipotential head gradient is =0 along the line Stream lines also called flow lines parallel to flow there is flow along streamlines there is no flow across streamlines therefore they are a type of no-flow boundary A three-dimensional flow system can be represented by a set of equipotentials and a corresponding set of orthogonal flowlines a two-dimensional x-section through the system will expose a set of equipotentials and flowlines composing a Flow net .

Isotropic. boundary value flow problems Proper solution requires knowledge of region of flow geology hydraulic conductivity stratigraphy boundary conditions Let's consider a Homogeneous. steady-state.Flow nets potentiometric map map of the potentiometric surface of an aquifer water table map a specific type of potentiometric map Flow nets are solutions to two-dimensional. fully saturated system such as our regional flow problem Types of boundaries impermeable no flow across boundary adjacent flowline must be parallel to boundary equipotentials must meet the boundary at right angles (orthogonal to flowline) h if boundary is parallel to x-axis z = 0 h if boundary is parallel to z-axis x = 0 any flowline is an impermeable boundary because there is no flow across it Lines of symmetry are flowlines and therefore impermeable boundaries .

constant head any boundary on which the hydraulic head is constant is an equipotential line flowlines must meet equipotentials at right angles specified head heads are specified and do not change with time but may be different from adjacent values on the same boundary water table boundaries no recharge the water table is a flow line there is no flow across the water table with recharge the water table is neither a flowline nor an equipotential there is flow across the water table impermeable constant head water table wit recharge equipotentials flowlines If we know the hydraulic conductivity K for this isotropic/homogeneous system we can calculate the discharge through the system from the flow net .

Potenti ometric surface Impermeable stream tube h=100 h=60 Confined aquifer Impermeable for K = 10 dh Q = 10dx if unit dimensions are used for the stream tubes Transient nature of groundwater systems most of the groundwater systems that we deal with here are in a state of dynamic equilibrium for that matter the hydrologic cycle is in a state of dynamic equilibrium .

etc.there are small variations in head on monthly to annual scales small variations over years dry vs. wet years generally the average is much the same in these cases recharge discharge can be affected by pumping. Groundwater in the Basin .C. Chamberlin Defined aquifers and aquitards Noted that no unit is completely impervious Noted that elevation differences of outcrops and subcrops provide the topographic drive for groundwater movement Noted that in a sedimentary basin Water in a well will rise to the level of water in the intake area (recharge area) minus head losses incurred along the path of travel The pressure producing mechanism was the hydrostatic weight of the body of water extending down dip from the water table in the outcrop area F. evapotranspiration.Chapter 5 of Dominico and Schwartz Some of the most important contributions to hydrogeology T. King Hubbert Produced many works on the theory of groundwater flow . King Discussed the theory of groundwater flow He was the one who stated that the grounwater system was a subdued replica of the topographic surface Was probably first to nor (or at least wright it down) that topographic divides and major streams were also groundwater divides.H. M.

while discharge occurs at concentrated areas not necessesarily the case Regional flow problem recharge over half of the area discharge over the other half discharge can occur as flow to streams flow to lakes and swamps evapotranspiration Discharge 1 1 10 6 Recharge 8 15 12 118 112 114 116 12 0 2 10 example above is gently sloping linear water table 11 0 10 8 .Was interested in basin scale fluid movement Rigorously outlined the relation of flow lines and equipotentials Given the figures of Hubbert Where does recharge to deep aquifers occur? What are the driving forces of fluid flow in basin scale hydrology? Effects of basin geometry on groundwater flow We have been suggesting that recharge occurs over broad areas -.

intermediate .valley dominated discharge 15 15 144 146 148 0 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 4 7 13 2 10 13 6 13 16 19 11 11 130 2 13 6 11 136 120 118 134 128 132 138 122 126 124 4 4 note stagnation point note local .regional flow systems Distribution of head in natural systems 14 0 14 2 flow line equipotentials flow under a dam with a cutoff .

each of the flow tubes must carry the same amount of water Effects of basin geology on groundwater flow Consider two strata of different conductivities K=100 and K=1 K = 1 K = 100 since in the sandstone K=100 the aquifer can transmit the same amount of water through a smaller area of the aquifer ratio of the hydraulic conductivities is = the ratio of the tangents of the angles to a line perpendicular to the boundary K1 tan θ1 K2 = tan θ2 θ1 θ2 .

low to high K high to low K same K Consider a sandstone K=10-6 m/s bounded above by a shale K=10-10 m/s effects of heterogeneity water table Piezometric profile through high conductivity layer K1 K2 K1 >> K2 anomalous piezometer readings can be the result of heterogeneities Low conductivity layer over aquifer K=1 K=100 Aquifer over low conductivity layer K=100 K=1 Groundwater in Mountainous Terrain .

Lake Lake Distribution of groundwater flow to non-penetrating lakes. Minneapolis. Notice how discharge is concentrated in the nearshore area. (modified from Pfannkuch and Winter. Pfannkuch of the U of Mn Geology Department.O. 1985) Lake that penetrates the aquifer Theoretical analysis with the use of electrical analog simulation by Pfannkuch and Winter (1985) showed that groundwater seepage is concentrated near the shore in both non-penetrating lakes and lakes that penetrate an aquifer .Lake Groundwater interaction The interaction of groundwater with lakes can be quite complicated. Theoretical description of lake / groundwater interaction Much of the pioneering work on lake / groundwater interaction was done in Minnesota by Tom Winter of the US Geological Survey and H.

Winter (1984) and Winter and Pfannkuch (1985) used numerical modeling to examine in greater detail the interaction of lakes and groundwater Local flow Local flow Regional flow system What happens when you add a high conductivity layer Local flow Local flow Regional flow system Freshwater / Saltwater interface Groundwater and slope stability The Mohr-Coulomb equation τ = (σ-P)tan φ + C t = shear stress Flow to wells to analyze pumping draw down and yield analysis .

ln r1 = h2 .h1 2π T r2 Q ln r = h2 .to determine aquifer properties transmissivity and storativity Qwell Qr2 r1 b r2 Qr1 Qwell = Q1 = Q2 Q = KA dh/dl (general form) Q = KA dh/dr (in radial coordinates) Awell = 2π rwell b A1 = 2π r1 b A2 = 2π r2 b dh Q = K 2π r b dr and T = Kb Steady Radial Flow dh Q and Q = 2π T r dr and dr = dh 2π T r r2 h2 Q ⌠dr = ⌠ ⌡dh 2π T ⌡r h1 r1 Q ln r2 .h1 Theim Equation 2π T 1 r2 Q T= ln r (confined flow) 2π (h2 .h1) 1 Or for unconfined flow dh Q = K 2π r h dr .

h12) K 2π r1 2 2 Q r2 lnr1 = (h22 .h1 ) Valid for non-leaky artesian or unconfined aquifers Steady state a long time has elapsed since pumping began.e. T = transmissivity convert to radial coordinates where r = x2 + y2 ∆2 h 1 ∆h S ∆h + = diffusion equation in polar coordinates ∆r 2 r ∆r T ∆t there can be a source term in this equation too. and it takes the form . i.h12) Kπ Q r2 lnr1 = K (unconfined flow) 2 2 π (h2 . the cone of depression has reached steady state.r2 h2 Q ⌠dr = ⌡ ⌠ h dh K 2π ⌡r h1 r1 Q r2 1 ln = (h 2 . Unsteady Radial Flow Basic assumptions aquifer is confined on top and bottom all geologic formations are horizontal and infinite initial potentiometric surface is horizontal homogeneous and isotropic well is fully penetrating so flow is horizontal Equation for 2-dimensional flow in confined aquifer ∆2 h ∆2 h S ∆h diffusion equation + = ∆x 2 ∆y 2 T ∆t S = storativity.

time..h(r.2 • 2! + 3•3! .S ∆h ∆2 h 1 ∆h w +T = + 2 r ∆r T ∆t ∆r describes head as a function of r and t h(r.5772 . transmissivity u determines the shape and extent of the cone of depression 4Ttu where S = r2 .r) t=t t=0 Confined Aquifer initial conditions h(r.t) = du u 4 pT r∫ 2 S 4Tt Q u2 u3 u4 ho . storativity.] 4πT r2S where u = 4Tt u is a function of radius..t) = ho for all t Q ∆h lim )= rÆ 0 ( r ∆r 2 π t Theis Analytical solution to 2-dimensional radial flow equation confined aquifer it is derived from a heat flow problem of a line sink in an infinite medium Q ∞ e −u ho .h(r.t) Q r h=ho h=h(t.t) = [ -.0) = ho for all r h(∆.4•4! + ..ln u + u .

as t increases the radius of the cone of depression increases at constant t raduis of cone is greater for smaller values of storativity raduis of cone is larger for large values of T and smaller for small values of T but remember for small T radius is smaller but drawdown is greater ∞ −u e du the integral ∫ is widely known and in this application is called the Well Function or W(u) u u and ho . S. and Q are known u is calculated and W(u) is taken from the graph and drawdown can be calculated .t) = Q W(u) 4πT W(u) can be found in table and graph form as W(u) vs 1/u if T.h(r.

10

**1 W(u) 0.1 0.01 0.1 1 1 10 1/u 100 1000 10000 ho - h (meters) 0.1 0.01 0.001 10 10
**

2

10 10 t (seconds)

3

4

10

5

10

6

Drawdown can also be plotted at several values of r to plot the cone of depression

**Additionally, if drawdown in a monitoring well is known as a function of t
**

h can be plotted vs. t or t/r2 if there are several wells at various radii then T and S can be calculated

Procedure

Plot h vs. t at same scale as type curve

overlay and match the curves choose any point on the graphs (not necessarilly on the curve) choose for convenience in calculation

from that point determine W(u), 1/u, h, and t Q W(u) Calculate T from and ho - h(r,t) = 4πT r2 S then calculate S from where u = 4Tt

Jacobs method found that when u < 0.05 then only the first two terms in the well function are important Q ho -h = [-.5772 - ln u] (1) 4πT

NOTE ln 1.78 = 0.5772 and equation 1 above can be written as Q [-ln 1.78 - ln u] ho -h = 4πT and -ln 1.78 = ln 1.78-1 and 1.78-1 = .561 Q ho -h = [ln .561 - ln u] 4πT Q 4πT .561 ln u

ho -h = r2S u = 4Tt ho -h =

Q 4πT

ln

2.25 Tt r2S

or since

ln u = 2.3 log u and 2.3Q 2.25 Tt log 4πT r2S

ho -h =

Observations can be made at a single well for various times Plot drawdown vs. log t

at t1 the drawdown is s1

and

s1 =

2.5Tt1 2.3Q log 2 4πT r S

and at t2 the drawdown is s2 2.5Tt2 2.3Q and s2 = log 2 4πT r S and s= t2 2.3Q logt 4πT 1

if t1 and t2 are selected one log cycle apart then t2/t1 = 10 and log t2/t1 = 1 2.3Q s= 4πT

use to compute T

select a drawdown at any t (forexample select s = 0 and read to then s=0= 2.25 Tto 2.3Q log 4πT r2S log 2.25 Tto must = 0 r2S

since Q, 4, π, and T are all non-zero then this requires that and S= 2.25 Tto r2 2.25 Tto =1 r2S

Plot on semilog paper

3Q s1 .5Tt 4πT r12S .3Q 2.25 Tt s2 = log 4πT r22S and s1 .s2 = 2.s2 = log 2.25 Tt r22S 2.log r 2S 4πT r 1 2 2.25 Tt s1 = log 4πT r12S and the drawdown s2 at r2 is given by 2.25 Tt log 2S .to drawdown (s) time Interpretation of drawdown results to 1 2 time Distance drawdown 2.3Q 2.3Q 2.25 Tt 2.

25 T t ro2 ro t=1 awdown t=10 t=100 Distance if T.s2 = logr 2πT 1 consider the drawdown per log cycle 2.s1 . S.s2 = r22 2.log (1/r22) and log (1/r2) = 2log(1/r) r1 r2 2.3Q log 2 4πT r1 r22 because log 2 = log(1/r12) .3Q s= 2πT and S= 2. and Q are known u is calculated and W(u) is taken from the graph and drawdown can be calculated .3Q s1 .

..h r2 use curve matching to solve for W(u) and 1/u then T and S can be calculated ..1 0..01 0.10 1 0. if drawdown in a monitoring well is known as a function of t h can be plotted vs. t or t/r2 if there are several wells at various radii plotting t/r2 allows you to plot several wells on the same graph then we know ho ..1 1 10 1/u 100 1000 10000 The Theis type curve contains basically all the shapes of the all cones of depression All you need to do is match your cone of depression to a portion of the theis curve to get a solution for your particular situation Using the curve above r2S and remember that u = 4Tt all parameters are known and we can calculate drawdown at any radius (r) therefore defining the cone of depression In a single well.

t) = 4πT r2 S then calculate S from where u = 4Tt Partial penetration and superposition in all of the analyses we have discussed we have assumed the wells to be fully penetrating flow is therfore horizontal if the well is only partially penetrating the flow will be three-dimensional as shown below .h(r. t at same scale as type curve overlay and match the curves choose any point on the graphs (not necessarilly on the curve) choose for convenience in calculation from that point determine W(u). h.01 0. 1/u. and t Q W(u) Calculate T from and ho .1 0.1 0.001 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 t (seconds) Procedure Plot dh vs.

5m (K/K') 0.b Ls for constant Q and K if fully penetrating dh Q = KAdL and A = 2 π r b if partially penetrating dh Q = KAdL and A = 2 π r Ls since A for the partially penetrating case is less dh/dL must be greater and therefore the cone of depression is larger for a partially penetrating well vertical flow cannot be ignored and the vertical hydraulic conductivity becomes important Pump tests will not be affected if the ob well is far enough away to avoid the vertical component of flow where radius (r) is > 1.5 K is the horizontal hydraulic conductivity .

then drawdown at radius r is double if Q is halved.K' is the vertical hydraulic conductivity m is the aquifer thickness if K K' the r > 1. then drawdown at radius r is half Effects of hydrogeologic boundaries on wells Effect of recharge boundary or constant head boundary .5m is sufficient Superposition It turns out that well interferrence is additive and is simply the sum of the drawdown from well A and well B Also drawdown at some radius r is an interger multiple of discharge (pumping rate) if Q is doubled.

04%).984%) and 2D (Deuterium)(0. 18O (0.2%) Most common association 1H 16O 2 However. of greater interest to us are 1H2H16O or HDO 1H 18O 2 Evaporation vapor pressure of HDO and 1H218O are lower than 1H216O evaporation therefore results in vapor phase depleted in D and 18O . of D = H/6250 Radioactive 3H Tritium Oxygen -. 17O(0.three stable isotopes 16O (99.three isotopes Stable 1H (99.76 %).016%) conc.effect of barrier or impermeable bound Chemistry of natural waters Stable isotopes and precipitation Water H2O Hydrogen -.

1985 for references. 1964) δ18O = 0.84T .13. p.6 (Dansgaard.7T . 132) δ 18O ‰ = 0. 1973) distance from moisture source precipitation preferentially removes the heavy isotopes (Rayleigh Fractionation) Latitudinal effects increasing latitude temperature goes down more chance for loss of heavy isotopes by condensation Terminology δ18O ‰ per mil (‰) parts per thousand referenced from a standard for precipitation referenced from SMOW (standard mean ocean water) for CaCO3 referenced from PDB (a belemnite from the PeeDee Formation in South Carolina) Composition of rainwater use overhead of meteoric water line δD = 8 δ18O +10 .the vapor is therefore enriched in 1H and 16O Condensation during condensation HDO and 1H218O pass from the vapor to the liquid phase more readily than 1H and 16O process is temperature dependent temperature at which condensation occurs (see Bradley.5 (Gordiyenko and Barkov.7.

what would you say about it Exchange with carbonates CaCO3 has heavier composition with regard to δ18O δD is not affected by exchange with aquifer materials Chemistry of Precipitation contains a variety of dissolved salts in very dilute concentrations a few mg/l inland to several 10's of mg/l near the coast pH Rainwater and snow in nonurban.7 HCO3.+ H+ × CO3-2 + 2H+ Low pH High pH .100 0 SMOW -100 D δ -200 -300 -400 -40 -30 -20 δ Ο 18 -10 0 Isotopic values of Meteoric water in Minnesota δ18O range from -7.5 to -10‰ δD ranges from -50 to -70 Problem if water from a well was analyzed and had an isotopic composition of δ18O = -22‰.is the only ionic species of dissolved inorganic carbon present in a significant amount CO2 + H2O × Η2CO3 × HCO3. nonindustrial aread 5-6 Equiblibrium pH for water in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 5.

29 0.2 0 2 2 0.26 0.9 0.35 0.6 0 0.5 2. 3.96 4.3 6 0 1.15 0.2 0 5.9 5 0. Menlo Park.74 0. Ontario.39 2.76 3.41 5. MD. Baltimore.2 0. 2.14 0.43 0 0 0 4 0. 5.1 0.42 0.4 0.46 0. NE.1 1. SE Austrailia.1 4. CA.53 0.41 0 0.47 0. 6.22 0.05 0.4 5.45 0.95 1.5 7 0. northern Europe.09 0.37 0 0 0 4. .6 0.6 2 0.24 0.35 0.48 0 3.75 0.77 0.35 0 1.6 0.2 0.38 1. 4.8 5. 7. Lake of the Woods.6 0 3 1.13 0.42 0.27 5.6 0.15 12.9 0 0.2 0. Sponer Summit.19 3.43 2. western NC.100 80 60 40 20 0 4 5 6 7 8 pH 9 10 11 12 Free CO2 HCO3 CO3 Composition of rain and snow 1 SiO2 Ca Mg Na K NH4 HCO3 SO4 Cl NO3 TDS pH 0 0 0.1 0 3 0 1.

Mg Ca rai n and snow Na + K SO4 Chemical Evolution of groundwater Groundwater Surface water Sea water/ Rain water HCO3 rai n and snow Cl Definitions Total dissolved solids (mg/l or ppm) Fresh 0 .10.1000 ppm 1000 .000 ppm >100.000 .000ppm Brackish Saline Brine 10.100.000 ppm Alkalinity .

and at this pH nearly all of the alkalinity is attributed to HCO3- Chemical evolution of groundwater Soil soil is high in CO2 most near surface materials contain CaCO3 water becomes slightly more acidic charged with CO2 and O2 very aggressive .∅ Cl- Increasing age ∅ ∅ ∅ ∅ ∅ ∅ ∅ ∅ ∅ ∅ ∅ ∅ ∅ ∅ Shallow zone Active flushing and relatively rapid flow relative leached geological materials HCO3.+ HCO3.dominated . bicarbonate.5 and 8.∅ SO42.dissolves CaCO3 Near surface waters are typically Ca+1 HCO3-1 - Chemical Evolution of Groundwater HCO3 SO4 Cl Depends on the geology and the specific setting in large sedimentary basins HCO3.∅ HCO3.∅ SO 24 + Cl.∅ Cl.+ SO42. and carbonate Most groudwater in MN has pH between 5.+ SO42.Acid-neutralizing capacity of the water Primarily resulting from the carbon-species Carbonic acid.

low TDS Intermediate Zone Slower circulation SO4-2 becomes dominant Lower zone very slow flow little flushing has occurred and therefore soluable minerals are present High Cl.and high TDS Cambro-Ordovician aquifer system in upper Midwest use overheads Groundwater regions of Minnesota Geology Chemistry Contamination Water quality and groundwater pollution major pollutants and their sources areal distribution point source storage tank disposal ponds landfill nonpoint source herbicides or pesticides fertilizer .

animal waste highway salt acid rain airborne contaminants Mercury lead loading history concentration and rate of application one time release slow release in low concentration slow release in high concentration rapid release in low concentration rapid release in high concentration types of contaminants Metals lead cadmium mercury arsenic other inorganics nitrate nitrite Organic chemicals Alachlor atrazine benzene PCB's polychlorinated Biphenols vinal chloride Biological contaminants .

bacteria viruses parasites diseases typhoid feaver cholera polio hepatitis contamination from human and animal waaste through septic tanks landfills feed lots radiodnuclides radium 226 radium 228 radon Strontium-90 tritium plutonium Water Quality standards US EPA is working on the "Safe Drinking Water Act" to establish MCLG's maximum contaminant level goals and MCL's maximum contaminant levels SMCL's secondary maximum contaminant levels .

g.Chloride TDS iron sulfate types of water quality asthetic color odor TDS these are not necessisarilly hazardous health risk Environments of deposition Continental environments Weathering Physical weathering actual mechanical breakdown Chemical weathering chemical alteration dissolution hydolysis (e. feldspar) results in formation of new minerals weathering alters grain size of sediments thereby changing their hydrogeologic properties hydrolysis chemical weathering may change the composition dissolution enlarge joints and fractures and increase secondary permeability Soils for example .

develop a strongly layered nature Transportation and Deposition transporting processes mechanically change and sort sediment degree of sorting depwnds on distance and time of transport stream (fluvial sediment) glacier (glacial Drift) slope wash (colluvium) wind (eolian) Fluvial deposits braided rivers and their alluvial valleys coarse sediment (sand to gravel) sediments generally channel gravels bars characteristics strongly layered coarse channels finer bars Meandering Rivers and their alluvial valleys typically finer. more cohesive sediment complex distribution with an alluvial valley channel sediments point bars overbank oxbow clay plugs characteristics layered strongly anisotropic .

heterogeneous Alluvial Basins (the Great Plains) The High Plains aquifer Geology extends from SD to TX comprised of near surface Tertiary and Quaternary age sediments Brule Fm of the White River Group (Tertiary) only a small area of the high plains aquifer up to 180 m thick jointed and fractured in some areas Arikaree Group Upper Tertiary Also rather limited extent very fine to fine grained sandstone contains beds of volcanic ash up to 300 m thick in western NB and eastern WY Ogallala Fm Upper Tertiary makes up nearly all of the High Plains Aquifer underlies 347.000 km2 maximum thickness 215 m Geologic history Stratigraphically overlies marine rocks of Permian. Jurassic. and Cretaceous age Aggradational sequence of alluvium deposited during the Late Tertiary uplift of the eastern Rocky mountains isolated on the west by the headward migration of the Pecos river in late Tertiary and Quaternary time Quaternary sediments local occurrence of quaternary alluvial sediments up to 90 m in thickness Central Nebraska sand dunes 25 to 100 m in thickness major recharge area for the High Plains aquifer . Triassic.

passive continental margin Passive continental margin Active continental margin Lateral and vertical succession of Strata facies . Recharge < 1mm/ yr in northern TX up to 150 mm per year in the Sand Hills of central Nebraska much of this recharge comes from streams during high flow periods Storage characteristics Saturated thickness max 300 m in central Nebraska min = 0 average is about 60 m Hydrogeologic characteristics west to east macrofabric or trend overall fining eastward layered units Marine environments Describe the general depositional sequence for an active vs.Hydrology Precipitation 400 mm in the western high plains 700 mm in the eastern high plains Potential Evapotranspiration 1500 to 2700 mm / yr.

and solution cavities that have been enlarged by dissolution by groundwater nature of soil water high partial pressure of CO2 acidic dissolves CaCO3 and (Mg. fractures.describe marine transgresstion sequence Continental Shelf Continental Slope Continental Rise Sand Muds Carbonate Banks Submarine canyons Sediment Fans Abyssal Plain Turbidites Oozes Karst Carbonate bedrock limestone and dolomite characterized by joints.Ca)2CO3 The Paleozoic basin of southeastern Minnesota .

. Maquoketa Shale B A Galena Dolomite Decorah Shale Plattville Limestone Glenwood Shale St. Peter Sandstone Prairie du Chien Group Jordan Sandstone St. Lawrence Fm. Mt. Plattville Ls. Ordovician Galena Fm. Franconia Sandstone Ironton/Galesville Eau Claire Fm. Decorah Sh.Devonian rocks undif. Simon Hinckley Fm. Good aquifers Geology Gently dipping marine sedimentary strata Cambrian and Ordovician Cambrian largely sandstones Franconia. St. Peter Sst.

Peter has limited usage Prairie du Chien / Jordan considered to be one aquifer Prairie du Chien is karstic limestone Jordan is a clean sandstont St. Simon widely used very clean . Lawrence confining layer Ironton / Galesville aquifer Hinckley / Mt.Show Karst Slides Galena and Plattville now contaminated St.

mineral composition . water storage and transmission characteristics 5. Nature and location of natural recharge and discharge areas .2. nature of the porosity and permeability .whether primary of secondary 3.whether soluable or insoluable 4.

presence and character of aquifers and confining beds .frozen margin -englacial debris eroded far upglacier -dirty basal ice (regelation ice) -freezing-on at margin -ice-marginal thrusting -debris is transported to the glacier surface by longitudinal compressive flow -accumulates over stagnant ice -reworked by meltwater / slumping / flowage -temperate continental ice sheet -regelation around obsticles -discharge of sediment onto stagnant marginal ice and incorporation during advance? Glacial landforms Moraines and stagnation complexes Frontal Outwash Collapsed outwash Subglacial tills Glacial lake plains Photos Groundwater regions of North America Delineation of groundwater regions 1.-which is of course influenced by pore-water pressure -Role of thermal regime on landform morphology -polar and sub-polar glaciers -.

etc. (Menzies. flutes. range from extremely long to nearly round -generally occur in swarms -numerous ideas on their formation -some are erosional features -some are depositional -some probably deformational -some fluvial -indicate the direction of glacial flow -gennerally occur relatively near the margin -may actually extend to the margin -some drumlin fields are interpreted to have formed during retreat of the ice -factors influencing the formation of drumlins -debris content of basal ice -basal melt rate (thermal regime) -shear strength of sediment and shear stress of ice .-streamlined features drumlins. Shaw. 1988b) -flutes -generally strongly elongated forms -often seen in the lee of boulders -possibly formed by the squeezing of till into cavities -large length-to-width ratio -drumlins -best known and intensively studied streamlined features -many sizes and shapes -ideal shape -however. 1979. 1983. Mooers.

1973. cyclic. Mooers. cross-valley moraines -found in valley and continental settings -subglacial environments. 1979) -if evacuation of meltwater is retarded the potential for elevated fluid pressures to exist is great -if τ i >τ crit deformation of the substrate must occur -ice profile will flatten -control of thermal regime -amount of meltwater is controlled by the thermal regime -subglacial fluvial systems (Wright. evenly-spaced minor moraines -possibly annual. polar and temperate / valley and continental (Drewry. 1988c) -if more water is produced than can be evacuated by the aquifer system -.channelized flow may form -development of channels drains water away from the bed. preventing unstable deformation -driving force -ice surface gradient or water table . 1986) -basal melting -lodgement -meltwater production -deformation of till (Boulton and Jones.-perched lakebeds and outwash plains -kettles -reworking of the marginal sediment by meltwater -frontal outwash aprons -marginal fluvial systems -response of outwash to ice margin fluctuations -during retreat over level ground the source of the stream retreats and the slope is decreased -the distal protions of the system must therefore incise -yet they are still coarse sandy braided systems -washboard moraine -low.

-ice marginal environments. Driscoll. 1980. 1980b. Mooers. polar and temperate / valley and continental (Sugden and John. Watson. 1968. 1988) -sediment source in continental glacial systems -where is the sediment caried in the ice? -dirty basal ice -minor amount of englacial from more distant sources -subglacially as a mobile till layer -stagnation complexes (Boulton. 1972) -development of moraines -ice margin becomes relatively stationary but NOT stagnant -debris melts out on the ice surface -debris accumulates and insulates underlying ice -ice melt results in a lowering of the surface -slumping -flowage of till and other saturated sediment -multiple flow tills -inversion -sediment slumps exposing clean ice -clean ice melts rapidly forming a low -sediment slumps back in Lake ice ice hill with lake sediment on top ice -superglacial lakes . 1980a. 1976.

-ice marginal -kame terraces -terraces with an ice-collapsed face -typically valley features -kame and kettle (Pitted outwash) -crevasse filling -kame delta -glacio-lacustrine -proglacial -sub-aqueous deposition -sedimentary facies -fining outward -near-shore -offshore -seasonal deposition (varves) -silt in summer -clay in winter -ice-rafted debris -subglacial -deposition from meltwater moving in channels -deposition from basal melting of dirty ice -superglacial -lakes on glacier surface -many sedimentary facies -large heat capacity and rapid melting of underlying ice .

term used for many randomly oriented glacial-fluvial features -moulin kames -cone shaped. from deposition of sediment in a moulin . -outwash -from ice surface -Outwash heads -ice-collapsed slopes -from subglacial sources -.eskers -usually an associated outwash fan -fining away from source -slope of the outwash system -becomed adjusted to transport the sediment -ice-contact -.-ideal mineral grain size ∆ h 2 ∆ y 2 grain size (ø) = .log 2 mm ( or mm = 2 -ø ) -glacial fluvial deposits.sand and gravel deposited in contact with the ice -eskers -subglacial -kames -.

fluid flows -. fabric. Drewry.little topography -thick debris layer -. 1976. inclusions -poorly sorted (clay -. lake sediment. etc. 1986.similar to mentioned above -surface meltout -accumulation on the ice surface .flow -effect of water content on slope angle -thin debris layer -. Boulton. superior lobe till -little clay from the few shale layers in the Hinckley SST -DesMoines lobe till -abundant silt and clay from the Cretaceous shales Often has a bimodal grain size distribution -ideal rock fragment size .boulders) -terminal grain size for glacial abrasion is silt -clay usually comes from shale.g.steeper slope angles -grain-size distribution (mineral and rock).Glacial sedimentary systems Depositional processes and environments (Chapter2 and 3 in Lowe and Walker) -sediment types -till -term used for sediments deposited directly by the ice -lodgement (Sugden and John. -e.viscous flows -. 1970a) -debris-choked basal ice that becomes immobile -meltout and plastering of debris on bed -if meltout continues for an extended period till may accumulate subglacially -water-saturated till may deform -meltout -basal melting from stagnant ice -.