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A Podemos contarlo que alguien dijode dos maneras: 1 Repitiendo las palabras exactas, es decir,empleando el estilo directo_ "l haveto go now,' shesaid. We livedin parisfor threeyears,"petersaid. 2 Repitiendo la idea,perono las palabras exactas, a lo que llamamos "estilo indirecto'. She said (that) shehad to go then. peter told us that they hadlived in paris for threeyears. B En el estilodirectola punluacidn que se utilizaes: 1 Comillas_ 2 Letramayfscula al empezar la cita. C En estiloindirecto: 1 No haycomillas. 2 La frasesueleempezar.con un verbocomosay, telt, ask, inquire, think, explain,complain,warn, point out, remark,,oectare, state, announce,protest,claim, etc.que lo llamamos reportingverb. 3 Ertiempode ranarraci6n da unaespecie de ,,sarto atras"si erverbo que lo introduce va en pasado. 4 Las preguntas dejande serlo.El verboauxiliar ya no va en posici6n inicial. 5 Laspalabras que indican lugar, tiempo, los pronombres, etc.,deben cambiar ldgicamente. Nota:Despu6s de los verbossay, tell y think podemos omitirthat. Sin emDargo, con verbos comoexplain,complain,poiniout, that no se puedeomitir. "ic., EXERCTSE 1 Punctuate the folowingsentences according to the rures of


1. 1 will paint my room next week"Diane said. 2. Beth said I won't come to the play because l,m ill 3. She said I have to phone my cousin now 4. Why don't you visit Mary now ne asked 5. I have lost my wallet Anorew announced 6. You can't go out tonightI argued E?E


l- Los cAMBtos eu los reupos | ' ' 2 cHancesrNTENsE

Si el verboque introduce el estiloindirecto estden pasado, el tiemfo que teniamos en el estilodirectosufreun cambio, l'unsaltoati6s', Lo ,

ros ve rb_osxiIiares' T':i:-'"-1".::i --au "l have read thenote,"she said.

She said that she had read the note. '. "He is working in theoffice now,"they totd me. They told me he was working in the oftice then. ]. . . B Si el verboestacompuesto de mdsde un auxiliar, s6locambiael I primero. ' .. : :: "Myhouseis beingredecorated," shesaid. Shesaid thather housewas beinorcdccohtarl Estoscambios no ocurren: 1 Cuando el verboque introduce el estiloindirecto estii en presente o l . : en Juturo. "l tove soup,"saysMary. Mary says she lovessoup. : 2 Cuando se tratade narrarunaverdadpermanente o una accion habitual.
1, . ,'t-:'-:, , .', t "Londonts tne capttat ^ ', ',ot areat Hntan,' she pointed out. She pointed out that London is the capital of Great Britain. '

. . , ,, .

"Peter lives in High Street," t totd them I told them that Peter lives in High Street.

Hay una serie de cambios que debemos hacer at pasar una tras.b'de estilo directo a indirecto: ': 1 Expresionesde tiempo , -t now then --+ that day today l yesterday -'+ the day before, the previous daJl tomorrow the next / foltowing day, the day after next week / month -+ last week / month the previous week / month.

a week/ month ago -+ 2 Otros cambios

this thiese nere -+ -r -r

the week/ monthbefore the week/ month before

that those therc

3 cHnncesrNTENSE l - Los cAMBtos ENLoslEMpos tl
ESTILODIRECTO: He said. "She studies English."
i - 1r ,,!- :- - r .- r ...




- .-

... she had studied Engtish.

i : ilt;.tiaiiiid,Ed;pi1fUino-r !. .l:
"Shehas been English." "She studied English." "She was English."

.'pi;ieiii,"il[tEii,1fi,i-d, . Ciaqti"*
she had been ... she had studied English. ... she had been English.

:p;.iiiriri!6tijiii.lirr-ii.!*.<iirii'iqnr -,;,i;iii'i-ii,i.;#'*!!ii':',,,..;
"She had studied Enalish.'

... she would study

Nota:Los modalesshould, could, would y might y los semimodales ought to y used to no cambian.


Indiccl SPGerhI

2 EXERCISE answer' the correct Choose thek planwas gooo' 1. I saidthat | (don't,didn't,wasn't)think play soon' that go see to was) can, (would, Z. He saidthat he betorehe movedthere' in Barcelona g. He saidthat he (had,is, was)worked saidthat | (hadto, can,may)do betlerthanthat' 4. My teacher meeting' 5. I saidthat | (can,might'will)be earlytor the might'was)sorry' 6. Shesaidthat she (would, to changeher weredecided'had decided) 7. Sandrasaidthatshe (decided, dress. rings)' 8. He saidthat his clock(hadrung,is ringing'

3 EXERCISE the Choose conectanswer. told)me that I was lucky' 1. My friend(said, was easyto use' told)that the computer 2. The man (explained, said)us thatthe testwouldbe fair' 3. Ourteacher(promised, himthal herworkwastoo hard' (told,complained) 4. The secretary told)that the newswouldbe late' 5. The manon TV (announced, that he wouldioin me for lunch' 6. My brother(told,mentioned) 9 00' 7. Simon(told,said)Tinathat classwouldbeginat me that shewouldreturnthe videoto the shop' 8. My friend(told,explained)

4 EXERCISE Fill in the blanks. 1. " llikeEnglish." "" engtisn' saidthat he ..."/i('9'd Michael 2. You muststopeatingfriedfood' friedfood' stopeating that I The doctorexplained 3. "l don'twantto go to schooltoday'" saidthat he ""-""" """ wantto go to school Mv brother


4. "Mysisterhaslivedin Toledolor years.' Themantoldusthat.................. foryears. sisler.................. livedin Toledo 5. "l will be 17 yearsold nextTuesday.' reminded us thatshe Brenda Tuesday. be 17 Vears old 6. 'l can'tfind my newwhiteshirt.' JohncomDlained thathe .................. lind .................. newwhite shirt.

EXERCISE 5 Writethe following sentences in indirect speech. Remember: Pronouns also change. Be careful! 1. "Mycousins haveoftenvisitedFrance," Joannapointed oul. 2. "l can'tsee youyet,"the nursesaid. 3. "A lot of goldis minedin SouthAfrica," pointed the diplomat out. 4. 'Six patients are waiting for the dentist,' the nursesaid. 5. 'The children geography," havebeenstudying he said. 6. 'The minister is preparing his speech,' thejournalist said. 7. "l mightgo to Madrid,' Juanita said. 8. 'My husband will leaveat six o'clock," she toldme. 9. The trainwill be leaving in 15 minutes," shetold Harry. 10. nve willalsoworkduringthe summer," the teenagers added. 11. 'All policeofficers haveto reportfor dutyat noon," the chiefsaid. 12. The boysweresavingup for a canoe," the manexplained.


430 Sprech I

EXERCISE 6 Writethe lollowing sentences in indirect speech. 1. "l hada bad cold lastweek," the workersaid. 2. 'We are painting our housetoday,"my friendsaid. 3. The palacewill be opento the publictomorrow,' the ofticial said.


. ;;;;;;;;il";;;;;;;;;,;;;il;,;;
5. "Shedidn'tleaveworkearlyoncelastweek,"Tomsaid. . ";;;;;,;; ;;;;;;,;,;; ;;

7. 'The shopsweren'lopenyesterday aftemoon," the womansaid.

, ;-;.



9. 'The electricity bill mustalso be paidthisweek,"he added.



nexr Fridav," he his wife sarase 'io'd

llola: 6Que hacemos ponemos cuando en estiloindirecto las oracrones condicionales? a El primer condicional al pasarlo al estiloindirecto, tienelos mismos tiempos quesi se lratasedel segundo condicional, es decir,el presente pasariaa ser pasado y el iuturoa condicionat. "lt you phone after 7.0O, we won't be at home,"we informed hmWeinformedhim that if he phoned after 7.O0,we wouldn't be at home. b El segundo y el tercercondicional no cambian en estiloindireclo. "lt I wereyou, I'd te her the whole storv."Tomsaid. Tomsaidthatif he wereme, he'd tettier thewholestory. "lf I had been more careful,I wouldn't have had the accident,"Maria saidto her fiend. Maia told her friend that if she had beenmore careful, shewouldn't have had the accident. ?31

4 RepoRrrruc coMMANDs _ (tMpERATlvE) LASORDENES TNDTRECTAS tn/reeRerrvo) 1el
Las6rdenes se suelenexpresar en imperativo. Al ponerlas en estilo indirecto: 1 El imperativo pasaa infinitivo manteniendo la lormaafirmativa o negativa. He said, "Stay here." I He told us to stay there. Sheshouted, "Don,tmove!"-+ Sheordered us not to move. 2 El verboque introduce .mandaf,, el estiloindirecto debeindicar poreso nuncapuedeusarsesay (decir) paraintroducir una ordenindtrecta. He said, "Be quiet." -+ He totd us to be quiet. ,'mandaf, 3 El verbotell, que si significa debellevarun complemento de persona, a qui6nse da la orden. He said,"Please don't shout." + He asked me not to shout. 4 Ademds de tell se pueden emplear otrosverboscon sentido semejante comoask, beg, invite, warn,ordet, command,instruct, etc. "Saythatagain," he saidto me. He asked me to say thatagan. Nota:F0ate que en espanol, en estilodirecto, usamos igualque en ingl6s el imperativo, peroal pasarlo a indirecto, ponemos un subjuntivo. He said.: "Don't disturb.', (El dio: ',Nomolestes".) He toldme not to disturb. (Mediioque no moleitara.)

EXERCISE 7 Writethe lollowing commandsin indirect speech. 1. "Please don'tleave,"he said to her.

lle.a9.k 9d.h.e. r.qat.t a. J 9a.y e,.

2. "Don'tsmokein my office,please," the boss said. 3. "Pleasehelp yoursellto food and drink,"the hostess said. 4. "Keep quiet!"the nurse said to the visitors.


lndhd sDeldt I

5. "Takethe children home!'shesaidto the driver. 6. "Giveme yourpapers!" the policeman instrucled me. 7. "Don'tforgetto phoneme!"the fathersaidto his son. 8. "Slandup straight!, the teachersaidto the pupil. 9. "Comeoverfor suppernextFriday!'my neighbour said. 10. "Dont makea noise!" the librarian saidlo the readers.

EXERCISE 8 Writethefollowing senlences in indirect soeech. 1. "l wouldliketo visitmy parents,'Lindasaidto David. 2. Ourteachersaid,Try and readthistext.' 3. You shouldnteat in the living-room," the mother told herson. 4. Their car mighthavebroken down,,my husband told me. 5. "l haveto do my homework now,"pennysaidto herfriend. 6. The Christmas holidays willstarton December 23rd,"my fatherremarked. 7. 'The Cabinet will haveto makenew laws," the politician argued. 8. '\A/e can savea lot of treesby recycling paper," the ecologist argued. 9. "Besurethat everything is readyon time,"I saidto the children. 10. 'Johnson usedto be a Member ot parliament,, Errolsaid. ?33

Lin.h.t-o!.d$e-te.y!.s.t h.e(pl,r;nt.........

EXEBCISE 9 Complete the following sentences usingyourownwordsand ideas.

1. Myparents always te meto!.driy.e,..

2. Our English teacher told us thar 3. My favourite TV starsaidin the lastprogramme 4. The primeminister recenfly informed us that... 5. Oneof my friendshasjust askedme to 6. LastweekI saidto my besttriendthat EXERCISE 1O Writethe following sentences in directspeech. 1. The teacher told us to readthe wholebookin English. Theteacher said,"..Feeg.lhe.yLqte_.WK. ln.F.tlglish,,............. 2. Theyaskedus not to smokein the patient's room. They said,'please..............,. 3. I promised my parents that I wouldn't be late. '1......................... " lpromised my parents.

4. Sheinformed us that she hadbeento the Canarylslandsmanytimes_ Shesaid, 5. The pensioner saidthat he had retired two yearsbefore. pensioner The "...................... said, 6. Shetold us thatshewasthinking of changing jobs the following year. Shesaid, 7. My parents toldme to tell thetruthat all times. My parents said, 8. Theyinvited us to comeandseetheirnew house. "please ............... ....._..............,,, thev said.


IndirEd 5pE2.h I

EXERCISE 11 Choose the correct answer. Mariawentto the USAlastmonth.Whenshe returned, Juliocameto visit.He wantedto knowwhetherMaria(1 had,has,have,did) enjoyed hervisitto the USA the (2 next,before, previous, ago) month.He askedherwhether she (3 is, was, will,may)planning to go againthe (4 tollowing, future,previous, last)summer. Mariatold himthatthe USA(5 is, will be, has,were)sucha big country that it was impossible to see it all in one trip.Julio(6 told,said,reported, asked)if Mariahad (7 being,been,be, go) to Washington, DC,and sheanswered that she (8 was,is, has,had).Whiletryingto tell Julioabouthertrip,Mariagot annoyed with his questions. She(9 totd,said, let,explained) Julio(10not,be,wi , lo) stop interrupting herwhileshewastalkino.

EXERCISE 12 Translate the senlences belowintoyournativelanguage. 1. He saidthatwe wereleaving soon. 2. My friendaskedme notto tell anyone aboutthe letter. 3. The policereported thatthe accldent had beencaused by a 4. The meteorologist saidit wouldrainthat aftemoon. 5. Shesaidthat if Tom hadbeenthere,it wouldn,t havehappened. nours. 7. Theyannounced that theywouldbe putting theirhouseup for salethe following month. 8. Theytold us that if theirplanworked, theycouldbecome richoverniaht. 6. I complained to the secretary that I had beenwaiting for overlwo drunkdriver.


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