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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 28, NO. 3, JULY 2013
A Low-Cost Power-Quality Meter With Series Arc-Fault Detection Capability for Smart Grid
Kostyantyn Koziy, Bei Gou, Member, IEEE, and Joel Aslakson
Abstract—This paper presents a low-cost digital single-phase power-quality measurement device for consumer use with a wide range of features, including series arc-fault detection, load trip on failure, and phase/neutral line wiring mix up indication. A wavelet multiresolution analysis technique was utilized for the voltage transient event detection and the current drop pattern recognition, speciﬁcally to arc fault. The last feature also involved the use of adaptive thresholding, peak detection, and repetition frequency calculation. A computationally efﬁcient and accurate Goertzel ﬁlter was used for total harmonic distortion calculation. In addition, this meter can measure phase fundamental frequency (using the zero-crossing technique), rms values, and power. MATLAB and MathCAD packages were used to build and simulate arc-fault model and phase voltage distortion, to design and test part of the developed algorithms, which were further implemented in Embedded C and Assembler programming languages. A prototype circuit board with the required sensors and relay, analog isolation, indication, user controls, communication link, and a low-cost microchip microcontroller (MCU) dsPIC33 was designed and built to validate implemented algorithms and conduct experiments. Index Terms—Arc fault, Goertzel algorithm, microcontroller, power quality (PQ), smart meter, total harmonic distortion (THD), wavelet.
Fig. 1. Series arc-fault condition.
I. INTRODUCTION LECTRICITY is extremely important for commercial and residential use. With the advent of smart grid, the concern about power quality (PQ) is growing due to the appearance of new components, which are sensitive to various powersupply disturbances. Examples include distributed generators, wide-area controllers, etc. Low PQ entails the loss of 10 billion Euros in Europe and $U.S.24 billion every year, and may cause unexpected power supply and equipment failures, electronic communication interference, possible human health problems, and reduced personnel efﬁciency (e.g., due to the ﬂicker effect, image distortion on displays). Major defect types of electrical energy supply are brieﬂy listed here: 1) phase voltage harmonic distortions, which occur due to the nonlinear loads supplying unexpected currents;
Manuscript received July 27, 2012; revised December 06, 2012; accepted February 23, 2013. Date of publication April 16, 2013; date of current version June 20, 2013. Paper no. TPWRD-00788-2012. K. Koziy and B. Gou are with North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102 USA (e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org). J. Aslakson is with the Fourware LLC, Fargo, ND 58102 USA (e-mail: email@example.com). Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TPWRD.2013.2251753
2) voltage drop and brownout, which takes place because of high loads, load imbalance, as well as reactive power and failures in power-supply networks; 3) voltage spike may occur at the moment of high, reactive load connection or lightning strokes; 4) frequency deviation is not considered as a signiﬁcant PQ problem, since it has a small (or zero) impact on most of modern electronic devices utilizing phase locks or uncontrolled rectiﬁers; for some conventional and inexpensive equipment, it may lead to a clock speed increase/decrease, motor speed variations, etc.  Another major type is arc fault which requires close attention because of the severe damage it can bring. Arc faults normally take place due to wiring problems. It is the reason for 40 000 home ﬁres in the U.S. annually. Typical equipment (thermal resettable circuit breakers (CBs) and fuses) is insensitive to this kind of fault, because of its short duration. Furthermore, it is not easy to distinguish arc-fault conditions from those occurring during the operation of noisy devices (switching regulators, motors, etc.) A lot of research has been accomplished to develop reliable methods and algorithms for the detection of this type of failure; however, the detection accuracy still needs to be improved. Two types of arc faults exist: series and parallel. The ﬁrst type shown in Fig. 1 is the most abundant and occurs when the single power conductor breaks. Maximum arc current is then limited by the load current due to the series connection, which is deﬁnitely smaller than the CB current rating and depending on the load and, hence, the arc current may or may not produce a signiﬁcant amount of heat to create a ﬁre . The parallel arc fault shown in Fig. 2 occurs between the neutral/ground and phase conductor, when the insulator is damaged due to mechanical, temperature stress, or aging . In this case, high-impedance arc ﬁrst melts and carbonizes the insulator, and later the low-impedance current path is formed. The path emerges from excessive heat, and if left uninterrupted, it could ignite a ﬁre. Smart meters with U.S.$100 are available in the current market, but with limited functions. As an example, the popular BLI 28000/31100 PowerCost Monitor with wireless connection, EKM 15IDS and iConserve smart meters are capable of
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Overvoltage and overcurrent protection units are usually sold as transient voltage suppressors.g. RLOAD models load resistance (constant resistive load is assumed). required for overvoltage/overcurrent protection. accordingly (1) represents a change of storing energy per-unit arc where length.S. Connecticut Electric Q120AF0) to U. respectively. (2) can be rewritten as (4) is where arc voltage is .S. or motor brushes. This model works best for relatively low currents (tens Amperes) and due to that reason. 3.g. depending on the complexity.. is maximum arc current (load for series or short circuit for parallel arc fault). Siemens B215AF). and is a power loss per-unit arc length. Then. A.: LOW-COST PQ METER 1585 Fig. etc. arc-fault detection is applied to the series arc fault considered as the most common one that occurs at homes and ofﬁces and may lead to ﬁres.. In current system implementation. AC represents the power-supply source. it is possible to build a simulation model for the series arc-fault case. even though it does not affect consumer low-power equipment greatly and usually degrades efﬁciency only. is an arc current. and the VM1 block measures the . PROPOSED ALGORITHMS AND DESIGN This section presents theoretical design of the algorithms for PQ measurements and series arc-fault detection. Among them. is electric intensity in the arc column. RS models its internal resistance.$300).$170 range) and are not capable of logging fault events at all. Parallel arc-fault condition. it is appropriate for arc fault modeling in home and ofﬁce wiring. The separately sold arc-fault circuit interrupters price varies from U. and capacitors.KOZIY et al. is the arc length.) or may become hazardous (e. No one from the aforementioned listed units offers phase/neutral miswiring detection. such as total harmonic distortion (THD). II. Furthermore.g. power loss in arc column or is arc voltage constant. The later one describes arc conductance around zero current and assumes constant arc diameter and power loss. U. the most popular are Cassie (used for (2) By deﬁning the arc time constant as (3) and arc length .g. and logging supply power and cost.g. And meters with integrated harmonic analysis. Arc may just reduce the lifetime of electrical devices (switch blades. transformers. Series Arc Fault Model The arc fault itself can be deﬁned as a self-supporting electrical discharge in conductive ionized gas . PowerSure EMC-240B. This can be expressed in form of arc gap conductance only measuring. nonlinear. and nonsinusoidal characteristics. Using equations (6) and (7).9e-5. is an input power per-unit arc length. Voltage and current peak/rms values need to be monitored as primary power-related parameters. and is equal to and must be found experimentally.. The MATLAB Simulink model is shown in Fig. The main purpose of this paper is to design a low-cost development platform suitable for detecting and logging PQ-related problems listed before along with additional features. 2. U. with the maximum current limited by circuit operation parameters.S. are pricy (e. A number of models exist to describe its behavior... studying the arc at high current and high plasma temperature conditions) and Mayr’s arc model . Phase/neutral miswiring indication and protection are also important since they may lead to improper grounding and human’s injury or death from electric shock. This type of smart meter can help avoid the use of expensive equipment in homes by using the low-cost device which resolves conﬂict situations during judicial proceedings. RS PM700MG. The arc fault carries discontinuous. (4) becomes (5) and consequently (6) Rising velocity can also be expressed in a form of (7) where is an empirically derived value equal to 2. generator.S. displaying. combined with resettable thermal fuses (e. phase frequency is also monitored.$500 (e. Phase voltage THD is among the measured and logged parameters since its unacceptable levels lead to overheating of inductors. in electrical wiring) and lead to dramatic outcomes like ﬁres and explosions. Mayr’s arc model is based on energy balance theory.$50 (e.
Values are then sorted and the 25th percentile is found as . RS is 1O hm. 3.1586 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. Series arc-fault simulation model. ﬁlter outputs then decompose the signal to low-frequency (called approximated signal A) and high-frequency (called detailed signal D) components. 28. voltage across arc . A method using adaptive thresholding needs to be developed to determine if the signal level is higher than a particular value. and the constant multiplier was found heuristically. JULY 2013 To be a wavelet. the amplitude threshold was selected based on (12) where represents the bandpass ﬁltered signal. The main advantage of using adaptive thresholding over ﬁxed is the ability to detect weak and strong magnitude transient current spikes that occur during arc fault. and have a zero integral. is the averaged absolute value. Peak Detection. Res structure collects the data along with time stamp. and setting it too low may produce fault detection. . 2 mm. and arc start time is 0.g. action potential detection in neurons. and is shift factors. the threshold was adapted to noise using the following equation: (11) where represents the maximum value within the signal frame. and is mentioned like AdaBandFlt. The Hit Crossing block is required for the optimization of the simulation algorithm time step. From it. Simulation results are shown in Fig. the threshold for the current frame is calculated as (13) . In . System voltage is 120 V/60 Hz. The second rule means that operates as high-pass ﬁlter. The following parameters were used in the simulation: . and is some constant. Adaptive Threshold. and then the rms value for every subframe is calculated. is the scale. in mass spectrometry. which is called a dyadic transform. The ﬁxed threshold set to a high level may miss small spikes. which helps to extract localized pulses and high-frequency oscillations in the presence of fundamental frequency. Wavelet Transform and its Application The main advantage of wavelet transform (WT) is an ability to concentrate on the short-time interval for high-frequency components and long-time interval for low-frequency components. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of the discrete signal is a digital implementation of continuous wavelet transform. has an inverted (mirrored) frequency response (works as a low-pass ﬁlter). The differential equation editor (DEE) block calculates the arc current : with scale parameter and shift . to decay to zero from both sides. Continuous wavelet transform of the signal is deﬁned as (9) where is a wavelet function. 25 A. brieﬂy speaking. In . There are many techniques with their advantages and disadvantages for adaptively setting the threshold. deﬁned by the user. the wavelet function works as a ﬁlter and WT operation simply ﬁlters a signal of interest by convolving it with this function and multiplying the result by a normalization factor to preserve energy on different scales. Arc current is then created using the Controlled Current Source block and measured by AM1 block. since this is a very popular topic in many applications that utilize signal analysis (e. Increasing the factor stretches the ﬁlter’s impulse response (narrowing its frequency-response shape and moving it towar the lower frequencies). For a wavelet function (also called mother wavelet). B. Advancing the factor slides the ﬁlter’s window along the signal time line. Another interesting method was developed and used in  for action potential recognition. C. DWT then can be implemented as a multistage FIR digital ﬁlter with downsampling. VOL. 3. image processing). the signal frame is ﬁrst split by subframes of a particular size (10 ms). which. According to it. expressed as (10) Fig. and Load Trip (8) where is the initial condition (initial arc conductivity). obtained by performing three-level DWT decomposition of the original signal. must obey particular rules: to be oscillatory.03 s. RLOAD is 5O hms. is the mean absolute deviation. 7. .. The Start block deﬁnes the start time of the arc fault. The thresholding method is used to detect spikes in noisy signal components. NO. As can be seen. and . a scale function can be deﬁned. A special case of transform occurs when .
The entire peak detection and repetition rate calculation sequence are given in Fig. and the D3 vector is saved to separate the D3 buffer. the maximum allowable THD is 5% (IEEE 519).: LOW-COST PQ METER 1587 count the number of samples between markers and then derive the fundamental frequency (14) With the currently used sampling rate. and lower or equal to the consecutive sample. Voltage and Current RMS Calculation The rms value for time series Fig. It helps to attenuate dc offset and high-frequency noise that may affect zero crossing accuracy. where the current output sample is calculated as follows: (17) . by the way. This is a second-order resonance ﬁlter that can be considered as special case of DFT for single frequency. ﬁlter coefﬁcients have to be recalculated depending on the fundamental frequency change. THD Calculation THD represents the deviation of signal waveform from pure sinusoidal. F. One interesting way of measuring THD is to utilize the Goertzel ﬁlter. Since the single DMA buffer contains only portion of the fundamental period. After that. and the second element (25th percentile) is picked to calculate the threshold . Also. Since sampling frequency is known.3 ms. and the number of subframes in frame is equal to 8) was implemented in our design to adaptively calculate the threshold value for every acquired frame. bigger than the previous sample. additional computations may be required (involving the use of windows). the frequency resolution is 0. Only voltage is used for marker generation since it has stable magnitude. However. may deviate from its nominal value by 2 Hz). Among them is the Fourier-based method.12 Hz. one of the direct memory access (DMA) buffers becomes completely full with phase current/voltage samples. Parallel ﬁlter implementation is possible which gives an advantage for ﬁeld-programmable gate-array implementation. division by the number of samples and the squared root is performed when the end marker is detected. RMS is calculated for current and voltage (Irms and Urms blocks. Another relatively simple method utilizes BP ﬁlters to measure the magnitude of every component. it is possible to Zero-crossing markers are used to precisely extract one fundamental period (which. The phase voltage signal ﬁrst passes through the fourth-order BPF. starting and ending at zero points.. If it is found. There are a couple ways of measuring this index. It provides slow response if high precision is required since a number of fundamental periods must be acquired. When this occurs. E. RMS. current samples are then processed using 3-level db2 DWT. D. For 120-V power-supply networks. The same D3 buffer is updated with either 0 (no peak) or 1 (peak) values. sorting is then carried out. since the method requires fundamental frequency calculation and sampling frequency adjustments which cannot be done at the same time. Markers are also used to calculate the fundamental frequency (Fu block). a position marker is then generated and used by THD and rms algorithms as the zero point (taking into consideration ﬁlter delay) for data processing. working on exactly one period of fundamental frequency is preferred.g. The subroutine (written on Assembler) processes available data by calculating the sum of squares. Every 8. the algorithm detects a rising (or falling) edge of a sinusoidal waveform. RMS is then calculated for every subframe. of length is deﬁned as (15) with a previous threshold deﬁned as . the system contains the algorithm (ZC) that detects the phase voltage zero crossing points. This algorithm with some modiﬁcations (subframe size changed to 17 ms that corresponds to the fundamental period of the power supply. and is the maximum speciﬁed order. waveform. In other cases. which is widely used for DTMF tone detection in communication applications . with 40–70 Hz passband. Peak is assumed if current data sample value is above the threshold. It can be implemented recursively using inﬁnite impulse response (IIR) equation. After obtaining the threshold. 4. it is then split to eight equal subframes. When it gets 512 samples.KOZIY et al. respectively). error goes up. Proposed algorithm of peak detection and repetition rate calculation. 4. the absolute value of the D3 buffer is calculated and the triangle FIR ﬁlter is applied to smooth the data (in order to avoid detection of two closely located peaks). and for voltage and can be expressed as (16) where is the th harmonic rms. For that reason. THD calculation). Simulation results are presented in Section V. and less noise in comparison to current. which is equal to approximately 133 ms (8 fundamental periods). which requires relatively high computational effort and the use of variable sampling frequency. Zero-Crossing and Fundamental Frequency Calculation To simplify signal analysis (e.
THD is then calculated as (20) The zero-crossing start and end markers are used to identify one fundamental period of signal starting at 0. there is no need for additional precautions. respectively. where is the current input sample. and and represent the ﬁlter central frequency and sampling frequency. Neutral. Algorithm implementation is shown in Fig. however. Since we are not interested in the ﬁltered signal itself. Two voltage dividers (designated as D) are used to attenuate and shift input ac voltage to the allowable ADC input range. generator) for feature expansion. Up to 50 A can be monitored. VOL. The isolated dc–dc converter (3. producing the unidirectional voltage output convenient for interfacing to the MCU analog-to-digital converter (ADC) unit. T90S5D12–5). for development purposes. error in real implementation will be higher due to Q15 format truncation and zero-point detection imperfection. This failure condition is checked and indicated to the user by the system during the startup cycle. The system is assumed to be located inside a power distribution box. In the current system. before outlets and loads. anti-aliasing (designated as AA) ﬁlters are required prior to signal connection to ADC. while the other one between N and Ground (G) is utilized for the N/H wiring mix up detection feature: in case of their reversed connection. MATLAB simulation was performed. 3. The signal with known harmonics was synthesized and processed using the aforementioned algorithm. Three lines of a single-phase ac source (Hot. HARDWARE DESIGN The novel smart-meter hardware block diagram is shown in Fig.. MCU has enough resources to double this value even without optimization. Proposed algorithm of THD calculation (MCU implementation). Fig. Since the optocoupler contains a second photodiode that is used as a feedback for input stage to compensate for LED starvation and temperature inﬂuence. the duration of the previous period is used to select coefﬁcients (assuming that the frequency cannot signiﬁcantly change).1588 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. However. The maximum number of harmonics is limited to MCU speed. Photodiode current is then converted to voltage. Since digital signal processing is used for all power-quality analysis. Since the fundamental frequency is calculated in the other block. One divider between Hot (H) and Neutral (N) lines is used to measure ac voltage. The Hot line can be disconnected from loads with a help of a relay (20 A/120 V. this block can be removed to reduce the entire device cost. its squared magnitude can be obtained through (18) where the term is (19) Every harmonic requires separate computations. All coefﬁcients are stored in the lookup table. Optical isolation is used to separate the high-voltage (HV) power line from the low-voltage (LV) controller and user side. III. the isolator has very good linearity (photovoltaic topology used in the system. NO. In addition. In the ﬁnal design. This function is accomplished using the LTC1564 continuous time eighth-order lowpass (LP) ﬁlter.3 V/5 V) is used to provide power for the HV isolator input side. and are previous output samples. It has a frequency operation range of 120 kHz that allows to successfully detect short-duration current spikes and drops. meets 12-b ADC performance). 5. which is controlled by microcontroller unit (MCU) dsPIC33 through the intermediate solid-state relay HSR312. which allows selecting the cutoff frequency in a range of 150 kHz with a 10-kHz step using pins. JULY 2013 Fig. The calculated THD result with a current sampling rate was found to be identical to the theoretical to the fourth sign after the decimal point. after one fundamental period ( samples) is passed through the ﬁlter. The two-channel isolator is built around optocoupler LOC211 and operational ampliﬁers . Since the sensor itself provides an isolation of 3 kV. the ac signal will appear between N and G. backup device.g. which illuminates a photodiode on the opposite side. but only in its magnitude for every harmonic of interest. 10 harmonics are taken into consideration. Since the DMA buffer size is not sufﬁcient to keep at least 1 fundamental period. To verify the method and its accuracy. 6. Smart-meter hardware block diagram. it is also used in the THD block to deﬁne which set of coefﬁcients to use in (18). the device also operates as a programmable gain ampliﬁer . 5. The last one can commutate 300-mA/250 V loads and allows controlling externally connected units (e. this precaution is obligatory. 6. The : input voltage is converted to current ﬂowing through a light-emitting diode (LED). The Hall-effect current sensor ACS756 is used for bidirectional load current monitoring on the Hot line. Of course. and Ground) are under monitoring. 28.
The last procedure also involves the use of DMA:3rd buffer with eight words and is assigned for the light-emitting diode (LED) controller SPI communication. For future system expansion. sends error message on display. After that. A smart meter was assembled on the double-sided printed-circuit board (PCB). DAC. NV memory. To display the information. using proper routing techniques and shielding for noise reducing and stable operation. When this check is passed. two channels are sequentially converted by ADC and results are put to buffer. Its operation is under control of the MAX6951 device which communicates with the MCU using the SPI bus. U2 is sampled for a short period of time to check if any voltage is present. multiplication and accumulation). It can operate on up to 40 MIPS. U2 is no longer in use and ADC is set to simultaneously sample I and U2 channels with a 30.KOZIY et al. Filter outputs are then connected to the MCU ADC input channels. Every time sampling circuit stops sampling. 8. When one buffer is full. It is then used for precise zero-crossing (ZC) detection. voltage (U1) and wiring mix up fault voltage (U2) are connected to three ADC channels. The system uses DMA to reduce the amount of MCU cycles required to transfer data from ADC to RAM. contains a 10/12-b multichannel ADC with 2/4 channel simultaneous sample-and-hold capability. Irms). The system was designed to support two MCU series: dsPIC30 and dsPIC33.: LOW-COST PQ METER 1589 Fig. required for fundamental frequency calculation (Fu). Completely assembled smart meter system. The user must reverse H/N wires and restart the system (currently implemented through the Reset button). adaptive thresholding (AT). Everytime a display has to be updated. The UART interface is used for communication with PC. Then transmission is initiated and the rest of the task is held automatically by the DMA controller. supports single-cycle execution of DSP-related commands (e. This rate was found to be appropriate and universal to satisfy the needs of all algorithms. If so. a special ﬂag is set to let data processing unit (DTU) know that information is ready to be processed.g. Arc-fault detection block stays apart. Two DMA buffers (called Ping-Pong buffers). The in-circuit serial programming (ICSP) interface is required to program and debug the MCU. 8. After MCU reset and initialization. trip circuit. and UART communication interfaces (except the one used to display debug data) currently do not have any code support. DTU must process all data before the other buffer becomes full. (PGA) and allows setting the gain within the range of 16 V/V. reset fault event counter). The microcontroller itself is a microchip high-performance low-power 16-b device. two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and 7-segment 8-digit LED display are used. SIMULATION RESULTS This section presents simulation results and operation of algorithms used for power-quality measurements and series arc-fault detection. phase voltage and current rms values (Urms. and peripherals.8-kHz sampling rate. 7. change parameter for displaying. since there is no need to make an accurate analysis of it. are assigned for that purpose (the maximum buffer size is limited by MCU hardware). DTU contains a number of algorithms (explained in Section II) for power quality analysis. It will be added in future ﬁrmware revisions in a future study. .. and peak-detection (PD) algorithms along with the peak repetition rate (PRR) calculation that is then used to make a decision about tripping the load.g. It involves the use of discrete wavelet transform (DWT). FIRMWARE GENERAL STRUCTURE The overall structure of the current MCU ﬁrmware version is shown in Fig. two push buttons and one potentiometer (connected to the ADC) are available. Fig. the next buffer is going to be ﬁlled with a new portion of data. non-volatile (NV) ferroelectric memory support (for failure logging) and two-channel DAC (for real-time debug of processing data) were also added. the system loads the buffer with control and data words. e. Two AA ﬁlters and ampliﬁers are used for phase voltage and current signals. Shared variables are used to pass and exchange calculated and statistic information between algorithm blocks. A simple RC LP ﬁlter is used for the H/N wiring mixup signal. V. A low-noise linear 3. and THD. and update information on screen. The completely assembled system is shown in Fig. designed for medium-level digital-signal-processing (DSP) applications. trip the load. and halts. Every new I and U1 samples are stored sequentially to one of them. and a number of peripherals. The band-pass ﬁlter (BPF) with 70-Hz passband is used to remove dc offset from U1 and ﬁlter out noise. its ADC reference. For user entry. 508 samples each. the system disconnects the load (Trip routine). 7.. IV. Smart meter MCU ﬁrmware top-level diagram. a DMA controller. read and process user input (CTRL. Phase current (I).3-V regulator (LDO) provides power for the MCU. a sufﬁcient amount of random-access memory (RAM). The next section shows the simulation results obtained from the proposed algorithms and the hardware designs.
VI. inverters) also produce similar harmonic distortions. To overcome these drawbacks (along with couple others). Fig. Adaptive Threshold. 9.03. Due to this fact that it is obvious that by performing harmonic analysis. Since the PQ meter is located before load wiring. a decision can be made to trip the load. which makes it hard to distinguish. the series arc fault creates a distortion of sinusoidal load current. 10. VOL. B. appearing within two fundamental periods (33 ms).g. a ﬁnal step for the algorithm is to calculate their repetition rate and trip the relay if the rate is higher than the predeﬁned value. containing disturbances. it does require the analyzed signal to be stationary and periodic. After peaks have been identiﬁed.1590 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. NO. However. the load must be tripped if ﬁlter output gets 4/128 0. speciﬁc frequency components can be extracted. JULY 2013 Fig. 3. it was found that series arc fault disturbances in load current lay within 2 4-kHz range.. Detection of Series arc Faults Based on the algorithm and hardware design presented in Section II. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Fig. Series arc-fault simulation results. The other problem with FFT is the picket fence effect (resolution bias error). and Load Trip Fig. 11. the higher output ﬁlter will produce. Daubechies Wavelets is a family of orthogonal wavelets with compact support. even though actual input arc-fault current sample test vector . 9. its level can be measured and based on some rule. and trip algorithm simulation graphs. Peak repetition rate and load-trip algorithm operation. a wavelet transform (WT) can be alternatively used to analyze signal time–frequency localization . Passing peak signal and monitoring ﬁlter output. This allows extracting local signal disturbances with very high quality (ignoring fundamental components). Fig. LPF and HPF FIR ﬁlter coefﬁcients were then obtained and used in the algorithm. and only current information can be used to recognize the arc-fault-related patterns. simulation results are obtained and shown in Fig. 28. repetition rate calculation using the average ﬁlter. Daubechies wavelets db2 were found appropriate for extracting arc-fault features. which is produced if a signal contains harmonics that are not integer multiples of resolution frequency. 9. switching regulators. there is no way to measure arc voltage. Series arc-fault feature extraction using DWT and db2. we can deﬁne ﬁlter width equal to 33 ms or 128 sample of detailed signal D3. Peak Detection. In current test implementation. Experimentally. The problem is that many electronic devices (e. 12 shows a real arc-fault algorithm operation on MCU. 11 demonstrates adaptive thresholding and peak detection. Results of its operation are shown in Fig. which is not the case for power-supply current. As can be observed in Fig. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) is usually utilized for frequency-domain analysis. which corresponds to detail level 3 (D3) of DWT on the 30756-Hz sampling rate. Then. 10. it is assumed that series arc fault condition is 4 spikes. This operation is based on average (rectangular FIR) ﬁlter: the higher the repetition rate. A.
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[Online].” IEEE Trans. 1990. “Developing and implementing peak detection for real-time image registration. isolation. and integration ﬂexibility. Khan and M. 641–652. Fig. Also. The middle graphic shows the actual state of the detailed signal D3 buffer. which will be reported in our future research papers. load trip relay). Sykulski. The system is built around a low-cost microcontroller with DSP capabilities. North Dakota State University. Article ID 659050. pp. 16. 2007. the system could be redesigned by removing some hardware elements (in particular. J.html Kostyantyn Koziy received the B. it is possible to achieve 2-2. Z. and P. G. 1054. K. after all of the described operations. S.: Academic Press. This can be sufﬁcient for consumer use. no. 20. Intell.” Mar. test how well an algorithm can recognize fault Bei Gou (M’13) received the Ph. no. [Online]. scaled according to the gain of the analog front-end circuit and ADC resolution. making the device smaller and convenient to be installed in a power distribution box or outlet. using the 12-b ADC built-in typical MCU. 2005.pdf  I... ND. 21. D. “Arc fault detector. a wide range of monitoring parameters and their derivatives. Q. USA.org/en/publications/ guides/gum. 25. Available: http://ebookbrowse.” Comput. 3.vishay. Schoepf.. With a lack of the measurement model  . 1661–87.  J. vol. Available: http://www. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK In our current work. USA. Al-Othman. and A. Moreno. Nov. pp. 961–1005.5-25 A). vol. and can be easily extended by adding features in ﬁrmware. vol. Gopalakrishnan. “Arc fault detection scheme for 42 V automotive DC networks using current shunt. Theory. current of 0. TX. 20–21.g. Workshop Circuits. 1. pp. Inf. indication. 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