4 views

Uploaded by IJEC_Editor

Feng Zengxi
International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 1, No. 3, Pp. 110-112, Sep. 2011.

- 1705.05598
- Fast Backpropagation Learning Using Optimization of Learning Rate for Pulsed
- BS Aircond
- c
- ON-LINE IDENTIFICATION OF A ROBOT MANIPULATOR USING NEURAL.pdf
- KM Slides Ch12
- ANN-20160216
- Predicting Student Academic Performance in Blended Learning Using Artificial Neural Networks Full Text
- Neural Network for Classification
- Daikin Controls Product Catalog
- Applications of Image Processing for Grading Agriculture Products
- Sysvrf 252 Air Evo Hp r
- Decision making on HVAC R systems selection a critical review.pdf
- Ecomaster Iricomfort esp.pdf
- Handwritten Digit Regonizer
- PFC Dynamic Neural Networks for MBS in Mechanical Systems.pdf
- 1308035573-Ducted Brochure Oct 08
- Solar Airconditioning System.pptx
- classifieds7-9
- MANSOUR.pdf

You are on page 1of 3

Feng Zengxi

Manuscript

Received: 28, Jun., 2011 Revised: 9, Aug., 2011 Accepted: 25, Aug., 2011 Published: 30, Sep., 2011

Keywords

central air-conditioning system; preheat time; neural network; Optimum Start-up; energy saving

Abstract The preheat time of central air-conditioning system preheating space is not only affect the comfort of environment, but also affect energy consumption. A preheat time model is established based on the thermodynamics principle, and an optimum start-up algorithm of central air-conditioning system is proposed based on the neural network, the simulation result shows that this method can predict the preheat time accurately which make central air-conditioning system save energy.

air-conditioning can be switched off without allowing the room temperature to drop below minimum comfort conditions, Tmin.

Tmax

Tmin TR

0h

24h

tp

1. Introduction

Construction of the total energy consumption accounts for nearly 30% of China's energy consumption today, and the energy cost of air-conditioning takes 50% of the whole and maintains a steady growth in a building with central air-conditioning. Therefore, energy saving modification of central air-conditioning will lead to good economic and social benefits. In fact, because many shopping malls and comprehensive buildings are used in daytime, so central air-conditioning runs by the intermittent operation mode as Fig.1. Owe to the thermal inertia of the central air-conditioning and that of the buildings, a preheat time tp is necessary, so that the required temperature is reached at the moment of occupation. The performance of any start-up controller will depend on the accurate estimation of the preheat time. Overestimation will cause unnecessary energy wastage, while underestimation will lead to loss of comfort conditions at the start of occupancy. Similarly, if a certain permitted temperature drop at the end of the occupancy period can be allowed to occur, the central air-conditioning can be switched off earlier, producing further energy saving. Therefore, the main goal of the optimum shut-down time controller is to find the correct time, ts, when the central

This work was partially supported by the natural science fund of Shaanxi province education office (11JK0914) and the technology projects of Xian city construction (2011003). Feng Zengxi is with Xian University of Architecture and Technology, Information and Control Engineering Faculty (fengzengxi2000@gmail.com)

t0

t1

t2

The first law of thermodynamics and the compatibility of temperature measurements when written in conjunction with the constitutive and dynamic relations enable the time variations in thermal systems to be determined. Hence, it is easy to obtain the preheat time model, based on which the neural network (NN) control algorithm is simulated in this paper. The simulation result shows this method has better energy saving effects.

According to the first law of thermodynamics and the compatibility of temperature measurements, it is simple get the preheat time prediction model [1]-[2]:

t p (0) = {

Td

Qh / Hi Tb (0) Qh 4 Re / Ce

}2

(Equ. 1)

Where tp is the preheat time, Td is the desired room temperature at occupancy start time, Qk is the power of central air-conditioning, Tb is the bulk temperature, Ce is the thermal flow store of bulk. And the (Equ. 1) is a linear model as a special case. So far, the derivations have ignored the possibility of heat flows to or from the structure which are not taken into account in the calculation of bulk temperature by a single point measurement of the external air temperature, for

Feng Zengxi: The Optimum Start-up of Central Air-conditioning Based on Neural Network.

111

example, solar heat gain, wind losses or heat flows to or from adjoining rooms. Since these unmeasured disturbances might be expected to show degree of correlation from day to day, a simple first-order moving-average noise process with non-zero mean can be included in (Equ. 1) to describe their influence on preheat time. Thus, rewriting (Equ. 1) in discrete time form, the preheat time at the nth sampling instant is given by the difference equation [3], (Equ. 2) t p (n) = k4 + k4Tb (n) + k6Tb (n) 2 + e(n) + k7 e(n 1) Where e(n) is taken from a zero mean independent noise sequence.

B.

Neural network prediction can identify system model using the current input and output information of system, and predict the future output value. The procedure of neural network prediction is divided into two steps, the first step is model identification, and the second is prediction and model assessment. The back propagation neural network (BP-NN) is adopted to identify the parameters in this paper. Considering the problems of local optimal and the training time of neural network, the momentum BP-NN that can avoid local optimal problem and the fast BP-NN that can short training time are used to identify system model. System model identification is divided into three steps: determining neural network model structure, processing input and output data and network training. A. Determining Neural Network Model Structure

In order to avoid the impact of data on neural network, the history data must be processed before training sample data and prediction. The data processing algorithm of normalization is used to process input and output data of neural network. The input data is processed by (Equ. 3) and the output data is processed by (Equ. 4). 1 x (x + x) (Equ.3) 2 y= 1 (x x) 2 1 1 (Equ.4) x = (x x) y + (x + x) 2 2 Where x is original data, x is the maximum value of original data, x is the minimum value of original data, y is the value after normalization. The Tb is calculated by (Equ.5). Tb (k ) = aTb (k 1) + bTo (k ) + cTR (k ) (Equ.5)

temperature[5]-[6]. C.

Where a=0.8, is the time constant of bulk temperature, b=(1-a)f, c=(1-a)(1-f), f=0.63. To(k) is the outdoor temperature, TR(k) is the room temperature before preheat, Tb(k-1) is the last bulk temperature, Tb(k) is the current bulk

Network Training

A three-layer neural network that includes input layer, hidden layer and output layer is determined to calculate the preheat time. Considering the main factors that effect preheat time and time series, the three-layer neural network has four input nodes Tb, Tb2 , tp(n-1), tp(n-2), and one output node tp(n), and nine neural cells that is designed in the light of the rule of 2n+1[4]. The activation function of hidden layer is hyperbolic tangent function, and from the hidden layer to output layer the transfer function is linear. Therefore, the proportion of number of nodes as Fig.2 in the three-layer neural network model structure is 4:9:1

t p (n 1)

t p (n 2)

t p ( n)

Tb Tb2

Training samples of BP neural network are divided into two parts: training set and testing set. The training samples consist of 151 sets of data that were record from November 2008 to March 2009. After they are normalized, the first 120 sets of data forms training set that is used to train network and the remaining 31 sets of data forms testing set. Before network training, the other parameters of network are set. The maximum cycle number is 10000, target error is 0.001, original learning rate is 0.03, its increasing ratio is 1.04, the momentum factor is 0.95, and the initial weight value and the threshold value are got automatically by Initff function. And the improved BP network is trained by Trainbpx function. The formation of Initff and Trainbpx function is showed as follow: [w1, b1, w2, b2]=initff(X, 9, 'tansig', 1, 'purelin') [w1, b1, w2, b2, te, tr]=trainbpx(w1, b1, 'tansig', w2, b2, 'purelin', X, Y, tp) Where w1 and b1 are the weight value and the threshold value between the input layer and the hidden layer, w2 and b2 are the weight value and the threshold value between the hidden layer and the output layer, te is the actual training times of network, tr is the column vector of error square sum of network training, X is the input vector, Y is the Aim Vector, tp is the optional training parameter that decides how to train network. According to above set parameters, after the neural network is trained 4893, the error square sum is less than target error 0.001, which achieves the requirement of experiment. And parameters of w1, b1, w2 and b2 are calculated: w1= [0.6777 -0.3090 0.9346 0.5062 -2.2203 -0.4026

112

International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 1, No. 3, Pp. 110-112, Sep. 2011.

60 58 56 54 52 time 50 48 46 44 42 40 0 5 10 15 days 20 25 30 the constant preheat time the true preheat time the predictive preheat time

-0.4915 0.0809 0.6388 1.1369 1.1070 -1.4036 2.2493 1.4762 -0.3597 -0.2740 1.2739 0.1119 -0.9371 -0.8897 1.2722 0.8855 -1.4316 -0.8403 -2.4009 -0.8872 1.1046 -2.1108 -0.3210 -0.6760 1.2560 1.3418 -0.4039 1.7833 -0.1666 -0.8519]; w2= [0.4944 1.2063 1.2104 -1.3660 0.3607 0.9697 -1.4029 -0.3070 -1.0489]; b1= [-0.8950 -0.2413 -0.7859 -1.9907 -0.9480 -1.3495 0.2891 0.4320 -0.6209]T; b2= [0.1997]; D. Calculating the Preheat Time Using Prediction Model The prediction simulation of preheat time is done using the prediction time based on the actual recorded data and the above parameters of w1, b1, w2 and b2. The program flow chart is showed as Fig.3.

4. Conclusion

The experiment in the shopping mall shows neural network results in a good effect on energy saving of starting the central air-condition without accurate initialization parameters and the thermal characteristics of a central air-conditioning; therefore, there is a good prospect in designing the optimum start-up controller of central air-conditioning using the neural network.

References

[1]

[2]

[3]

Usually, the preheat time is a constant in a certain shopping mall or comprehensive building, it is designed to fully meet the demand of making the room comfort at the beginning of occupancy time in the coldest days. However, the preheat time in any shopping malls or comprehensive buildings varies with weather conditions. For example, the preheat time of the shopping mall that provides the data is 60 minutes, which far more than the true preheat and leads to energy waste. Therefore, the preheat time should be predicted accurately to saving energy. After the prediction simulation using the neural

[4]

[5]

[6]

M. Garcia-Sanz & J. Florez, adaptive optimum start-up and shut-down time controllers for heating systems based on a robust gradient menthod, (1994) Control Theroy Appl., Vol. 5, pp.323-328. A.L. Dexter & P. Haves, A robust self-tuning predictive controller for HVAC applications, (1998) ASHRAE Trans., Vol. 95, pp. 431-438. Barney & Floorez, Temperature prediction models and their application to the control of heating systems, (1985) Automation, Vol.17, pp.1847-1852. Weiwei Liu, A neural network evaluation model for individual thermal comfort, (2007) Energy and Buildings, Vol. 39, pp. 1115-1122. J. Florez, & G.C. Barney, adaptive control of central heating system: optimum start time control, (1987) Appl. Math. Model., Vol.11, pp.89-95. A.L. Dexter, Self-tuning optimum start control of heating plant, Automatic, (1981) Automatic, Vol.17, pp.483-492.

networks in this paper, the predictive preheat time is showed as Fig.4. In thirty days, there are seven days in which the predictive preheat time is shorter than the true preheat time and the biggest error is two minutes. And there are twenty three days in which the predictive preheat time is no shorter than the true preheat time and the biggest error is seven minutes, but the predictive preheat time is much shorter than the constant preheat time. After the calculations, the prediction using the neural network has a good effect with 20.89% energy saved.

Feng Zengxi was born in Hancheng, China, in 1979. He received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from Xian University of Architecture and Technology in 2002 and in 2005, respectively. He is with Xian University of Architecture and Technology, since 2005 He is currently pursuing his Ph.D. degree in Xian University of Architecture and Technology, civil Engineering Department. His current research interests include intelligent building and building automation system.

- 1705.05598Uploaded byAnonymous HUY0yRexYf
- Fast Backpropagation Learning Using Optimization of Learning Rate for PulsedUploaded byChristian Dwi Suhendra
- BS AircondUploaded byMuhamad Amirullah
- cUploaded byRajesh Ramakrishnan
- ON-LINE IDENTIFICATION OF A ROBOT MANIPULATOR USING NEURAL.pdfUploaded byMohd Sazli Saad
- KM Slides Ch12Uploaded byNoel Estrada
- ANN-20160216Uploaded byNz225
- Predicting Student Academic Performance in Blended Learning Using Artificial Neural Networks Full TextUploaded byAdam Hansen
- Neural Network for ClassificationUploaded byShailaja Khutale
- Daikin Controls Product CatalogUploaded bytonylyf
- Applications of Image Processing for Grading Agriculture ProductsUploaded byEditor IJRITCC
- Sysvrf 252 Air Evo Hp rUploaded byAdades Safede Efd
- Decision making on HVAC R systems selection a critical review.pdfUploaded byAnonymous EgnMOJ
- Ecomaster Iricomfort esp.pdfUploaded byHéctor Medina
- Handwritten Digit RegonizerUploaded byShubham Suyal
- PFC Dynamic Neural Networks for MBS in Mechanical Systems.pdfUploaded byrgx112
- 1308035573-Ducted Brochure Oct 08Uploaded bySue Fong Tsang
- Solar Airconditioning System.pptxUploaded byJeremiah Malagueño
- classifieds7-9Uploaded byPcPress
- MANSOUR.pdfUploaded byachielex
- V1N2-002Uploaded bylubeck abraham huaman ponce
- New Microsoft Office Word DocumentUploaded byUday Kumar
- 57-allUploaded byolgajimjimjim
- IJIRAE::The role of Dataset in training ANFIS System for Course AdvisorUploaded byIJIRAE- International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering
- V2I30042Uploaded byeditor_ijarcsse
- Chapter2-Neural+Network_PartAUploaded byWan MK
- Neural NetworkUploaded byDheswita Rhein AritRa
- Engineering Data Cassette 4 WayUploaded byCong Viet
- multiUploaded byapi-239567793
- NABHUploaded byAbhik Bhattacharjee

- Self Adaptive Body Biasing Scheme for Leakage power reduction under 32nm CMOS regimeUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Internet Traffic Classification Using Multifractal Analysis ApproachUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Genetic algorithms and genetic programmingUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Extended MOBILIS: a Integration of Learning Management System with Mobile Application to m-Learning EnvironmentUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Teaching Algorithm Development SkillsUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Incident-Trajectory Simulation for Excellence in Safety: Illustration in HealthcareUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Approaching Complexity in Modeling and Simulation of Logistics SystemsUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- On the Measurement of Quantity of Information and Its Link with Information ProcessingUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Exploring Interaction Design Qualities through Interactive PrototypingUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Virtual reality as a complementary therapy to sexual addiction treatmentUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Phonologic and Syllabic Patterns of Brazilian Portuguese Extracted from a G2P Decoder-ParserUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Automated Analysis of Narrative Content for Digital HumanitiesUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Multiplatform Instantiation Speech Engines Produced with FIVEUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- COMPUTER VISION-BASED GENDER DETECTION FROM FACIAL IMAGEUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Development of Scientific Applications with High-Performance Computing through a Component-Based and Aspect-Oriented MethodologyUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Multifractal Nature of Wireless Network TrafficUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- A Structured Approach to Problem Solving in CS1/2Uploaded byIJEC_Editor
- A computational system for support to actions on dengue fever control and managementUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Exploratory Analysis in Time-Varying Data Sets: a Healthcare Network ApplicationUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Exploratory Analysis in Time-Varying Data Sets: a Healthcare Network ApplicationUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- The interactive trampoline – safety, intelligent play practice and children having funUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- An Exploratory Study on the Use of Knowledge Management System and the Employees' Perception on Organizational Knowledge Sharing and ReuseUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Hybird Feature Selection and Parameter Selection for Support Vector Machine ClassificationUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Multiple Personalized Recommendations with Various Response Suppression PatternsUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Analysis of SMS Spam in Mobility NetworksUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Communicability in Corporate Intranet: analyzing the interaction among deaf bilingual usersUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- A Hybrid Operating System for a Computing Node with Multi-Core and Many-Core ProcessorsUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- On the Design of a New Intrusion Detection System for Securing MANET: An Agent-Based ApproachUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Performance Improvement of CI/MC-CDMA System using Combined Strategy of Genetic Algorithms and Neural NetworkUploaded byIJEC_Editor
- Development and Practice of CG Teaching Material in Tablet Computer based on Quantumchemical CalculationUploaded byIJEC_Editor

- Stainless Steel CrownsUploaded byEzra Arora
- Kgp 560-Pilotsguide r1 - DesbloqUploaded byMarcus Drago
- ASTM B 734-97Uploaded byDouglas Rodrigues
- D 2950 - 91 R97 _RDI5NTA_.pdfUploaded byAarah Khalid
- Financial Analysis GlossaryUploaded bySergio Olarte
- Lyric a Pre Gabal InUploaded byredmeds123
- 1Uploaded byDaniyal Saeed
- ClownUploaded bybrahmbhattvyoma
- Runtime Performance Evaluation of UPS Available in the Nigerian MarketUploaded byVincent Fache
- 986004.pdfUploaded byMazin Bajalan
- Lit ReviewUploaded byMeg Obp
- Chronic Diarrhea MBchB IVUploaded byNirav Sharma
- Building Leadership Capacity in SchoolsUploaded byXs Softz
- Problem Based DiscussionUploaded byShanu Agrawal
- spanish 1 curriculum mapUploaded byapi-283923812
- Operations Management, 10th Edition chapter 4Uploaded byArdale Palillo
- Kambouris Et Al Predictive Genomics DNA Profiling for Athletic PerformanceUploaded byMarios Kambouris
- SudokuUploaded byarchtf
- ADNOC-COPV6-01(Ver-1)Uploaded byNaveenKrishnaS
- slide7 (Continuous control).pptxUploaded byFebiZehn
- Multivariable Calculus Sample ExamUploaded byFaithBoaz21
- 2007-10-CoSALEN-EPUploaded bybrunompaz
- Handbook 60Uploaded bymosoil
- Franklin Apa and Plagiarism PoliciesUploaded byKaye Baguilod
- Eng Thesis (2)Uploaded byChu Cos
- Ethical FrameworkUploaded byJoAnne Saba
- frey 002 netherlandsUploaded byapi-437607801
- Regulatory on Derivatives (1) (from shodhganga)Uploaded bysharath
- Determinants of PayUploaded byrara
- The Blip - Benjamin Wallace-Wells - NY Mag, July 21, 2013Uploaded bymkaplan61