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A concierge (French pronunciation: k j ) is an employee of an apartment building, hotel or office building who serves guests request for their needs by introducing the right host. The position can also be maintained by a security officer over the graveyard shift. A similar position, known as the portero, exists in Spanish-speaking regions. The term "concierge" evolved from the French Comte Des Cierges, The Keeper of the Candles, who tended to visiting nobles in castles of the medieval era.[citation needed] In medieval times, the concierge was an officer of the King who was charged with executing justice, with the help of his bailiffs.[citation needed] Later on in the 18th Century, The Concierge was a high official of the kingdom, appointed by the king to maintain order and oversee the police and prisoner records. In 19th century and early 20th century apartment buildings, particularly in Paris, the concierge often had a small apartment on the ground floor, called la loge, and was able to monitor all comings and goings. However, such settings are now extremely rare; most concierges in small or middle-sized buildings have been replaced by the part-time services of door-staff. Some larger apartment buildings or groups of buildings retain the use of a concierge. The concierge may, for instance, keep the mail of absented dwellers; be entrusted with the apartment keys to deal with emergencies when residents are absent, provide information to residents and guests, provide access control, enforce rules, and act as a go-between for residents and management when management is not on-site.


1 Hotels 2 Other types of concierge services 3 See also 4 References

In hotels, a concierge assists guests with various tasks like making restaurant reservations, arranging for spa services, recommending night life hot spots, booking transportation (limousines, airplanes, boats, etc.), procurement of tickets to special events and assisting with various travel arrangements and tours of local attractions.

Other types of concierge services

In hospitals, concierge services are becoming increasingly available. A hospital concierge provides similar services to those of a hotel concierge, but serve patients and employees as well. This helps hospital employees who work long shifts, and helps to provide work-life balance. Today there are numerous independent personal concierge companies such as Quintessentially Group and Legatto Group. Many of these companies provide errand services and information

services for their members. Services include informational requests, setting dinner reservations, making telephone calls, researching travel arrangements and more. Typically, concierge companies will bill on an hourly rate, and depending upon the type of task, fees can fluctuate drastically. Other companies bill a flat monthly fee based upon the number of requests a member is allowed to place each month. In the United Kingdom, since the year 2000 and as of 2010, concierge has become a key marketing/loyalty tool in the banking sector and offered as a benefit on luxury credit cards. This service offering is also known as Lifestyle Management. Concierges also entertain their clients. The owners and operators of concierge, lifestyle management and errand service businesses are supported and advocated by the non-profit International Concierge and Lifestyle Management Association (ICLMA) and the National Concierge Association. These associations serve their members through essential resources, continuing education, networking opportunities and other professional endeavors.

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Look up builder in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Builder may refer to:

General contractor, that specializes in building work o Subcontractor Construction worker who specializes in building work Builder (detergent) a component of modern detergents Real estate developer who causes buildings to be constructed Builder (hockey) in ice hockey manages or builds the game Builder (US Navy), U.S. Navy Rating Builder pattern, an object-oriented design pattern Builders Energy, an oil and gas services company based in Calgary, Alberta, Canada Carpenter, a skilled craftsman who works with wood Interactive Scenario Builder, an RF Tactical Decision Aid often referred to as Builder Build engineer, a software engineer specializing in builds (versions) of large software products


The Builders, a Fawlty Towers episode The Builder (film), 2010 film The Builder (magazine), British magazine The Institute of Builders, British professional society

Professions and their activities

Surveying, the process of determining accurate positions on, or near the Earth's surface o Cadastral surveying, the process of establishing boundary locations and land parcel corners o Construction surveying, the process of layout out construction projects, and verifying their position during construction, also known as engineering surveying o A hydrographic survey, the gathering of information about navigable waters, mapping the topography of the bed of lakes, rivers, and large bodies of water A marine surveyor or "ship surveyor", someone who inspects and examines ships A quantity surveyor, someone who controls costs on construction projects A pollster, someone who conducts surveys or opinion polls Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, a professional body which regulates property professionals and surveyors in the United Kingdom and other countries American Congress on Surveying and Mapping a learned body of cartographers, geodesists, GIS practitioners, and professional land surveyors in the United States of America International Federation of Surveyors, a UN recognised NGO representing cartographers, geodesists, GIS practitioners, professional land surveyors, quantitative surveyors, and valuers worldwide


Surveyor Bay (Alaska), a bay on the coast of Unalaska Island in Alaska in the United States Surveyor Bay (Tasmania), a bay on the coast of Tasmania in Australia Surveyor Lake (Algoma District), in Algoma District, Ontario, Canada Surveyor Lake (Nipissing District), in Nipissing District, Ontario, Canada


Surveyor magazine, a British professional weekly


NOAAS Surveyor (S 132), a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration survey ship in service from 1960 to 1995 or 1996 USC&GS Surveyor, the name of more than one ship of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration USS Surveyor (1917), an armed steamer in commission in the United States Navy from 1917 to 1919

Space exploration

Surveyor Program, a series of unmanned spaceflights to the Moon


Surveyor (typeface), a Didone classification serif typeface The Surveyors, a 1972 Swiss film

Landscape architect

Business card for Humphry Repton by Thomas Medland

A landscape architect is a person involved in the planning, design and sometimes direction of a landscape, garden, or distinct space. The professional practice is known as landscape architecture. The term "landscape designer" is sometimes used to refer to those who are not officially qualified or licensed as landscape architects. Others individuals who practice landscape design, but have yet to attain professional licensure (if it is available under a particular state or jurisdiction) refer to themselves as garden artisans, planting designers, environmental designers, or site planners. Landscape architecture was not commonly recognized in developed nations as a distinct profession until the early twentieth century. The term landscape architect has different meaning depending on location; however, in general the title (like architect or engineer) is usually protected, and to practice landscape architecture one requires licensure or registration. This varies by location, for example some U.S. states offer "practice acts" and some offer "title acts". Each refers to the limitations placed on persons who are and are not licensed.


1 Australia 2 United Kingdom 3 United States 4 Work scope 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects states that "Landscape Architects research, plan, design and advise on the stewardship, conservation and sustainability of development of the environment and spaces, both within and beyond the built environment".[1] This definition of

the profession of landscape architect is based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations, International Labour Office, Geneva. To become a recognised professional landscape architect in Australia, the first requirement is to obtain a degree in landscape architecture accredited by the Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA). After at least two years of recognised professional practice, graduates may submit for further assessment to obtain full professional recognition by the AILA.

United Kingdom
The Landscape Institute is the recognised body relating to the field of Landscape architecture throughout the UK. To become a recognised landscape architect in the UK takes approximately 7 years. To begin the process, one has to study an accredited course by the Landscape Institute to obtain a Bachelors degree in Landscape Architecture or a similar field. Following this one must progress onto a Postgraduate Diploma in the field of Landscape Architecture covering the subject in far greater detail such as mass urban planning, construction and planting. Following this, the trainee must complete the Pathway to Chartership,[2] a challenging but very rewarding program set out by the Landscape Institute. Following this, one is awarded a full Landscape Architect title and becomes a Chartered Member of the Landscape Institute (CMLI.)

United States
The United States is the founding country of the formal profession named landscape architecture. The actual activities however are common to most human cultures around the globe for several millennia. Meanwhile, in the U.S. a need to formalize the practice and name were resolved in 1899 with the formation of the American Society of Landscape Architects. A few of the many talented and influential landscape architects that have been based in The United States are: Frederick Law Olmsted, Beatrix Farrand, Jens Jensen, Ian McHarg, Thomas Church, and Lawrence Halprin. Robert Royston summed up one American theme: "landscape architecture practices the fine art of relating the structure of culture to the nature of landscape, to the end that people can use it, enjoy it, and preserve it. Salaries for landscape architects in the United States generally range from about $36,000 to $68,000 a year with a mean of roughly $42,511. Corporate landscape architects generally make more than those working for governmental agencies. Those in this field work both to create an aesthetically pleasing setting and also to protect and preserve the environment in an area.[3]

Work scope

An example of landscape architecture. The following is an outline of the landscape architect's typical scope of service:[4] 1. Developing new or proved theories, policy and methods for landscape planning, design and management at local, regional, national and multinational levels. 2. Developing policies and plans and implementing and monitoring proposals for conservation and recreation areas such as national parks. 3. Developing new or improved theories and methods to promote environmental awareness and undertaking planning, design, restoration, management and maintenance of cultural and/or historic landscapes, parks, sites and gardens. 4. Planning, design, management, maintenance and monitoring functional and aesthetic layouts of built environment in urban, suburban, and rural areas including private and public open spaces, parks, gardens, streetscapes, plazas, housing developments, burial grounds, memorials; tourist, commercial, industrial and educational complexes; sports grounds, zoos, botanic gardens, recreation areas and farms. 5. Contributing to the planning, aesthetic and functional design, location, management and maintenance of infrastructure such as roads, dams, wind farms and other energy and major development projects. 6. Undertaking landscape assessments including environmental and visual impact assessments to prepare policies or inform new developments.

7. Inspecting sites, analysing factors such as climate, soil, flora, fauna, surface and subsurface water and drainage; and consulting with clients and making recommendations regarding methods of work and sequences of operations for projects related to the landscape and built environment. 8. Identifying and developing appropriate solutions regarding the quality and use of the built environment in urban, suburban and rural areas and making designs, plans and working drawings, specifications of work, cost estimates and time schedules. 9. Monitoring the realisation and inspecting the construction of proposals to ensure compliance with plans, specifications of work, cost estimates and time schedules. 10. Conducting research, preparing scientific papers and technical reports, developing policy, teaching, and advising on aspects regarding landscape architecture such as the application of geographic information systems, remote sensing, law, landscape communication, interpretation and landscape ecology. 11. Project management of large scale landscape planning and design projects including management of other consultants such as engineers, architects and planners. 12. Acting as an expert witness in Development and Environment Courts


TVA electricians, Tennessee, 1942 Occupation Activity sectors Construction, Maintenance, Electrical grid Description

An electrician is a tradesperson specializing in electrical wiring of buildings, stationary machines and related equipment. Electricians may be employed in the installation of new electrical components or the maintenance and repair of existing electrical infrastructure.[1] Electricians may also specialize in wiring ships, airplanes and other mobile platforms also data and cable.


1 Terminology 2 Training and regulation of trade o 2.1 Australia o 2.2 Canada o 2.3 United Kingdom o 2.4 United States

2.4.1 Reciprocity 3 Tools 4 Safety 5 Working conditions 6 Trade organizations o 6.1 Australia o 6.2 North America o 6.3 UK/Ireland 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April

Electricians were originally people that demonstrated or studied the principles of electricity, very typically electrostatic generators of one form or another.[2] In the United States, electricians are divided into two primary categories: linemen, who work on electric utility company distribution systems at higher voltages, and wiremen, who work with the lower voltages utilized inside buildings. Wiremen are generally trained in one of five primary specialties: commercial, residential, light industrial, industrial, and low-voltage wiring, more commonly known as Voice-Data-Video, or VDV. Other sub-specialties such as control wiring and fire-alarm may be performed by specialists trained in the devices being installed, or by inside wiremen. Electricians are trained to one of three levels: Apprentice, Journeyman, and Master Electrician. Apprentices in the US and Canada are working to learn the electrical trade. They generally take several hundred hours of classroom instruction and are contracted to follow apprenticeship standards for a period of between three and six years, during which time they are paid as a percentage of the Journeyman's pay. Journeymen are electricians who have completed their Apprenticeship and who have been found by the local, State, or National licensing body to be competent in the electrical trade. Master Electricians have performed well in the trade for a period of time, often seven to ten years, and have passed an exam to demonstrate superior knowledge of the National Electrical Code, or NEC. Service electricians are tasked to respond to requests for isolated repairs and upgrades. They have considerable skills troubleshooting wiring problems, installing wiring in existing buildings, and making repairs. Construction electricians primarily focus on larger projects, such as installing all new electrical system for an entire building, or upgrading an entire floor of an office building as part of a remodeling process. Other specialty areas are marine electricians, research electricians and hospital electricians. "Electrician" is also used as the name of a role in stagecraft,

where electricians are tasked primarily with hanging, focusing, and operating stage lighting. In this context, the Master Electrician is the show's chief electrician. Although theater electricians routinely perform electrical work on stage lighting instruments and equipment, they are not part of the electrical trade and have a different set of skills and qualifications from the electricians that work on building wiring. In the film industry[where?] and on a television crew the Electrician is referred to as a Gaffer.[citation

Electrical contractors are businesses that employ electricians to design, install, and maintain electrical systems. Contractors are responsible for generating bids for new jobs, hiring tradespeople for the job, providing material to electricians in a timely manner, and communicating with architects, electrical and building engineers, and the customer to plan and complete the finished product.

Training and regulation of trade

An electrician hooking up a generator to a home's electrical panel.

Many jurisdictions have regulatory restrictions concerning electrical work for safety reasons due to the many hazards of working with electricity. Such requirements maybe testing, registration and/or licensing. Licensing requirements vary between jurisdictions.

An electrician's license entitles the holder to carry out all types of electrical installation work in Australia without supervision. However, to contract, or offer to contract, to carry out electrical installation work, a licensed electrician must also be registered as an electrical contractor. Under Australian law, electrical work that involves fixed wiring is strictly regulated and must almost always be performed by a licensed electrician and/or electrical contractor.[3][4] A local electrician can handle a range of work including air conditioning, data, and structured cabling systems, home automation & theatre, LAN, WAN and VPN data solutions, light fittings and installation, phone points, power points, safety inspections and reports, safety switches, smoke alarm installation, inspection and certification and testing and tagging of electrical appliances.

Electrical licensing in Australia is regulated by the individual states. In Western Australia the Department of Commerce tracks licensee's and allows the public to search for individually named/licensed Electricians.[5] Currently in Victoria the apprenticeship last for four years, during three of those years the apprentice attends trade school in either a block release of one week each month or one day each week. At the end of the apprenticeship the apprentice is required to pass three examinations, one of which is theory based with the other two practically based. Upon successful completion of these exams, providing all other components of the apprenticeship are satisfactory, the apprentice is granted an A Class licence on application to Energy Safe Victoria (ESV). An A Class electrician may perform work unsupervised but is unable to work for profit or gain without having the further qualifications necessary to become a Registered Electrical Contractor (REC) or being in the employment of a person holding REC status. However, some exemptions do exist.[6] In most cases a certificate of electrical safety must be submitted to the relevant body after any electrical works are performed. Safety equipment used and worn by electricians in Australia (including insulated rubber gloves and mats) needs to be tested regularly to ensure it is still protecting the worker. Because of the high risk involved in this trade, this testing needs performed regularly and regulations vary according to state. Industry best practice is the Queensland Electrical Safety Act 2002, and requires six-monthly testing.

A high voltage certified electrician changes a transformer

Training of electricians follows an apprenticeship model, taking four or five years to progress to fully qualified journeyman level.[7] Typical apprenticeship programs consists of 80-90% handson work under the supervision of journeymen and 10-20% classroom training.[8] Training and licensing of electricians is regulated by each province, however professional licenses are valid throughout Canada under Agreement of Internal Trade. An endorsement under the Red Seal Program provides additional competency assurance to industry standards.[9] In order for individuals to become a licensed electricians, they need to have 6000 hours of practical, on the job training. They also need to attend school for 4 years and pass a provincial exam. This

training enables them to become journeyman electricians. Furthermore, an individual can go a tep beyond that and become a FSR, or field afety repre entative. Thi credential give the ability to become a licensed electrical contractor and to pull permits. The various levels of field safety representatives are A,B and C. The only difference between each class is that they are able to do increasingly higher voltage and current work.[10] Restricted electrical licenses are also issued for specializations such as motor winder, appliance repair, audio/visual installation and HVAC installation.[citation needed]
United Kingdom

Electrical trade organisations such as the JIB (joint industry board) define and regulate KSA (Knowledge, Skill, Attitude) requirements, such as City and guilds 2330 Levels 2 and 3, City and Guilds National Vocational Qualification Level 2 and 3, h. There are no specific regulations or rules on who may operate or refer to themselves as an 'Electrician' in the UK. General standards (and protections) are set within a variety of Regulations such as BS7671 Electrical Installations, Building Regulations which require work to be designed, installed and maintained according to those standards or better. Specific standards such as for BS EN 62305 Lightning Protection, etc., must be complied with but do not necessarily require qualification but rather verification of competence. Most commonly the Test & Inspection of an installation and subsequent signing of documents to confirm suitability and safety may only be carried out by a qualified person, the most common qualification being BS2391 - Test & Inspection of Electrical Installations.
United States

The United States does not offer nationwide licensing and electrical licenses are issued by individual states. There are variations in licensing requirements, however they all recognize three basic categories: master, journeyman and apprentice trainee, and all follow the National Electric Code. Master level electricians supervise journeyman level electricians and can obtain their own permits. Journeyman level electricians are allowed to work unsupervised under the direction of master electricians. They can not obtain permits themselves and may only work under permits issued to a master electrician. Apprentices may not work without direct supervision.[11] Before electricians are allowed to work without supervision, they are usually required to serve an apprenticeship lasting from 3 to 5 years under the general supervision of a Master Electrician and usually the direct supervision of a Journeyman Electrician.[11] Schooling in electrical theory and electrical building codes is required to complete the apprenticeship program. Many apprenticeship programs provide a salary to the apprentice during training. A Journeyman

electrician is a classification of licensing granted to those who have met the experience requirements for on the job training (usually 4080 to 6120 hrs) and classroom hours (about 144 hrs.); they may also have a two year relevant degree and another two to three years of apprenticeship training and have passed a licensing exam.[citation needed]}.
Reciprocity This section requires expansion. (April 2013)

Interstate reciprocity participation and conditions vary between states. Examples California reciprocates with Arizona, Nevada, and Utah on condition that license is in good standing and has been held for five years leading to application.[12] Nevada reciprocates with Arizona, California, and Utah.[13] Maine reciprocates with New Hampshire and Vermont in master level; while reciprocating with New Hampshire, North Dakota, Idaho, Oregon, Vermont, and Wyoming at the journeyman level. [14]

Electricians use a range of hand and power tools and instruments.

Two of the tools commonly used by electricians. The fish tape is used to pull conductors through conduits, or sometimes to pull conductors through hollow walls. The conduit bender is used to make accurate bends and offsets in electrical conduit.

Some of the more common tools are:

Pipe and tube bender voltage indicators Lineman's pliers: Heavy-duty pliers for general use in cutting, bending, crimping and pulling wire.

Diagonal pliers (also known as side cutters or Dikes): Pliers consisting of cutting blades for use on smaller gauge wires, but sometimes also used as a gripping tool for removal of nails and staples. Needle-nose pliers: Pliers with a long, tapered gripping nose of various size, with or without cutters, generally smaller and for finer work (including very small tools used in electronics wiring). Wire strippers: Plier-like tool available in many sizes and designs featuring special blades to cut and strip wire insulation while leaving the conductor wire intact and without nicks. Some wire strippers include cable strippers among their multiple functions, for removing the outer cable jacket. Cable cutters: Highly leveraged pliers for cutting larger cable. Rotosplit: A brand-name tool designed to assist in breaking the spiral jacket of metallic-jacketed cable (MC cable). Multimeter: An instrument for electrical measurement with multiple functions. It is available as analog or digital display. Common features include: voltage, resistance, and current. Some models offer additional functions. Step-bit: A metal-cutting drill bit with stepped-diameter cutting edges to enable convenient drilling holes in pre-set increments in stamped/rolled metal up to about 1.6mm(1/16 inch) thick.[citation needed]; for example, to create custom knock-outs in a breaker panel or junction box. Cord, rope or fish tape. Used to manipulate cables and wires through cavities. The fishing tool is pushed, dropped, or shot into the installed raceway, stud-bay or joist-bay of a finished wall or in a floor or ceiling. Then the wire or cable is attached and pulled back. Crimping tools: Used to apply terminals or splices. These may be hand or hydraulic powered. Some hand tools have ratchets to insure proper pressure. Hydraulic units achieve cold welding, even for aluminum "locomotive" [many fine strands] cable. Insulation resistance tester: Commonly referred to as a Megger. Insulation testers apply several hundred to several thousand volts to cables and equipment to determine the insulation resistance value. Knockout punch: For punching holes into sheet metal to run wires or conduit. Other general-use tools with applications in electric power wiring include screwdrivers, hammers, reciprocating saws, drywall saws, metal punches, flashlights, chisels, adjustable slipjoint pliers and drills. Test light Ground fault indicator tester

See also: Occupational safety and health

In addition to the workplace hazards generally faced by industrial workers, electricians are also particularly exposed to injury by electricity. An electrician may experience electric shock due to direct contact with energized circuit conductors or due to stray voltage caused by faults in a system. An electric arc exposes eyes and skin to hazardous amounts of heat and light. Faulty switchgear may cause an arc flash incident with a resultant blast. Electricians are trained to work safely and take many measures to minimize the danger of injury. Lockout and tagout procedures are used to make sure that circuits are proven to be de-energized before work is done. Limits of approach to energized equipment protect against arc flash exposure; specially designed flash-

resistant clothing provides additional protection; grounding (earthing) clamps and chains are used on line conductors to provide a visible assurance that a conductor is de-energized. Personal protective equipment provides electrical insulation as well as protection from mechanical impact; gloves have insulating rubber liners, and work boots and hard hats are specially rated to provide protection from shock. If a system cannot be de-energized, insulated tools and special live-line training are used; even high-voltage transmission lines can be repaired while energized, when necessary.[15] Electrical workers, which includes electricians, accounted for 34% of total electrocutions of construction trades workers in the United States between 19922003.[16]

Working conditions
Working conditions for electricians vary by specialization. Generally an electrician's work is physically demanding such as climbing ladders and lifting tools and supplies. Occasionally an electrician must work in a cramped space or on scaffolding, and may frequently be bending, squatting or kneeling, to make connections in awkward locations. Construction electricians may spend much of their days in outdoor or semi-outdoor noisy and dirty worksites. Industrial electricians may be exposed to the heat, dust, and noise of an industrial plant. Power systems electricians may be called to work in all kinds of adverse weather to make emergency repairs.

Trade organizations
Some electricians are union members and work under their union's policies.

electricians can choose to be represented by the Electrical Trade Union (ETU). Electrical Contractors can be represented by Master Electricians Australia or the National Electrical & Communications Association.
North America

Some electricians are union members. Some examples of electricians' unions are: International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers; Canadian Union of Public Employees[17][18] ; International Union of Electronic, Electrical, Salaried, Machine, and Furniture Workers; International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers; United Auto Workers; and the United Steelworkers.[19][not in citation given] The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers provides its own apprenticeships through its National Joint Apprenticeship Training Committee and the National Electrical Contractors Association Many merit shop training and apprenticeship programs also exist, including those offered by such as trade associations as Associated Builders and Contractors and Independent Electrical Contractors. These organizations provide comprehensive training, in accordance with U.S. Department of Labor regulations.


In the U.K., electricians are represented by several unions including Unite the Union In the Rep. of Ireland there are two self-regulation/self certification bodies RECI Register of Electrical Contractors of Ireland and ECSS

Interior design

An electric wire reel reused like a center table in a Rio de Janeiro decoration fair. The reuse of materials is a very sustainable practice that is rapidly growing among designers in Brazil[citation needed]

Interior design describes a group of various yet related projects that involve turning an interior space into an "effective setting for the range of human activities" that are to take place there.[1] An interior designer is someone who conducts such projects. Interior design is a multifaceted profession that includes conceptual development, liaising with the stakeholders of a project and the management and execution of the design.


1 History of the interior design profession in the USA 2 Interior decorators and interior designers in the US o 2.1 Interior designer 3 Interior design specialties in the US o 3.1 Residential o 3.2 Commercial o 3.3 Other 4 Profession in the US o 4.1 Education in the US o 4.2 Working conditions in the US o 4.3 Earnings in the US o 4.4 Art Deco style in interior design 5 Arab Materials 6 Japanese materials 7 On television and radio 8 In print and on the Internet in the US 9 Notable interior decorators

10 See also 11 References and sources 12 External links

History of the interior design profession in the USA

In the past, Interiors were put together instinctively as a part of the process of building.[1] The profession of interior design has been a consequence of the development of society and the complex architecture that has resulted from the development of industrial processes. The pursuit of effective use of space, user well-being and functional design has contributed to the development of the contemporary interior design profession. In ancient India, architects used to work as interior designers. This can be seen from the references of Vishwakarma the architect - one of the gods in Indian mythology. Additionally, the sculptures depicting ancient texts, events are seen in palaces built in 17th century India. The Dark Ages led to a time of wood paneling, minimal furniture, and stone-slab floors. during the time people added a deccorative elements by putting wall fabrics and stone carvings. Coming out of the Dark Ages the work of color and ornamentation was introduced. And in the 12th century the Gothic Style came out and is noted for opened interiors and natural light.[2] Throughout the 18th century and into the early 19th Century, interior decoration was the concern of the homemaker or, in families an upholsterer or craftsman may influence the style of the interior space. Architects would also employ craftsmen or artisans to complete interior design for their buildings. Towards the end of the 19th century interior decorating emerged as a profession in the Western world. This was due to various actions, particularly by women, to professionalise the homemaking process. Elsie De Wolfe has been credited with the creation of the interior decorating profession.[3] Having successfully re-designed her own home, De Wolfe began offering her services to other people within her social circle. As people began offering interior decoration as a service the professionalization of this service gained momentum. This movement towards professionalization was reinforced by the publication of books on the subject. Publications include the book Suggestions for House Decoration in Painting, Woodwork and Furniture (1876) by Ange and Rhoda Garrett, El ie De Wolfe The Hou e in Good Ta te (1913) and articles by Candace Wheeler such as Principles of Home Decoration with Practical Examples (1903).[4] Most of the books were published by women and clearly suggested the profe ion wa within the women domain, E.g. The two-part article Interior Decoration as a Profession for Women (1895), written by Candace Wheeler. As previously mentioned, before formal interior decorators evolved the job was the concern of craft men or uphol terer . Thi mean that many decorator at thi time were dealer in the elements needed for interiors. This called into question the qualifications of the decorator and their standing as an independent advisor. This gave term interior decorator negative connotations for some, as a painter or curtain sales person can be a self-appointed decorator. Hence, the decorators favoured term Interior Designer.[1] Interior design has now developed past the point of decoration and the terms, although overlapping, are distinct.

The most prominent development of the interior design profession was after World War II. From the 1950s onwards spending on the home increased. Interior design courses were established, requiring the publication of textbooks and reference sources. Historical accounts of interior designers and firms distinct from the decorative arts specialists were made available. While organisations to regulate education, qualifications, standards and practices, etc. were established for the profession.[4] Interior design was previously seen as playing a secondary role to architecture. It also has many connections to other design disciplines, involving the work of architects, industrial designers, engineers, builders, craftsmen, etc. For these reasons the government of interior design standards and qualifications was often incorporated into other professional organisations that involved design.[4] Organisations such as the Chartered Society of Designers, established in the UK in 1986, and the American Designers Institute, founded in 1938, were established as organisations that governed various areas of design. It was not until later that specific representation for the interior design profession was developed. The US National Society of Interior Designers was established in 1957, while in the UK the Interior Decorators and Designers Association was established in 1966. Across Europe, other organisations such as The Finnish Association of Interior Architects (1949) were being established and in 1994 the International Interior Design Association was founded.[4] Ellen Mazur Thomson, author of Origins of Graphic Design in America (1997), determined that professional status is achieved through education, self-imposed standards and professional gatekeeping organizations.[4] Having achieved this, interior design became an accepted profession.

Interior decorators and interior designers in the US

The profession of interior design is not clearly defined and projects undertaken by an interior designer vary widely. Terms such as decorator and designer are often used interchangeably. However, there is a distinction between the terms that relates to the scope of work performed, the level of education achieved, and often, professional accreditation as an interior designer.
Interior designer

Interior Designer implies that there is more of an emphasis on Planning, Functional design and effective use of space involved in this profession, as compared to interior decorating. An interior designer can undertake projects that include arranging the basic layout of spaces within a building as well as projects that require an understanding of technical issues such as acoustics, lighting, temperature, etc.[1] Although an interior designer may create the layout of a space, they may not alter load-bearing walls without having their designs stamped for approval by an architect. Interior Designers often work directly with architectural firms. An interior designer may wish to specialize in a particular type of interior design in order to develop technical knowledge specific to that area. Types of interior design include residential design, commercial design, hospitality design, healthcare design, universal design, exhibition design, spatial branding, etc. The profession of Interior Design is relatively new, constantly evolving, and often confusing to the public. It is an art form that is consistently changing and

evolving. Not only is it an art, but it also relies on research from many fields to provide a welltrained designer's understanding of how people are influenced by their environments. NCIDQ, the board for Interior Design qualifications, defines the profession in the best way: The Professional Interior Designer is qualified by education, experience, examination to enhance the function and quality of interior spaces.

Interior design specialties in the US


Residential design is the design of the interior of private residences. As this type design is very specific for individual situations, the needs and wants of the individual are paramount in this area of interior design. The interior designer may work on the project from the initial planning stage or may work on the remodelling of an existing structure. It is often a very involved process that takes months to fine tune and create a space with the vision of the client.[5]

Commercial design encompasses a wide range of sub specialties.

Retail: includes malls and shopping centres, department stores, specialty stores, visual merchandising and showrooms. Visual and Spatial Branding: The use of space as a media to express the Corporate Brand Corporate: office design for any kind of business such as banks Healthcare: the design of hospitals, assisted living facilities, medical offices, dentist offices, psychiatric facilities, laboratories, medical specialist facilities Hospitality and Recreation: includes hotels, motels, resorts, cafes, bars, restaurants, health clubs and spas, etc. Institutional: government offices, financial institutions (banks and credit unions), schools and universities, religious facilities, etc. Industrial facilities: manufacturing and training facilities as well as import and export facilities.[5] Teaching in a private institute that offer classes of Interior Design Self-Employment Employment in private sector firms


Other areas of specialisation include museum and exhibition design, event design (including ceremonies, parties, conventions and concerts), theatre and performance design, production design for film and television. Beyond those, interior designers, particularly those with graduate education, can specialize in healthcare design, gerontological design, educational facility design, and other areas that require specialized knowledge. Some university programs offer graduate studies in theses and other areas. For example, both Cornell University and University of Florida offer interior design graduate programs in environment and behavior studies. Within this at University of Florida, students may choose a specific focus such as retirement community design

(under Dr. Nichole Campbell) co-housing (Dr. Maruja Torres) or theft prevention by design (Prof. Candy Carmel-Gilfilen) (Campbell, 2012, Personal Communication).

Profession in the US
Education in the US Main article: Interior design education

There are various paths that one can take to become a professional interior designer. All of these paths involve some form of training. Working with a successful professional designer is an informal method of training and has previously been the most common method of education. In many states, however, this path alone cannot lead to licensing as a professional interior designer. Training through an institution such as a college, art or design school or university is a more formal route to professional practice. A formal education program, particularly one accredited by or developed with a professional organisation of interior designers, can provide training that meets a minimum standard of excellence and therefore gives a student an education of a high standard. Currently in the U.S., only 4 year programs can be accredited by CIDA, the American accrediting body for interior design higher education programs. Supervised practical experience in a design firm after formal training produces develops skills further and results in one being a highly skilled designer. Additionally, there are university graduate and Ph.d. programs available to those seeking further training in a specific design specialization (I.e. gerontological design or healthcare design) or those wishing to teach interior design at the university level. Since 1962, in the US and Canada, IDEC, Interior Design Educators Council, is the official recognized association representing educators in North America.
Working conditions in the US

There are a wide range of working conditions and employment opportunities within interior design. Large and tiny corporations often hire interior designers as employees on regular working hours. Designers for smaller firms usually work on a contract or per-job basis. Selfemployed designers, which make up 26% of interior designers,[6] usually work the most hours. Interior designers often work under stress to meet deadlines, stay on budget, and meet clients' needs. In some cases, licensed professionals review the work and sign it before submitting the design for approval by clients or construction permisioning. The need for licensed review and signature varies by locality, relevant legislation, and scope of work. Their work can involve significant travel to visit different locations, however with technology development, the process of contacting clients and communicating design alternatives has become easier and requires less travel.[7] They also renovate a space to satisfy the specific taste for a client.
Earnings in the US

Interior design earnings vary based on employer, number of years with experience, and the reputation of the individual. For residential projects, self-employed interior designers usually earn a per-hour fee plus a percentage of the total cost of furniture, lighting, artwork, and other design elements. For commercial projects, they may charge per-hour fees, or a flat fee for the whole project. The median annual earning for wage and salary interior designers, in the year

2006, was $42,260. The middle 50% earned between $31,830 and $57,230. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $24,270, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $78,760.[8][9] For example, if a person opens a business and decides to specialize in furniture design and flooring, they will get only clients focusing on these topics rather than a variety of every type of issue that comes with designing a home.
Art Deco style in interior design

The Art Deco style began in Europe in the early years of the 20th century, with the waning of Art Nouveau. The term "Art Deco" was taken from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes, a world fair held in Pari in 1925.[10] Art Deco rejected many traditional classical influences in favor of more streamlined geometric forms and metallic color. The Art Deco style influenced all areas of design, especially interior design, because it was the first style of interior decoration to spotlight new technologies and materials.[11] Art Deco style is mainly based on geometric shapes, streamlining and clean lines.[12][13] The wellmaintained Muswell Hill Odeon was an Art Deco style interior. Its striking lighting fixtures include an illuminated ribbon running down the middle of the ceiling to the top of the screen, which creates a streamlined effect, with a circular light be placed in the recessed ceiling area as a focal point.[14] The geometrical shapes, angular edges and clean lines offer a sharp, cool look of mechanized living utterly at odds with anything that came before. The spacious lounge of Chicago 1929 Powhatan apartment which de igned by Robert S. Degolyer and Charle L. Morgan is also a key Art Deco icon. These apartments note the geometric patterns on the ceiling light panel , a well a on the moulding , grille and pelmet. All of the e geometric patterns provide by sharp angles and well-define lines that give the whole space a clean and elegant looking.[14] As the influence of industrial power, the Art Deco has to be seemed as one of the most exciting decorative style of the century.[15] The Art Deco reject the traditional materials of decoration and interior design, instead option to use more unusual materials such as chrome, glass, stainless steel, shiny fabrics, mirrors, aluminium, lacquer, inlaid wood, sharkskin, and zebra skin.[11] Stemming from this use of harder, metallic materials is the celebration of the machine age. Some of the materials used in art deco style interiors are direct reflection of the time period. Materials like stainless steel, aluminium, lacquer, and inlaid woods all reflect the modern age that was ushered in after the end of the World War,and the steel and aluminium also reflect the growing aviation movement of the time. The innovative combinations of these materials create theatrical contrasts which were very popular at the end of the 1920s and during the 1930s, for example, the mixing highly polished wood and black lacquer with satin and furs.[16] The barber shop in the Austin Reed store in London was designed by P. J. Westwood. It was the trendiest barber shop in Britain by using metallic materials. The whole barber shop was a gleaming ovoid space of mirrors, marble, chrome and frosted glass. The most exciting design was the undulating waves lighting fixture that forming by the continuous arcs of neon tubing, and support by chrome structure. The used of new technologies and materials emphasis the feature of Art Deco style.[14] The popular color themes in Art Deco consist of metallic color, neutral color, bright color and, black and white. The primary color use of Art Deco interior design is predominant by cool

metallic colors including silver, gold, metallic blue, charcoal grey and platinum.[12] These metallic colors not only create a shiny and glitz look to express the wealth and prosperity of the times, but also emphasis the look of Art Deco interior design by giving life to the numerous geometrical shapes that defines this style.[17] Serge Chermayeff is a Russian designer who made extensive use of cool metallic colors and luxurious surfaces in his room schemes. The 1930 showroom for a British dressmaking firm has silver-grey background and black mirrored-glass wall panels which created a typical Art Deco of metallic look.[14] Art Deco style color schemes started out with neutral colors such as beige, taupe, cream and medium brown. These neutral colors can easily achieve the feeling about streamlined and modern look.[18] The black and white was also a very popular color scheme during the 1920s and 1930s, like the black and white checkerboard tiles, floors and wallpapers were very trendy in that times.[19] As the style developed, bright vibrant colors became popular as well.[20] For interior design, Art Deco incorporates a variety of creative colour combinations into its dcor.[13] The walls were often painted with a glossy finish to highlight the brightness of the Art Deco style. The colours were usually use plain and neutral colors with the bold, stylized and metallic patterns.[21] The practice of painting each wall in a different color is very common in the Art Deco style of interior design.[13] Since the furniture and lighting fixture are the very significant parts of interior design, the features of Art Deco style also work the same in furniture and lighting design as well. Art Deco Furnishings and lighting fixtures have a glossy, luxurious appearance. Art Deco is a streamlined, geometric style which often includes furniture pieces with curved edges, geometric shapes and clean lines.[10] Art deco furniture use glossy and shiny with inlaid wood and reflective finishes. The materials of chrome, aluminium, glass, mirrors and lacquered wood can create glossy and brilliant surfaces that define this style.[14] Art Deco lighting fixtures often make use of the stacked geometric patterns. Most fixtures were made from polished bronze, chrome or steel in order to create that shiny, sleek look that was most associated with Art Deco.[22]

Arab Materials
Majlis painting, al o called nagash painting is the decoration of the majlis or front parlor of traditional Arabic homes in the Asir province of Saudi Arabia and adjoining parts of Yemen These wall paintings, an arabesque form of mural or fresco, show various geometric designs in bright color : Called 'naga h' in Arabic, the wall painting were a mark of pride for a woman in her hou e. [23] The geometric de ign and heavy line eem to be adapted from the area textile and weaving pattern . In contra t with the obriety of architecture and decoration in the re t of Arabia, exuberant color and ornamentation characterize those of 'Asir. The painting extends into the house over the walls and doors, up the staircases, and onto the furniture itself. When a house is being painted, women from the community help each other finish the job. The building then displays their shared taste and knowledge. Mothers pass these on to their daughters. This artwork is based on a geometry of straight lines and suggests the patterns common to textile weaving, with solid bands of different colors. Certain motifs reappear, such as the triangular mihrab or 'niche' and the palmette. In the past, paint was produced from mineral and vegetable pigments. Cloves and alfalfa yielded green. Blue came from the indigo plant. Red came from pomegranates and a certain mud. Paintbrushes were created from the tough hair found in a goat's tail. Today,

however, women use modern manufactured paint to create new looks, which have become an indicator of ocial and economic change.[24] Women in the Asir province often complete the decoration and painting of the house interior. You could tell a family wealth by the painting , Um Abdullah ay : If they didnt have much money, the wife could only paint the motholath, the ba ic traight, imple line , in pattern of three to ix repetition in red, green, yellow and brown. When women did not want to paint the walls themselves, they could barter with other women who would do the work. Several Saudi women have become famous as majlis painters, such as Fatima Abou Gahas.[25] The interior walls of the home are brightly painted by the women, who work in defined patterns with lines, triangles, squares, diagonals and tree-like pattern . Some of the large triangle represent mountains. Zigzag lines stand for water and also for lightning. Small triangles, especially when the widest area is at the top, are found in pre-Islamic representations of female figure . That the mall triangle found in the wall painting in A ir are called banat may be a cultural remnant of a long-forgotten pa t. [26] "Courtyards and upper pillared porticoes are principal features of the best Nadjdi architecture, in addition to the fine incised plaster wood (jiss) and painted window shutters, which decorate the reception rooms. Good examples of plasterwork can often be seen in the gaping ruins of torndown buildings- the effect is light, delicate and airy. It is usually around the majlis, around the coffee hearth and along the walls above where guests sat on rugs, against cushions. Doughty wondered if this "parquetting of jis", this "gypsum fretwork... all adorning and unenclosed" originated from India. However, the Najd fretwork seems very different from from that seen in the Eastern Province and Oman, which are linked to Indian traditions, and rather resembles the motifs and patterns found in ancient Mesopotamia. The rosette, the star, the triangle and the stepped pinnacle pattern of dadoes are all ancient patterns, and can be found all over the Middle East of antiquity. Qassim seems to be the home of this art, and there it is normally worked in hard white plaster (though what you see is usually begrimed by the smoke of the coffee hearth). In Riyadh, examples can be seen in unadorned clay."[27]

Japanese materials
Japanese design is based strongly on craftsmanship, beauty, elaboration, and delicacy. The design of interiors is very simple but made with attention to detail and intricacy. This sense of intricacy and simplicity in Japanese designs is still valued in modern Japan as it was in traditional Japan. Japanese interior design is very efficient in the use of resources. Traditional and modern Japanese interiors have been flexible in use and designed mostly with natural materials. The spaces are used as multifunctional rooms. The rooms can be opened to create more space for an occasion or more private and closed-off by pulling closed paper screens called shoji. A large portion of Japanese interior walls are often made of shoji screens that can be pushed opened to join two rooms together, and then close them allowing more privacy. The shoji screens are made of paper attached in thin wooden frames that roll away on a track when they are pushed opened. Another large importance of the shoji screen besides privacy and seclusion is that they allow

light through. This is an important aspect to Japanese design. Paper translucent walls allow light to be diffused through the space and create light shadows and patterns. Another way to connect room in Japan interior i through Sliding panel made of wood and paper, like the hoji screens, or cloth. These panels are called Fusuma and are used as an entire wall. They are traditionally hand painted.[28] Tatami mat are rice traw floor mat often u ed a the actual floor in Japan interior ; although in modern Japan, there usually are only one or two tatami rooms. A Tokonoma is often present in traditional, as well as modern Japanese living rooms. This determines the focus of the room and displays Japanese art; usually a painting or calligraphy. Interiors are very simple, highlighting minimal and natural decoration. Traditional Japanese interiors, as well as modern, incorporate mainly natural materials including fine woods, bamboo, silk, rice straw mats, and paper shoji screens. Natural materials are used to keep simplicity in the space that connects to nature. Natural color schemes are used and neutral palettes including black, white, off-white, gray, and brown.[29]

On television and radio

Interior design has become the subject of television shows. In the United Kingdom (UK), popular interior design and decorating programs include 60 Minute Makeover (ITV), Changing Rooms (BBC) and Selling Houses (Channel 4). Famous interior designers whose work is featured in these programs include Linda Barker and Laurence Llewelyn-Bowen. In the United States, the TLC Network aired a popular program called Trading Spaces, a show based on the UK program Changing Rooms. In Canada, popular shows include Divine Design with Candice Olsen and Design Inc., featuring Sarah Richardson. In addition, both Home & Garden Television (HGTV) and the Discovery Home networks also televise many programs about interior design and decorating, featuring the works of a variety of interior designers, decorators and home improvement experts in a myriad of projects. Fictional interior decorators include the Sugarbaker sisters on Designing Women and Grace Adler on Will & Grace. There is also another show called Home MADE. There are two teams and two houses and whoever has the designed and made the worst room, according to the judges, is eliminated. Another show on the Style Network, hosted by Niecy Nash, is Clean House where they re-do messy homes into themed rooms that the clients would like. Other shows include Design on a Dime, Designed to Sell and The Decorating Adventures of Ambrose Price. The show called Design Star has become more popular through the 5 seasons that have already aired. The winners of this show end up getting their own TV shows, of which are Color Splash hosted by David Bromstad, Myles of Style hosted by Kim Myles, Paint-Over! hosted by Jennifer Bertrand, The Antonio Treatment hosted by Antonio Ballatore, and finally Secrets from a Stylist hosted by Emily Henderson. Bravo (US TV channel) also has a variety of shows that explore the lives of interior designers. These include Flipping Out, which explores the life of Jeff Lewis and his team of designers; Million Dollar Decorators explores the lives of interior designers Nathan Turner, Jeffrey Alan Marks, Mary McDonald, Kathryn Ireland, and Martyn Lawrence Bullard. Interior design has also become the subject of radio shows. In the U.S., popular interior design & lifestyle shows include "Martha Stewart Living" and "Living Large" featuring Karen Mills.

Famous interior designers whose work is featured on these programs include Bunny Williams, Barbara Barry, and Kathy Ireland, among others.

In print and on the Internet in the US

Main article: Interior design magazine

Many interior design magazines exist to offer advice regarding color palette, furniture, art, and other elements that fall under the umbrella of interior design. These magazine often focus on related subjects to draw a more specific audience. For instance, architecture as a primary aspect of Dwell (magazine), while Veranda (magazine) is well known as a luxury living magazine. Lonny Magazine and the now defunct, Domino Magazine, cater to a young, hip, metropolitan audience, and emphasize accessibility and a Do-It-Yourself (DIY) approach to interior design.

Notable interior decorators

Other early interior decorators:

Sybil Colefax Dorothy Draper Pierre Franois Lonard Fontaine Syrie Maugham Elsie de Wolfe Arthur Stannard Vernay

Many of the most famous designers and decorators during the 20th Century had no formal training. Sister Parish, Robert Denning and Vincent Fourcade, Kerry Joyce, Kelly Wearstler, Stphane Boudin, Georges Geffroy, Emilio Terry, Carlos de Beistegui, Nina Petronzio, Lorenzo Mongiardino, and David Nightingale Hicks. Notable interior designers in the world today include Jonathan Adler, Michael S. Smith, Kelly Hoppen, Kelly Wearstler, Andrew Martin International, Nina Campbell, David Collins, and Nicky Haslam.


Carpenter at work in Tennessee, June 1942

Two German Carpenters working (1975)

Traditional carpenter's tools Ethnographic Museum of Western Liguria, Cervo, Italy

Carpenters in an Indian village

Carpentry is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the use of wood to construct items as large as buildings and as small as desk drawers. [Note: in the UK, strictly speaking, the term is more correctly used to describe the skill involved only in 'First Fixing' of timber items and mainly covers areas such as constructing roofs, floors and timber framed buildings - i.e. those areas of construction that are normally unseen in the finished building. 'Second Fix' work - i.e. skirting boards, architraves, doors etc., is more correctly referred to as 'Joinery'.] Carpentry is also used to construct the formwork into which concrete is poured during the building of structures such as roads and highway overpasses. [Note: in the UK, the skill of making timber formwork for poured (in situ) concrete, is referred to as 'shuttering'.] While the primary material used is wood, the construction of walls with metal studs, and concrete formwork with reusable metal forms is a carpentry skill. Professional status as a journeyman carpenter in the United States may be obtained in a number of ways. The most formal training is acquired in a four year apprenticeship program administered by the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, in which journeyman status is obtained after successful completion of a 12 weeks of pre-appenticeship

training, followed by 4 years of on-the-job field training working alongside journeyman carpenters. There are two main divisions of training: Construction Carpentry and Cabinetmaking. During pre-apprenticeship trainees in each major division spend 30 hours a week for 12 weeks in classrooms and indoor workshops, learning mathematics, trade terminology, and skill with hand and power tools. Construction carpentry trainees also have a daily calisthentics period to prepare for the physical aspect of the work. Upon completion of pre-apprenticship, trainees who successfully pass the graded curriculum (taught by highly experienced journeyman carpenters) are assigned to a local union, and to union carpentry crews at work on construction sites or in cabinet shops as First Year Apprentices. Over the next four years as they progress in status to 2nd Year, 3rd year, and 4th Year Apprentice, they periodically return to the training facility for one week every three months for more detailed training in specific aspects of the trade. Less formal methods of obtaining Union Journeyman status exist, such as working alongside carpenters for years as a laborer, and learning skills by observation and peripheral assistance. While such an individual may obtain journeyman status by paying the union entry fee and obtaining a journeyman's card (which provides the right to work on a union carpentry crew) the carpenter foreman will by necessity dismiss any worker who presents the card but not demonstrate the expected work skill. Carpentry skill of a varying degree may be gained through non-union vocational programs, such as high school shop classes. The word "carpenter" is the English rendering of the Old French word carpentier (become charpentier) which is derived from the Latin carpentrius [artifex] , "(maker) of a carriage.[1] The Middle English and Scots word (in the sense of "builder") was wright (from the Old English wryhta), which could be used in compound forms such as wheelwright or boatwright.[2] In British slang, a carpenter is sometimes referred to as a "chippy". Carpentry in the United States is almost always done by men. With 98.5% of carpenters being male, it was the fourth most male-dominated occupation in the country in 1999.[3]


1 Types and occupations 2 Training o 2.1 Carpentry schools and programs o 2.2 Journeyman carpenter o 2.3 Master carpenter 3 Notable carpenters 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Types and occupations

A finish carpenter (North America) also called a joiner (traditional name now obsolete in North America) is one who does finish carpentry; that is, cabinetry, furniture making, fine woodworking, model building, instrument making, parquetry, joinery, or other carpentry where exact joints and minimal margins of error are important. Some large-scale construction may be of an exactitude and artistry that it is classed as finish carpentry. A trim carpenter specializes in molding and trim, such as door and window casings, mantels, baseboard, and other types of ornamental work. Cabinet installers may also be referred to as trim carpenters. A cabinetmaker is a carpenter who does fine and detailed work specializing in the making of cabinets made from wood, wardrobes, dressers, storage chests, and other furniture designed for storage. A ship's carpenter specializes in shipbuilding, maintenance, and repair techniques (see also shipwright) and carpentry specific to nautical needs; usually the term refers to a carpenter who has a post on a specific ship. Steel warships as well as wooden ones need ship's carpenters, especially for making emergency repairs in the case of battle or storm damage. A cooper is someone who makes barrels: wooden staved vessels of a conical form, of greater length than breadth. A scenic carpenter in filmmaking, television, and the theater builds and dismantles temporary scenery and sets. A framer is a carpenter that builds the skeletal structure or wooden framework of buildings most often in the platform framing method. Historically balloon framing was used until the 1950s when fire-safety concerns made platform framing inherently better. A carpenter who specializes in building with timbers rather than studs, is known as a timber framer which may be traditional timber framing with wooden joints including mortise-and-tenon joinery, post and beam work with metal connectors or pole building framing. A luthier is someone who makes or repairs stringed instruments. The word luthier comes from the French word for lute, "luth". A formwork carpenter creates the shuttering and falsework used in concrete construction. In Japanese carpentry, daiku is the simple term for carpenter, miya-daiku (temple carpenter) performs the works of both architect and builder of shrine and temple and the sukiya-daiku work on teahouse construction and houses. (Sashimono-shi build furniture and tateguya do interior finishing work.)[4] A Restoration carpenter is a carpenter who works in historic building restoration.

A conservation carpenter works in Architectural conservation known as a "preservation carpenter" and Historic Preservation in the U.S. Green carpentry is the specialization in the use of environmentally friendly,[5] energyefficient[6] and sustainable[7] sources of building materials to use in construction projects. They also practice building methods that require less material to be used yet have the same structeral soundness.[8]


The Centre Pompidou-Metz museum under construction in Metz, France in 2009. The building possesses one of the most complex examples of carpentry built to date and is composed of 16 kilometers of glued laminated timber for a surface area of 8,000 m. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed.
(November 2008)

Carpentry schools and programs

Formal education in the carpentry trade is available in seminars, certificate programs, high school programs, online classes,[9] associate degree programs, and advanced college degrees[10] in the new construction, restoration and preservation carpentry fields.[11] Training is also available in groups like the Kim Bng woodworking village in Vietnam where apprentices live and work to learn woodworking and carpentry skills.
Journeyman carpenter

Tradesmen in countries such as Germany are required to fulfill a formal apprenticeship (usually three years) to work as a professional carpenter. Upon graduation from the apprenticeship, he or she is known as a journeyman carpenter. Up through the 19th and even the early 20th century, the journeyman traveled to another region of the country to learn the building styles and techniques of that area before (usually) returning home. In modern times, journeymen are not

required to travel, and the term refers more to a level of proficiency and skill. Union carpenters in the United States - United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America - are required to pass a skills test to be granted official journeyman status, but uncertified professional carpenters may be known as journeymen based on their skill level, years of experience, or simply because they support themselves in the trade, and not due to certification or formal woodworking education.
Master carpenter

After working as a journeyman for a period, a carpenter may go to study or test as a master carpenter. In some countries, such as Germany or Japan, this is an arduous and expensive process, requiring extensive knowledge (including economic and legal knowledge) and skill to achieve master certification; these countries generally require master status for anyone employing and teaching apprentices in the craft. In others, it can be a loosely used term to describe a skilled carpenter. In Canada, each province sets its own standards for apprenticeship. The average length of time is four years and includes a minimum number of hours of both on the job training and technical instruction at a college or other institution. Depending on the number of hours of instruction an apprentice receives, he or she can earn a Certificate of Proficiency, making them a journeyman, or a Certificate of Qualification, which allows them to practice a more limited amount of carpentry. Canadian carpenters also have the option of acquiring an additional Interprovincial Red Seal that allows them to practice anywhere in Canada. The Red Seal requires the completion of an apprenticeship and an additional examination. In the modern British construction industry, carpenters are trained through apprenticeship schemes where GCSEs in Mathematics, English and Technology help, but are not essential. This is deemed as the preferred route as young people can earn and gain field experience whilst training towards a nationally recognized qualification. Fully trained carpenters and joiners will often move into related trades such as shop fitting, scaffolding, bench joinery, maintenance and system installation.

Notable carpenters
Religious figures


Jesus of Nazareth (some translations reflect a general Laborer rather than a carpenter) Saint Joseph Maya Noah Viswakarma

Historic figures

Norm "New Yankee" Abram Jeremy Broun Theo Wade Brown Adam Carolla Harrison Ford Brian Haw Mike Holmes Andy Kane

Lu Ban Matthew Banckes Hugh Herland William Hurley Sympson the Joiner Robert Lyminge Harry McNish Perumthachan Francis Ruddle

Thomas J. MacDonald Nick Offerman Alan Peters Roy Underhill Paulinho da Viola

See also

Atlanta Community ToolBank Building construction Carpenter (theatre) Guild Timber framing Woodworking

1. Jump up ^ The American heritage dictionary of the English language - Etymology of the word "carpenter" 2. Jump up ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. 3. Jump up ^ "Evidence From Census 2000 About Earnings by Detailed Occupation for Men and Women. Census 2000 Special Reports, May 2004." (PDF). Retrieved 2006-09-02. 4. Jump up ^ Lee Butler, "Patronage and the Building Arts in Tokugawa Japan", Early Modern Japan. Fall-Winter 2004 [1] 5. Jump up ^ "Environmentally Friendly Building Materials". McMullen Carpenters And Joiners. 2009-04-10. Retrieved 2012-07-08. 6. Jump up ^ "A Green Home Begins with ENERGY STAR Blue". Energystar. Retrieved 8 September 2012. 7. Jump up ^ "Green Building Basics". Retrieved 2012-05-21. 8. Jump up ^ "Defining Green-Collar Jobs". "There is no consensus on how to define green-collar jobs. A very broad interpretation of green jobs would include all existing and new jobs that contribute to environmental quality through improved efficiencies, better resource management, and other technologies that successfully address the environmental challenges facing society. Probably the most concise, general definition is well-paid, career track jobs that contribute directly to preserving or enhancing environmental quality (Apollo Alliance 2008, 3). This definition suggests that green-collar jobs directly contribute to improving environmental quality, but would not include low-wage jobs that provide little mobility. Most discussion of green-collar jobs does not refer to positions that require a college degree, but they typically do involve training beyond high school. Many of the positions are similar to skilled, blue-collar jobs, such as electricians, welders, carpenters, etc."

9. Jump up ^ 10. Jump up ^ 11. Jump up ^

External links

Professional Carpentry | Houston, Texas

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Carpentry

Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Carpentry

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Carpentry

Look up carpentry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The Institute of Carpenters (England) Carpenters - from the BLS Occupational Outlook Handbook


Maintenance check of electronic equipment on a U.S. Navy aircraft.

An inspection is, most generally, an organized examination or formal evaluation exercise. In engineering activities inspection involves the measurements, tests, and gauges applied to certain characteristics in regard to an object or activity. The results are usually compared to specified requirements and standards for determining whether the item or activity is in line with these targets. Inspections are usually non-destructive. A 2007 Scottish Government review of scrutiny of public services (the Crear Review, 2007[1][1]) defined inspection of public services as '...periodic, targeted scrutiny of specific services, to check whether they are meeting national and local performance standards, legislative and professional requirements, and the needs of service users.' A surprise inspection tends to have different results than an announced inspection. Leaders wanting to know how others in their organization perform can drop in without warning, to see directly what happens. If an inspection is made known in advance, it can give people a chance to cover up or to fix mistakes. This could lead to distorted and inaccurate findings. A surprise inspection, therefore, gives inspectors a better picture of the typical state of the inspected object or process than an announced inspection. It also enhances external confidence in the inspection process. See section 4.12 of the Crear report.[1]


1 Specific instances o 1.1 Business o 1.2 Government o 1.3 Road vehicles o 1.4 Engineering, mechanics o 1.5 Medical o 1.6 Military o 1.7 Real estate o 1.8 Software engineering 2 See also 3 References

Specific instances

Inspection and quality control are the most important tools in today's corporate world.INSPECTION In international trade several destination countries require Pre-shipment inspection. The importer instructs the shipper which inspection company should be used. The inspector makes pictures and a report to certify that the goods that are being shipped and produced are in accordance with the accompanying documents.

Commodity Inspection is other term that is used between buyers and sellers. The scope of work for commodity inspection depends to the buyers. Some buyers hire the inspection agencies only for Pre-Shipment inspections i.e. visual quality, quantity, packing, marking and loading inspections and some others request for higher level inspections and ask inspection agencies to attend in the vendor shops and inspect commodities during manufacturing processes. Normally inspection is done based on an agreed inspection and test plan (ITP).[2]

In government and politics, an inspection is the act of a monitoring authority administering an official review of various criteria (such as documents, facilities, records, and any other assets) that are deemed by the authority to be related to the inspection. Inspections are used for the purpose of determining if a body is complying with regulations. The inspector examines the criteria and talks with involved individuals. A report and evaluation follows such visits. The Food Safety Inspection Service is charged with ensuring that all meat and egg products in the United States are safe to consume and accurately labeled. The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any found unfit for human consumption. The United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission is a regulatory body that inspects for weapons of mass destruction. The Scottish Commission for the Regulation of Care regulates and inspects care services in Scotland.

An Oregon Air National Guardsman makes an inspection of a radio-tower Road vehicles

A vehicle inspection, e.g., an annual inspection, is a necessary inspection required on vehicles to conform with laws regarding safety, emissions, or both. It consists of an examination of a vehicle's components, usually done by a certified mechanic. Vehicles pass a pre-warranty inspection, if, and only if, a mechanic provide evidence for the proper working condition of the vehicle systems specified in the type of inspection.
Engineering, mechanics

Quality related inspection is an essential part of quality control.

A mechanical inspection is usually undertaken to ensure the safety or reliability of structures or machinery.[3] In Europe bodies involved in engineering inspection may be assessed by accreditation bodies according to ISO 17020 "General criteria for the operation of various types of bodies performing inspection". This standard defines inspection as examination of a product, process, service, or installation or their design and determination of its conformity with specific requirements or, on the basis of professional judgment, with general requirements.[4]
Main article: nondestructive testing

Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) or nondestructive testing (NDT) is a family of technologies used during inspection to analyze materials, components and products for either inherent defects (such as fractures or cracks), or service induced defects (damage from use). Some common methods are visual, microscopy, dye penetrant inspection, magnetic-particle inspection, X-ray or radiographic testing, ultrasonic testing, eddy-current testing, acoustic emission testing, and thermographic inspection. In addition, many non-destructive inspections can be performed by a precision scale, or when in motion, a checkweigher. Stereo microscopes are often used for examining small products like circuit boards for product defects.

A medical inspection is the thorough and unhurried visualization of a patient, this requires the use of the naked eye.

An examination vessel is a craft used to inspect ships entering or leaving a port.

Real estate

A property inspection is the examination for purposes of evaluating a property's condition. In purchasing property, a "whole house inspection" tries to detect defects in the property. The railroad's inspection locomotive were special types of steam locomotive designed to carry railroad officials on inspection tours of the railroad property.
Software engineering

Software inspection, in software engineering, refers to peer review of any work product by trained individuals who look for defects using a well defined process.

A plasterer is a tradesman who works with plaster, such as forming a layer of plaster on an interior wall or plaster decorative moldings on ceilings or walls. The process of creating plasterwork, called plastering, has been used in building construction for centuries.[1]


1 History 2 Tools and materials o 2.1 Laths o 2.2 Lime

o 2.3 Hair 3 Methods 4 See also 5 References

Plasterwork is one of the most ancient of handicrafts employed in connection with building operations, the earliest evidence showing that the dwellings of primitive man were erected in a simple fashion with sticks and plastered with mud. Soon a more lasting and sightly material was found and employed to take the place of mud or slime, and that perfection in the compounding of plastering materials was approached at a very remote period is made evident by the fact that some of the earliest plastering which has remained undisturbed excels in its scientific composition that which we use at the present day. The pyramids in Egypt contain plasterwork executed at least four thousand years ago, probably much earlier, and yet existing, hard and durable, at the present time. From recent discoveries it has been ascertained that the principal tools of the plasterer of that time were practically identical in design, shape and purpose with those used to day. For their finest work the Egyptians used a plaster made from calcined gypsum just like plaster of Paris of the present time, and their methods of plastering on reeds resemble in every way our lath, plaster, float and set work. Hair was introduced to strengthen the stuff, and the whole finished somewhat under an inch thick. Very early in the history of Greek architecture we find the use of plaster of a fine white lime stucco, such has been found at Mycenae. The art had reached perfection in Greece more than five centuries before Christ, and plaster was frequently used to cover temples externally and internally, in some cases even where the building was of marble. It formed a splendid ground for decorative painting, which at this period of Grecian history had reached a very high degree of beauty.

Tools and materials

In the more common operations of plastering, comparatively few tools and few materials are required, but the workman efficient in all branches of the craft will possess a very large variety of implements. The materials of the workman are laths, lath nails, lime, sand, hair, plaster of Paris, and a variety of cements, together with various ingredients to form coloring washes, et cetera.


Lath seen from the back with brown coat oozing through

Wood laths are narrow strips of some straight-grained wood, generally Baltic or American fir, in lengths of from two to four or five feet to suit the distances at which the timbers of a floor or partition are set. Laths are about an inch Lathing-wide, and are made in three thicknesses; single (1/8 to 3/16 inch thick), lath and a half (1/4 inch thick), and double (3/8-1/2 inch thick). The thicker laths should be used in ceilings, to stand the extra strain, and the thinner variety in vertical work such as partitions, except where the latter will be subjected to rough usage, in which case thicker laths become necessary. Laths are usually nailed with a space of about 3/8 of an inch between them to form a plaster key. Laths were formerly all made by hand. A large quantity, however, are now made by machinery and are known as sawn laths, those made by hand being called rent or riven laths. Rent (riven) laths give the best results, as they split in a line with the grain of the wood, and are stronger and not so liable to twist as machine-made laths, some of the fibers of which are usually cut in the process of sawing. Care should be taken to check the PH value of the wood; oak contains tannic acid which attacks the lime, this can compromise bond strength. Laths must be nailed so as to break joint in bays three or four feet wide with ends butted one against the other. By breaking the joints of the lathing in this way, the tendency for the plaster to crack along the line of joints is diminished and a better key is obtained and it provides restraint for the timber frame. Every lath should be nailed at each end and wherever it crosses a joist or stud. All timbers over three inches (76 mm) wide should be counter-lathed, that is, have a fillet or double lath nailed along the centre upon which the laths are then nailed. This is done to preserve a good key for the plaster. Walls liable to damp are sometimes battened and lathed in order to form an air cavity between the damp wall and the plastering. Lathing of metal, either of wire or in the form of perforated sheets, is now extensively used on account of its fireproof and lasting quality. There are very many kinds of this material Metal made in different designs under various patents, the best known in England being the Jhilmil, the Bostwick, Lathing, and the Expanded Metal lathing. The two last-named are also widely used in America. Lathing nails are usually of iron, cut, wrought or cast, and in the better class of work they are galvanized to prevent rusting. Zinc nails are sometimes used, but are costly.


The lime principally used for internal plastering is that calcined from chalk, oyster shells or other nearly pure limestone, and is known as fat, pure, chalk or rich lime. Hydraulic limes are also used by the plasterer, chiefly for external work. Perfect slaking of the calcined lime before being used is very important as, if used in a partially slaked condition, it will "blow" when in position and blister the work. Lime should therefore be run as soon as the building is begun, and at least three weeks should elapse between the operation of running the lime and its use. Due to time constraints Hydrated Lime mixed with plaster is normally used for modern construction. Slaking is not required if more time is allowed for finishing the surface after application which is a common practice where a quality finish is required, however in the housing industry it is often run for three days, the time it takes to prepare an average house for plastering, to achieve a lower quality cost effective finish.

Hair is used in plaster as a binding medium, and gives tenacity to the material. Traditionally horsehair was the most commonly used binder, as it was easily available before the development of the motor-car. Hair functions in much the same way as the strands in fiberglass resin, by controlling and containing any small cracks within the mortar while it dries or when it is subject to flexing. Ox-hair, which is sold in three qualities, is now the kind usually specified; but horsehair, which is shorter, is sometimes substituted or mixed with the ox-hair in the lower qualities. Good hair should be long (In the UK cow and horse hair of short and long lengths is used), and left greasey (lanolin grease) because this protects against some degradation when introduced into the very high alkaline plaster[1]. Before use it must be well beaten, or teased, to separate the lumps. In America, goats' hair is frequently used, though it is not so strong as ox-hair. The quantity used in good work is one pound of hair to two or three cubic feet of coarse stuff (in the UK up to 12 kg per metric cube). Hair reinforcement in lime plaster is common, and many types of hair and other organic fibres can be found in historic plasters [4]. However, organic material in lime will degrade in damp environments, particularly on damp external renders.[5] This problem has given rise to the use of polyprolene fibres in new lime renders [6]. Research presented at the UK Building Limes Forum 2012 looked at the potential for hair degradation in lime plasters.[2] Manila hemp fiber has been used as a substitute for hair. Plaster for hair slabs made with manila hemp fiber broke at 195 lb (88 kg), plaster mixed with sisal hemp at 150 lb (68 kg), jute at 145 lb (66 kg), and goats' hair at 144 lb (65 kg).[citation needed] Another test was made in the following manner. Two barrels of mortar were made up of equal proportions of lime and sand, one containing the usual quantity of goats' hair, and the other Manila fiber. After remaining in a dry cellar for nine months the barrels were opened. It was found that the hair had been almost entirely eaten away by the action of the lime, and the mortar consequently broke up and crumbled quite easily. The mortar containing the Manila hemp, on the other hand, showed great cohesion, and required some effort to pull it apart, the hemp fiber being undamaged.[citation needed]


For fine plasterer's sand-work, special sands, not hitherto referred to, are used, such as silver sand or fine foundry sand, which is used when a light color and fine texture are required. In medical centres one part Barium is added to two parts cement and five of sand where the walls need to block X-rays. When coating or rendering concrete surfaces a "splash" coat of one part cement to one of sand in liquid form is either thrown with a trowel or sprayed on the surface. This not only provides a better key for the render but prevents the porous concrete from sucking the water from it. For external work Portland cement is undoubtedly the best material on account of its strength, durability, and weather resisting External properties. If the plaster coat needs to be particularly strong and resistant to cracking, such as the walls of a squash court, Sizing is mixed with the plaster before application to increase both the surface bond strength and flexibility. The first coat of render is from 1/2 to 3/4 inches thick, and is mixed, dependant on the surface to be covered, in the proportions of from one part of cement to two of sand to one part to six of sand. A shovel of Lime is often added to make the mix more pliable. After dampening the surface to be coated, two horizontal bands of render called "screeds" are applied, one at around head height and the other just above floor level, these are then marked for vertical/horizontal alignment, finished, then allowed to partially dry. In a process similar to laying concrete, the wall is then rendered to a slightly higher level than the screeds, and using a "straight edge" (screed), the Plasterer uses the screeds as guides removing the excess render and leaving a rough flat surface. For a lower cost finish or if a rough surface is specified the screeds can be dispensed with. The render is then finished with a float (a smooth flat wooden tool with handle) to fill or remove larger imperfections. For some applications where a stronger key is required the surface is scored by later use of a float with nails protruding from the base. If the render is to be the finished surface then a float with a sponge attached to the base is then used on the wall until the surface is blemish free. For quality work, or where the wall is out of plumb requiring a large variation in render thickness, a thin "scratch" render coat is first applied then a second coat finished as described above. After around 24 hours the render has dried but before the final plaster coat is applied a trowel is used to scrape loose sand grains from the surface which would otherwise spoil the plaster finish. The finishing or setting plaster coat which is about 3/16nbsp;&inches thick is worked with a hand trowel on the surface of the rendering, which must first be well wetted. The plaster is applied in two coats to slow the drying speed of the second coat and after drying must still be wetted and worked for a time to produce a thin film of watery plaster which has the effect of "Polishing" the finished surface. This finishing plaster is normally trowelled on two or three passes to achieve this.

Security guard
Security guard

A private security guard at a Chinese factory in February 2004.

A security officer (or security guard) is a person who is paid to protect property, assets, or people. Security guards are usually privately and formally employed civilian personnel. Security officers are generally uniformed and act to protect property by maintaining a high visibility presence to deter illegal and inappropriate actions, observing (either directly, through patrols, or by watching alarm systems or video cameras) for signs of crime, fire or disorder; then taking action and reporting any incidents to their client and emergency services as appropriate.

Until the 1980s, the term watchman was more commonly applied to this function, a usage dating back to at least the Middle Ages in Europe. This term was carried over to North America where it was interchangeable with night-watchman until both terms were replaced with the modern security-based titles. Security guards are sometimes regarded as fulfilling a private policing function.


1 Functions and duties 2 Personnel o 2.1 Types of security personnel and companies 3 Training o 3.1 Australia o 3.2 Canada 3.2.1 British Columbia o 3.3 Europe 3.3.1 Norway o 3.4 Hong Kong 3.4.1 Legislation 4 Qualification o 4.1 Hong Kong 4.1.1 Permit 4.1.2 Power of Arrest o 4.2 Israel o 4.3 Malaysia o 4.4 South Africa o 4.5 United States 5 Security officers and the police 6 Trends o 6.1 Australia o 6.2 UK o 6.3 United States 7 History 8 Notable security guards 9 Unionization o 9.1 Canada o 9.2 United States 9.2.1 Security, Police, and Fire Professionals of America 9.2.2 United Government Security Officers of America 9.2.3 Others 10 Hazards in the Industry 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Functions and duties

Many security firms and proprietary security departments practice the "detect, deter, observe and report" methodology. Security officers are not required to make arrests, but have the authority to make a citizen's arrest, or otherwise act as an agent of law enforcement, for example, at the request of a police officer or sheriff. A private security officer's primary duty is the prevention and deterrence of crime. Security personnel enforce company rules and can act to protect lives and property, and they often have a contractual obligation to provide these actions. In addition to basic deterrence, security officers are often trained to perform specialized tasks such as arrest and control (including handcuffing and restraints), operate emergency equipment, perform first aid, CPR, take accurate notes, write detailed reports, and perform other tasks as required by the client they are serving. All security officers are also required to go through additional training mandated by the state for the carrying of weapons such as batons, firearms, and pepper spray (e.g. the Bureau of Security and Investigative Services in California has requirements that a license for each item listed must be carried while on duty).[1] Some officers are required to complete police certification for special duties. Virginia training standards for security are identical to police training with regards to firearms (shotgun and handgun) but do not place licensing requirements for other items carried, only that training be provided that is documented. Several security companies have also become certified in RADAR and trained their sworn special police officers to use it on protected properties in conjunction with lights/sirens, allowing them to legally enforce traffic laws on private property.[2] The number of jobs is expected to grow in the U.S., with 175,000 new security jobs expected before 2016.[3] In recent years, due to elevated threats of terrorism, most security officers are required to have bomb-threat training and/or emergency crisis training, especially those located in soft target areas such as shopping malls, schools, and any other area where the general public congregate. One major economic justification for security personnel is that insurance companies (particularly fire insurance carriers) will give substantial rate discounts to sites which have a 24-hour presence. For a high risk or high value property, the discount can often exceed the money being spent on its security program. Discounts are offered because having security on site increases the odds that any fire will be noticed and reported to the local fire department before a total loss occurs. Also, the presence of security personnel (particularly in combination with effective security procedures) tends to diminish "shrinkage", theft, employee misconduct and safety rule violations, property damage, or even sabotage. Many casinos hire security guards to protect money when transferring it from the casino to the casino's bank. Security personnel may also perform access control at building entrances and vehicle gates; meaning, they ensure that employees and visitors display proper passes or identification before entering the facility. Security officers are often called upon to respond to minor emergencies (lost persons, lockouts, dead vehicle batteries, etc.) and to assist in serious emergencies by guiding emergency responders to the scene of the incident, helping to redirect foot traffic to safe locations, and by documenting what happened on an incident report.

Armed security officers are frequently contracted to respond as law enforcement until a given situation at a client location is under control and/or public authorities arrive on the scene. Patrolling is usually a large part of a security officer's duties. Often these patrols are logged by use of a guard tour patrol system, which require regular patrols. Until recently the most commonly used form used to be mechanical clock systems that required a key for manual punching of a number to a strip of paper inside with the time pre-printed on it. But recently, electronic systems have risen in popularity due to their light weight, ease of use, and downloadable logging capabilities.[4] Regular patrols are, however, becoming less accepted as an industry standard, as it provides predictability for the would-be criminal, as well as monotony for the security officer on duty. Random patrols are easily programmed into electronic systems, allowing greater freedom of movement and unpredictability. Global positioning systems are beginning to be used because they are a more effective means of tracking officers' movements and behavior.

Although security officers differ greatly from police officers, military personnel, federal agents/officers, and the like, Australia and the United States have a growing proportion of security personnel that have former police or military experience, including senior management personnel. On the other hand, some security officers, young people in particular, use the job as practical experience to use in applying to law enforcement agencies.
Types of security personnel and companies

A security guard protecting the entrance to an apartment building, and managing the parking of cars in Haikou, Hainan Province, China.

Security personnel are classified as either of the following:

"In-house" or "proprietary" (i.e. employed by the same company or organization they protect, such as a mall, theme park, or casino); formerly often called works police or security police in the United Kingdom.

"Security supervisor", meets with clients and employees as necessary to ensure client and employee satisfaction.[5] "Scheduler", Security Officer assignment and strategic scheduling resulting in client satisfaction, employee retention and cost maintained within District financial plans.[6] "Human Resources Manager", effective delivery of human resources services such as employment, employee/labor relations, compensation, benefits administration, training and development, workers compensation, and audit compliance. Maintains and implements corporate policies and programs related to employment.[7] "Client Service Manager", promotes financial growth for the District by ensuring client retention, Security Officer retention, and support for the development of new business.[8] "Client Service Supervisor", provides security services for designated clients resulting in customer satisfaction, Security Officer retention, and financial growth for the District. Provides service in a large and complex area.[9] "Contract", working for a private security company which protects many locations. "Public Security", a person employed or appointed as an (usually armed) security officer by a government or government agency. "Private Police Officers", or "Special Police". "Private Patrol Officers", vehicle patrol officers that protect multiple client premises. "Parapolice", aggressive firms that routinely engage in criminal investigation and arrest.[10]

Industry terms for security personnel include: security guard, security officer, security agent, safety patrol, private police, company police, security enforcement officer, and public safety. Terms for specialized jobs include bouncer, bodyguards, executive protection agent, loss prevention, alarm responder, hospital security officer, mall security officer, crime prevention officer, patrolman, private patrol officer, and private patrol operator.

Cash transport van with a crew of security guards in Guangzhou, China

State and local governments sometimes regulate the use of these terms by lawfor example, certain words and phrases that "give an impression that he or she is connected in any way with the federal government, a state government, or any political subdivision of a state government" are forbidden for use by California security licensees by Business and Professions Code Section 7582.26. So the terms "private homicide police" or "special agent" would be unlawful for a security licensee to use in California. Similarly, in Canada, various acts[11] [1] specifically

prohibits private security personnel from using the terms Probation Officer, law enforcement, police, or police officer. Alberta and Ontario prohibit the use of the term Security Officer, which has been in widespread use in the United States for many decades. Recent changes to the act have also introduced restrictions on uniform and vehicle colours and markings to make private security personnel clearly distinctive from police personnel. Some sources feel that some of these restrictions are put in place to satisfy the Canadian Police Association.[12] There is a marked difference between persons performing the duties historically associated with watchmen and persons who take a more active role in protecting persons and property. The former, often called "guards", are taught the mantra "observe and report", are minimally trained, and not expected to deal with the public or confront criminals. The latter are often highly trained, sometimes armed depending on contracts agreed upon with clientele, and are more likely to interact with the general public and to confront the criminal element. These employees tend to take pride in the title "Security Officer" or "Protection Officer" and disdain the label of "guard". Security jobs vary in pay and duties. There is sometimes little relationship between duties performed and compensation, for example some mall "security officers" who are exposed to serious risks earn less per hour than "industrial security guards" who have less training and responsibility.[13] However, there are now more positions in the security role that separate not just the titles, but the job itself. The roles have progressed and so have the areas for which security people are needed. The term "agent" can be confusing in the security industry because it can describe a civil legal relationship between an employee and their employer or contractor ("agent of the owner" in California PC 602), and also can describe a person in government service ("Special Agent Jones of the Federal Bureau of Investigation".) The title "agent" can be confused with bail enforcement agents, also known as "bounty hunters", who are sometimes regulated by the same agencies which regulate private security. The term "agent" is also used in other industries, such as banking agents, loan agents and real estate agents. Security agents are often employed in loss prevention and personal or executive protection (bodyguards) roles. They typically work in plainclothes (without a uniform), and are usually highly trained to act lawfully in direct defense of life or property. Security personnel are essentially private citizens, and therefore are bound by the same laws and regulations as the citizenry they are contracted to serve, and therefore are not allowed to represent themselves as law enforcement under penalty of law.[14][15]

Just as with the police profession, training requirements for the private security industry have evolved over time.[16] For many years security guards were poorly chosen and poorly trained (if

at all), partly because security guard companies who contracted with clients in private industry were paid very little for their security guard services. For the most part, contracts were awarded to security guard companies through a competition process and the final selection was often made based on cost rather than the experience or professionalism of the security guard company. That changed drastically on September 11, 2001 when radical Islamic terrorists attacked the United States. The event moved corporate threat concerns to the top of the priority list for most security guard contracts started being awarded based on professionalism. More money was invested in security so more money became available for training of security guards. The term 'security professional' began to surface and large private security companies like Blackwater, USA began offering training services for the private security industry that approached the level of training provided by the military. Security guard companies began paying enough to attract people with significant backgrounds in law enforcement and the military, often in special operations. Training became a big priority throughout the industry and training books authored by experienced security professionals like THE ROLE OF THE SECURITY OFFICER suddenly began appearing on the scene. The trend for more professional, well-trained security officers grew and spread around the world and continues to be improved and fine-tuned to this day. Security officers are no longer considered 'bottom feeders' by military and police officers. Highly paid private security operatives are now being deployed around the world to augment military operations in places like Iraq and Afghanistan and this trend is likely to continue due to shortages in personnel in today's mostly volunteer military.
Australia This section requires expansion. (August 2009)

Any person who conducts a business or is employed in a security-related field within Australia is required to be licensed. Each of the six states and two territories of Australia have separate legislation that covers all security activities. Licensing management in each state/territory is varied and is carried out by either Police, Attorney General's Department, Justice Department or the Department of Consumer Affairs.

New South Wales(Police) Security Industry Act 1997 & Security Industry Regulation 2007 Victoria(Police) Private Security Act 2004 Queensland(Justice & Attorney-General) Security Providers Act 1993 South Australia(Consumer & Business Affairs) Security and Investigation Agents Act 1995 Western Australia(Police) Security & Related Activities (Control) Act 1996 & Security & Related Activities (Control) Regulations 1997 Tasmania(Police) *Security and Investigation Agents Act 2002 Northern Territory(Justice) Private Security Act & Private Security (Security Officer/Crowd Controller/Security Firms/Miscellaneous Matters) Regulations; Australian Capital Territory(Regulatory Services) Security Industry Act 2003 & Security Industry Regulation 2003

All of this legislation was intended to enhance the integrity of the private security industry.

All persons licensed to perform security activities are required to undertake a course of professional development in associated streams that are recognised nationally. This has not always been the case and the introduction of this requirement is expected to regulate the educational standards and knowledge base so that the particular job can be competently performed. Strict requirements are laid down as to the type of uniform and badge used by security companies. Uniforms or badges that may be confused with a police officer are prohibited. Also, the use of the titles 'Security Police' or 'Private Detective' are unacceptable. While the term security guard is used by companies, government bodies and individuals, the term security officer is deemed more suitable. Bouncers use the title Crowd Controllers, and Store Detectives use the title Loss Prevention or Asset Protection Officers. Security Officers may carry firearms, handcuffs or batons where their role requires them to do so and then only when working and have the appropriate sub-class accreditation to their license.
Canada See also: Gun politics in Canada#Laws and regulation

Security vehicle and guard in Montreal, Quebec.

In Canada, private security falls under the jurisdiction of Canada's ten provinces and three territories. All ten of Canada's provinces and one of its territories (the Yukon) have legislation that regulates the contract security industry.[17] These eleven jurisdictions require that companies that provide security guard services and their employees be licensed. Most provinces in Canada regulate the use of handcuffs and weapons (such as firearms and batons) by contract security companies and their employees, either banning such use completely or permitting it only under certain circumstances. Additionally, in some provinces, some terms, or variations of them, are prohibited either on a uniform or in self-reference.[18] Canada's federal laws also restrict the ability of security guards to be armed. For example, section 17 of the Firearms Act makes it an offense for any person, including a security guard, to possess prohibited or restricted firearms (i.e. handguns) anywhere outside of his or her home.

There are two exceptions to this prohibition found in sections 18 and 19 of the Act. Section 18 deals with transportation of firearms while Section 19 deals with allowing persons to carry such firearms on their persons to protect their lives or the lives of other persons, or for the performance of their occupation (Armour Car Guards, Licensed Trappers), provided an Authorization to Carry (ATC) is first obtained.[19]
British Columbia

Private security in the province of British Columbia is governed by two pieces of legislation: the Security Services Act[20] and the Security Services Regulation.[21] These laws are administered and enforced by the Security Programs and Police Technology Division[22] of the Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General. The legislation requires that guards must be at least 19 years old, undergo a criminal background check, and successfully complete a training course.[23] As far as weapons, British Columbia law severely restricts their use by security guards. Section 11(1)(c) of the Security Services Regulation prohibits security personnel from carrying or using any "item designed for debilitating or controlling a person or animal", which the government interprets to include all weapons. As well, section 11 forbids private security from using or carrying restraints, such as handcuffs, unless authorized by the government. However, as in other parts of Canada, armoured car guards are permitted to carry firearms. In the past, only personnel that worked for contract security, that is, security companies, were regulated in British Columbia. However, as of September 1, 2009, in-house security guards and private investigators came under the jurisdiction of the Security Services Act and Security Services Regulation. Bodyguards and bouncers, effective November 1, 2009, are also subject to these regulations.[24]

A security guard at the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Armed private security are much rarer in Europe, and illegal in many countries, such as the United Kingdom, The Netherlands and Switzerland. In developing countries (with host country permission), an armed security force composed mostly of ex-military personnel is often used to protect corporate assets, particularly in war-torn regions. As a requirement of the Private Security Industry Act 2001, the UK now requires all contract security guards to have a valid Security Industry Authority license.[25] The licence must be displayed when on duty, although a dispensation may be granted for store detectives, bodyguards and others who need to operate without being identified as a security guard. This dispensation is not available to Vehicle Immobilisers. Licenses are valid for three years and require the holders to undergo formal training, and are also to pass mandatory Criminal Records Bureau checks. Licences for Vehicle Immobilisers are valid for one year. Armed guarding and guarding with a weapon are illegal. In Finland, all contract security guards are required to have a valid license granted by police. Temporary license is valid for four months and normal license for five years. License requires a minimum 40-hour course for temporary license and 60 hours more for a normal license. Additionally a narrow security vetting is required. The 40-hour course allows the carrying of a fixed-length baton and handcuffs, separate training and license is required for the security guard to carry pepper spray, extendable baton or a firearm. Rehearse of weapons usage is mandatory every year and is regulated by the Ministry of The Interior, to ensure the safe handling of pepper spray and such. In Finland, a security guard has the right to detain a person "red-handed", or seen committing a crime and the right to search the detained individual for harmful items and weapons. An individual who has been forcefully detained can only be released by the police. All companies providing security guarding services are also required to have a valid license from Ministry of the Interior.[26] In The Netherlands, security guards Beveiligingsbeambte must undergo a criminal background check by the local police department in the area where the private security company is located. To become a security guard in The Netherlands, a person must complete the basic training level 2 Beveiliger2. To complete the training a trainee must undergo a three-month internship with a private security company that is licensed by the svpb, the board that controls security exams. A trainee guard must pass for his diploma within one year. If the trainee does not pass he is not allowed to work anymore until he completes his training with a positive result. After a positive result a new ID can be issued and is valid for three years, after which the guard must undergo a background check by the local police again. Security guards in The Netherlands are not allowed to carry any kind of weapon or handcuffs. Every uniformed security guard in The Netherlands must have the V symbol on his or her uniform to advise the public they are dealing with a private guard; this rule is mandated by the Ministry of Justice. Security uniforms may not look like similar to police uniforms, and may not contain any kind of rank designation. The colors yellow and gold are not allowed to be used because the Dutch police uses gold accents in their uniforms; also, wearing a uniform cap is not longer allowed. Every new uniform design or addition must be approved by the Ministry of Justice before use. A patrol vehicle may not look like a police striped vehicle. The only private security guards who are allowed to carry firearms are those who work for the military or Dutch National bank (De Nederlandsche Bank); this is where the national gold reserve can be found.


In Norway security officers are called "Vektere". There are two different types of vekterethe normal uniformed or civil-clothing officers who watch over private and semi-public properties, and government-hired vektere who work in public places, such as the Parliament. The law provides more enforcement powers to security officers in the Parliament than to private security officers. Security officers must undergo three weeks of training and internship. They are allowed to work for six months after one week of the introduction course. It is also possible to choose Security as a high school major, which requires two years of school and two years of trainee positions at private companies, resulting in a certificate from the government. This certificate makes it easier to get a job, with slightly higher pay. It also makes it easier to get a job elsewhere in the security industry. The certificate can also be obtained by private security officers who have had a minimum of 5 years working experience. In addition to normal "vektere" there also is a special branch for "Ordensvakter" who normally work as bouncers or security at concerts and similar types of events. Ordensvakter have to undergo an extra week of training to learn techniques on how to handle drunk people and people on various drugs. They also learn about the alcohol laws of Norway (which are rather strict). The police in the local police district must approve each Ordensvakt. These special regulations arose after events in the 1990s when bouncers had a bad reputation, especially in Oslo, for being too brutal and rough with people. At that time, the police had no control over who worked as bouncers. After the government implemented training and mandatory ID cards for bouncers the problems have been reduced. The police of Oslo report that Ordensvakter are now helping the police identify crimes that otherwise would not be reported. In 2007 several guards from the Securitas AB company were arrested for brutality against a robber they apprehended on the main street of Oslo. The crime was captured with a mobile camera by pedestrians and created a public outcry, with many objecting to the way the security guards took the law into their own hands. Later, it came to light that the thief first attacked the security guards when they approached him, so the brutality charges were dropped.[27] As a result of this episode, the police said that they would be more careful when conducting criminal background checks for security guards. Before 2007 security guards were checked when they applied for a job, but not while they were working. Security companies were also criticized for not checking criminal records sufficiently, in some cases not at all. Now guards working in private security must be checked annually. The police have the authority to withdraw a company's licence if the company does not submit lists of employees to the police. The police in Norway were widely criticized for not checking guards properly, and even when they encounter an issue with a guard, the guard can still work for months before anything is done. The security company G4S, after being criticized by police for hiring criminals, stated that they cannot do anything about the problem, because only the police have the ability to check the guard's criminal records.[28]

In 2012 Norwegian media reported that police officers and Home Guard soldiers had contracts of employment on civilian ships, and leaders of police were planning sanctions against the use of police officers.[29] Today there are around 15,000 people working within private security in Norway. The police have around 10,000 employees in total. Notable companies operating in Norway:

Securitas G4S NOKAS Infratek ISS A/S (formerly Personellsikring) ProSecProfessional Security (mainly event security)

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, the term Security Officer refers to a senior staff member who supervises a team of security personnel. The staff who work under security officers' supervision are called Security Guards.

Before 1 October 1996, private security personnel were regulated by the Watchmen Ordinance (Chapter 299). However, there were many problems with that system of regulationfor example, there were no restrictions as to whom may establish private security service companies to provide security services to a client. Also, there was no regulation of people whom may perform installation of security systems. Some employers hired "caretakers" instead of security guards to avoid their responsibilities under the ordinance (in formal definition, "caretakers" are supposed to provide facilities management service, although security service, which provided to residential properties, takes some parts of facilities management service). As a result, the Hong Kong Government enacted a wholly new law, the Security and Guarding Services Ordinance (Chapter 460), to replace the Watchmen Ordinance. According to the Security and Guarding Services Ordinance: No individual shall do, agree to do, or hold himself/herself out as doing, or as available to do, security work for another person unless he/she does so

Under and in accordance with a permit; or Otherwise than for reward.[30]

Security work means any of the following activities

Guarding any property;

Guarding any person or place for the purpose of preventing or detecting the occurrence of any offence; (Replaced 25 of 2000 s. 2) Installing, maintaining or repairing a security device; Designing for any particular premises or place a system incorporating a security device.

Security device means a device designed or adapted to be installed in any premises or place, except on or in a vehicle, for the purpose of detecting or recording- (Amended 25 of 2000 s. 2)

The occurrence of any offence; or The presence of an intruder or of an object that persons are, for reasons of security, not permitted to bring onto the premises or place or any other premises or place.[31]

Qualification for security guards vary from country to country. Different requirements have to be completed before applying for this job.
Hong Kong

A group of Hong Kong security guards in formation before going on duty

Any applicant who wishes to apply for a Security Personnel Permit (SPP) must:

He/she have been living in Hong Kong for at least 5 years. (This requirement may have been changed) No criminal record. At least 17 years old when submitting his/her application. Have passed a mandatory 16 hour training course and have been granted a certificate of the course. If the applicant is over 65 years old, he/she must submit his/her health examination report.


Security Personnel Permit was separated to four types: A, B, C, and D.

Type A permit holder was permitted to work in a "single-block" residential building; they are not allowed to carry firearms. No age limit. Type B permit holder was permitted to work in any type of properties, but they also are not allowed carry firearms. The maximum age limit of this permit is 65. Type C permit holder was permitted to work as an armed guard. (Usually, they are members of the cash transport car crew.) The maximum age limit of this permit is 55. Type D permit holder was permitted to design, install, and repair security devices. No maximum age limit.

The permit is valid for five years. All holders must renew their permit before it expires, or they will lose their qualification to work, as such, until their permit is renewed. The type A and Type B security service are gradually combined with property management service, though the boundary between these two industries is unclear.
Power of Arrest

Security Guards in Hong Kong do not have special powers of arrest above that of the ordinary citizen, i.e. citizen's arrest, also known locally as the "101 arrest power". The Section 101 in the Criminal Procedure Ordinance addresses that arrest of an offender by a private citizen is allowed in certain circumstances if the offender is attempting an arrestable offense. Once arrested, the suspect must be delivered to a police office as soon as possible. An arrestable offence is defined as any crime carrying a sentence of more than 12 months imprisonment. No security personnel are allowed to search other person, nor are they allowed to get personal information from other people, with the exception of some specific circumstances.

Security personnel at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.


In Israel, almost all security guards carry a firearm, primarily to prevent revenge attacks. Security guards are common: they perform entrance checks at shopping malls, transportation terminals, government and other office buildings, and many stores. Many locations with a high number of visitors, such as the Jerusalem Central Bus Station, employ X-ray machines to check passenger's bags; in other places, they are opened and visually inspected. Since 2009, private security guards companies as Mikud have also replaced official security forces at some checkpoints inside and on the border of the West Bank, as well as the crossings to Gaza.

Peninsular Malaysia allows for the use of Nepalese security guards whereby East Malaysian immigration policy does not allow the use of foreign workers to be in employed in the security industry. Security guard companies need to apply to the Ministry of Home Affairs (Kementerian Dalam Negeri).

Private security workers in Johannesburg during the 2010 World Cup. South Africa Main article: Private security industry in South Africa

Security guards along with the rest of the private security industry are regulated under Act 56 of 2001, Private Security Industry Regulation Act.[32]
United States

Private security guards have outnumbered police officers since the 1980s, predating the heightened concern about security brought on by the September 11, 2001, attacks. The more than 1 million contract security officers, and an equal number of guards estimated to work directly for U.S. corporations, dwarf the nearly 700,000 sworn law enforcement officers in the United States.[33]

Most states require a license to work as a security officer.[34] This license may include a criminal background check or mandated training requirements. Security guards have the same powers of arrest as a private citizen, called a "private person" arrest, "any person" arrest, or "citizen's arrest". Most security officers do not carry weapons. If weapons are carried, additional permits and training are usually required. Armed security personnel are generally employed to protect sensitive sites such as government and military installations, armored money transports, casinos, banks and other financial institutions, and nuclear power plants. However, armed security is quickly becoming a standard for vehicle patrol officers and on many other non-government sites. The responsibilities of security guards in the United States are expanding in scope.[35] For example, a trend is the increasing use of private security to support services previously provided by police departments. James F. Pastor addresses substantive legal and public policy issues which directly or indirectly relate to the provision of security services. These can be demonstrated by the logic of alternative or supplemental service providers. The use of private police has particular appeal because property or business owners can directly contract for public safety services, thereby providing welcome relief for municipal budgets. Finally, private police functions can be flexible, depending upon the financial, organizational, political, and circumstances of the client.[36] ArizonaLicensed security companies are required to provide eight hours of pre-assignment training to all persons employed as security guards before the employee acts in the capacity of a security guard.[37] There is a state-mandated curriculum that must be taught, and subjects covered must include criminal law and laws of arrest, uniforms and grooming, communications, use of force, general security procedures, crime scene preservation, ethics, and first response.[38]

An ADT Bel-Air Patrol vehicle

CaliforniaSecurity Guards are required to obtain a license from the Bureau of Security and Investigative Services (BSIS), of the California Department of Consumer Affairs. Applicants must be at least 18 years old, undergo a criminal history background check through the California Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and complete a 40-hour course of required training. This required training is broken down into smaller training sections and time-lines. The first is 8 hours of BSIS-designed instruction on

powers to arrest and weapons. Then, within 30 days of getting the individual officers license, they must receive 16 hours of training on various mandatory and elective courses. Finally, within 6 months of getting their license, they must receive an additional 16 hours of training on various mandatory and elective courses. California security officers are also required to complete 8 hours of annual training on securityrelated topics, in addition to the initial 40 hours of training. The training and exam may be administered by any private patrol operator or by any of a large number of certified training facilities. This training can be in the classroom or online.[39][40] New JerseyAs of 2006 all security personnel must undergo a state mandated certified training program. This law, commonly referred to as SORA, is the state's effort to increase the quality of security personnel. New MexicoAs of 2008 all security guards must undergo FBI background checks and a certified training program. Guards who carry firearms must also undergo additional training with a firearm through an approved firearms instructor and pass a psychological exam. The security industry is regulated through the New Mexico Regulation and Licensing Division. North CarolinaSecurity Officers in North Carolina are required to register and become certified with the Private Protective Services Board (PPSB), the private security authority body under the North Carolina Department of Justice. The purpose of the Private Protective Services Board is to administer the licensing, education and training requirements for persons, firms, associations and corporations engaged in private protective services within North Carolina. The board is totally fee funded and is staffed by departmental employees directed on a daily basis by the Director, who is appointed by the Attorney General. There are two classifications for an officer: armed and unarmed. While an unarmed officer is required to take a 16 hour class of training and instruction to become certified, an armed officer must take additional hours of classroom training as well as qualify on a gun range with the firearm which will be carried on duty. OklahomaSecurity officers in Oklahoma are licensed by CLEET (Council on Law Enforcement Education and Training). To be licensed as an unarmed officer an individual must be at least 18 years of age and undergo 40 hours of classroom training and pass criminal history checks. Armed guards must be 21 years of age, have another 40 hours of classroom training, qualify with their firearm and pass a psychological evaluation. OregonDepartment of Public Safety, Standards and Training PennsylvaniaNo licensing requirements to be an unarmed security guard. However, anyone who carried a firearm or other "lethal weapon" in the course and scope of their employment must be trained as a "Certified Agent" and successfully complete a 40 hour training course (including shooting range time) in order to be certified to carry weapons while on duty under the Lethal Weapons Training Act (commonly referred to as Act 235 certification). Certification involves completing a medical physical exam, a psychological examination, classroom training and

qualifying on a pistol range, with firing of 50 rounds of ammo larger than a .380acp. Agents are also required to qualify on a shotgun. The certification is good for five years at which time an eight hour refresher course must be taken or the certification is revoked. PA State PoliceLethal Weapons Training Program South CarolinaAll Security Officers have the same authority and power to make an arrest as Sheriff's Deputies, while on the property they are paid to protect.[41] Most companies prohibit this authority by policy due to lack of confidence and liability fears. Private Officers may respond to calls for service, make arrests and use blue lights[42] and traffic radar. They may also be specially authorized by the State Law Enforcement Division (SLED) to issue Uniform Traffic Tickets to violators.[43] Security Officers are licensed or registered (as appropriate) by SLED for one year at a time. Training for unarmed officers is 8 hours, an additional 8 hours is required for a security weapons permit or a concealed security weapons permit. Additional hours are required to be documented for officers issuing public or private tickets as well as officers who will be using batons, pepper spray or tasers.

A museum guard in 1935.

VirginiaSince the 1980s, Security Officers in Virginia are required to be certified by DCJS (Department of Criminal Justice Services, the same agency that certifies law enforcement officers).[44] To be certified as an unarmed security officer one must go through 18 hours of classroom training from a certified instructor in order to obtain this card and it must be done by the end of their 90 days after hire with a Security company. Every two years the card must be renewed, by completing an in-service with a certified instructor. To be certified as an armed security officer one must complete an additional 16 hours of firearms training, 6 hours of training in conducting a lawful arrest, and qualification with the type and caliber of weapon they intend to carry. Firearms endorsements must be renewed annually by completing an in-service and passing a firearms qualification. Certified armed security officers are authorized under state code to arrest[45] for any offense committed in their presence while they are on duty at the location they are hired to protect. Unarmed officers have no arrest powers. They also are granted the authority by the by state law to issue summons to appear in court[46] for felonies and

misdemeanors. For more information on DCJS codes and regs click here. Virginia also allows security officers to attend additional 40 hours of training to become certified as Conservators of the Peace (Special Police) for the company employing them. This appointment is performed by a Circuit Court Judge, wherein the officer is actually sworn in and has the powers of a police officer on property they are working, as well as the lawful duty to act upon witnessing any felony and the ability to pursue fleeing felons. Such sworn officers are also permitted the use of sirens and red lights. Those who handle K-9s, work as dispatchers, alarm responders, private investigators, instructors, bounty hunters, armored car couriers and Executive Protection Specialists are other categories of training regulated by DCJS with additional training requirements. All positions require State Police and FBI background checks. St. Louis, MissouriSecurity officers are required to be licensed by the St. Louis County Police Department or St. Louis Police Department. St. Louis County security officer training is a two-day class and yearly renewal class. Armed officers must shoot bi-annually to keep their armed status. County license is called a Metropolitan License, meaning it is good for St. Louis City and County.[47] The St. Louis City web site has all the information regarding licensing requirements, as they are the same in the city and county.[48]

Security officers and the police

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Security personnel are not police officers, unless they are security police, but are often identified as such due to similar uniforms and behaviors, especially on private property. Security personnel in the U.S. derive their powers from state laws, which allow them a contractual arrangement with clients that give them Agent of the Owner powers. This includes a nearly unlimited power to question with the absence of probable cause requirements that frequently dog public law enforcement officers, provided that the security officer does not tread on the rights and liberties of others as guaranteed by the United States Constitution. Some jurisdictions do commission or deputize security officers and give them limited additional powers, particularly when employed in protecting public property such as mass transit stations. This is a special case that is often unique to a particular jurisdiction or locale. Additionally, security officers may also be called upon to act as an agent of law enforcement if a police officer, sheriff's deputy, etc. is in immediate need of help and has no available backup. Some security officers do have reserve police powers and are typically employed directly by governmental agencies. Typically, these are sworn law enforcement personnel whose duties primarily involve the security of a government installation, and are also a special case.

Other local and state governments occasionally enter into special contracts with security agencies to provide patrol services in public areas. These personnel are sometimes referred to as "private police officers". Sometimes, police officers work as security personnel while not on duty. This is usually done for extra income, and work is particularly done in hazardous jobs such as bodyguard work and bouncers outside nightclubs. Police are called in when a situation warrants a higher degree of authority to act upon reported observations that security does not have the authority to act upon. However, some states allow Licensed Security Officers full arrest powers equal to those of a Sheriff's Deputy. In 1976, the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration's National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals reported: 'One massive resource, filled with significant numbers of personnel, armed with a wide array of technology, and directed by professionals who have spent their entire adult lifetimes learning how to prevent and reduce crime, has not been tapped by governments in the fight against criminality. The private security industry, with over one million workers, sophisticated alarm systems and perimeter safeguards, armored trucks, sophisticated mini-computers, and thousands of highly skilled crime prevention experts, offers a potential for coping with crime that can not be equalled by any other remedy or approach.... Underutilized by police, all but ignored by prosecutors and the judiciary, and unknown to corrections officials, the private security professional may be the only person in this society who has the knowledge to effectively prevent crime.'[49] In New York City, the Area Police/Private Security Liaison program was organized in 1986 by the NYPD commissioner and four former police chiefs working in the private security industry to promote mutual respect, cross-training, and sharing of crime-related information between public police and private security.


Private Security personnel initially outnumbered police. From the Australian Bureau of Statistics Report in 2006 there were 52,768 full-time security officers in the security industry compared to 44,898 police officers. But since Security Industry Regulation Act 2007 it has dropped to less than half that.

The trend in the UK at the time of writing (March 2008) is one of polarisation. The market in Manned Guarding (the security industry term for the security guards most people are familiar with) is diverging toward two opposite extremes; one typified by a highly trained and well paid

security officer; the other with security officers on or about minimum wage with only the minimum training required by law. Within the "in-house" sector, where security personnel are not subject to licensing under the Private Security Industry Act 2001, the same divergence can be seen, with some companies opting for in-house security to maintain control of their standards, while others use it as a route to cheaper, non-regulated, security. In a very few cases, such as the Northern Ireland Security Guard Service, security guards may be attested as Special Constables.
United States

Economist Robert B. Reich, in his 1991 book The Work of Nations, stated that in the United States, the number of private security guards and officers was comparable to the number of publicly paid police officers. He used this phenomenon as an example of the general withdrawal of the affluent from existing communities where governments provide public services. Instead, the wealthy pay to provide their own premium services, through voluntary, exclusive associations. As taxpayer resistance has limited government budgets, and as the demand for secure homes in gated communities has grown, these trends have continued in the 1990s and 2000s (decade). In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks, the trend in the US is one of a quiet transformation of the role of security guards into first responders in case of a terrorist attack or major disaster. This has resulted in longer guard instruction hours, extra training in terrorism tactics and increased laws governing private security companies in some states.[50]


Standing Guard

The vigiles were soldiers assigned to guard the city of Rome, often credited as the origin of both security personnel and police, although their principal duty was as a fire brigade. There have been night watchmen since at least the Middle Ages in Europe; walled cities of ancient times also had watchmen. A special chair appeared in Europe sometime in the late Middle Ages, called the watchman's chair; this unupholstered wooden chair had a forward slanting seat to prevent the watchman from dozing off during duty. Famous Grenadier Guard infantryman, Kipling I. Peel, was said to have influenced the formation of the phrase "keeping (one's) eyes peeled". Peel was well known throughout the community as a man never to have been thought to blink his eyes, according to legend associated with the British Victorian Era. Debate on the topic is widespread. Peel had on numerous occasions claimed that he "could not, with a clear conscience take credit for such a thing".

Notable security guards

The security guard Frank Wills detected the June 17, 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C., ultimately leading to the resignation of Richard M. Nixon as President of the United States. Christoph Meili, night guard at a Swiss bank, became a whistle blower in 1997. He told about the bank destroying records related to funds of Holocaust victims, whose money the bank was supposed to return to their heirs. In 1999, Pierlucio Tinazzi rescued 10 victims from the Mont Blanc Tunnel Fire, before dying while trying to rescue an eleventh. In 2001, Gary Coleman, former child actor, was employed as a shopping mall security guard in the Los Angeles area. While shopping for a bullet-resistant vest for his job, Coleman assaulted a female autograph collector. Coleman said he felt "threatened by her insistence" and punched her in the head.[51] He was later charged for the assault and ordered to pay her $1,665 for hospital bills. Derrick Brun, an unarmed security guard employed by the Red Lake School District in Minnesota, was praised by President Bush for his heroic role in protecting children during the 2005 Red Lake High School Massacre: "Derrick's bravery cost him his life, and all Americans honor him".[52][53] Armed security guard Jeanne Assam. In 2007, Matthew Murray fatally shot two and wounded two others at the Youth With A Mission retreat center in Arvada, Colorado. A few hours later he fatally shot two others and wounded another three in the New Life Church parking lot. When Murray entered the church, he was met by armed security guard Jeanne Assam, who ordered him to drop his weapon. Assam shot and wounded Murray when he failed to comply. The pastor of New Life Church credited Assam with saving over 100 lives.[54] Richard Jewell, a security guard at Atlanta, Georgia's Centennial Olympic Park during the 1996 Summer Olympics who was wrongly accused of the Centennial Olympic Park bombing. Jewell was later cleared of those charges, and was in fact the one who saved hundreds of lives when he first noticed the suspicious package and got the area evacuated. Jewell later successfully sued several news agencies who reported him as the criminal prior to having the facts.



Many security guards in Canada are unionized. The primary unions which represent security guards in Canada are the United Food and Commercial Workers (UFCW),[55] Local 333, and the Canadian branch of the United Steelworkers (USW). In contrast to the legal restrictions in the United States, Canadian labour relations boards will certify bargaining units of security guards for a Canadian Labour Congress (CLC)-affiliated union or in the same union with other classifications of employees.
United States

In June 1947, the United States Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act placing many restrictions on labor unions. Section 9 (B) (3) of the act prevents the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) from certifying for collective bargaining any unit which mixes security employees with non-security employees. This restricts the ability of security employees to join any union that also represents other types of employees. They may be part of an independent, "security-only" union, not affiliated with any coalition of other types of labor unions such as the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO). A union which also represents non-security employees may also represent and bargain on behalf of security employees with the employer's consent. Two of the largest security unions are the Security, Police, and Fire Professionals of America (SPFPA) and the United Government Security Officers of America (UGSOA).
Security, Police, and Fire Professionals of America

In 1948 with the Taft-Hartley restrictions well into effect, the Detroit, Michigan area security guards of United Auto Workers (UAW) Amalgamated Local 114 were forced to break away and start a separate "Plant Guards Organizing Committee". The NLRB ruled that as an affiliate of the CIO, the committee was indirectly affiliated with production unions and therefore ineligible for certification under the new restrictions. The committee was then forced to completely withdraw from the CIO and start the independent United Plant Guard Workers of America. By the 1990s, this union had evolved to include many other types of security officers and changed its name to the SPFPA.
United Government Security Officers of America

In 1992, the UGSOA was formed. It specializes in organizing federal, state, and local government security officers, but since May, 2000 has been open to representing other types of security personnel as well.


The Service Employees International Union (SEIU) has also sought to represent security employees, although its efforts have been complicated by the Taft-Harley Act because the SEIU also represents janitors, trash collectors, and other building service employees.

Hazards in the Industry

Security personnel often are exposed to physical and physiological trauma that can have lasting effects. This has always been an issue, but the 21st century's more violent and angry culture combined with drug- and alcohol-related violence results in more instances of security personnel being physically or verbally abused.[citation needed] Other contributing factors are high workload, long hours, low pay, boredom and disregard of industry standards by employers and clients: e.g. break times, access to bathrooms and facilities, etc.


Bricklayer in Paoua, Central African Republic

A bricklayer or mason is a craftsman who lays bricks to construct brickwork. The term also refers to personnel who use blocks to construct blockwork walls and other forms of masonry.[1] In British and Australian English, a bricklayer is colloquially known as a "brickie".[2] The training of a trade in European cultures has been a formal tradition for many centuries.[citation needed] A craftsman typically begins in an apprenticeship, working for and learning from a master craftsman, and after a number of years is released from his master's service to become a journeyman. After a journeyman has proven himself to his trade's guild (most guilds are now known by different names), he may settle down as a master craftsman and work for himself, eventually taking on his own apprentices. A notable person who laid bricks (as a hobby) was Sir Winston Churchill.


1 In Germany o 1.1 Career 2 Bricklayers in fiction o 2.1 Bricklayers in German poetry 3 See also o 3.1 Guild clothing of the German bricklayers 4 Notes 5 External links

In Germany

German stamp showing a bricklayer

The German word for a bricklayer is Maurer. In Germany, bricklaying is one of the most traditional trades.

The aspiring bricklayers start their careers as apprentices (Lehrlinge) and learn from a master craftsman (Meister) the skills necessary for the trade. They also attend a vocational school (Berufsschule) to gain theoretical knowledge. After three years of training, they graduate by successfully completing an exam held by the guild (Innung). The apprentices must show that they are able to construct masonry, know how to protect a house from humidity or water ingress, know about thermal insulation, know about the science of construction material and about occupational health and safety. If the apprentices are successful, they are awarded with the journeymans's certificate (Gesellenbrief) and are now allowed to call themselves journeymen (Gesellen). After graduation, the journeyman may choose to go on a three years and one day journey known as the "journey years" (Wanderjahre, Walz, Str, Tippelei). For this purpose he may join an association for journeymen (Schacht). The most important journeyman associations are as follows: 1. The righteous journeymen (Rechtschaffene Fremde) The members of this association wear traditionally black ("the blacks") to express their decency (Ehrbarkeit). The association is more than 200 years old. The members have a secret ceremony which they are not allowed to describe, but people say that its content and language are of great

beauty.[citation needed] This association is very near to the unions and many of its members are members of the unions as well. 2. The free journeymen (Fremder Freiheitsschacht) This association was founded on May Day 1910 by the famous bricklayer Hermann Schfer. They wear red and are called the reds. Their maxim is "we all are brothers, we all are the same" ("Wir alle seins Brder, wir alle seins gleich" dialect). They call each other "Dear Brother" (Bruderherz). 3. Association of Roland (Rolandschacht) They wear blue and are called the blue ones. Their maxim is "loyalty and friendship and brotherhood will unite us brothers of Roland all the time" ("Treue, Freundschaft, Brderlichkeit, vereint uns Rolandsbrder alle Zeit" ). After their journey years, the craftsmen are allowed to settle down (to become a local/citizen (Einheimischer)), but they will only be allowed to do so if they behaved respectably on their journey. A person who has had many years of experience in their trade will be allowed to become a master. He will have another exam. In this exam he will show that he is an expert of the trade. He also must show that he can work well with other people and have some teaching skills, because as a master he will be allowed to educate younger bricklayers. If he does well in the exam he will be rewarded with the master craftsman's diploma (Meisterbrief) by the chamber of crafts. As a master he will be allowed to start his own construction company.

Bricklayers in fiction

The drunk bricklayer (es) large tapestry cartoon by Francisco de Goya

In several novels and short stories by Italian-American author, John Fante, hod carriers, bricklayers, and stonemasons feature prominently (perhaps most notably in his debut novel "Wait Until Spring, Bandini," "Brotherhood of the Grape," and "The Orgy"one half of the posthumously released collection "West of Rome"). This is due to the highly autobiographical nature of much of Fante's writing. Fante's father, Nick, was an Italian-born bricklayer descended fromat least in Fante's fictionsa long line of Italian artisan bricklayers and stonemasons. Moreover, the author spent a significant portion of his youth apprenticed to his father, experience that lent him the knowledge to write accurately about various details of the trade: from descriptions of the actual work, the physical toll it took on workers, the color and character of those workers, and the pride and satisfaction of a job well done. Because Fante looked up to his father (despite their numerous quarrels and fallings-out) he thus held the trade in very high regard, at times verging on romanticizing the quite difficult work it took. To him, bricklaying (and

hod carrying) was something that ennobled poorer classes; it was a respectable manual labor that required a degree of artfulness, and was a manly occupation. In Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, the title character, a Gulag prisoner, worked as a bricklayer.

Bricklayers in German poetry

Armin Berg (de): Der gewissenhafte Maurer

See also

Brick hod Construction Construction worker Guild Stonemasonry

Guild clothing of the German bricklayers

Picture of an Ehrbarkeit Traditional belt-buckle of a bricklayer (it reads: three cheers for laying bricks). The buckle is worn on a belt very much like this (this is a belt of a roofer) Bricklayer trousers Traditional bricklayer waistcoat (most times this is not white, but rather grey)

1. Jump up ^ Richard T. Kreh (2003). Masonry Skills. Thomson Delmar Learning. ISBN 0-7668-59363. 2. Jump up ^

External links



Residential plumber at work. Occupation Activity sectors Construction

A plumber is a tradesperson who specializes in installing and maintaining systems used for potable (drinking) water, sewage, and drainage in plumbing systems.[1] The term dates from ancient times, and is related to the Latin word for lead, "plumbum."


1 History 2 By country o 2.1 Plumbers in the United States o 2.2 Plumbers in the United Kingdom 3 Other uses 4 Notable plumbers 5 See also 6 References

The word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire.[2] In Roman times lead was known as plumbum in Latin (hence the abbreviation of 'Pb' for lead on the periodic table of the elements). Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes[3] and some were also covered with lead, lead was also used for piping and for making baths.[4] In medieval times anyone who worked with lead was referred to as a plumber as can be seen from an extract of workmen fixing a roof in Westminster Palace and were referred to as plumbers "To Gilbert de Westminster, plumber, working about the roof of the pantry of the little hall, covering it with lead, and about various defects in the roof of the little hall".[5] Thus a person with expertise in working with lead was first known as a Plumbarius which was later shortened to plumber.

By country
Years of training and/or experience are needed to become a skilled plumber; some jurisdictions also require that plumbers be licensed. Some needed skills, interests, and values

Reading drawings, and specifications to determine layout of water supply, waste, and venting systems Detecting faults in plumbing appliances and systems, and correctly diagnosing their causes Installing, repairing and maintaining domestic, commercial, and industrial plumbing fixtures and systems Locating and marking positions for pipe connections, passage holes, and fixtures in walls and floors Measuring, cutting, bending, and threading pipes using hand and power tools or machines Joining pipes and fittings together using soldering techniques, compression fittings, threaded fittings, and push-on fittings. Testing pipes for leaks using air and water pressure gauges Awareness of legal regulations and safety issues Ensuring safety standards and build regulations are met.

Plumbers in the United States

Each state and locality may have its own licensing and taxing schemes for plumbers. There is no federal law establishing licenses for plumbers.[6]
Plumbers in the United Kingdom

Plumbers in the United Kingdom are required to pass Level 2 and Level 3 vocational requirements of the City and Guilds of London Institute.[7]

Other uses

The term "White House Plumbers" was a popular name given to the covert White House Special Investigations Unit established on July 24, 1971 during the presidency of Richard Nixon. Their job was to plug intelligence "leaks" in the U.S. Government relating to the Vietnam War (i.e. the Pentagon Papers); hence the term "plumbers".

Notable plumbers

S Auld John Braden (politician) John Calley (engineer) Don Cameron (Victorian politician) Frank Courtnay Thomas Crapper Martin Patrick Durkin Tom Finney Joseph-Achille Francoeur Colin Furze Leon Griffith George Jennings Leslie McMahon Mike O'Mara (politician) Shawn Nelson Harry Patch Joe the Plumber During the 2008 US presidential election campaign, Samuel Joe Wurzelbacher questioned Barack Obama's proposed tax plan. The Republican McCain-Palin campaign later applied "Joe the Plumber" as a metaphor for middle-class Americans.[8] William J. Spencer Leonard Susskind Richard Trethewey Alphonse Verville Orlando Zapata

See also

Pipefitter Piping

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Jump up ^ The Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering Jump up ^ Pulsifer,Notes For a History of Lead, New York University Press, 1888 pp. 132, 158 Jump up ^ Middleton, The Remains of Ancient Rome, Vol. 2, A & C Black, 1892 Jump up ^ Historical production and uses of lead. Jump up ^ EW Wedlake; J Britton (1836). "Westminster Palace". The history of the ancient palace and late Houses of Parliament at Westminster. J B Nichols and son. p. 122. Retrieved 28 June 2010.

6. Jump up ^ Conry, Tara. "13 More Things Your Plumber Wont Tell You". Readers Digest. Retrieved 11 February 2013. 7. Jump up ^ "Plumbing Regulations in the United Kingdom". Emergency Plumber UK. Retrieved 11 February 2013. 8. Jump up ^ "Doubts raised on US 'plumber Joe'". BBC News. 2008-10-17. Retrieved 2008-10-29. "Joe Wurzelbacher, 34, found himself at the center of a media frenzy on Thursday after "Joe the plumber" was mentioned 26 times during the final debate."

Site manager
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In the construction industry, site managers, often referred to as construction managers, site agents or building managers, are responsible for the day-to-day on site running of a construction project. Site managers are required to keep within the timescale and budget of a project, and manage any delays or problems encountered on-site during a construction project. Also involved in the role is the managing of quality control, health and safety checks and the inspection of work carried out. Many site managers will be involved before site activity takes place, and are responsible for managing communications between all parties involved in the on-site development of the project. Site managers are often required to deal with inquiries and communication with the public. Typically a site manager is employed by a construction company, contractor or civil engineering firm but are often employed by local authorities to oversee the refurbishment of council owned properties.[1]


1 Qualifications 2 Career and Remuneration 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Qualifying as a site manager in the UK can be done by several routes, with many site managers having progressed from project or contract management roles. The Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB) provides an educational and accreditation framework for structural engineers and other roles in the industry,[2] and a specific Graduate Diploma Programme for those occupying jobs in construction but without a construction related degree.[3]

Career and Remuneration

Site manager's remuneration depend on a number of factors including sector, level of experience and the size of the project. A 2010 salary survey of the construction and built environment industry[4] showed the average annual salary of a site manager in the UK to be 36,981. Site managers in areas of growth in the construction industry such as the Middle East earn more, with the average earning across all sector and all levels of experience at 42,424.[5]

See also

Construction management

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Jump up ^ "Site manager: Job description and activities". Retrieved 2011-07-04. Jump up ^ "Site manager". Retrieved 2011-07-04. Jump up ^ "Find out more about being a site manager". Retrieved 2011-07-04. Jump up ^ " Salary Benchmarker". Retrieved 2011-07-04. Jump up ^ "Salary Benchmarker". Retrieved 2011-07-04.

Civil engineering
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search

Design of complex structures like the International Space Station necessitates an in-depth understanding of structural analysis

Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings.[1][2][3] Civil engineering is the oldest engineering discipline after military engineering,[4] and it was defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering.[5] It is traditionally broken into several sub-disciplines including environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, geophysics, geodesy, control engineering, structural engineering, transportation engineering, earth science, atmospheric sciences, forensic engineering, municipal or urban engineering, water resources engineering, materials engineering, offshore engineering, quantity surveying, coastal engineering,[4] surveying, and construction engineering.[6] Civil engineering takes place on all levels: in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, and in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies.


1 History of the civil engineering profession 2 History of civil engineering 3 The civil engineer

o 3.1 Education and licensure 4 Sub-disciplines o 4.1 Materials science and engineering o 4.2 Coastal engineering o 4.3 Construction engineering o 4.4 Earthquake engineering o 4.5 Environmental engineering o 4.6 Geotechnical engineering o 4.7 Water resources engineering o 4.8 Structural engineering o 4.9 Surveying o 4.10 Transportation engineering o 4.11 Municipal or urban engineering o 4.12 Forensic engineering o 4.13 Control engineering 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History of the civil engineering profession

See also: History of structural engineering

Leonhard Euler developed the theory of buckling of columns

Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence. The earliest practice of civil engineering may have commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia (Ancient Iraq) when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence, creating a need for the construction of shelter. During this time, transportation became increasingly important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing.

Until modern times there was no clear distinction between civil engineering and architecture, and the term engineer and architect were mainly geographical variations referring to the same person, often used interchangeably.[7] The construction of Pyramids in Egypt (circa 27002500 BC) might be considered the first instances of large structure constructions. Other ancient historic civil engineering constructions include the Qanat water management system (the oldest older than 3000 years and longer than 71 km,[8]) the Parthenon by Iktinos in Ancient Greece (447438 BC), the Appian Way by Roman engineers (c. 312 BC), the Great Wall of China by General Meng T'ien under orders from Ch'in Emperor Shih Huang Ti (c. 220 BC)[6] and the stupas constructed in ancient Sri Lanka like the Jetavanaramaya and the extensive irrigation works in Anuradhapura. The Romans developed civil structures throughout their empire, including especially aqueducts, insulae, harbors, bridges, dams and roads. In the 18th century, the term civil engineering was coined to incorporate all things civilian as opposed to military engineering.[5] The first self-proclaimed civil engineer was John Smeaton who constructed the Eddystone Lighthouse.[4][6] In 1771 Smeaton and some of his colleagues formed the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, a group of leaders of the profession who met informally over dinner. Though there was evidence of some technical meetings, it was little more than a social society. In 1818 the Institution of Civil Engineers was founded in London, and in 1820 the eminent engineer Thomas Telford became its first president. The institution received a Royal Charter in 1828, formally recognising civil engineering as a profession. Its charter defined civil engineering as:
the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man, as the means of production and of traffic in states, both for external and internal trade, as applied in the construction of roads, bridges, aqueducts, canals, river navigation and docks for internal intercourse and exchange, and in the construction of ports, harbours, moles, breakwaters and lighthouses, and in the art of navigation by artificial power for the purposes of commerce, and in the construction and application of machinery, and in the drainage of cities and towns.[9]

The first private college to teach Civil Engineering in the United States was Norwich University founded in 1819 by Captain Alden Partridge.[10] The first degree in Civil Engineering in the United States was awarded by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1835.[11] The first such degree to be awarded to a woman was granted by Cornell University to Nora Stanton Blatch in 1905.[12]

History of civil engineering

The Archimedes screw was operated by hand and could raise water efficiently.

Pont du Gard, France, a Roman aqueduct built circa 19 BC.

Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles for solving the problems of society, and its history is intricately linked to advances in understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history. Because civil engineering is a wide ranging profession, including several separate specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geography, geology, soils, hydrology, environment, mechanics and other fields. Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans, such as stonemasons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Knowledge was retained in guilds and seldom supplanted by advances. Structures, roads and infrastructure that existed were repetitive, and increases in scale were incremental.[13] One of the earliest examples of a scientific approach to physical and mathematical problems applicable to civil engineering is the work of Archimedes in the 3rd century BC, including Archimedes Principle, which underpins our understanding of buoyancy, and practical solutions such as Archimedes' screw. Brahmagupta, an Indian mathematician, used arithmetic in the 7th century AD, based on Hindu-Arabic numerals, for excavation (volume) computations.[14]

The civil engineer

Education and licensure Main article: Civil engineer

Civil engineers typically possess an academic degree with a major in civil engineering. The length of study for such a degree is usually three to five years and the completed degree is usually designated as a Bachelor of Engineering, though some universities designate the degree as a Bachelor of Science. The degree generally includes units covering physics, mathematics, project management, design and specific topics in civil engineering. Initially such topics cover most, if not all, of the sub-disciplines of civil engineering. Students then choose to specialize in one or more sub-disciplines towards the end of the degree.[15] While an Undergraduate (BEng/BSc) Degree will normally provide successful students with industry accredited qualification, some universities offer postgraduate engineering awards (MEng/MSc) which allow students to further specialize in their particular area of interest within engineering.[16] In most countries, a Bachelor's degree in engineering represents the first step towards professional certification and the degree program itself is certified by a professional body. After completing a certified degree program the engineer must satisfy a range of requirements (including work experience and exam requirements) before being certified. Once certified, the engineer is designated the title of Professional Engineer (in the United States, Canada and South Africa), Chartered Engineer (in most Commonwealth countries), Chartered Professional Engineer (in Australia and New Zealand), or European Engineer (in much of the European Union). There are international engineering agreements between relevant professional bodies which are designed to allow engineers to practice across international borders. The advantages of certification vary depending upon location. For example, in the United States and Canada "only a licensed professional engineer may prepare, sign and seal, and submit engineering plans and drawings to a public authority for approval, or seal engineering work for public and private clients.".[17] This requirement is enforced by state and provincial legislation such as Quebec's Engineers Act.[18] In other countries such as the UK no such legislation exists. In Australia, state licensing of engineers is limited to the state of Queensland. Practically all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethics that they expect all members to abide by or risk expulsion.[19] In this way, these organizations play an important role in maintaining ethical standards for the profession. Even in jurisdictions where certification has little or no legal bearing on work, engineers are subject to contract law. In cases where an engineer's work fails he or she may be subject to the tort of negligence and, in extreme cases, the charge of criminal negligence.[citation needed] An engineer's work must also comply with numerous other rules and regulations such as building codes and legislation pertaining to environmental law.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April

The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland.

In general, civil engineering is concerned with the overall interface of human created fixed projects with the greater world. General civil engineers work closely with surveyors and specialized civil engineers to fit and serve fixed projects within their given site, community and terrain by designing grading, drainage, pavement, water supply, sewer service, electric and communications supply, and land divisions. General engineers spend much of their time visiting project sites, developing community consensus, and preparing construction plans. General civil engineering is also referred to as site engineering, a branch of civil engineering that primarily focuses on converting a tract of land from one usage to another. Civil engineers typically apply the principles of geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, environmental engineering, transportation engineering and construction engineering to residential, commercial, industrial and public works projects of all sizes and levels of construction.
Materials science and engineering Main article: Materials science

One of the major aspects of Civil engineering is materials science. Material engineering deals with ceramics such as concrete, mix asphalt concrete, strong metals such as aluminum and steel, and polymers such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and carbon fibers. Materials engineering also consists of protection and prevention like paints and finishes. Alloying is another aspect of materials engineering, combining two types of metals to produce a stronger metal. It incorporates elements of applied physics and chemistry. With significant media attention focused on nanoscience and nanotechnology in recent years, materials science has been propelled to the forefront at many universities. It is also an important part of forensic engineering and failure analysis. Materials science also deals with fundamental properties and characteristics of materials.
Coastal engineering Main article: Coastal management

Coastal engineering is concerned with managing coastal areas. In some jurisdictions the terms sea defense and coastal protection are used to mean, respectively, defense against flooding and erosion. The term coastal defense is the more traditional term, but coastal management has

become more popular as the field has expanded to include techniques that allow erosion to claim land.
Construction engineering Main article: Construction engineering

Construction engineering involves planning and execution of the designs from transportation, site development, hydraulic, environmental, structural and geotechnical engineers. As construction firms tend to have higher business risk than other types of civil engineering firms, many construction engineers tend to take on a role that is more business-like in nature: drafting and reviewing contracts, evaluating logistical operations, and closely monitoring prices of necessary supplies.
Earthquake engineering Main article: Earthquake engineering

Snapshot from shake-table video [2] of testing base-isolated (right) and regular (left) building model

Earthquake engineering covers ability of various structures to withstand hazardous earthquake exposures at the sites of their particular location. Earthquake engineering is a sub discipline of the broader category of Structural engineering. The main objectives of earthquake engineering are:[20]

Understand interaction of structures with the shaky ground. Foresee the consequences of possible earthquakes. Design, construct and maintain structures to perform at earthquake exposure up to the expectations and in compliance with building codes.

Environmental engineering Main article: Environmental engineering

Environmental engineering deals with the treatment of chemical, biological, and/or thermal waste, the purification of water and air, and the remediation of contaminated sites, due to prior waste disposal or accidental contamination. Among the topics covered by environmental engineering are pollutant transport, water purification, waste water treatment, air pollution, solid waste treatment and hazardous waste management. Environmental engineers can be involved with pollution reduction, green engineering, and industrial ecology. Environmental engineering also deals with the gathering of information on the environmental consequences of proposed actions and the assessment of effects of proposed actions for the purpose of assisting society and policy makers in the decision making process. Environmental engineering is the contemporary term for sanitary engineering, though sanitary engineering traditionally had not included much of the hazardous waste management and environmental remediation work covered by the term environmental engineering. Some other terms in use are public health engineering and environmental health engineering.
Geotechnical engineering Main article: Geotechnical engineering

Geotechnical engineering is an area of civil engineering concerned with the rock and soil that civil engineering systems are supported by. Knowledge from the fields of geology, material science and testing, mechanics, and hydraulics are applied by geotechnical engineers to safely and economically design foundations, retaining walls, and similar structures. Environmental concerns in relation to groundwater and waste disposal have spawned a new area of study called geoenvironmental engineering where biology and chemistry are important.[21][22] Some of the unique difficulties of geotechnical engineering are the result of the variability and properties of soil. Boundary conditions are often well defined in other branches of civil engineering, but with soil, clearly defining these conditions can be impossible. The material properties and behavior of soil are also difficult to predict due to the variability of soil and limited investigation. This contrasts with the relatively well defined material properties of steel and concrete used in other areas of civil engineering. Soil mechanics, which describes the behavior of soil, is also complicated because soils exhibit nonlinear (stress-dependent) strength, stiffness, and dilatancy (volume change associated with application of shear stress).[21]
Water resources engineering See also: Hydraulic engineering and Hydrology

Hoover dam

Water resources engineering is concerned with the collection and management of water (as a natural resource). As a discipline it therefore combines hydrology, environmental science, meteorology, geology, conservation, and resource management. This area of civil engineering relates to the prediction and management of both the quality and the quantity of water in both underground (aquifers) and above ground (lakes, rivers, and streams) resources. Water resource engineers analyze and model very small to very large areas of the earth to predict the amount and content of water as it flows into, through, or out of a facility. Although the actual design of the facility may be left to other engineers. Hydraulic engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water. This area of civil engineering is intimately related to the design of pipelines, water supply network, drainage facilities (including bridges, dams, channels, culverts, levees, storm sewers), and canals. Hydraulic engineers design these facilities using the concepts of fluid pressure, fluid statics, fluid dynamics, and hydraulics, among others.
Structural engineering Main article: Structural engineering

Structural engineering is concerned with the structural design and structural analysis of buildings, bridges, towers, flyovers (overpasses), tunnels, off shore structures like oil and gas fields in the sea, aerostructure and other structures. This involves identifying the loads which act upon a structure and the forces and stresses which arise within that structure due to those loads, and then designing the structure to successfully support and resist those loads. The loads can be self weight of the structures, other dead load, live loads, moving (wheel) load, wind load, earthquake load, load from temperature change etc. The structural engineer must design structures to be safe for their users and to successfully fulfill the function they are designed for (to be serviceable). Due to the nature of some loading conditions, sub-disciplines within structural engineering have emerged, including wind engineering and earthquake engineering.[23] Design considerations will include strength, stiffness, and stability of the structure when subjected to loads which may be static, such as furniture or self-weight, or dynamic, such as wind, seismic, crowd or vehicle loads, or transitory, such as temporary construction loads or impact. Other considerations include cost, constructability, safety, aesthetics and sustainability.
Surveying Main articles: Surveying and Construction surveying

Surveying is the process by which a surveyor measures certain dimensions that generally occur on the surface of the Earth. Surveying equipment, such as levels and theodolites, are used for accurate measurement of angular deviation, horizontal, vertical and slope distances. With computerisation, electronic distance measurement (EDM), total stations, GPS surveying and laser scanning have supplemented (and to a large extent supplanted) the traditional optical

instruments. This information is crucial to convert the data into a graphical representation of the Earth's surface, in the form of a map. This information is then used by civil engineers, contractors and even realtors to design from, build on, and trade, respectively. Elements of a building or structure must be correctly sized and positioned in relation to each other and to site boundaries and adjacent structures. Although surveying is a distinct profession with separate qualifications and licensing arrangements, civil engineers are trained in the basics of surveying and mapping, as well as geographic information systems. Surveyors may also lay out the routes of railways, tramway tracks, highways, roads, pipelines and streets as well as position other infrastructures, such as harbors, before construction. Land surveying In the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and most Commonwealth countries land surveying is considered to be a distinct profession. Land surveyors are not considered to be engineers, and have their own professional associations and licencing requirements. The services of a licenced land surveyor are generally required for boundary surveys (to establish the boundaries of a parcel using its legal description) and subdivision plans (a plot or map based on a survey of a parcel of land, with boundary lines drawn inside the larger parcel to indicate the creation of new boundary lines and roads), both of which are generally referred to as cadastral surveying. Construction surveying Construction surveying is generally performed by specialised technicians. Unlike land surveyors, the resulting plan does not have legal status. Construction surveyors perform the following tasks:

Survey existing conditions of the future work site, including topography, existing buildings and infrastructure, and even including underground infrastructure whenever possible; Construction surveying (otherwise "lay-out" or "setting-out"): to stake out reference points and markers that will guide the construction of new structures such as roads or buildings for subsequent construction; Verify the location of structures during construction; As-Built surveying: a survey conducted at the end of the construction project to verify that the work authorized was completed to the specifications set on plans.

Transportation engineering Main article: Transport engineering

Transportation engineering is concerned with moving people and goods efficiently, safely, and in a manner conducive to a vibrant community. This involves specifying, designing, constructing, and maintaining transportation infrastructure which includes streets, canals, highways, rail systems, airports, ports, and mass transit. It includes areas such as transportation design, transportation planning, traffic engineering, some aspects of urban engineering, queueing theory, pavement engineering, Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), and infrastructure management.

Municipal or urban engineering Main article: Urban engineering

Municipal engineering is concerned with municipal infrastructure. This involves specifying, designing, constructing, and maintaining streets, sidewalks, water supply networks, sewers, street lighting, municipal solid waste management and disposal, storage depots for various bulk materials used for maintenance and public works (salt, sand, etc.), public parks and bicycle paths. In the case of underground utility networks, it may also include the civil portion (conduits and access chambers) of the local distribution networks of electrical and telecommunications services. It can also include the optimizing of waste collection and bus service networks. Some of these disciplines overlap with other civil engineering specialties, however municipal engineering focuses on the coordination of these infrastructure networks and services, as they are often built simultaneously, and managed by the same municipal authority.
Forensic engineering Main article: Forensic engineering

Failed fuel pipe at right from a road traffic accident

Forensic engineering is the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to property. The consequences of failure are dealt with by the law of product liability. The field also deals with retracing processes and procedures leading to accidents in operation of vehicles or machinery. The subject is applied most commonly in civil law cases, although it may be of use in criminal law cases. Generally the purpose of a Forensic engineering investigation is to locate cause or causes of failure with a view to improve performance or life of a component, or to assist a court in determining the facts of an accident. It can also involve investigation of intellectual property claims, especially patents.
Control engineering Main article: Control engineering

Control systems play a critical role in space flight

Control engineering or control systems engineering is the branch of Civil Engineering discipline that applies control theory to design systems with desired behaviors. The practice uses sensors to measure the output performance of the device being controlled (often a vehicle) and those measurements can be used to give feedback to the input actuators that can make corrections toward desired performance. When a device is designed to perform without the need of human inputs for correction it is called automatic control (such as cruise control for regulating a car's speed). Multi-disciplinary in nature, control systems engineering activities focus on implementation of control systems mainly derived by mathematical modeling of systems of a diverse range.

See also
Engineering portal

Civil engineer Engineering drawing Hydraulic engineering Index of civil engineering articles List of civil engineers

List of historic civil engineering landmarks Macro-engineering Railway systems engineering Site survey


American Society of Civil Engineers Canadian Society for Civil Engineering Institution of Civil Engineers Chi Epsilon, a civil engineering honor society Earthquake Engineering Research Institute Engineers Australia

Institution of Engineers of Ireland Institute of Transportation Engineers International Federation of Consulting Engineers Transportation Research Board The Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors

1. Jump up ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. [1] (accessed: 2007-08-08). 2. Jump up ^ "History and Heritage of Civil Engineering". ASCE. Retrieved 2007-08-08. 3. Jump up ^ "Institution of Civil Engineers What is Civil Engineering". ICE. Retrieved 2007-09-22. 4. ^ Jump up to: a b c "What is Civil Engineering?". The Canadian Society for Civil Engineering. Retrieved 2007-08-08. 5. ^ Jump up to: a b "Civil engineering". Encyclopdia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-08-09. 6. ^ Jump up to: a b c Oakes, William C.; Leone, Les L.; Gunn, Craig J. (2001). Engineering Your Future. Great Lakes Press. ISBN 1-881018-57-1 7. Jump up ^ The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance Jacob Burckhardt ISBN 0-8052-1082-2 8. Jump up ^ p. 4 of Mays, L. (2010-08-30). Ancient Water Technologies. Springer. ISBN 978-90481-8631-0. 9. Jump up ^ "Institution of Civil Engineers' website". Retrieved 2007-12-26. 10. Jump up ^ "Norwich University Legacy Website" 11. Jump up ^ Griggs, Francis E Jr. "Amos Eaton was Right!". Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, Vol. 123, No. 1, January 1997, pp. 3034. See also RPI Timeline 12. Jump up ^ "Nora Stanton Blatch Barney". Encyclopdia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2010-1008. 13. Jump up ^ Victor E. Saouma. "Lecture notes in Structural Engineering". University of Colorado. Retrieved 2007-11-02. 14. Jump up ^ Henry Thomas Colebrook, Algebra: with Arithmetic and mensuration (London 1817) 15. Jump up ^ Various undergraduate degree requirements at MIT, Cal Poly, Queen's and Portsmouth 16. Jump up ^ ,"CITE Postgrad". 17. Jump up ^ "Why Should You Get Licensed?". National Society of Professional Engineers. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 18. Jump up ^ "Engineers Act". Quebec Statutes and Regulations (CanLII). Retrieved 2007-08-11. 19. Jump up ^ "Ethics Codes and Guidelines". Online Ethics Center. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 20. Jump up ^ Chen W-F, Scawthorn C. Earthquake Engineering Handbook, CRC Press, 2003, ISBN 08493-0068-1, Chapter 2 21. ^ Jump up to: a b Mitchell, James Kenneth (1993), Fundamentals of Soil Behavior (2nd ed.), John Wiley and Sons, pp 12 22. Jump up ^ Shroff, Arvind V.; Shah, Dhananjay L. (2003), Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Taylor & Francis, 2003, pp 12 23. Jump up ^ Narayanan, R, A Beeby. Introduction to Design for Civil Engineers. London: Spon, 2003.

Decorator pattern
In object-oriented programming, the decorator pattern (also known as Wrapper, an alternative naming shared with the Adapter pattern) is a design pattern that allows behavior to be added to an individual object, either statically or dynamically, without affecting the behavior of other objects from the same class.[1]


1 Introduction 2 Motivation 3 Examples o 3.1 Java

o o

3.1.1 First Example (window/scrolling scenario) 3.1.2 Second Example (coffee making scenario)

3.2 C++ 3.3 Dynamic languages 4 See also 5 References 6 External links


Decorator UML class diagram

The decorator pattern can be used to extend (decorate) the functionality of a certain object statically, or in some cases at run-time, independently of other instances of the same class, provided some groundwork is done at design time. This is achieved by designing a new decorator class that wraps the original class. This wrapping could be achieved by the following sequence of steps:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Subclass the original "Component" class into a "Decorator" class (see UML diagram); In the Decorator class, add a Component pointer as a field; Pass a Component to the Decorator constructor to initialize the Component pointer; In the Decorator class, redirect all "Component" methods to the "Component" pointer; and In the ConcreteDecorator class, override any Component method(s) whose behavior needs to be modified.

This pattern is designed so that multiple decorators can be stacked on top of each other, each time adding a new functionality to the overridden method(s). Note that decorators and the original class object share a common set of features. In the previous diagram, the "operation()" method was available in both the decorated and undecorated versions. The decoration features (e.g., methods, properties, or other members) are usually defined by an interface, mixin (a.k.a. "trait") or class inheritance which is shared by the decorators and the decorated object. In the previous example the class "Component" is inherited by both the "ConcreteComponent" and the subclasses that descend from "Decorator".

The decorator pattern is an alternative to subclassing. Subclassing adds behavior at compile time, and the change affects all instances of the original class; decorating can provide new behavior at run-time for individual objects. This difference becomes most important when there are several independent ways of extending functionality. In some object-oriented programming languages, classes cannot be created at runtime, and it is typically not possible to predict, at design time, what combinations of extensions will be needed. This would mean that a new class would have to be made for every possible combination. By contrast, decorators are objects, created at runtime, and can be combined on a per-use basis. The I/O Streams implementations of both Java and the .NET Framework incorporate the decorator pattern.


UML Diagram for the Window Example

As an example, consider a window in a windowing system. To allow scrolling of the window's contents, we may wish to add horizontal or vertical scrollbars to it, as appropriate. Assume windows are represented by instances of the Window class, and assume this class has no functionality for adding scrollbars. We could create a subclass ScrollingWindow that provides them, or we could create a ScrollingWindowDecorator that adds this functionality to existing Window objects. At this point, either solution would be fine. Now let's assume we also desire the ability to add borders to our windows. Again, our original Window class has no support. The ScrollingWindow subclass now poses a problem, because it has effectively created a new kind of window. If we wish to add border support to all windows, we must create subclasses WindowWithBorder and ScrollingWindowWithBorder. Obviously, this problem gets worse with every new feature to be added. For the decorator solution, we simply create a new BorderedWindowDecoratorat runtime, we can decorate existing windows with the ScrollingWindowDecorator or the BorderedWindowDecorator or both, as we see fit. Note, in the previous example, that the "SimpleWindow" & "WindowDecorator" classes implement the "Window" interface, which defines the "draw();" method and the

"getDescription();" method, that are required in this scenario, in order to decorate a window control. Another good example of where a decorator can be desired is when there is a need to restrict access to an object's properties or methods according to some set of rules or perhaps several parallel sets of rules (different user credentials, etc.) In this case instead of implementing the access control in the original object it is left unchanged and unaware of any restrictions on its use, and it is wrapped in an access control decorator object, which can then serve only the permitted subset of the original object's interface.

Java First Example (window/scrolling scenario)

The following Java example illustrates the use of decorators using the window/scrolling scenario.
// the Window interface class public interface Window { public void draw(); // draws the Window public String getDescription(); // returns a description of the Window } // extension of a simple Window without any scrollbars class SimpleWindow implements Window { public void draw() { // draw window } public String getDescription() { return "simple window"; } }

The following classes contain the decorators for all Window classes, including the decorator classes themselves.
// abstract decorator class - note that it implements Window abstract class WindowDecorator implements Window { protected Window decoratedWindow; // the Window being decorated public WindowDecorator (Window decoratedWindow) { this.decoratedWindow = decoratedWindow; } public void draw() { decoratedWindow.draw(); //delegation } public String getDescription() { return decoratedWindow.getDescription(); //delegation

} } // the first concrete decorator which adds vertical scrollbar functionality class VerticalScrollBarDecorator extends WindowDecorator { public VerticalScrollBarDecorator (Window decoratedWindow) { super(decoratedWindow); } @Override public void draw() { super.draw(); drawVerticalScrollBar(); } private void drawVerticalScrollBar() { // draw the vertical scrollbar } @Override public String getDescription() { return super.getDescription() + ", including vertical scrollbars"; } } // the second concrete decorator which adds horizontal scrollbar functionality class HorizontalScrollBarDecorator extends WindowDecorator { public HorizontalScrollBarDecorator (Window decoratedWindow) { super(decoratedWindow); } @Override public void draw() { super.draw(); drawHorizontalScrollBar(); } private void drawHorizontalScrollBar() { // draw the horizontal scrollbar } @Override public String getDescription() { return super.getDescription() + ", including horizontal scrollbars"; } }

Here's a test program that creates a Window instance which is fully decorated (i.e., with vertical and horizontal scrollbars), and prints its description:
public class DecoratedWindowTest { public static void main(String[] args) { // create a decorated Window with horizontal and vertical scrollbars Window decoratedWindow = new HorizontalScrollBarDecorator ( new VerticalScrollBarDecorator (new SimpleWindow()));

// print the Window's description System.out.println(decoratedWindow.getDescription()); } }

The output of this program is "simple window, including vertical scrollbars, including horizontal scrollbars". Notice how the getDescription method of the two decorators first retrieve the decorated Window's description and decorates it with a suffix.
Second Example (coffee making scenario)

The next Java example illustrates the use of decorators using coffee making scenario. In this example, the scenario only includes cost and ingredients.
// The abstract Coffee class defines the functionality of Coffee implemented by decorator public abstract class Coffee { public abstract double getCost(); // returns the cost of the coffee public abstract String getIngredients(); // returns the ingredients of the coffee } // extension of a simple coffee without any extra ingredients public class SimpleCoffee extends Coffee { public double getCost() { return 1; } public String getIngredients() { return "Coffee"; } }

The following classes contain the decorators for all Coffee classes, including the decorator classes themselves..
// abstract decorator class - note that it extends Coffee abstract class public abstract class CoffeeDecorator extends Coffee { protected final Coffee decoratedCoffee; protected String ingredientSeparator = ", "; public CoffeeDecorator (Coffee decoratedCoffee) { this.decoratedCoffee = decoratedCoffee; } public double getCost() { // implementing methods of the abstract class return decoratedCoffee.getCost(); } public String getIngredients() { return decoratedCoffee.getIngredients(); }

} // Decorator Milk that mixes milk with coffee // note it extends CoffeeDecorator class Milk extends CoffeeDecorator { public Milk (Coffee decoratedCoffee) { super(decoratedCoffee); } public double getCost() { // overriding methods defined in the abstract superclass return super.getCost() + 0.5; } public String getIngredients() { return super.getIngredients() + ingredientSeparator + "Milk"; } } // Decorator Whip that mixes whip with coffee // note it extends CoffeeDecorator class Whip extends CoffeeDecorator { public Whip (Coffee decoratedCoffee) { super(decoratedCoffee); } public double getCost() { return super.getCost() + 0.7; } public String getIngredients() { return super.getIngredients() + ingredientSeparator + "Whip"; } } // Decorator Sprinkles that mixes sprinkles with coffee // note it extends CoffeeDecorator class Sprinkles extends CoffeeDecorator { public Sprinkles (Coffee decoratedCoffee) { super(decoratedCoffee); } public double getCost() { return super.getCost() + 0.2; } public String getIngredients() { return super.getIngredients() + ingredientSeparator + "Sprinkles"; } }

Here's a test program that creates a Coffee instance which is fully decorated (i.e., with milk, whip, sprinkles), and calculate cost of coffee and prints its ingredients:
public class Main {

public static final void main(String[] args) { Coffee c = new SimpleCoffee(); System.out.println("Cost: " + c.getCost() + "; Ingredients: " + c.getIngredients()); c = new Milk(c); System.out.println("Cost: " + c.getCost() + "; Ingredients: " + c.getIngredients()); c = new Sprinkles(c); System.out.println("Cost: " + c.getCost() + "; Ingredients: " + c.getIngredients()); c = new Whip(c); System.out.println("Cost: " + c.getCost() + "; Ingredients: " + c.getIngredients()); // Note that you can also stack more than one decorator of the same type c = new Sprinkles(c); System.out.println("Cost: " + c.getCost() + "; Ingredients: " + c.getIngredients()); } }


Here is an example program written in C++: Includes

#include <iostream> #include <string>

Abstract base class

// The abstract Coffee class defines the functionality of Coffee implemented by decorator struct Coffee { virtual double getCost() = 0; // returns the cost of the coffee virtual std::string getIngredients() = 0; // returns the ingredients of the coffee virtual ~Coffee() = 0; }; inline Coffee::~Coffee(){}

SimpleCoffee class.
// extension of a simple coffee without any extra ingredients struct SimpleCoffee : Coffee { double getCost() { return 1.0; }

std::string getIngredients() { return "Coffee"; } };

// Decorator Milk that adds milk to coffee struct MilkDecorator : Coffee { public: MilkDecorator (Coffee* basicCoffee) :basicCoffee_(basicCoffee) { } double getCost() { // providing methods defined in the abstract superclass return basicCoffee_->getCost() + 0.5; } std::string getIngredients() { return basicCoffee_->getIngredients() + ", " + "Milk"; } private: Coffee* basicCoffee_; }; // Decorator Whip that adds whip to coffee struct WhipDecorator : Coffee { public: WhipDecorator (Coffee* basicCoffee) :basicCoffee_(basicCoffee) { } double getCost() { return basicCoffee_->getCost() + 0.7; } std::string getIngredients() { return basicCoffee_->getIngredients() + ", " + "Whip"; } private: Coffee* basicCoffee_; };

Test program
int main() { SimpleCoffee s; std::cout << "Cost: " << s.getCost() << "; Ingredients: " << s.getIngredients() << std::endl; MilkDecorator m(&s);

std::cout << "Cost: " << m.getCost() << "; Ingredients: " << m.getIngredients() << std::endl; WhipDecorator w(&s); std::cout << "Cost: " << w.getCost() << "; Ingredients: " << w.getIngredients() << std::endl; // Note that you can stack decorators: MilkDecorator m2(&w); std::cout << "Cost: " << m2.getCost() << "; Ingredients: " << m2.getIngredients() << std::endl; }

The output of this program is given below:

Cost: Cost: Cost: Cost: 1.0; 1.5; 1.7; 2.2; Ingredients: Ingredients: Ingredients: Ingredients: Coffee Coffee, Milk Coffee, Whip Coffee, Whip, Milk

Dynamic languages

The decorator pattern can also be implemented in dynamic languages either with interfaces or with traditional OOP inheritance.

Not to be confused with someone who rides a roof of a train, or Atapper.

A German roofer installing a reed roof (he is wearing the traditional vest and trousers of a crafts person)

Roofers laying a tiled roof in Denver, Colorado

Two roofers at work on a slate roof New Orleans, Louisiana A roofer is a construction worker who specializes in roof construction. Roofers concentrate on the application of materials that water proof and/or weather proof buildings, designed material as a substrate for the roofing materials to be installed on, the rafters, beams, and trusses are the frame or skeleton for the roof to be built upon. Roofers must be able to work, have good motor skills and possess general carpentry skills. In Australia this type of carpenter is called a roof carpenter and the term roofer refers to someone who installs the roof cladding (tiles, tin, etc.).

In the US, a trained roofer is called a journeyman. There is not any UK legislation in place that requires a roofer to have a license to trade. Although some belong to recognized trade organization. Most roofers of good repute should come with an abundance of valid references, and proof of workman's comp. A competent roofer in the UK would be capable of carrying out most domestic roofing projects. These would include built up flat roof systems and pitched roofing works including natural slating and concrete and clay roof tiling. Also he would need a good and applicable knowledge of lead work to weather proof areas such as chimneys and abutments.

Architectural engineering

Csar Pelli's Ratner Athletic Center uses cables, counterweights and masts as load-bearing devices.

Architectural engineering, also known as building engineering, is the application of engineering principles and technology to building design and construction. Definitions of an architectural engineer may refer to:

An engineer in the structural, mechanical, electrical, construction or other engineering fields of building design and construction. A licensed engineering professional in parts of the United States. In informal contexts, and formally in some places, a professional synonymous with or similar to an architect.


1 Engineering for building o 1.1 Structural engineering o 1.2 Mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) 2 The architectural engineer (PE) in the United States 3 The architect as architectural engineer 4 Education o 4.1 Architectural engineering as a single integrated field of study 5 See also 6 References

Engineering for building

Structural engineering Main article: Structural engineering

Structural engineering involves the analysis and design of physical objects (buildings, bridges, equipment supports, towers and walls). Those concentrating on buildings are responsible for the structural performance of a large part of the built environment and are, sometimes, informally referred to as "building engineers". Structural engineers require expertise in strength of materials and in the seismic design of structures covered by earthquake engineering. Architectural

Engineers sometimes practice structural as one aspect of their designs; the structural discipline when practiced as a specialty works closely with architects and other engineering specialists.
Mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) Main article: Mechanical, electrical, and plumbing

MEP room in a building

Mechanical engineering and electrical engineering engineers are specialists, commonly referred to as "MEP" (mechanical, electrical, and plumbing) when engaged in the building design fields. Also known as "building services engineering" in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia.[1] Mechanical engineers often design and oversee the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), plumbing, and rain gutter systems. Plumbing designers often include design specifications for simple active fire protection systems, but for more complicated projects, fire protection engineers are often separately retained. Electrical engineers are responsible for the building's power distribution, telecommunication, fire alarm, signalization, lightning protection and control systems, as well as lighting systems.

The architectural engineer (PE) in the United States

Main article: Architectural engineer (PE)

In many jurisdictions of the United States, the architectural engineer is a licensed engineering professional.[2] Usually a graduate of an architectural engineering university program preparing students to perform whole-building design in competition with architect-engineer teams; or for practice in one of structural, mechanical or electrical fields of building design, but with an appreciation of integrated architectural requirements. Formal architectural engineering education, following the engineering model of earlier disciplines, developed in the late 19th century, and became widespread in the United States by the mid-20th century. With the establishment of a specific "architectural engineering" NCEES Professional Engineering registration examination in the 1990s, and first offering in April 2003, architectural engineering became recognized as a distinct engineering discipline in the United States. Architectural engineers are not entitled to practice architecture unless they are also licensed as architects.

The architect as architectural engineer

See also: Architect

In some countries architecture, as a profession providing architectural services, is sometimes referred to as "architectural engineering". In others, such as in Japan, the terms "architecture" and "building engineering" are used synonymously.[3] The practice of architecture includes the planning, designing and overseeing the building's construction. In some languages, such as Korean and Arabic, "architect" is literally translated as "architectural engineer". In some countries, an "architectural engineer" (such as the ingegnere edile in Italy) is entitled to practice architecture and is often referred to as an architect.[4] These individuals are often also structural engineers. In other countries, such as Germany, Austria, Iran, Pakistan and most of the Arabic countries, architecture graduates receive an engineering degree (Dipl.-Ing. Diplom-Ingenieur).[5] In Brazil, architects and engineers used to share the same accreditation process (CONFEA Federal Council of Engineering, Architecture and Agronomy). Now the Brazilian architects and urbanists have their own accreditation process (CAU Architecture and Urbanism Council). Besides traditional architecture design training, Brazilian architecture courses also offer complementary training in engineering disciplines such as structural, electrical, hydraulic and mechanical engineering. After graduation, architects can be fully responsible for design and construction in these areas (except in electric wiring, where the architect autonomy is limited to systems up to 30kVA), applied to buildings, urban environment, built cultural heritage, landscape planning, interiorscape planning and regional planning.[6][7]

Further information: Engineer's degree

The architectural, structural, mechanical and electrical engineering branches each have well established educational requirements that are usually fulfilled by completion of a university program.

Bringing together knowledge of acoustic engineering and HVAC is one example of the multi-disciplined nature of architectural engineering Architectural engineering as a single integrated field of study Main article: Building engineering education

An air handling unit is used for the heating and cooling of air in a central location (click on image for legend). What differentiates architectural engineering as a separate and single, integrated field of study, compared to other engineering disciplines, is its multi-disciplined engineering approach. Through training in and appreciation of architecture, the field seeks integration of building systems within its overall building design. Architectural engineering includes the design of building systems including heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), plumbing, fire protection, electrical, lighting, architectural acoustics, and structural systems. In some university programs, students are required to concentrate on one of the systems; in others, they can receive a generalist architectural or building engineering degree.