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CHAPTER 1 Websites: Quick Reference

1.1 Organizations and associations

AEA Technology plc American Bureau of Shipping American Consulting Engineers Council American Institute of Engineers American Institute of Steel Construction Inc. American Iron and Steel Institute American National Standards Institute American Nuclear Society American Petroleum Institute American Society for Non-Destructive Testing American Society for Testing of Materials American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers American Society of Mechanical Engineers American Water Works Association Inc. American Welding Society APAVE Limited Association of Iron and Steel Engineers (USA)


Engineers Guide to Pressure Equipment

British Inspecting Engineers British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing British Standards Institution British Valve and Actuator Manufacturers Association Det Norske Veritas DTI STRD 5: Engineering Integrity Society European Committee for Standardisation www.

Factory Mutual Global (USA) Fluid Controls Institute Inc. (USA) Hartford Steam Boiler (USA) Heat Transfer Research Inc. (USA) Her Majestys Stationery Office

HSB Inspection Quality Limited HSE (Home page) International Standards Organization Lloyds Register Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry (USA) National Association of Corrosion Engineers (USA) National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors (USA) National Fire Protection Association (USA) National Fluid Power Association (USA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA)

Websites: Quick Reference

Pipe Fabrication Institute (USA) Plant Safety Limited Registrar Accreditation Board (USA) Royal Sun Alliance Certification Services Limited Safety Assessment Federation SGS (UK) Limited The Aluminum Association Inc. (USA) The Engineering Council The Institute of Corrosion The Institute of Energy The Institute of Materials The Institute of Quality Assurance The Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) Pressure Systems Group The Institution of Plant Engineers The United Kingdom Accreditation Service The Welding and Joining Society Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association Inc. (USA) TUV(UK) Limited TWI Certification Limited Zurich Engineering Limited pressure/index.htm wjsinfo.html

Engineers Guide to Pressure Equipment


General technical information

Technical standards Pressure vessel design

Boilers-fire tube Pressure vessel software

Transportable pressure receptacles (gas cylinders) Valves Companies/Industrial/Valves_and_Control books/vganapathy/boilers.html equipment/codes/PTC4.4/Default.asp.

Heat exchangers

Simple pressure vessels Boilers and HRSGs

Websites: Quick Reference

Welding welds/home.html

Non-destructive testing Failure


Technical reference books ISO 9000 Forged flanges www.startfm3.html projects/fad.htm/ 80000_prod.asp?print=yes

Creep Air receivers Materials General on-line reference websites Safety valves Control valves

Engineers Guide to Pressure Equipment

1.3 Directives and legislation

For a list of new EC directives and standards on pressure equipment, go to and search using keywords pressure vessel standards and EC. The entry website for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is: Statutory Instrument (SI) documents are available from Her Majestys Stationery Office (HMSO) at: The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) entry web site is: Background information on mutual recognition agreements relating to European directives in general is available on: Reference to most pressure equipment-related directives (and their interpretation guidelines) is available on: A good general introduction to the Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) is available on: Guides on the PED from the UK DTI are available for download on: The European Commission Pressure Equipment Directive website has more detailed information on: or The CEN website provides details of all harmonized standards: For details of harmonized standards published in the EU official journal, go to: harmstds/reflist.html

Websites: Quick Reference

A listing of European Notified Bodies for the PED is available from: All the sections of the text of the UK Pressure Equipment Regulations are available on: The UK Pressure Systems Safety Regulation (PSSRs) are available from:

1.4 The KKS power plant classification system

The KKS (Kraftwerk Kennzeichensystem) is a completely generic designation system that identifies every system, component, and location within a plant, using a string of letters and numbers. It is used for power and process plant across many industry sectors. The KKS designations are commonly used on equipment/spares inventories, Process and Instrumentation Diagrams (PIDs), and plant labelling. From the pressure equipment viewpoint, the most important function is that related to process designation. The KKS process classification consists of a maximum of four levels: 0, 1, 2, and 3 (see Fig. 1.1). Level 0 identifies the overall plant and differentiates between units or blocks. Level 1 identifies the plant system, classifying each area with a three-letter code the first letter specifying the function group, and two further letters. Level 2 identifies individual systems and equipment items within the function groups, with level 3 available for further sub-designation. Table 1.1 shows a small sample of the thousands of codes available.

Plant 'blocks'

Block A

Block B

B-Block B
Level 0
Unit 4



Unit 2

Unit 3

3-Unit 3 M -Main machine A-Steam turbine W-Sealing system 15 -Location

the plant area within

Engineers Guide to Pressure Equipment

Plant systems



Gland steam


Steam piping

Level 1

System parts




Equipment items




A-Mechanical equipment H-Heating /cooling units 001 -number code K-Mechanical items

Level 2

Sequence number







Level 3

D-Vessels 01-number code

Gland Steam Desuperheater B3MAW15AH001KD 01

Fig. 1.1 Structure of the KKS plant classification system

Websites: Quick Reference

Table 1.1 Typical KKS codes Level 1

First Identifies letter C G H L M P R Control equipment Water system Heat generation Main machines Cooling water Gas generation Second Identifies letter MA MB ME MV Gas turbine Water turbine Compressor Oil system Third Identifies letter HP turbine IP turbine MAB

Steam turbine MAA

MAC LP turbine MAG Condenser MAJ MAL Air system Drains

Steam and gas cycles MM

MAM Leak-off system MAQ Vents

Level 2
First letter A B C D G H Identifies Mechanical equipment Auxiliary equipment Measuring circuits Control circuits Electrical equipment Second letter AA AB AC AH AN AV BB BN BR Identifies Valves Isolating elements Heat exchangers Heating units Compressors Pumps Combustion units Tanks Ejectors Piping

Machinery sub-assembly AP

Level 3
First letter K M Identifies Mechanical items Mechanical items Second letter KA KC KD KN KP MR MT Identifies Valves Heat exchangers Vessels/tanks Compressors Pumps Piping Turbines