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International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 1, No. 6, Pp. 224-227, Dec. 2011.

Manuscript
Received:
29, June, 2011
Revised:
4, Oct., 2011
Accepted:
15, Dec., 2011
Published:
15, Jan., 2012

Keywords
asymmetric
photonic
crystal fiber,
birefringence,
offset of
hole-position,
variation of
hole-diameter,
Abstract Birefringence of asymmetric
photonic crystal fiber is investigated using
the finite element method, under the
circumstance of perturbation. By comparing
the value of birefringence on the different
value of large air-hole, the results indicate
that when the intrinsic-birefringence is
smaller, the random offset of hole-position
has large influence on the birefringence.
With the intrinsic-birefringence increasing,
the little effect on birefringence regardless of
the offset of hole-position or the variation of
hole-diameter.


1. Introduction
With the development of high-speed communications,
we need higher performance and more stable polarization
maintaining fiber. However the traditional polarization
maintaining fiber can no longer meet the growing demands,
so it is imperative to explore high-performance polarization
maintaining fiber. The photonic crystal fiber (PCF) also
calls microstructure fiber or holey optical fiber. Recently
photonic crystal fibers have attracted widespread attention
for their unique optical properties, such as endlessly single
mode, high nonlinearity, controllable dispersion and high
birefringence etc. [1]-[4], which have promising
applications in optical fiber communication, fiber sensors
and optoelectronic devices area. Compared with traditional
optical fiber, the structure of PCFs can be designed freely;
some desired properties can be obtained through the
adjustment of the shape, size and arrangement of PCF air
holes [5]. High-birefringence PCF can be obtained by
destroying the structure of symmetric PCF, which is
possible to achieve high polarization maintaining fiber.
However, in fact the offset of hole-position and the
variation of hole-diameters always occur during the
manufacture process. In view of this, it is essential for
designing and manufacture of PCF to investigate the
affection of these perturbations. The paper firstly


This work was supported by the Hebei Province Natural Science Funds
(Grant No F2010001923).
Mingsheng Liu is with Shijiazhuang Institute of Railway Technology
(liums.601001@sina.com)
Yingjuan Yue is with Hebei University of Technology
Yan Li is with Institute of Information Technology of Handan College
investigates the birefringence of asymmetric PCF using the
finite element method, and then details the birefringence
under the different circumstance of perturbation. Finally,
affection of the perturbation to the birefringence is
analyzed.
2. Basic Principle
Generally the birefringence of single-mode fiber is
defined as the propagation constant difference of two
fundamental modes, that is
x y
| | | A = (Equ. 1)
where
x
| and
y
| are the propagation constants
corresponding to the fiber principal axes. Sometimes the
birefringence can also be described by modal birefringence
B and polarization beat-length
B
L , they are defined as:
0 0
x y
B
k k
| |
|

A
= = (Equ. 2)
2
B
x y
L
B
t
| |
= =

(Equ. 3)
In this paper, we use to describe the birefringence of
photonic crystal fiber.
3. Numerical Model
Generally the birefringence of single-mode fiber is
defined as the propagation constant difference of two
fundamental modes that is to intentionally introduce
birefringence into PCF mode, we have enlarged two of the
central air-holes long the y-axis, as shown in Fig. 1(a). This
fiber cladding consist of two different sizes of air-holes, the
parameters are defined as follows: air-hole pitch 4 m A = ,
and the cladding air-hole diameter
1
d ,
1
/ 0.6 d A = . The
two enlarged cladding holes have diameter
2
d ,
2 1
/ 1 d d > .
The refractive index of the silica is 1.444, free space wave
length 1550nm = . All calculations, in this paper, were
performed with finite element method. Fig. 2 shows the
mode field vector graph of asymmetric PCF with two
fundamental mode in two orthogonal directions for the
parameters
2 1
/ 1 d d >
1
/ 0.6 d A = 4 m A =
1550nm = ,
1 2
0 r r = = .

Research on Birefringence of Asymmetric Photonic
Crystal Fiber
Mingsheng Liu, Yingjuan Yue, & Yan Li
Mingsheng Liu et al.: Research on Birefringence of Asymmetric Photonic Crystal Fiber.
International Journal Publishers Group (IJPG)


225
We analyze the variation of birefringence by changing
the parameters of PCF. We define the randomly offset of
air-hole position and the variation of the air-hole diameter
as
1
r and
2
r , respectively. To study the irregularity of high
birefringence PCF, we can analyze the calculated results
statistically. Usually the mean birefringence is used to
describe the average effect in the random process [4], [6].
The mean birefringence of the PCF are defined as
1
N
j
mean
j N
|
|
=
A | |
A =
|
\ .


where N is the total amount of the samples. We take
100 N = in the calculation.
4. Result and Discussion
First, we have analyzed the birefringence of asymmetry
PCF and the influence on it under the circumstances of the
offset of air-hole position and variation of hole-size through
changing the value of
2 1
d d . Fig. 3 shows the birefringence
of asymmetry photonic crystal fiber with varying
2 1
d d .
The diamond and triangle and circle denote the value of
birefringence corresponding to
1 2
0 r r = = ,
1
0.1 r =
2
0 r =
and
2
0.1 r =
1
0 r = , respectively. From the figure we can
see that for the symmetrical structure (
2 1
/ 1 d d = ), the two
polarization modes are degenerate, and the birefringence is
induced by perturbation. When
2 1
/ 1 d d > , the birefringence
is proportional to the value of
2 1
/ d d , While the influence
of the perturbation to birefringence is deduced with the
increase of the value of
2 1
/ d d . Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 also show
that by comparing the different value of
2 1
/ d d , that is to
say with the intrinsic-birefringence increasing, the little
effect on birefringence regardless of the offset of
hole-position or the variation of hole-diameter. Because of
with the increasing of
2 1
/ d d , the non-symmetric of the two
polarization directions is also increasing, that is with the
symmetry of fiber is destroyed worse the contribution of
the perturbation is deduced, so the damaged symmetry
resulted from perturbation has little influence on
birefringence.


Fig. 2. Mode field vector graph of asymmetric PCF with two
fundamental modes in two orthogonal directions for the parameters d2/d1>1,
d1/= 0.6, = 4m, = 1550nm, r1 =r2 = 0

Fig. 1. (a) the structure of asymmetric PCF (b) offset of hole-position (c) variation of hole-size

International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 1, No. 6, Pp. 224-227, Dec. 2011.
International Journal Publishers Group (IJPG)


226
The mean value of birefringence of asymmetry structures
with varying A are shown in Fig. 4. The figure shows that
with the increasing A , the value of birefringence decreases.
When
2 1
/ 1.0 d d = , the structure of PCF is ideal symmetry,
the offset of hole-position and the variation of hole-size all
lead to the change of the value of birefringence, and the
birefringence increase more strongly with
1
r than with
2
r .
When
2 1
/ 1 d d > , we introduce the intentional
birefringence.
For the smaller intrinsic-birefringence of PCF, the
randomly offset of hole-position has large influence on the
birefringence. In addition, the greater distance of air-hole,
the smaller effect on birefringence resulted from offset of
hole-position or variation of hole-size.
Fig. 5 shows the birefringence of asymmetry photonic
crystal fibre with varying
1
/ d A. With the increasing
1
/ d A,
the birefringence increases. In addition, the smaller
1
/ d A,
the smaller influence on birefringence of asymmetric PCF.
5. Conclusion
In this paper the birefringence of asymmetric photonic
crystal fiber under the circumstance of perturbation is
investigated statistically using the finite element method.
Our statistical results indicate that: First, under the same
condition, for the smaller intrinsic-birefringence of photonic
crystal fiber, the randomly offset of hole-position has large
influence on the birefringence. Second, with the
intrinsic-birefringence increasing, they have little effect on
birefringence regardless of the offset of hole-position or the
variation of hole-size. Because of the symmetric are
destroyed, the asymmetric resulting from perturbation has
no effect on birefringence. Lastly, birefringence resulting
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
0
3000
6000
9000
12000
2 1
/ d d
r1=r2=0
r1=0.1
r2=0.1
,
A
|
,
m
e
a
n

Fig. 3. Birefringence versus
2 1
/ d d with parameters 2 m A = ,
1
/ 0.6 d A = , 1550nm =

2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
0
300
600
900
1200
2 1
/ 1.0 d d =
r
1
=r
2
=0
r
1
=0.1
r
2
=0.1
,
A
|
,
m
e
a
n
A
2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
400
800
1200
1600
2000
A
2 1
/ 1.1 d d =
2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
800
1600
2400
3200
A
2 1
/ 1.2 d d =

2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
1500
3000
4500
6000
,
A
|
,
m
e
a
n

2 1
/ 1.3 d d =
A
2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
3000
6000
9000
12000
A

2 1
/ 1.5 d d =

Fig. 4. Birefringence versus A with parameters
1
/ 0.6 d A = , 1550nm =
Mingsheng Liu et al.: Research on Birefringence of Asymmetric Photonic Crystal Fiber.
International Journal Publishers Group (IJPG)


227
from perturbation is less sensitive to asymmetric photonic
crystal fiber with large pitch or small
1
/ d A. Therefore, to
achieve the high polarization maintaining fiber, we can
manufacture different high-birefringence by controlling the
relative size of the two air-holes. The present investigation
is expected to provide references and basis for design and
manufacture of photonic crystal fibers.
Acknowledgment
The research is supported by Hebei Province Natural
Science Funds (Grant No F2010001923), by the Science
Technology Development Program of Handan (Grant No
0921103040).
References
[1] S.B. Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev,
High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber, (2000) Optical
Fiber Communication Conference, USA, pp. TuM2-1-
TuM2-3.
[2] T.M. Monro, P.J. Bennett, N.G.R. Broderick, & D.J.
Richardson, Holey fibers with random cladding
distributions, (2000) Optics Letters, vol. 25, no. 4, pp.
206-208.
[3] W.M. li, Z.Y. Yuan, L.Sh. Guang, L.W. Jie, Research on
photonic crystal fiber characteristics with high
birefringence, (2008) Journal of Yanshan University, vol. 32,
no. 1, pp.41-48.
[4] L. Yan, Research on Laser and Wavelength conversion with
Double-cladding Photonic Crystal Fiber, (2007) Doctoral
Dissertation of Nankai University, pp. 35-48.
[5] I.K. Hwang, Y.J. Lee & Y.H. Lee, Birefringence induced by
irregular structure in photonic crystal fiber, (2003) Optics
Express, vol. 11, no. 22, pp. 2799-2806.
[6] L.Yan, L.J. Guo, K.G.Yun et, Birefringence of
Irregular-Microstructure Fiber, (2007) Chinese Physics
Letters, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 2879-2882.

Mingshen Liu was born in china in 1960.
He received his Ph.D. degree from Hebei
University of Technology in 2007. He is a
Full Professor (from 2000), Doctors (and
Masters) tutor and a president of
Shijiazhuang Institute of Railway
Technology. He is also a Part-time
Professor of Hebei University of
Technology and Handan College. His
current research interests are optoelectronics information
technology, optical communication technology, and next
generation network.


Yingjuan Yue was born in china in 1984.
She is a master student. Her current
research interests are optoelectronics
information technology and optical
communication technology.


Yan Li was born in china in 1975. She
received her Ph.D. degree from Nankai
University in 2007. She is a Full
Vice-Professor, a Director of Institute of
Information Technology of Handan
College. Her current research interests are
optoelectronics information technology and
optical communication technology.


0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
0
200
400
600 2 1
/ 1.0 d d =
,
A
|
,
m
e
a
n
1
/ d A
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
300
600
900
1200
1
/ d A

2 1
/ 1.1 d d =
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
0
500
1000
1500
2000
1
/ d A
2 1
/ 1.2 d d =

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
1
/ d A
,
A
|
,
m
e
a
n

2 1
/ 1.3 d d =
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
1
/ d A

2 1
/ 1.5 d d =

Fig. 5. Birefringence versus
1
/ d A
with parameters
4 m A =
, 1550nm =