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DESIGN GUIDE
RUUKKI EASY BRIDGE

Table of contents 1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1 Fast and reliable bridge solution . . . . . 3 1.2 Design material and IP rights. . . . . . . . 4 6 Substructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6.1 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6.2 Support stresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6.3 Steel pipe piles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 6.4 Concrete substructures . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2 Structural systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Bridge types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3 Bridge geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1 Main dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2 Vertical geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3 Horizontal geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.4 Transverse inclination. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.5 Skewness of the end. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4 Materials and life-cycle design. . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2 Steel structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.3 Concrete structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5 Structural members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.1 Edge beams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2 Deck slab. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.3 End sections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.3.1 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.3.2 Concrete end member. . . . . . . . 13 5.3.3 Steel end section. . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.3.4 End section cast in situ. . . . . . . 15 5.3.5 End section with an expansion joint. . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Appendix 1. List of standard drawings. . . . 34 Appendix 2. Production description. . . . . . 36 Appendix 3. General drawing example. . . . 38 Appendix 4. Approval of Finnish Transport Agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Appendix 5. Request for surrender of Ruukki Easy Bridge design material . . . . . 40 Contact persons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 8 Surface structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 9 Design process and documents. . . . . . . . . 29 9.1 Bridge design stages. . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 9.2 Bills of quantities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 9.3 Cost estimate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 9.4 Structural calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . 30 9.5 Lists of reinforcements . . . . . . . . . . . 30 9.6 Drawings and the building 10 Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 information model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.2.1 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2.2 Ruukki Easy Bridge Classic. . . . . 5

6.5 Existing substructures. . . . . . . . . . . . 24 7 Accessories and devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 7.1 Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 7.2 Expansion joint devices. . . . . . . . . . . 26 7.3 Vehicle parapets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 7.4 Drainage system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7.5 Contact pins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7.6 Monitoring pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

2.2.3 Ruukki Easy Bridge Premium . . . 6

5.4 Transition slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5.5 Steel girders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Ruukki Easy Bridge

Figure 1.1 Ruukki Easy Bridge frame structure. Ruukki has the right to use the CE marking defined in execution standard EN 1090 for the steel girders.

1 Introduction 1.1 Fast and reliable bridge solution Ruukki Easy Bridge is a modern standard bridge solution adaptable to individual projects, which makes use of the best properties of materials, structural solutions and work methods. It is a fast and reliable way to build an overall economically advantageous bridge:

High degree of prefabrication


- Smaller construction-related risks - Improved occupational safety - Reduced need of resources at site Documented quality product - Ruukkis CE marked structural steel products meet European quality and safety requirements Strong and durable - Design life 100 years

Predesigned standard solution for Finnish roads


- Complete designs ready after fitting of bridge to site - Suitable for new and existing bridge sites Quick completion schedule - Installable in one day - Less disturbance to traffic - Shorter project payback time

Ruukki Easy Bridge

1.2 Design material and IP rights This design guide gives the bridge designer sufficient information for utilising the set of designs and its application when deviating from standard solutions. The guide also serves as support material for the client of the design work and the person responsible for directing the design work. The copyright and other Industrial Property (IP) rights to the material consisting of this general design guide, drawings and building information model (BIM) of the Ruukki Easy Bridge standard bridge as well as other design material of the standard series, such as structural calculations, belong to Ruukki. Ruukki shall supply the necessary drawings and the BIM to be used in the final design of the bridge against a request for surrender of design material as per Appendix 5. The surrendered design material must not be used in bridge projects other than the one for which Ruukki has surrendered the design material. Surrender and/ or utilisation of the design material for another bridge, even one with the same boundary condi-

tions, requires submitting a request for surrender of design material to Ruukki. That also ensures that the used design material corresponds to the latest designs and approval. The production of the load-bearing steel structures of the superstructure of a bridge designed using Ruukki Easy Bridge design material supplied by Ruukki is the responsibility of Ruukki. The design material for such a bridge must specify Ruukki Easy Bridge as the bridge type. The above notwithstanding, this general design guide may also be used more generally in the design of composite girder bridges. The performance of a bridge structure defined on the basis of the information presented in this guide must be determined by separate structural calculations concerning the entire bridge structure when the bridge in question is not a Ruukki Easy Bridge. The Ruukki Easy Bridge has been designed according to Eurocodes and the design instructions of the Finnish Transport Agency and has been inspected and approved by the Agency. The instructions and standard drawings referred to in this guide can be downloaded from www.liikennevirasto.fi/sillat.

Ruukki Easy Bridge

Figure 2.1 Structural cross-section of the superstructure.

2 Structural systems 2.1 General Ruukki Easy Bridge is a single-span composite bridge with a reinforced concrete deck implemented either with or without expansion joints. An integral bridge is the solution recommended for new bridges as it provides a structure of better overall economy that is easier to maintain. The superstructure of the bridge consists of steel girders, a concrete deck slab and a steel or concrete end section. All structural members can be prefabricated, or in the case of concrete structures, also cast in situ. The steel girders and the deck slab of reinforced concrete together with the stud bolts form a composite structure that takes live loads and dead loads after the installation and casting of the concrete deck. The bridge superstructure is built using the unsupported construction method. The steel girders are lifted directly onto their final supports and prefabricated structural members of the deck slab and the end section onto steel girders. If the deck slab is cast in situ, its scaffolding and formwork systems can be supported directly on the steel main girders.

2.2 Bridge types 2.2.1 General Due to the differences in traffic routes and bridge sites, bridge types have been developed for various conditions. There are differences between bridge types as to their main dimensions, magnitudes of vehicle and fatigue loads, and structural member types. 2.2.2 Ruukki Easy Bridge Classic Ruukki Easy Bridge Classic is suitable for local and low volume roads subject to smaller vehicle and fatigue loads. Its span length ranges from 11 to 29 m and effective width from 4.5 to 6.5 m. The steel components of the superstructure are surface-treated or alternately made of weather-resistant steel. With the Classic, all alternate types of structural members of the standard series are possible, excluding a steel end section with longer span lengths (> 23 m). The concrete deck slab and end section may be prefabricated or cast in situ, and the deck may also have no surface structure if the deck slab has no edge beam.

Ruukki Easy Bridge

Figure 2.2 A composite bridge with a case-specific precast deck slab without edge beam and traverse concrete end section.

The bridge is designed for the vehicle loads specified in Eurocodes (Finnish Transport Agency, NCCI 1, B.4):

The bridge is designed for the vehicle loads specified in Eurocodes (Finnish Transport Agency, NCCI 1, B.4):

Load model LM1 0.8 (sufficient load level for state


subsidised bridges on private roads) Fatigue load model FLM3 - Traffic type: medium distance - Traffic class 4: local roads with low flow rates of lorries 2.2.3 Ruukki Easy Bridge Premium Ruukki Easy Bridge Premium is suitable for public roads and projects subject to a requirement level above that of the Classic. Its span length range is 15 to 35 m and effective width range 6.5 to 10.5 m. The steel components of the superstructure are surface-treated or alternately made of weather-resistant steel. The use of weather-resistant steel is limited by the range of plate thicknesses available for span lengths exceeding 33 m when effective width exceeds 8.5 m. The Premium has no steel-end-section option. The concrete deck slab and end section may be prefabricated or cast in situ provided that the prefabricated end sections are suitable for maximum span lengths and effective widths corresponding to those of the Classic. Basically, the Premium is not available without a surface structure. The bridge always has an edge beam enclosing the surface structure. However, if the bridge is on a low-level road network and the client accepts a deck slab without edge beam, it can be used. 6
Ruukki Easy Bridge

Load model LM1 and nationally determined load


model LM3 for special vehicles

Fatigue load model FLM3


- Traffic type: medium distance - Traffic class 2: roads and motorways with medium flow rates of lorries

Figure 2.3 A composite bridge of weather-resistant steel with a prefabricated deck.

3 Bridge geometry 3.1 Main dimensions

Transition and safety barrier* Surface structures according to a specific design

Total bridge length (L) SI Steel girders Vehicle parapet Concrete deck S2 *

Transition slab to level off settlement differences between bridge and embankment where necessary

Fixed bearings

**

Clear span Design water level

** Movable bearings Clearance height

Bridge slopes and covering according to a specific design

Possible soil replacements and frost protections according to a specific design Substructures according to a specific design SL35000 Span length ** erosion protection according to a specific design, if necessary Stability and possible consolidation of bridge embankment according to a specific design

Figure 3.1 Side view of bridge. Longitudinal main dimensions.

Overall width (OW) EW + 700

350

4500 EW 10500 Effective width (EW)

350

Mounting of vehicle parapet according to selected parapet type

RGL Road grade line

0.03

hc

0.03

500 a (Classic) 600 (Premium)

Total height of superstructure

Structural height of superstructure (h)

10 Neoprene (on prefabricated deck)

hs

2a

Width of lower flange (w)

3000 (EW = 4.5 m) 4000 (EW = 6.5 m) 5000 (EW = 8.5 m) 6200 (EW = 10.5 m)

Figure 3.2 Bridge cross-section. Main dimensions in transverse direction and direction of radius of vertical curvature.

Ruukki Easy Bridge

The standard spans of the bridge according to the standard designs (SL) are 11, 13, up to 35 m, and effective widths (EW) 4.5, 6.5, 8.5 and 10.5 m (Figures 1 and 2). The bridge may also be designed for nonstandard dimensions without additional computational analyses with the following restrictions and design updates made by the bridge designer. With span lengths deviating from standard values, the next biggest standard span length (11, 13, up to 35 m) is selected for the bridge superstructure, which is then shortened to the desired value. With a prefabricated deck, the bridge may in principle be 0.8 or 1.6 m shorter than the standard span length. Effective width can be reduced from the values specified in the standard designs by the width of the edge beams ( 0.8 m). In structural calculations, the calculated effective width of the deck does not include the share of the edge beams at the standard values of effective widths. The structural heights (h) of the bridge are as presented in Table 3.1. With an in-situ-cast deck, structural height is 10 mm lower. By contrast, the structural height is 40 mm higher with a deck slab without edge beam. The bridge designer makes the necessary revisions in the AutoCAD drawings of the standard design set supplied by Ruukki at the final design stage and in the Tekla Structures building information model for steel girders.

Structural height (h) SL (m) 11 13 EW (m) 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 Classic (mm) Premium (mm) 1118 1148 1118 1148 1168 1198 1268 1298 1368 1398 1468 1498 1568 1598 1768 1798 1918 1948 2068 2098 1298 1329 1409 1298 1329 1409 1398 1429 1509 1498 1529 1609 1598 1629 1709 1798 1829 1909 1948 1979 2059 2098 2129 2209 2198 2229 2359 2298 2329 2459 2398 2429 2559

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

33

35

Table 3.1 Structural height (h) of the superstructure of the bridge shown in Figure 3.2 in direction of radius of curvature.
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Ruukki Easy Bridge

3.2 Vertical geometry The vertical geometry of the road is taken into account in the shape of the steel girders. The bridge designer defines the desired vertical geometric shape of the girder as an arc of constant radius and the differences in the elevations of the bottom flange of the girder system at the bridge support lines. The defined values are taken into account in the building information model of the steel girders supplied by Ruukki. The vertical geometry of the steel girders is formed on the basis of the shape of the road grade line while keeping the centre of curvature in place when defining the curvature of each level. If the vertical geometry of the bridge deviates from the horizontal, the designer must estimate the need of steel-girder wedge plates in the design of bearings and, if necessary, include them in the designs. 3.3 Horizontal geometry Slight horizontal curvature of the bridge can be introduced without curving the steel girders horizontally by narrowing the bridge to compensate for the curvature. However, the narrowing cannot exceed the maximum narrowing of the effective width of the bridge. The steel girders should be positioned in relation to the curved deck structure so that the eccentricity of the deck slab in the middle of the span is equal to that along the support lines but reverse. The positioning of the deck slab in relation to the steel girders may also be implemented differently, but it must be ensured in the positioning that the outer edge of the deck slab does not come further away from the centre line of the bridge than in the original, unnarrowed straight bridge. Horizontal deck curvature causes changes in the drawings of the deck slab and the end sections of the bridge. It is recommended to cast a curved deck slab in situ. Besides the changed effective width, also such features as the transverse eccentricity of the steel girders and the end section and the effects of the horizontal curvature on the longitudinal wing structures of the bridge need to be taken into account in the end sections. The bridge designer updates the changes required by the horizontal curvatures in the standard series drawings. 3.4 Transverse inclination In the standard series, a ridge runs along the centre line of the bridge and the deck inclines 3% on both sides. Values deviating from that, or one-sided transverse inclination, require redesigning the deck slab and adapting the end sections to the changed situation.

As regards the steel girders, the standard structure can be used without additional computational analyses, provided that the deck slab is modified so that changes in the cross-sectional area of the deck slab are small within the calculated effective width of the composite girder. Then, the bridge designer modifies the structure and the building information model supplied by Ruukki so that the changed inclination of the deck slab is taken into account in the differences between the elevations of the main girders. Changes required by the differences in the elevations of girders also need to be made in steel cross beams and their joints. 3.5 Skewness of the end The standard bridge series is suitable for sites where the skewness of the bridge, that is, the angle between the support line of the superstructure and the normal of the bridge centre line does not exceed 20. At those skewness values, the designs of the bridge superstructure can be used without additional analyses of the steel girders and deck slab. However, the end sections and loads on the bearings must be re-analysed and case-specific designs must be made for the end sections using the structural solutions of the squareended bridge of the standard series. With skew-ended bridges, the revisions of the deck slab design concern the general arrangement and reinforcement drawings of the bridge end section. If a prefabricated deck is used, then skewness affects primarily the shape of the outermost fitting elements. Besides the revision of the designs of the end section and the deck, the bridge designer edits the building information model supplied by Ruukki to take the skewness of the bridge end into account. 4 Materials and life-cycle design 4.1 General Bridges are generally required to have a design life of 100 years, which is not possible with all bridge types and materials. A shorter design life is allowed for individual structural members of the bridge. Thus, they may need to be replaced during the life cycle of the bridge. It should be noted that design life is defined so that the majority of the structures clearly exceeds it, provided that the bridge is maintained during its service life. Bridge designers should explain issues related to design life to the client. Ruukki Easy Bridges have been designed to meet the 100 year design life requirement. The set level of requirements has provided the framework for longterm structural bridge design, including fatigue of structures, cracking of concrete structures and corrosion allowances for steel structures.

Ruukki Easy Bridge

4.2 Steel structures The main girders of the standard bridge are welded plate girders and the cross beams are hot rolled profiles or alternately equivalent welded plate girders. The material of the main girders is S355NL/ML (NL- or MLquality according to Ruukkis choise) and that of the cross beams S355J2+N, or the same as that of accessories (S355K2+N), if they are welded together from plates. The material of stud bolts is S235J2+N+C450 and that of brake bars S355J2+N. The end sections of steel are made of S355J2H rectangular hollow sections. If weather-resistant steel that withstands climatic corrosion is used, the main girders and accessories are made of steel grade S355K2W+N, which is then also normally used for the cross beams. The surfaces of a bridges steel structures are treated under carefully controlled plant conditions to ensure paint coating performance and long-term durability. Unless otherwise required, the paint system used for the steel girders conforms to specification TIEL 4.12 of the Finnish Transport Agency (SILKO 3.351 Painting Systems for Painting and Repainting, and the complementary letter 1108/2006/30/74 of the Finnish Transport Agency). The cross beams of the steel girders may also be hot-dip galvanised, as may the short main girders (total length 15 m) in exceptional cases, if so specified in the bridge designs. Alternatively, the steel girders can be made of weather-resistant steel. Weather-resistant material makes the structure maintenance free. The specific alloying elements in the steel produce the dense oxide layer, i.e. patina, that adheres to the steel surface and impedes further access of oxygen. The oxide layer develops under conditions of alternate wetting and drying. In normal weather conditions, a protective oxide layer forms in 1 to 3 years. At first, the protective layer is reddish-brown but darkens over time. The use of weather-resistant steel in design requires taking it into account in structural details and plate thicknesses. The corrosion allowances for steel surfaces used in the standard series over a design life of 100 years are 0.6 mm/surface in clean rural climate without salt exposure and 1.0 mm/surface in clean urban climate with occasional salt exposure. The end section of steel and its accessories have been hot-dip galvanised. Its service life has been evaluated on the basis of the service life dimensioning method (Section 3.12) of the Corrugated Steel Pipe for Bridges design instruction of the Finnish Transport Agency. In Condition Class 1, where de-icing salt is used neither on the overpass nor the underpass road, the calculated design life of the structure is 82 years, and in Condi-

tion Class 2, where de-icing salt is used, it is 64 years when the average thickness of the zinc layer is 85 m according to the standard series. If necessary, an even longer design life can be achieved through additional protection such as increasing the thickness of the zinc layer or by applying additional protective coats of paint to the surfaces in contact with soil, as presented in the above-mentioned instruction. The bridge designer specifies the surface treatments of steel components and possible service-life extending measures together with the client and updates the standard series designs correspondingly. Figure 4.1 shows the standard colours of bridges. The colour code is taken into account in setting the parameters of the BIM of the steel girders.
RR21 RR29 RR34 RR36

Light grey

Red

Light blue

Light green

Figure 4.1 Ruukki Easy Bridge standard colours. Due to the printing process, the colours shown may vary slightly from actual hues.

4.3 Concrete structures In the case of concrete structures, specifications for the design life of individual structural members in different stress conditions are presented in Section 4 of Finnish Transport Agency publication NCCI 2. The design lives of structural members vary from 50 to 100 years. The bridge designer specifies the exposure classes and minimum requirements for concrete structures, and, together with the client, possible protection of concrete surfaces (damp-proofing, form fabric, protective treatment) against chloride exposures to attain the desired design life. Some alternative exposure classes for structural members and minimum requirements for concrete structures are preliminarily selected in the standard drawings to facilitate the bridge designers choices. Made choices and protection requirements for concrete surfaces must be updated by the bridge designer in the standard drawings. The basic assumption is that concrete structures are made of concrete C35/45-3 with a nominal concrete cover of 40 mm on the deck slab and 45 mm on the end section and edge beams. A lower strength concrete or higher nominal requirement for the concrete cover cannot be used without more detailed structural analyses. Frost resistance

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Ruukki Easy Bridge

properties vary between P20 and P50. 5 Structural members HIGH EDGE BEAM

LOW EDGE BEAM

NO EDGE BEAM

Concrete wearing course

Drip groove 30x30

Figure 5.1 Edge beam structures.

5.1 Edge beams The edge beams of a bridge may be high or low. With the Classic bridges, the deck slab may also be realised without edge beam. Stresses on the edge beam are usually higher than those on other concrete structural members, which is why the minimum requirements for concrete structures are higher and the need to protect concrete surfaces more pronounced. The advantage of a high edge beam compared to the other alternatives is controlled flow of surface water. Water is led away from the deck surface by surface water drains. When using low edge beams and a deck slab without edge beam, surface water drains are not needed, as the surface waters are allowed to flow over the edge of the bridge deck. However, that is not advisable if underpassing traffic is more frequent than occasional. Allowing water to discharge over the edge of the deck may also have a detrimental visual impact, as flowing water leaves its mark on the side of the deck over time, which is slightly more pronounced with a low edge beam because its flank is higher than that of a deck slab without edge beam. A structure without edge beam is suitable in cases where there is no pavement on the bridge deck, but the pavement has been replaced by a concrete wearing course provided by making the deck slab thicker. When using edge beams, drain pipes are needed to lead away water seeping onto the deck slab through seams and cracks in the pavement. If water having seeped under the pavements cannot be removed, it will be a significant factor in the weathering of the bridge deck.

5.2 Deck slab Thickness of deck slab (hc ) EW (m) 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 With edge beam (mm) 258 288 319 349 No edge beam (mm) 298 328 359 389

Table 5.1 Thickness of deck slab along centre line of bridge (hc ).

The deck slab is either prefabricated or cast in situ. All edge beam options are shown in the standard drawings. The bridge designer selects the type of deck slab according to the clients instructions and updates the drawings according to the selected structure. Table 5.1 shows the thickness of the deck slab along the centre line of the bridge. The general arrangement and reinforcement drawings of a cast-in-situ deck slab are updated according to selected span length, as are the outermost fitting elements of the support area of the bridge. When the span length is shortened by 0.8 m or 1.6 m from the standard value, as recommended, the elements are narrowed symmetrically in the longitudinal direction of the bridge at both ends of the bridge, by eliminating one or two stud blockout holes. Other updating needs concerning the end section can arise, for example, from the skewness of the bridge end or the use of end solutions different from the standard series in a bridge structure with an expansion joint, which are described later.
Ruukki Easy Bridge

11

Need to update the entire set of deck slab drawings can arise, for example, from horizontal curvature of the bridge, modification of transverse inclinations, or narrowing of effective width from standard values. To narrow the effective width from the values specified in the standard designs, the edge beams and their counter-slopes are moved symmetrically towards the centre line of the bridge by a distance equal to the narrowing, and the height of the outer edge of the edge beam is increased to correspond to the new location while the height of the inner edge remains unchanged, and the concrete slab grows thicker near the edge beam. Otherwise, the dimensions of the deck and the steel girders remain unchanged. Corresponding changes are also made in the end sections, whose transverse width decreases by the amount of the narrowing. Figure 5.2 shows the deck slab element system layout. It also illustrates the bridge drainage equipment and the locations of vehicle parapet posts, which are described in more detail later. Figure 5.3 shows some connection details of deck slabs. T16 reinforcement bar (length EW + 200 mm) is used for joints between the deck slabs. The tops and sides of the gaps between edge beams are sealed with an elastic weatherresistant compound. An in-situ-cast deck requires using scaffolding and formwork systems, whose weight has been considered in the design of the standard series. When preparing

JOINT BETWEEN DECK SLAB AND MAIN GIRDER


GROUTING

NEOPRENE JOINTING STRIP 10x40

JOINT BETWEEN DECK SLABS

JOINT REBAR T16

GROUTING

JOINT SEALING

Figure 5.3 Connection details of deck slabs.

Vehicle parapet posts c/c 2000

FITTING ELEMENT

STANDARD ELEMENT

STANDARD ELEMENT

STANDARD ELEMENT

STANDARD ELEMENT

STANDARD ELEMENT

STANDARD ELEMENT

STANDARD ELEMENT

STANDARD ELEMENT

STANDARD ELEMENT

FITTING ELEMENT

SL drain pipes stud blockout holes surface water drains according to specific design

Figure 5.2 Deck slab element system layout.

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Ruukki Easy Bridge

more detailed designs on their basis, the designer of the scaffolding and formwork systems can use, for example, the designs for the wood formworks of the decommissioned steel composite standard bridge Tp II (1991) of Finnish Transport Agency (Dwg. Tp II / 14). If diagonal struts are used to support the cantilever part of the deck, the transverse horizontal forces from fastening their upper ends must be taken by transverse tension rods penetrating the main girders without stressing the webs transversally, unless capacity is otherwise stated in additional structural computational analyses. The bridge designer must update the perforations required by the scaffolding and formwork systems in the building information model of the steel girders. The BIM supplied by Ruukki can include system perforation of the upper edge of the web, if the specification is supplied with other parameter data required for the modelling. If other information is not available, the bridge designer may utilise old designs for wood formworks in defining the perforation, and, if possible, verify the information by consulting the designer of the scaffolding and formwork systems. If necessary, the designer may refine the designs of the standard series. For example, if the designer wants to combine some of the advantages of prefabricated construction with the seamlessness of in-situ casting, he may change the edge beams of the deck slabs into a cast-in-situ structure and make use of the scaffolding and formwork system detail used generally in the repair of edge beams. Such a solution is more expensive, laborious and slower to implement than a completely prefabricated version, but may be appropriate in some projects. 5.3 End sections 5.3.1 General The bridge end section may be part of the superstructure or the substructure. The latter option requires expansion joints and is suitable, for example, when positioning a bridge on existing supports. If the end section is part of the superstructure, it is included in the Ruukki Easy Bridge design series. The bridge designer chooses the end section type to be used according to the clients specifications and customises it for each project. The end section of the bridge superstructure may be cast in situ, or, with certain limitations (span length 29 m, effective width 6.5 m), a prefabricated reinforced concrete structure. With Classic bridges, a structure consisting of rectangular hollow sections is possible when span length 23 m. In the case of a structure cast in situ, the bridge wings are parallel to the overpass. In other cases they are parallel to the support line. Slope gradients according to the basic

designs are 1:1.5. In each project, the end sections may be modified for the desired slope gradient as well as for effective width values and bridge end skewnesses deviating from the standard. The end sections of the bridge are dimensioned for the passive earth pressure shown in Table 5.2. If loads on the end sections are higher than aforementioned, the bridge designer must update the design drawings and make his own structural calculations, or use an end section of the standard series dimensioned for a higher passive pressure.

SL (m) 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35

Passive earth pressure factors KP for different end sections Concrete Steel 3.61 4.00 3.61 4.00 3.61 4.00 3.61 4.32 3.82 4.32 4.20 4.24 4.20 4.24 4.26 4.26 4.26 4.56 4.56 4.56 -

Table 5.2 Passive earth pressure factors KP of the end fill (gravel, friction angle = 38).

The limitations imposed by transportation and installation must be considered in the case of prefabricated structures. There is no sense in making elements any heavier and bigger than the biggest ones of the standard series. 5.3.2 Concrete end member A prefabricated end plate reaches 1.0 m below the soffit of the lower flange of steel girders. If necessary, the end plate may be equipped with a transition slab console. The prefabricated member drawings show all edge beam alternatives of the bridge. The bridge designer updates the drawings according to his selections. A prefabricated end plate is lifted onto lugs welded to the end plates of the steel girders. Neoprene jointing strips to limit the grouting area are placed between the end member and the end plates of the steel girders to limit the area of grouting. The lugs, as well as the studs of the end plate, are embedded in the grouting.

Ruukki Easy Bridge

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Elastic sealing compound that allows bridge movements 5050 bevel (50150 with deck without edge beams) Joint rebars 4T16 25 Transition slab & console, if required Blockouts for main girder installation 200x300 1050 1000 300 250 225 Grouting

Wedge plate where necessary Bridge bearings and substructures according to specific design

100

10 Neo200 prene 30* End plate Jm * Weather-resistant steel: no thickening in rural conditions. +1 mm in urban conditions

250 300

640

Figure 5.4 Cross-section of concrete end member.

Lowered edge (Low edge beam) 173


1:1 .5

400

30 110

30 187

400

Lowered edge (deck slab without edge beam) 240


1:1 .5

EW-100 Transition slab console EW+3xhs+3580

Figure 5.5 Cross-section of bridge with a concrete end member.

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500

Groutings of the end joints of steel main girders join the grouting of the upper part of the bridge end, which connects the concrete end member to the deck slab fitting element. Four T16 ribbed bars are used in the grout between the members. The bars are composed of two parts with normal overlaps. The embankmentside 5050 corner bevel of grouting is made less steep at 50150, without changing the height of the bevel if the bridge has no surface structure or only a thin surface layer. Thereby, the height of the joint grouting increases by the height of the concrete wearing course of the deck (40 mm). 5.3.3 Steel end section The steel end section of the Classic bridge is built of 400x200 rectangular hollow sections installed on top of each other. It has originally been designed to be used with a prefabricated deck. The number of rectangular hollow sections is four when span lengths 19 m, and five with longer span lengths. The steel end section height is lower than with other end section alternatives. The span length of the bridge has to be changed if the aim is to achieve equal embedding in the slope with different end section alternatives. A steel end section reaches 0.5 to 0.8 m below the soffit of the lower flange of the steel girders (= height of hollow sections 1.6 to 2.0 m height of steel girders hs). The rectangular hollow sections of the steel end section are attached with through-bolts to the end plates of the main girders and the steel console bolted to the lower flange of the main girder. The rectangular hollow sections are also supported on each other via steel plates at the middle of the wing extensions on the embankment side. Elastic seaming is used between the topmost rectangular hollow sections and the reinforced concrete deck slab on the embankment side. The joint gap enables longitudinal inclination of the bridge without the prefabricated concrete deck leans on the steel end section. In case of a cast-in-situ deck, the bridge designer must modify the structure to provide a corresponding joint gap. The steel console attached to the soffit of the lower flanges of main girders is part of the building information model of the main girders. It is presented in the drawings of the steel end section in accordance with flat vertical geometry of the bridge. In the case of deviating vertical geometries, the bridge designer updates the drawing of the steel end section with dimension data available from the BIM. The steel end section is hot-dip galvanised. The bridge designer specifies possible additional protections. A filter fabric is used between the end section and the embankment (class N3) to protect the surfacing. A steel end section cannot be equipped with a transition slab.

5.3.4 End section cast in situ An end section cast in situ connects to a deck slab that is either prefabricated or cast in situ. The end section reaches 1.0 m below the soffit of the lower flange of the steel girders in the case of a cast-in-situ deck slab. In the case of a prefabricated deck the aforementioned measurement become 10 mm smaller due the neoprene jointing strip. An end section cast in situ is predesigned for use with bridges with high or low edge beams. Basically the end section is equipped with transition slabs in the standard series, and the reinforcement drawings show the dowel bars required by the transition slabs, which are not necessary if a transition slab is not used. The wings of an end section cast in situ are parallel to the longitudinal direction of the road. The basic designs of the end section standard series are meant for flat vertical geometry. With different vertical geometry, the elevation of the top surface of the edge beam and the shape of the wings must be modified case by case. Moreover, the horizontal geometry of the bridge also affects the shape of the wings if it deviates from a straight line. The end section can be made lower or narrower and the wings shortened without additional computational analyses. 5.3.5 End section with an expansion joint If an expansion joint device is used at the ends of the bridge, the deck structure ends in a concrete beam cast in situ according to the standard series, thereby allowing the use of different expansion joint devices including provision for anchoring. The end beam of the deck slab can connect to a cast-in-situ deck or the fitting elements of a prefabricated deck. Other means of strenthening the edge of the deck slab are also possible, and the bridge designer may modify the designs of the standard series on their part by using local analyses to prove the viability of the selected solution and by updating the design documents. If the length of the main girder extending beyond the support line needs to be shortened, that can be done with the Classic, for example, by using an fitting elements of the deck slab, normally used with the steel end section, modified to extend to the ends of shortened steel girders, and by adopting an expansion joint solution suitable for the modified deck slab. Then, the structure can be realised without the concrete end beam of the deck structure referred to in the standard series. The 600 mm length beyond the main girder support line can be shortened to a minimum of 400 mm without separate computational analyses.

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Elastic jointing compound that allows bridge movements 630 5050 bevel (50150 with deck without edge beams) Elastic seaming p400x 200 1600 (SL 19000) 2000 (19000 <SL23000) 500-800 30 30* End plate SL

Filter fabric Class N3

220 (SL19000) 260 (19000<SL23000) 50 Wedge plate where required Bridge bearings and substructures according to specific design 200 180 10 390

20

* Weather-resistant steel: no thickening in rural conditions. +1 mm in urban conditions

Figure 5.6 Cross-section of steel end section.

500

500

1:1

.5

1:1

.5

400

400

EW+5300 (SL19000) EW+6500 (19000<SL23000)

Figure 5.7 Cross-section of bridge with a steel end section.

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600 high edge beam 490 low edge beam

Transition slab, if necessary Outer edge of edge beam 210 150

50x50 bevel

Elastic jointing compound that allows bridge movements

225 25

1:1 ,5

990 prefabricated deck slab

1000 cast-in-situ deck slab

Wedge plate where necessary Bridge bearings and substructures according to specific design

250

350

(hs+850)x1.5

600

End plate: 30 (EW=4.5 & 6.5 m) / 35 (EW=8.5 m) / 40 (EW=10.5 m)* SL 630 (EW=4.5 & 6.5 m) 635 (EW=8.5 m) 640 (EW=10.5 m)

* Weather-resistant steel: no thickening in rural conditions, when EW 6.5 m or SL 17 m and EW = 8.5 m. In other cases plate thickness is 40 mm. In urban conditions plate thickness +1 mm compared to rural conditions.

Figure 5.8 Cross-section of end section cast in situ.

EW-400 200 350 350 200

Figure 5.9 Cross-section of bridge with end section cast in situ.

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Expansion joint according to specific design

Transition strip Grouting Cast-in-situ cross beam

400 Steel beam cutout Wedge plate where necessary Bridge bearings and substructures according to specific design

600

Figure 5.10 Cross-section of end of a bridge with expansion joints.

EW+300 200 200

Figure 5.11 Cross-section of a bridge with expansion joints.

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Ruukki Easy Bridge

300 SL

Instead of concrete end beams, steel-end-beams may also be used (Figure 10.1). In that case, it should be noted that the solution widens the beam structure to be transported, if the beams are joined to the main girders at a steelwork. An example of the above cross-beam structure is included in the designs of the decommissioned steel composite standard bridge Tp II (1991) of Finnish Transport Agency (Dwg. Tp II / 9). 5.4 Transition slabs Concrete end sections can be equipped with transition slabs. They are concrete slabs resting on the embankment, which are installed on top of the consoles of end sections. They even out possible differences in settlement between the bridge and the embankment. The bridge designer specifies the need and length of transition slabs together with a geotechnical engineer.

The standard structures of the Finnish Transport Agency (Dwg. R15/DL1 to 4) are typically used, which means that the length of a transition slab is 3 or 5 m, and they can be cast in situ or prefabricated. Transition slabs can be used always, except with the Classic when using a steel end section. The basic recommendation is to always use transition slabs with Premium bridges. If prefabricated transition slabs are chosen, the bridge designer must design fitting elements for the transition slabs, because the basic slab spacing of 1000 mm for the standard transition slab does not match the width requirement of the transition slab of the standard bridge, which in the case of an cast-in-situ end section is EW - 600 mm, and with a prefabricated end section EW - 100 mm. Then, it is also necessary to emphasise the requirement of accurate positioning of the dowel bars located at the console of the transition slab.

5.5 Steel girders

Figure 5.12 Building information model (BIM) of bridge steel girders.

Ruukki uses a parametric building information model tool to create the BIM of the steel girder at the final design phase according to the input data specified by the bridge designer and submits it to the bridge designer. Parametric values are standardised in the submitted BIM. The bridge designer modifies the model to correspond to the design and, upon the clients request, prepares drawings of the steel girders making use of drawing templates supplied with the BIM. If the bridge is a modified version of the standard structure, such as a skew-ended bridge, it is advisable to use the model of a square-ended bridge of corresponding span length as a working model for modification.

When using values deviating from the standard span lengths of 11, 13, up to 35 m, the height of the steel girders (Table 5.3) is chosen from the standard span length data of next bigger size. In the parametric building information model, steel girders are shortened symmetrically so that the positions of cross beams and the joints of the plates of the welded plate girders serving as main girders do not move in relation to span length and sheet thicknesses remain unchanged. Moreover, the number of studs remains the same viewed from the ends of a girder where the horizontal shear forces arising out of the composite effect between the steel girders and the deck slab are highest. When the bridge gets shorter, the studs maintain their distance from the end of the bridge and move towards the midsection of the bridge, where studs are removed from a distance corresponding to the shortening.
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The positioning of studs corresponds to the positions of the blockout holes in the prefabricated deck. If the positions need to be changed, for example, in the case of a skew-ended bridge, and the studs spaced more evenly in connection with a deck structure cast in situ, or if the span length deviates from a span length suitable for a prefabricated deck with minor modifications, the bridge designer must modify the BIM as to the studs and update the stud bolt list of the bridge. The stud bolt lists required by fabrication have been designed for a square-ended bridge of standard span length or a span length shortened from the standard by a multiple of 0.8 m. The list will be submitted for editing upon request.

The vertical geometry of the bridge is defined with a circular arc of constant radius from three points on the road grade line selected from the support lines and mid-span. Pre-cambering for dead loads and the optical elevation defined by the bridge designer are added, if so opted, to the arc thus defined. Optical elevation is needed at least when the bridge cannot be fitted to an upwardly curving vertical alignment and its span length exceeds 15 m. A suitable amount of optical elevation is of the order of span length/1000, but not more than 30 mm. When defining the curvature of the steel girders, the centre of curvature remains in place. Thus, the soffits and tops of the steel girders have different radii of curvature, and the height of the steel girder is aligned with the radius of curvature. Pre-cambering of a composite bridge is intended for the unsupported construction method where the steel girders support, without the composite effect of the deck slab, their own weight and the dead weight of the deck slab as well as any possible scaffolding and formwork system for the deck slab. The steel girders act as a composite structure that takes live loads and other dead loads only after the cast deck slab has hardened. The supplied building information model includes precambers unless otherwise specified. If necessary, the BIM may also be supplied, for example, without precambers for dead loads. Information on the magnitude of the pre-camber of the model based on standard span lengths and divided to components, is supplied with the model. The pre-camber corresponding to the deflection from dead load divides into four parts: the pre-cambering required by the steel girders dead weight, the dead weight of the deck slab and end sections, other dead loads (vehicle parapets and surface structures with additional pavements) and concrete deck shrinkage. The bridge designer may also specify pre-cambers deviating from the pre-designed values. Such an update may be necessary, for example, if an accurate pre-camber is desired for a bridge with a non-standard span length, to eliminate the effect of shrinkage in the case of a prefabricated deck, or if the substitution of surface structures by a concrete wearing course is taken into account. On the other hand, provision of extra pre-camber may serve the purpose of optical elevation. When weather-resistant steel is used, the steel parts are made thicker to account for climatic stresses as necessary. The thickness selections of weather-resistant steel plates are automated in the parametric building information model. The data are updated retaining the beam heights and lengths. Since the standard series does not use additional plates in flanges, the usability of weather-resistant steel is limited by the availability of different plate thicknesses. In the case of the Premium at span lengths exceeding 33 m, the effective width values are limited to 8.5 m at the maximum.

Height of steel girders (hs ) SL (m) 11


13 15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31 33 35

EW (m) 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5

Classic hs (mm) w (mm) 850 360 850 380 850 360 850 380 900 380 900 400 1000 420 1000 440 1100 440 1100 480 1200 460 1200 520 1300 460 1300 520 1500 420 1500 500 1650 400 1650 500 1800 400 1800 520 -

Premium hs (mm) w (mm) 1000 700 1000 780 1050 780 1000 700 1000 780 1050 780 1100 750 1100 740 1150 740 1200 720 1200 780 1250 780 1300 720 1300 780 1350 780 1500 750 1500 720 1550 720 1650 750 1650 740 1700 800 1800 750 1800 730 1850 800 1900 800 1900 760 2000 800 2000 750 2000 780 2100 820 2100 780 2100 800 2200 800

Table 5.3 Height of steel girders (hs) in direction of radius of curvature and width of lower flange (w).

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The cross beams attached to the vertical stiffeners of the main girder located at the support lines of the bridge and third span points are usually rolled sections fastened by bolts, 500 mm high in Classic bridges and 600 mm high in Premium bridges. They may also be fastened by welding. Instead of rolled sections, cross beams may also be assembled from plates by welding. Then their plate thicknesses correspond to those of rolled sections, or are thicker if made of weather-resistant steel, exploiting the plate thicknesses of the closest main girders. Alternatively, a bridge made of weatherresistant steel may also have conventional cross beams, provided that they are hot-dip galvanised. Hot-dip galvanized cross beams are always fastened by bolts. The bridge designer can influence used cross-beam structures, but should consult Ruukkis technical experts about them. It is Ruukki, in the first instance, that specifies the parameters of the cross beams as described above. The stiffening of the plate panels of the main girders has been realised by vertical plate stiffeners on the support lines of the bridge and third span points. The stiffeners on the support are situated on both sides of the web and are attached, besides the web, to the upper and lower flange of the main girder. In the bridge opening only stiffeners inside the web are welded to the web and the upper flange. With weather-resistant steel the thickness of the stiffeners is selected on the basis of the plate thicknesses used in the main girders. In a skew-ended bridge the bridge designer must update the changes caused by the skewness of the bridge in the building information model. The changes due to the skewed end are taken into account in steel girders by moving them to the skewed support line and modifying girder ends, cross beams and stiffeners according to the misalignment angle. The angle causes the lengths of the cross beams to increase while the perpendicular distance between the main girders remains the same. If the vertical geometry of the bridge deviates from a straight line, the shapes of the main girders are not identical in a skew-ended bridge. Attention should also be paid to the positioning of studs. The need and structure of main girder end plates and details of other end section components, such as a console possibly attached under the lower flanges to support the steel end section, or the cutout of the upper corners of the main girders in a bridge with expansion joints, are defined in the building information model on the basis of the selected end section type. Shortening of the length beyond the support line of the main girders is also possible in the model in the case of the Classic bridge with expansion joints. If the end sections of a bridge deviate from those of the standard series, it must be taken into account that the increasing loads on the end sections also affect the end plates of the main girders supporting the end sections.

If the end plate is made thicker, the bridge designer must shorten the main girder correspondingly so that the section of the main girder extending beyond the support line with the end plate remains unchanged. A corresponding revision is made automatically in the parametric model when using weather-resistant steel, because the thickness of the end plate is then selected on the basis of the plate thicknesses used for main girders (see Figures 5.4, 5.6 and 5.8). If the flanges of the main girders do not include a thickness suitable for an end plate, and it is not available in stock, the end plate is made of ordinary structural steel and surfacetreated according to TIEL 4.12. Such a situation may arise with Classic if EW = 4.5 m or SL 13 m and EW = 6.5 m. With Premium a corresponding situation may occur only when SL 17 m and EW = 10.5 m. Main girders and cross beams installed on site are equipped in the BIM with lifting lugs, and are not surface-treated as a rule. The lifting lugs of the main girders are situated in the blockouts for members, so there is no need to remove them with a precast deck. In the case of an in-situ-cast deck, the bridge designer must instruct that they must be cut if they obstruct the positioning of the transverse reinforcement for the deck soffit. As a rule, lifting lugs are not removed from cross beams, unless otherwise provided in bridge designs. The surface treatment of lifting lugs left in cross beams corresponds to that of cross beams, or alternately to that of steel material, when using weather-resistant steel. The Finnish Transport Agency requires preplanning of the jacking arrangement during bearing change and presenting of the jacking points and forces in designs. The bridge designer defines the stiffeners required by the jacking in the steel girders and, if necessary, updates the building information model as applicable, making use of the support stress information presented in this guide. In principle, the bridge should be designed to be jacked from the side of the support line at the web lines of the main girders, adding low vertical stiffeners to increase the local point load bearing capacity of the steel girders. The building information model incorporates the option of adding a stiffener dimensioned for the dead load of the bearing inside the web at a chosen distance from the support line. Other possible needs to update the building information model include the specifications required by the perforation of the scaffolding and formwork systems of a deck cast in situ and the bearing area details. Ruukki steelwork, which manufactures the steel girders, has the right to use the CE marking defined in execution standard EN 1090. When a bridge is designed according to Eurocodes, it must also be executed according to EN standards. The CE marking is an officially approved way to show that the execution of the load-bearing steel structures designed according to Eurocodes meet EN standards.
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6 Substructures 6.1 General The substructures of a bridge must be designed individually according to the conditions of each bridge site so that they are able to take all stresses from the superstructure. Suitable substructure solutions include large-diameter pile foundations, traditional or semi-integral concrete abutments on footings as well as existing substructures.

6.2 Support stresses The support stresses of the superstructure for the design of the substructure and bearings are presented in Tables 6.1 and 6.2. The characteristic values of the support stresses are extreme values of a square-ended bridge at standard span length and effective width values.

SL (m) 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29

EW (m) 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5

Dead / minimum load (kN) 400 569 400 569 432 616 463 657 496 703 529 749 563 794 600 848 636 900 673 952

Vehicle load LM1 0.8 (kN) 464 645 464 645 484 671 503 697 542 723 542 749 561 774 581 800 600 825 619 850

Braking load (kN) longitudinal 312 312 316 316 320 320 325 325 329 329 333 333 338 338 342 342 346 346 351 351 lateral 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 81 82 82 83 83 84 84 86 86 87 87 88 88

Wind load (kN) 38 34 45 41 53 48 61 56 71 64 80 73 90 82 103 94 116 105 129 117

Displacement longitudinal (mm) 31.7 31.7 33.6 33.6 35.6 35.6 37.5 37.5 39.4 39.4 41.3 41.3 43.2 43.2 45.2 45.2 47.1 47.1 49.0 49.0

Rotation LM1 0.8 (10-3 rad) 2.5 2.9 3.6 4.0 3.8 4.2 3.8 4.3 4.0 4.4 4.2 4.4 4.4 4.7 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.1

Table 6.1 Characteristic values of support stresses (Classic). Vertical load values per bearing. Transversal horizontal load values per support and longitudinal per bridge. Displacement values are maximum values in a single direction for the bearings that move freely.

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SL (m)

EW (m)

Dead / minimum load (kN) 678 863 1081 678 863 1081 728 924 1163 780 988 1228 829 1043 1304 879 1112 1389 932 1178 1473 987 1245 1557 1040 1311 1640 1092 1374 1724 1146 1438 1803

Vehicle load LM1 (kN) 872 1083 1246 872 1083 1246 904 1122 1289 936 1160 1332 968 1197 1374 1000 1235 1416 1031 1273 1458 1063 1310 1500 1094 1347 1542 1126 1385 1584 1157 1422 1626 LM3 (kN) 901 1054 1138 901 1054 1138 1000 1170 1264 1120 1311 1416 1195 1399 1510 1258 1472 1590 1311 1535 1657 1357 1589 1715 1398 1636 1766 1433 1677 1811 1464 1714 1850

Braking load (kN) longitudinal 401 401 401 406 406 406 411 411 411 417 417 417 422 422 422 428 428 428 433 433 433 438 438 438 444 444 444 449 449 449 455 455 455 lateral 100 100 100 101 101 101 103 103 103 104 104 104 106 106 106 107 107 107 108 108 108 110 110 110 111 111 111 112 112 112 114 114 114

Wind load (kN) 49 46 44 56 53 50 64 61 58 73 69 66 82 77 74 94 89 85 105 99 95 117 111 106 128 121 117 139 132 127 151 143 138

Displacement longitudinal (mm) 35.6 35.6 35.6 37.5 37.5 37.5 39.4 39.4 39.4 41.3 41.3 41.3 43.2 43.2 43.2 45.2 45.2 45.2 47.1 47.1 47.1 49.0 49.0 49.0 50.9 50.9 50.9 52.8 52.8 52.8 54.8 54.8 54.8

Rotation LM1 (10-3 rad) 2.6 2.9 2.9 3.5 3.9 3.9 3.6 4.0 4.0 3.6 4.1 4.1 3.8 4.3 4.3 3.6 4.1 4.2 3.6 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.7 4.0 3.8 3.7 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.2 3.9

Rotation LM3 (10-3 rad) 3.1 3.0 2.8 4.3 4.4 4.1 4.9 5.0 4.7 5.4 5.5 5.1 5.4 6.0 5.6 5.7 6.0 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.2 5.7 5.9 5.3 5.8 6.0 5.2 6.0 6.1 5.4 6.2 6.2 5.5

15

6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

33

35

Table 6.2 Characteristic values of support stresses (Premium). Vertical load values per bearing. Transversal horizontal load values per support and longitudinal per bridge. Displacement values are maximum values in a single direction for the bearings that move freely.

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6.3 Steel pipe piles A fast and cost effective solution is to found the bridge directly on steel pipe piles. Suitable piles are RR and RD large diameters piles. RR large diameter piles are steel pipe piles installed by driving. In the Nordic countries RR large diameter piles are usually installed by a hydraulic hammer. RD large diameter piles are installed by a DTH hammer and the centric drilling method. RR and RD large diameter piles are reinforced and concreted normally after installation. They require no surface-treatment. Instead, a corrosion allowance corresponding to the design life of the bridge is added to the pipe wall thicknesses. Painting of the visible sections of piles is necessary in the case of bridges belonging to higher bridge site classes for aesthetic reasons. RD piles are usually recommended when founding a bridge on individual large diameter piles because of their higher installation accuracy and the possibility to have a rigid connection in the lower end. If RR piles are used as individual large diameter piles, the designer must take into account their bigger installation tolerances and the attachment of their heads to take horizontal loads with all supports and the resulting stresses. More detailed information on Ruukki piling solutions are available at www.ruukki.com/infra. Calculation tools and components for adding piles to the building information model are available in the Ruukki Software Toolbox service at software.ruukki.com. Ruukki steelwork, which manufactures the large diameter piles and their accessories, has the right to use the CE marking defined in execution standard EN 1090 and pipe standard EN 10219. 6.4 Concrete substructures The concrete substructures suitable for the standard bridge are different traditional and semi-integral abutment structures. The traditional abutment is a natural solution if the bridge is equipped with expansion joints. In solutions without expansion joints, the end section and its wings are part of the superstructure, which makes lighter semi-integral abutment possible. A typical example of a semi-integral abutment is the foundation where the bridge is supported by a crosswise concrete beam or wall, which, in turn, is connected directly to steel pipe piles or is supported on the subsoil/fill, rock or piles through a foundation slab.

6.5 Existing substructures If a bridge is placed on existing support structures, their condition and structural durability and loadbearing capacity must be inspected. If necessary, the existing substructure must be repaired and strengthen. If a concrete bridge is replaced by a composite bridge, the lower dead weight of the new bridge structure reduces the need of strengthening, when the vertical load creates the dimensioning effects. Necessary changes on the bearing level and in abutment structures must be considered in planning the repairs of support structures to ensure that the installation of the new bridge goes smoothly and the deck structure of the completed bridge connects naturally to the substructure and the approach embankment. When modifying existing support structures, a decision must be made whether to equip the bridge with expansion joints or to extend the superstructure beyond the support structures, either supporting the bridge on them or leaving them intact and only dismantling them as required, and replacing the old support structure, for example, by steel pipe piles. 7 Accessories and devices 7.1 Bearings

SL (m) 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29

EW (m) 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5

Laminated rubber bearing (mm) a (longitudinal) 200 200 200 200 200 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 b (lateral) 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 h (thickness) 52 52 52 52 52 52 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 73 73 73 73 73 73

Table 7.1 Laminated rubber bearings of Classic.

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Ruukki Easy Bridge

Both ends of the bridge superstructure are equipped with bearings. Bearings fixed in the longitudinal direction are installed on one of the supports and bearings that move freely in the longitudinal direction of the bridge are installed on the other support. Transverse movements must be arrested at both supports, either with an individual bearing or with separate steel components. The bearings can be, for example, spherical bearings, pot bearings or laminated rubber bearings. The bridge designer defines the bearings to be used and their attachment to the bridge substructure and superstructure and prepares a bearing drawing. Tables 7.1 and 7.2 present the sizes of the laminated rubber bearings when the bearing seats of the main girders under the dead loads of the bridge are horizontal and the bridge ends are not skewed. If laminated rubber bearings are used, the bridge must be equipped with brake bars. In skewed bridges, the simplest solution is to transfer brake loads and horizontal forces caused by skewness to the foundation through spherical or pot bearings. Laminated rubber bearing (mm) a (longitudinal) 250 250 350 250 250 350 250 350 350 250 350 350 250 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 400 350 350 400 350 350 400 350 400 400 350 400 400 b (lateral) 400 400 450 400 400 450 400 450 450 400 450 450 400 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 500 450 450 500 450 450 500 450 500 500 450 500 500 h (thickness) 52 63 57 63 63 57 63 57 57 63 73 73 63 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 89 89 89 89 89 89

The bridge designer must assess the need for installing wedge plates between bearings and the lower flanges of main girders considering the vertical curvature of the bridge, the elevation of different bridge ends, and the magnitude of the rotation of bridge at supports. The outer dimensions of the wedge plates are determined on the basis of the outer dimensions of bearings. If wedge plates are used, the designer must at least specify their length and the thickness of the thinner edge (recommendation 10 mm). The parametric BIM defines the shape of the wedge plate automatically so that the soffit of the plate is straight after elimination of rotations at supports corresponding to the precambering for dead load. The width of the wedge plate is 30 mm smaller than the width of the lower flange (Table 5.3), unless otherwise specified by the designer. If the steel girders are made of weather-resistant steel, the same plate thicknesses of weather-resistant steel must be applied to the bearing area details as to the girders in general, or, alternately, the structural members of the bearing area must be surface-treated. As a rule, it is recommended to design the bearing details of bridges of weather-resistant steel so that there is no need to surface-treat the structural members of the steel girders in the bearing area, but the necessary members are instead made of weather-resistant steel. The selected bearing type can influence the number of structural members needed. The bearing drawing of the standard series shows laminated rubber bearings suitable for a square-ended bridge and a useful bearing detail for attaching the bridge to steel pipe piles. Other kinds of bearing details developed by the bridge designer are also possible. The plate components of the bearing drawing of the standard series have been dimensioned for outer pile diameters of 600 (Classic) and 800 mm (Premium). Other pile sizes are also possible, but then the changes required by a new pile size must be made to the joint. Structural members connected to piles are designed so that they may be left without surface treatment the same as the pile structures, or painted if the visible sections of the piles are painted. The structural members connecting to the steel girders are surface-treated in the same fashion as the bridge. Data and details needed for the bearing drawing of the bridge can be picked from the bearing drawing of the standard series, but it cannot as such be used as a drawing for bridge design. The same detail can also be applied in connection with a concrete substructure by embedding the brake bar in the concrete substructure according to the bridge designers plan. A brake bar connected to a concrete structure is usually galvanised, and it is advisable to use a blockout and grouting in the installation.

SL (m) 15

EW (m) 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

33

35

Table 7.2 Laminated rubber bearings of Premium.

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The requirements of the installation work have been considered in the design of the bearing detail. The length of the brake bar, and thus also the diameter, have been minimised and the bar is equipped with an installation handle that also serves as an installation support during the work, resting on the structural members of the bearing area of the steel girders of the bridge. The bridge design must specify whether the installation handle can be left in place or if it has to be removed. If it is left in place as recommended, the detail specified in the standard drawing must be edited to provide a small clearance between the installation handle and the bearing sections of the steel girders to allow slight play. One bar corresponding to the standard series with its installation handle weighs 18 to 22 kg. The diameter of the brake bars of the Classic is 85 mm and that of the Premium 95 mm. The length of the brake bars is 370 mm and they extend 150 mm above the upper end of the pile. The fastenings between the bar and the pile are welded on site after lifting the steel girders of the bridge in place. There is a reinforcement plate at the joint on the side of the pile. The vertical distance between the soffit of the girder and the head of the pile in the detail specified in the standard series is 200 mm. There is a 30 mm thick bearing plate between the lower flange and the laminated rubber bearing, to which steel members supported by the brake bar in horizontal loading and the steel components that keep the laminated rubber bearing in place in the longitudinal direction of the bridge, are fastened. If the vertical geometry of the bridge deviates from the horizontal at the support lines, the bridge designer must assess the need of machining the bearing plate into wedge shape. A wedge shape can be implemented automatically in the BIM. The steel-girder building information model contains alternative structure types, such as the laminated rubber bearing detail, corresponding to the standard series, for the structural members connected to the steel girders, as well as possible mounting holes and wedge plates of the lower flange specified by the bridge designer for other bearing types. If the mounting holes are used with a bevelled wedge plate, spacers bevelled to the same angle must be used with the fixing bolts between the bolt head and the lower flange of the main girder. The BIM suggests that the laminated rubber bearing detail should be surface-treated. The wedge plate is surface-treated or made of weather-resistant steel as the steel girders. The bridge designer must edit the BIM of the steel girders as necessary and add possible case-specific bearing details to the model.

7.2 Expansion joint devices Basically, the most economic solution is to build a bridge without expansion joints. One of the advantages of a structure without expansion joints is lower maintenance costs. However, in some cases it may be expedient to equip the bridge with an expansion joint device. For example, when the bridge rests on an existing support structure, it may be appropriate. The bridge designer defines the water tight expansion joint device to be used (SILKO 3.711, Expansion Joints, Finnish Transport Agency), makes a drawing of the expansion joint device and updates the drawings of the concrete structures of the end section of the standard series. The expansion joint drawing of the standard series shows a concrete end beam cast in situ with its expansion joint device data. It must be updated to conform to the selected expansion joint device, and the shape of the edge beam used with the expansion joint device must be defined in more detail. In the expansion joint drawing of the standard series, the edge beam is preliminarily presented as bevelled without specific bevel dimensions. It may also be shaped otherwise and, for example, equipped with a cover plate, of which the Finnish Transport Agency has made standard drawing R15/DM12. A deck slab end beam is not necessary with the Classic bridge sufficient structural capacity can be attained by the steel reinforcement of the deck slab as in the case of a steel end section. Expansion joint devices suitable for a thin deck slab with the Classic are presented, for example, in standard drawings R15/DC7 to 8 of the Finnish Transport Agency. 7.3 Vehicle parapets The bridge designer selects the vehicle parapet structure to be used on the bridge with its accessories according to the clients instructions, and describes the continuation of the parapet to the embankment including the transition structures and connection to the safety barrier on embankment. The safety barrier is selected with the road designer. For more details see the publication Vehicle Parapets for Bridges by the Finnish Transport Agency. The basic solution suitable for a vehicle parapet is the H2 containment level steel vehicle parapet of the Finnish Transport Agency, drawings R15/DK H2-1 to 22, whose fixing bolts are shown in the deck slab drawings of the standard designs. The bridge designer updates these details to correspond to the selected vehicle parapet type and the edge beam structure. In the case of a deck slab

26

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without edge beam, a vehicle parapet structure corresponding to a low edge beam is used. The bridge designer also defines the locations of the vehicle parapet posts. In the case of a prefabricated deck, the parapet posts fall on the centre line of individual deck slab sections. In the outermost fitting elements, the positions of the parapet posts must be made to conform to the selected span length. The positioning shown in the standard series conforms to standard span lengths 11, 13, up to 35 m of the basic designs. It should be noted that when a cast-in-situ end section is used with a prefabricated deck, the distance of 300 to 600 mm from the centre line of the last vehicle parapet post to the end of the edge beam recommended in the standard drawings for a H2 vehicle parapet of the Finnish Transport Agency is not realised at all span lengths. The limit value is not reached at span lengths 11 and 13 m and exceeded at span lengths of 19, 21, up to 29 m. When span length deviates from the standard values of 11, 13, up to 35 m, the positions of the parapet posts and the values of the above distances change according to the change in the length of the fitting elements of the deck slab. If a cast-in-situ end section is connected to a castin-situ deck slab, there are more degrees of freedom for the positions of the parapet posts, and they can in most cases be located close to the recommended posi-

tions corresponding to the span lengths presented in the basic designs. In all cases, the bridge designer has the option to modify the dimensions of cast-in-situ wing structures and thus diverge from a solution based on the standard designs as well as to adjust the positions of the parapet posts to conform to recommended limit values. The recommended minimum limit value is defined so that the parapet can still be installed at the end of a wing, and the maximum limit value so that the end of the wing is adequately protected against snow ploughs. The latter can also be influenced by making the edge beam narrower at the end of the wing by bevelling the inner surface. The general arrangement drawings for an in-situcast end section in the standard drawing series show the locations of parapet posts based on the use of a prefabricated deck, a column spacing of two metres, and standard span lengths of 11, 13 and up to 35 m. The bridge designer must update the locations of parapet posts to conform to his selections. 7.4 Drainage system A bridge drainage system includes all the structures for leading water accumulating on the bridge deck or other bridge structures into waterways or a road drainage system as directly and rapidly as possible. In the case of bridges with high edge beams, water is drained off the deck surface with surface water drains. The bridge designer defines the loca-

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tions of surface water drains and marks them in the bridge designs. The surface water drains are connected to downpipes, if necessary. An example of a suitable surface water drain is the Finnish Transport Agencys 200 mm standard structure made of acid-proof steel (dwg. R15/DS1). The functioning of road drainage at bridge ends must be assessed in the case of all edge beam alternatives to prevent local erosion, for example, based on the surface water drainage solutions of the Finnish Transport Agency (Dwg. R15/DS2 to 3). The deck slab is equipped with drain pipes, such as the Finnish Transport Agencys 50 mm standard structure of stainless steel (Dwg. R15/ DT1), to drain water seeping through cracks in the surfacing. They are placed along the edges of the bridge at maximum intervals of 3.0 metres. If necessary, more drain pipes are installed at bridge ends in the transverse direction to collect water beside the transition strip of the expansion joint device. In wide bridges they are also used in other parts of the deck at longer intervals. For more detailed instructions of the locations see Finnish Transport Agency publication NCCI 1, Section H.11.7.4. The standard drawing series presents the preliminary locations of drain pipes at the edges of the deck slab. The drain pipes at the bridge ends and the deck midsection must be added to the drawings of the prefabricated deck and the general arrangement drawing of a cast-in-situ deck. On the other hand, they must be removed if they are not needed, as in the case of a deck slab without edge beam. The main reinforcement areas are taken into account in prefabricated decks and drain pipes are located in line with the stud blockout holes 120 mm away from the parapet bolt group. If standard element spacing of 2.0 m is used in accordance with the standard series, drain pipes are needed at each element at the edges of the bridge deck, but the mid-section requires drain pipes only in every third element when the maximum distance between drain pipe locations is used in the longitudinal direction of the bridge. The drain pipes must be placed so that they are not located at transverse structures of steel girders and drip water onto a steel structure. Points where drain pipes cannot be used, for example, because of an underpass, require the use of subsurface drains connected to drain pipes. Subsurface drains are embedded in the pavement. They can be realised, for example, by using steel sections with openings, see e.g. the Finnish Transport Agency standard structure for 30x50 stainless steel sections (Dwg. R15/DS4). 7.5 Contact pins Contact pins for future electro-chemical measurements have to be installed in the reinforcement of concrete structures in projects of the Finnish Transport Agency. In other projects, the client determines the need with the 28
Ruukki Easy Bridge

bridge designer. The pins are hot-dip galvanised, welded T12 steel reinforcement bars. The projection of the pins from the surface of the structure is 30 mm. The pins are welded to the main reinforcements closest to the surface. Galvanisation is removed from the area of the bar to be welded. The bridge designer adds the details and locations of contact pins to the bridge designs. For more details see Finnish Transport Agency publication NCCI 2, Appendix 5. 7.6 Monitoring pins Installation of round-headed 10 mm monitoring pins of stainless steel in bridges is required in projects of the Finnish Transport Agency. In other projects, the client determines the need with the bridge designer. A cross is made in the head of the pins to enable measuring their vertical and horizontal position. Monitoring pins are used in monitoring the shape, position and possible displacements and deflections of the bridge and its components. They may also be used to indicate the position of the elastic joint between the bridge surface structure and the embankment. The embedding depth of the monitoring pins in the concrete must be at least 150 mm, or alternately, prefabricated stainless steel mounting plates are to be be used. Usually the bridge designer does not specify the monitoring pins, which are defined in the bridge work plans. In the case of prefabricated concrete members, it is nevertheless expedient to define them already at the bridge design stage to ensure that related requirements are taken into account in the prefabrication of the members. For more details on the positions and use of monitoring pins see publication General Quality Requirements for Infrastructure Construction, InfraRYL, Part 3, Bridges and Structural Members, Section 42001.5.3. 8 Surface structures The bridge designer defines the surface structures of the bridge according to the clients instructions, and presents them in his designs. They include used pavement and associated jointings, water-proofings and possible sealing treatments, as well as the continuation of the pavement to the embankments. The pavement s selected in co-operation with the road designer. The standard bridge designs assume a 110 mm thick surface structure (2.5 kN/m2) and an additional pavement layer that weighs 1.0 kN/m2. A suitable basic option is the asphalt concrete pavement presented in the deck slab drawings of the standard designs generally used by the Finnish Transport Agency (NCCI 1, H.11.7.1, 1a). The bridge designer updates the relevant details to correspond to the selected surface structure type.

Thin deck pavements (SILKO 3.821 Thin Deck Pavements, Finnish Transport Agency) can be used in the Classic with a deck slab without edge beam. However, this bridge type is actually designed to have no surface structure and is thus equipped with a concrete wearing course. The Premium does not have an alternative without a surface structure, but it can be used upon separate approval by the client. Then, the bridge designer must update the details of the edge beam structures to correspond to those of the Classic. 9 Design process and documents 9.1 Bridge design stages The information presented in this guide is sufficient for the bridge design stages preceding the final design stage (see Figure 9.1). Ruukkis contact persons should be contacted at the final design stage, at the latest, to agree on things such as the design documents to be submitted. The design documents of the bridge are drawn up according to the Finnish Transport Agencys guide Bridge Designs. Some revisions for the preparation of the documents are given below. 9.2 Bills of quantities The bridge designer prepares the bill of quantities for the bridge using the quantity data given in this guide as well as the drawings and building information model submitted in the final design phase. Information on the total quantity of structural steel and combined length of neoprene gaskets is supplied with the BIM. Tables 9.1 to 9.3 present preliminary structural steel consumptions of

the bridge (incl. studs). In the assessment of preliminary reinforcement steel quantities, the reinforcement steel quantity of the cast in situ deck slab can be assumed to be 210 kg/m3 and that of the end section 110 kg/m3.

SL (m) 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29

EW (m) 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5

Painted steel (kg) 6 976 8 119 7 736 8 992 9 665 11 098 11 246 12 885 12 840 14 848 14 531 16 956 16 126 18 739 17 959 21 515 19 799 24 023 22 192 27 387

Weather-resistant steel (kg) Rural area 6 989 8 375 7 763 9 274 9 769 11 492 11 405 13 378 13 008 15 404 14 730 17 603 16 334 19 464 18 191 22 513 20 046 25 162 22 464 28 677 Urban area 7 293 8 709 8 105 9 644 10 164 11 903 11 879 13 867 13 564 15 980 15 375 18 275 17 068 20 226 19 047 23 403 21 019 26 178 23 572 29 839

Table 9.1 Preliminary structural steel consumption of steel girders of the Classic.

BRIDGE PROJECT
Contact with Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment (ELY) -> Preliminary evaluation of eligibility for govenment subsidy -> Selection of designers (bridge, road and geotechnical) Preparation of bridge design based on Ruukki design guide -> Required permits such as statement regarding works adjoining watercourse (handling time for the possible permission in accordance with the water law is 3-6 months) -> Applying for government subsidy

Final bridge design -> Request to surrender Ruukkis pre-approved standard designs -> Finalisation of detail design

General bridge design and site & ground investigations

Authority approval and preparation of contract documents -> Agreement on Ruukki deliveries -> Selection of contractors

CONSTRUCTION MAY START

It is recommended that at least 12 months, and the time for the permission in accordance with the water law, is reserved for the design phase

Figure 9.1 Design process.


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SL (m)
15

EW (m)
6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 6.5 8.5 10.5

Painted steel (kg)


14 724 16 620 17 989 16 091 18 151 19 568 18 801 20 551 22 109 20 952 23 238 24 905 23 545 26 035 28 093 26 383 28 411 31 068 30 518 32 907 36 580 34 016 36 313 40 739 38 123 41 371 45 983 42 649 45 682 51 817 46 402 51 352 56 095

Weather-resistant steel (kg) Rural area


14 932 16 954 18 377 16 353 18 537 20 011 19 127 21 218 22 792 21 485 24 005 25 670 24 282 27 047 29 125 27 293 29 616 32 254 31 574 34 419 38 081 35 226 37 995 42 384 39 461 43 191 47 959 44 119 47 791 53 922 48 130 53 610 -

9.3 Cost estimate The bridge designer prepares a cost estimate using the bill of quantities he has prepared and the unit price list. For more details on the prices of the structural members included in the standard series, please contact a Ruukki sales contact person. Note that with informed up-to-date price estimation there is no longer need to raise the unit price by the index increment. 9.4 Structural calculations The structural calculations for the bridge were made according to Eurocodes and the instructions of the Finnish Transport Agency and submitted for approval to the Finnish Transport Agency. They are not supplied with the design documents. 9.5 Lists of reinforcements The bridge designer prepares the necessary lists of reinforcements for concrete structures. They are usually not needed with prefabricated alternatives, but if concrete structures are cast in situ, prepared lists of reinforcements are required at least in projects of the Finnish Transport Agency. Drawings of concrete structural members cast in situ available from Ruukki include detailed reinforcement tables which make it easy to prepare lists of reinforcements. It should, however, be noted that some dimensions must be complemented case by case, for example, with regard to the effect of selected span length. In addition, taking the vertical and horizontal curvature of the bridge and possible skewness of the end into account may require modifications to the reinforcements especially in the end sections. 9.6 Drawings and the building information model Ruukki supplies to the bridge designer the standard drawings and building information model of the steel girders required in the final design stage. The drawings are supplied electronically in the native format of the AutoCAD software, and the BIM in the native format of the Tekla Structures software. The bridge designer prepares the drawings of the bridge design using the supplied design material. Drawing templates suitable for a working model are supplied with the BIM. To receive the files, please contact a Ruukki sales contact person and, using the request for surrender of design material presented in Appendix 5, submit the necessary information such as the general drawing of the bridge and a list of standard drawings needed for the bridge project and the parameters required by the BIM.

Urban area
15 461 17 545 19 021 16 933 19 181 20 709 19 805 21 934 23 564 22 242 24 826 26 549 25 134 27 965 30 104 28 302 30 657 33 358 32 717 35 603 39 356 36 514 39 320 43 808 40 901 44 659 49 541 45 668 49 405 55 655 49 836 55 379 -

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

33

35

Table 9.2 Preliminary structural steel consumption of steel girders of the Premium.

SL (m) 11 13 15 17 19 21 23

EW (m) 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5 4.5 6.5

Galvanised steel (kg) 5852 7026 5852 7026 5828 7002 5780 6952 5730 6904 7736 9202 7682 9150

Table 9.3 Preliminary structural steel consumption of steel end section (both ends).

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Ruukki Easy Bridge

Figure 10.1 Installation of steel girders and prefabricated deck.


10 Construction The sites main contractor is responsible for the construction of the bridge and the required work plans. The scope of Ruukkis delivery is agreed case by case. Basic delivery includes manufacturing of the steel members of the bridge superstructure and transportation of fabricated components to the site according to the attached steel-structure production description. The main girders are manufactured according to EXC3 and secondary structures (incl. all bridge accessories) according to EXC2, unless otherwise provided in the bridge designs. Instructions given by the Finnish Transport Agency, concerning the determination of execution class, are followed in projects of the Finnish Transport Agency. The maximum wind speed during installation has been 20 m/s in the structural analysis of the bridge. However, the installation should be carried out with a lower wind speed limit: about 12 m/s at the maximum.
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Ruukki Easy Bridge

Contact persons Sales contact: Hannu Rautakoski hannu.rautakoski@ruukki.com +358 2059 30723 Technical experts: Tomi Vhkangas tomi.vahakangas@ruukki.com +358 2059 30773 Vesa Jrvinen vesa.jarvinen@ruukki.com +358 2059 25186

Appendices List of standard drawings Production description General drawing example Approval of Finnish Transport Agency Request for surrender of Ruukki Easy Bridge design material

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Appendix 1. List of standard drawings Drawing n:o Ruukki/EB/1-1 Deck cast in situ Ruukki/EB-c/2-1 Ruukki/EB-c/2-2 Ruukki/EB-p/2-2 Ruukki/EB-p/2-3 Ruukki/EB-p/2-4 Content of Drawing General drawing example (attached to this instruction)

General arrangement and reinforcement drawing of deck, Classic General arrangement and reinforcement drawing of deck, Classic General arrangement and reinforcement drawing of deck, Premium General arrangement and reinforcement drawing of deck, Premium General arrangement and reinforcement drawing of deck, Premium

EW = 4.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 8.5 m EW = 10.5 m

Prefabricated deck Ruukki/EB-c/3-1 Ruukki/EB-c/3-2 Ruukki/EB-p/3-2 Ruukki/EB-p/3-3 Ruukki/EB-p/3-4 Ruukki/EB-c/4-1 Ruukki/EB-c/4-2 Ruukki/EB-p/4-2 Ruukki/EB-p/4-3 Ruukki/EB-p/4-4 Ruukki/EB-c/5-1 Ruukki/EB-c/5-2 Ruukki/EB-p/5-2 Ruukki/EB-p/5-3 Ruukki/EB-p/5-4 Ruukki/EB-c/13-1 Ruukki/EB-c/13-2 Ruukki/EB-c/14-1 Ruukki/EB-c/14-2 Ruukki/EB-p/14-2 Ruukki/EB-p/14-3 Ruukki/EB-p/14-4 Deck element system layout, Classic Deck element system layout, Classic Deck element system layout, Premium Deck element system layout, Premium Deck element system layout, Premium Standard deck element, Classic Standard deck element, Classic Standard deck element, Premium Standard deck element, Premium Standard deck element, Premium Fitting deck element, Classic Fitting deck element, Classic Fitting deck element, Premium Fitting deck element, Premium Fitting deck element, Premium Fitting deck element, steel end section, Classic Fitting deck element, steel end section, Classic Fitting deck element, expansion joint, Classic Fitting deck element, expansion joint, Classic Fitting deck element, expansion joint, Premium Fitting deck element, expansion joint, Premium Fitting deck element, expansion joint, Premium EW = 4.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 8.5 m EW = 10.5 m EW = 4.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 8.5 m EW = 10.5 m EW = 4.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 8.5 m EW = 10.5 m EW = 4.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 4.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 8.5 m EW = 10.5 m

End section cast in situ Ruukki/EB-c/6-1 Ruukki/EB-c/6-2 Ruukki/EB-p/6-2 Ruukki/EB-p/6-3 Ruukki/EB-p/6-4 Ruukki/EB-c/7-1 Ruukki/EB-c/7-2 Ruukki/EB-p/7-2 Ruukki/EB-p/7-3 Ruukki/EB-p/7-4 General arrangement drawing of end section, Classic General arrangement drawing of end section, Classic General arrangement drawing of end section, Premium General arrangement drawing of end section, Premium General arrangement drawing of end section, Premium Reinforcement drawing of end section, Classic Reinforcement drawing of end section, Classic Reinforcement drawing of end section, Premium Reinforcement drawing of end section, Premium Reinforcement drawing of end section, Premium EW = 4.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 8.5 m EW = 10.5 m EW = 4.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 8.5 m EW = 10.5 m

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Ruukki Easy Bridge

End member Ruukki/EB-c/8-1 Ruukki/EB-c/8-2 Ruukki/EB-p/8-2 General arrangement and reinforcement drawing of end member SL = 11-29 m Classic General arrangement and reinforcement drawing of end member SL = 11-29 m, Classic General arrangement and reinforcement drawing of end member SL = 15-29 m, Premium EW = 4.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 6.5 m

Steel end section Ruukki/EB-c/9-1 Ruukki/EB-c/9-2 Ruukki/EB-c/9-3 Ruukki/EB-c/9-4 Assembly and detail drawing of steel end section SL = 11-19 m, Classic Assembly and detail drawing of steel end section SL = 21-23 m, Classic Assembly and detail drawing of steel end section SL = 11-19 m, Classic Assembly and detail drawing of steel end section SL = 21-23 m, Classic EW = 4.5 m EW = 4.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 6.5 m

Steel structures (example designs) Ruukki/EB-p/10-1 Ruukki/EB-p/11-1 Ruukki/EB-p/11-2 Ruukki/EB-p/11-3 Assembly drawing, Premium Main girder , Premium List of stud bolts, Premium Cross beam, Premium SL = 21 m SL = 21 m SL = 21 m SL = 21 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 6.5 m EW = 6.5 m

Fittings and accessories Ruukki/EB/12-1 Ruukki/EB/12-2 Bearings, laminated rubber bearings and large-diameter steel pile Expansion joint, concrete end beam of deck slab

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Appendix 2. Production description Manufacture of steel structures according to standards EN 1090-1 and EN 1090-2

Execution classes, unless otherwise specified in designs:


- Main girders according to execution class EXC3 - Secondary structures (incl. all bridge accessories) according to execution class EXC2

CE marked structures Production planning documentation:


- Manufacturing plan - Inspection plan - Welding plan - Installation plan (incl. transportation)

Materials:
-  Alternative 1 (normal steel): S355ML, EN 10025-4, or S355NL, EN 10025-3: S355K2+N, EN 10025-2: S355J2+N, EN 10025-2: S355J2H, EN 10219-1:  S235J2+N+C450, EN ISO 13918: - A  lternative 2 (weather-resistant steel): S355K2W+N, EN 10025-5: main girders welded cross beams and plate accessories hot rolled cross beams and brake bars rectangular hollow sections stud bolts

all structures excl. stud bolts

Surface treatment:
- TIEL 4.12 - With material alternative 2, surface treatment is excluded - Hot-dip galvanising (steel end sections)

Tolerances:
-  EN 1090-2 Application Instructions for Finnish bridges (unpublished): EN 1090-2 Appendix D.1: Essential tolerances EN 1090-2 Appendix D.2 Class 2: Functional tolerances - InfraRYL 2006, Part 3, Bridges and structural members: special tolerances

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Ruukki Easy Bridge

Welding: - Qualifications: - E  xecution class EXC3 Weld class: - E  xecution class EXC2 Weld class: Inspection:

EN 287-1, EN 1418, EN ISO 14731 EN ISO 5817 B EN ISO 5817 C

- Qualifications: EN 473 - VI (visual inspection): 100% - Dimensional inspection -E  xecution class EXC3 MT (magnetic particle testing) and UT (ultrasonic testing) EN 1090-2 according to Table 24 0 - 20% - E  xecution class EXC2 MT (magnetic particle testing) and UT (ultrasonic testing) EN 1090-2 according to Table 24 0 - 10% - Utilisation factor of tensile stress of through-welded butt joints of lower flange > 0.5.

Documentation:
- Material certificates - Inspection records - Qualifications of welders, welding operators and inspectors (list)

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Appendix 3. General drawing example

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Ruukki Easy Bridge

Appendix 4. Approval of Finnish Transport Agency

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Appendix 5 Request for surrender of Ruukki Easy Bridge design material Ruukki surrenders the design material, standard designs and steel structure BIM for the Ruukki Easy Bridge as specified by the recipient below for use by the recipient in structural design of the named bridge project. The contents of the design material are described in more detail in Ruukki Easy Bridge design instructions. Ruukki Construction Oy (Ruukki) retains the copyright to the surrendered design material. The surrendered design material must not be used in bridge projects other than the one for which Ruukki has surrendered it. Surrender and/or utilisation of the design material for another bridge, even one with the same boundary conditions, requires submitting a request for the surrender of design material to Ruukki. The load-bearing steel structures of the superstructure of a bridge designed using Ruukki Easy Bridge design material supplied by Ruukki are produced by Ruukki. The design material for such a bridge must specify Ruukki Easy Bridge as the bridge type.

Name and location of bridge site (general drawing to be attached):

The recipients request applies to the following drawings (nos.):

The recipients request applies to the steel girder BIM with the following parameters (underline your choices and fill in the numerical fields): Bridge type: Classic / Premium m EW = m mm

Main dimensions: SL = Road geometry: 1) 2) 3)

Difference between elevations of the grade line and upper surface of steel girders = Grade line co-ordinates (m) Fixed support Middle of bridge Movable support X Y Z

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Ruukki Easy Bridge

Pre-cambering: Pre-cambering for dead loads: BIM is delivered with pre-cambering (default) / without pre-cambering / both Non-default pre-cambering (can be specified later):

Optical elevation: Main girders:

mm

Horizontal dimension of end extension of web: 600 mm / Jacking stiffeners: Horizontal distance to support line System perforation of scaffolding: Hole diameter: Distance of hole from top surface of girder in direction of radius of curvature: Arc distance between holes in longitudinal direction of bridge:

mm (Classic with expansion joint without slab end beam) yes / no mm none / specified below mm

mm mm yes / no TIEL 4.12 / hot-dip galvanising (at limited cases) or rural / urban

List of stud bolts for editing: Surface treatment: Climatic stress (weather-resistant steel):

Cross beams:

Ruukkis choice (default) / specified below Profile: rolled / welded

Attachment to main girder: bolting / welding Surface treatment: TIEL 4.12 / hot-dip galvanising / weather-resistant steel

Execution classes: Ruukkis choice (default) / specified below Main girders: EXC3 / EXC2 Cross beams: Other structural members: EXC3 / EXC2 EXC3 / EXC2

Ruukki Easy Bridge

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Surface treatment (TIEL 4.12) colour and code light grey RR21 / red RR29 / light blue RR34 / light green RR36 /

Deck slab:

precast concrete / cast in-situ

End section:

steel structure / precast concrete / cast in-situ / with expansion joint

Bearings:

Default detail of laminated rubber bearing / wedge plate and/or perforation Wedge-shaped bearing plate in default laminated rubber bearing detail: none / automatic / specified below

Wedge plate: Length: mm Minimum thickness: mm Details, e.g. inclination (defaults to automatic), width and surface treatment

Diameter of bearing fastener bolt holes: Distance between bearing fastener bolt holes: Longitudinal direction of bridge: Transverse direction of bridge:

mm

mm mm

Additional information:

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Ruukki Easy Bridge

By signing this document, the recipient agrees to comply with these terms of use and confirms that he/she is familiar with Ruukki Easy Bridge design instructions and understands and accepts the requirements made in them.

Date, place and recipients signature

Name in print

Position

Company name

Business ID

Address

Telephone

E-mail

Ruukki Easy Bridge

43

CFI. 03.001EN/05.2013/PR

Ruukki provides its customers with energy-efficient steel solutions for better living, working and moving.

Ruukki Construction Oy, Koskipuhdontie 177, FI-84100 Ylivieska, Finland +358 20 5911, www.ruukki.com/infra

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Ruukki Easy Bridge

Copyright 2013 Rautaruukki Corporation. All rights reserved. Ruukki, Rautaruukki, Living. Working. Moving. and Ruukkis product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of Rautaruukki Corporation