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International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 1, No. 6, Pp. 220-223, Dec. 2011.

A Model for Call Quality Computation and Collection in Mobile Telecommunication Networks
Akram Aburas & Prof. Khalid Al-Mashouq
Abstract Call Quality parameters extraction from end-users perspective and analyzing at the operator end is new area of research. The parameters that are considered in this research are intuitive and are very much helpful for the operator in deciding the quality as perceived by the end user. The parameters are average signal strength during the active call and call drop information. A model to address the call quality escalation and locating them on the map enabling the user-groups and operators to benchmark the network has been proposed and implemented. A novel model to collect the call quality information for further utilization by the operator is proposed. Manuscript
Received: 1, Oct, 2011 Revised: 6, Nov., 2011 Accepted: 15, Dec., 2011 Published: 15, Jan., 2012

Keywords Call
Quality Measurement, Signal Strength,Call drop,Landmarks, LAC (Location Area Code), ME(Mobile Equipment)

1. Introduction
Traditional speech quality measurement techniques use the subjective listening tests called Mean Opinion Score (MOS). Its based on the human perceived speech quality based on the scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is the lowest perceived quality and 5 is the highest perceived quality. Subjective listening tests are expensive, time consuming and tedious. So, currently most of the systems use objective evaluation of speech quality using some mobile computing techniques. Objective testing systems are use automated speech quality measurement techniques. The three well known objective measurement techniques are Perceptual Speech Quality Measure (PSQM), Perceptual Analysis Measurement System (PAMS) and Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ). Objective speech quality measurement techniques mostly are based on input-output approach [1]. In inputoutput objective measurement techniques basically works by measuring the distortion between the input and the output signal. The input signal would be a reference signal and output signal would be a received signal. Input-output based speech quality assessment in objective speech quality measurement gave good correlations with reaches up to 99% in some cases [2]. Estimating the speech quality without the presence of
Akram Aburas (email:akram.@aces-co.com) and Prof.Khalid Al-Mashouq(.Mashouq@ksu.edu.sa)

input signal or reference signal is latest area of research. Input-output based speech quality assessment in objective speech quality measurement gave good correlations with reaches up to 99% in some cases [3]. The performance of objective measurement is basically achieved by correlating their results with the subjective quality measure. Estimating the speech quality without the presence of input signal or reference signal is latest area of research. Jin Liang and R. Kubichek [4] published a first paper on output-based objective speech quality using perceptually based parameters as features. The results were quiet appreciable with 90% correlation. R. Kubichek and Chiyi Jin [5] used the vector quantization method with 83% correlation achievement. An output based speech quality measurement technique using visual effect of a spectrogram is proposed in [6]. An output-based speech quality evaluation algorithm based on characterizing the statistical properties of speech spectral density distribution in the temporal and perceptual domains is proposed in [7]. The correlations results achieved with subjective quality scores were 0.897 and 0.824 for the training data and testing data set respectively. A time-delay multilayer neural network model for measuring the output based speech quality was proposed by Khalid Al-Mashouq and Mohammed Al-Shayee in [8]. The correlation achieved for speaker and text independent was 0.87. In this Paper, we presented our work for determining the call quality parameters such as average signal strength, Call drop information. Then final call quality is computed from the extracted parameters. This research is continuation of the work that has been proposed in [9]-[17]. Call Quality measurement, escalation and analyzation is the research being conducted from past few years and the QMeter is registered software developed as a part of this research.

2. Call Quality Computation and Escalation


The proposed research parameters and the proposed methodology address the call quality issues by the mobile operators from end-users perspective. The system logs the signal strength information for every 5ms if there is change in the signal strength information

Aburas et al.: A Model for Call Quality Computation and Collection in Mobile Telecommunication Networks.

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and calculates the score at every 5ms based on the below Table 1 and calculates the average signal strength at the end of the call. The call drop information such as normally dropped from either of the party or dropped due to network issues or during the cell change is also recorded and is reported in Table 2.
TABLE 1: SIGNAL STRENGTH SCORE

dropped due to network issues and the landmarks that were marked with green colors are normally dropped calls. The different colors landmarks help one to easily visualize and analyze the calls.

Start

Signal Range (dBm) -120 to -95 -95.00 to -85.00 -85.00 to -75.00 -75.00 to -65.00 -65.00 to -55.00

Classification Extremely Bad Bad Average Good Excellent


No

Incoming or outgoing call notification

Active call?

Yes Process the signal when changed or for every5ms and log the information depending on the option selected

TABLE 2: CALL DROP SCORE

Call Drop Drop due to Network issue Normally Dropped

Score 1 (Extremely Bad) 5 (Excellent)


At the end of the active call: 1. capture the call drop information 2. calculate the call quality 3. Mark the landmarks on the map 4. log the call quality parameters.

The call quality is derived from the scores computed from the above parameters as below: Call Quality = (Signal Strength Score+Call drop Score)/2 The below Table 3 shows final call quality classification.
TABLE 3: CALL QUALITY SCORE

Fig. 1. Call Quality Computation

Score <1 1-2 2- 3 3- 4 4-5

Classification Extremely Bad Bad Average Good Excellent

The system has the ability to send the call quality information to a particular number as a call quality escalation. It has the provision of setting the mobile number, to which the sms would be sent automatically at the end of call. The system has the option of setting to send the sms always, less than bad etc. It has also the provision to use the call quality based on call statistics, where the call quality is computed at the end of 10 calls and the call statistics can also be sent as sms. This flexibility allows the operator to fix the parameter values that can be escalated for immediate action. The sms call quality module is depicted in Fig. 2.

The basic flowchart for the Call Quality computation is depicted in Fig. 1. The application uses the GPS coordinates to mark the landmarks and also uses the LAC (Location Area Code) and cell id related to that particular operator. The LAC and cell-ids are more meaningful to the operator, if he wants to view the call quality on the maps at their end. The landmark for each call on the mobile equipment (ME) is marked on the map with colors. The landmarks that were marked with red colors are the calls
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3. Collection Model for Call Quality


The parameters average signal strength score and call drop information scores are calculated and the final call quality score is derived as per the average scores proposed in previous section at the end-user mobile. The application at the end of the call, all the parameters, cell id and GPS cords will be smsed to some predefined short code at the operator end. All the information that

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International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 1, No. 6, Pp. 220-223, Dec. 2011.

has been collected at the operator will be retrieved and stored in the database and would be available to the operator which would be very helpful to analyze the call quality for benchmarking and addressing other issues related to call quality. Various reports can be derived based on different parameters at different cell ids and GPS coordinates, which would be very useful for the operators. Further, the call quality below threshold as perceived by the end-user can be used by the operator to apply the tariff redemption or adding bonus amount or minutes to the subscribers based on the policies defined by them. A block diagram showing the flow of call quality from mobile equipment to QMeter Application at the operator has been shown in Fig. 3. Also the tariff redemption and bonus minutes can be used as a marketing tool by the operators. Different tariff redemption methods were proposed in [14] based on call quality parameters.
Start

ME

MSC(Mobile Switching Center)

ME

BSC

SMSC(SMS Center)

ME Data

QMeter Enterprise Application

Fig. 3. Call Quality Collection Model

No Want to SMS ?

Acknowledgment
Yes

This research is acknowledged to the ACES (Advanced Communications & Electronics) research group.

No

Auto ?

Yes

References
[1] ITU-T Rec. P.862, " An objective method for end to end speech quality assessment of narrowband telephone networks and speech codecs, (2001) Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ). A. Bayya & M. Vis, "Objective measure for speech quality assessment in wireless communications," (1996) IEEE International Conference, ICASSP-96, Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, vol.1, pp. 495-498. A. Bayya & M. Vis. "Objective measure for speech quality assessment in wireless communications," (1996) IEEE International Conference, ICASSP-96, Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, vol.1, pp. 495-498. J. Liang & R. Kubichek, Output-based Objective Speech Quality," (1994) IEEE Conference, Vehicular Technology, 44 vol.3, pp. 1719-1723. C. Jin & R. Kubichek, "Output-Based Objective Speech Quality Using Vector Quantization Techniques," (1995) IEEE Signals, Systems and Computers, Conference Record of the 29th Asilomar Conference, vol.2, pp. 1291-1294. G. Chen & V. Parsa, "Output-based speech quality evaluation by measuring perceptual spectral density distribution," (2004) IEE Electronics Letters, 40, pp. 783-785. D. Picovici & A.E. Mahdi, Output-based objective speech quality measure using self-organizing map, (2003) IEEE Proceedings of ICASSP, 1, pp. 476-479. Kh. A. Al-Mashouq & M. S. Al-Shaye, Output-Based Speech Quality Assessment with Application to CTIMIT Database, (2002) International Conference on Computers and Their Applications CATA, 17. A. Aburas, J.G. Gardiner & Z. Al-Hokail, Symbian Based Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality for International Journal Publishers Group (IJPG)

[2]
Want to send latest score? Send the latest call quality score depending on the condition set Send the latest call bundle score depending on the options set on the call bundle score

Yes

[3]

SMS last call quality score

[4]

Want to send last call bundle score?

No

[5]

Yes

[6]
SMS last call bundle score Stop

Fig. 2. SMS Call Quality

[7]

QMeter is set of tools for call quality measurement developed as an enterprise application which collects the call quality parameters from the end-user mobile equipments to analyze and process the call quality.

[8]

[9]

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Telecommunication Networks, (2008) International Conference on Computing, Communications and Control Technologies: CCCT, 6, USA. [10] A. Aburas, J.G. Gardiner & Z. Al-Hokail, Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality-Implementation Using a Non-Traditional Symbian Operating System, (2009) IEEE-GCC Conference on Communication and Signal Processing, 5, Kuwait. [11] A. Aburas, J.G. Gardiner & Z. Al-Hokail, Emerging Results on symbian based perceptual evaluation of speech quality for telecommunication networks, (2009) CCCT, USA. [12] A. Aburas, J.G. Gardiner & Z. Al-Hokail, Transitional Results on Symbian Based Call Quality Measurement for Telecommunication Network, (2009) ICPC, Taiwan. [13] A. Aburas, J.G. Gardiner, Kh. Al-Mashouq & Z. Al-Hokail, Results of Ongoing Symbian Based Call Quality Measurement for Telecommunication Network, (2009) Telfor, Serbia. [14] A. Aburas, J.G. Gardiner & Z.Al-Hokail, Call Quality Measurement for Telecommunication Network and Proposition of Tariff Rates, (2010) CCCT, USA. [15] A. Aburas, J.G. Gardiner, Kh. Al-Mashouq & Z. Al-Hokail, Perceptual Evaluation of Call Quality and Evaluation of Telecom Networks, (2010) STS-Conference, KSA. [16] A. Aburas & K. Al-Mashouq, Call Quality Measurement and Application in Telecommunication Network, (2011) Journal in Selected Areas of Telecommunication (JSAT). [17] A. Aburas, K. Al-Mashouq, QMeter Tools for Quality Measurement in Telecommunication Networks(2011) International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications, Wireless & Mobile Networks.

Akram A. Aburas holds Masters and Bachelor's degree in Electrical engineering. Posses over fifteen years experience including executive manager in Telecom industries. Founder, Partner and Board Member in several ME regional companies. He has several publications in the area of Telecommunications, revenue assurance, call and speech quality. He is currently the CEO of ACES (Advanced Communications & Electronics Systems), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Prof. Khalid Al-Mashouq holds Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering and active researcher in Call and Speech Quality in Telecommunication Network. Currently he is professor in king Saud university, Riyadh, KSA.

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