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International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 1, No. 6, Pp. 228-232, Dec. 2011.

The Development of Rich Learning Environment on Web to Support Knowledge Construction based on Meaning Making for Industrial and Technology Education Students
Sakesun Yampinij
Manuscript
Received: 1, Sep., 2011 Revised: 12,Oct., 2011 Accepted: 15,Dec., 2011 Published: 15,Jan., 2012

Keywords
Rich Learning Environment, Knowledge Construction, Meaning Making

Abstract The objectives of this research were to develop Rich Learning Environment on Web to Support Knowledge Construction based on meaning making to study about knowledge construction of learners, study learning achievement of learners, and study learners opinions. The target group was 40 fourth-year undergraduate students in the Department of Educational Communications and Technology, faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi. The results of the development of Rich Learning Environment on Web consisted of seven important elements; 1) Authentic Problem based, 2) Development center meaning making, 3) Resources, 4) Related Cases, 5) Sharing Knowledge, 6) Scaffolding, and 7) Coaching. Moreover, the result of evaluation of efficacy was found that constructed learning environment can support learners to construct knowledge according to principles of meaning making. It started from experience phenomena by learners who face the experiences about the relevant situations. Then, the content was interpreted together with their old experiences or called interpreted experience. The result of learning achievement was found that the target had higher learning achievement. Finally, the result of learners opinions for Rich Learning Environment was found that it can enhance and develop learners to construct knowledge.

changed into the learning environment through learning situations in the real contexts. Learning is regarded as the process which is able to grow continuously. Students must be knowledge constructors vigilantly, so skills and knowledge will occur properly by learning through a real context and lead to the knowledge construction meaningfully. Learning with technology through their own ideas will be used as the knowledge construction tools to promote the students learning abilities meaningfully. One of the important missions of the faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi is educational management to promote the students to get the meaning making. It helps the students to learn and solve the problems, understand new phenomena, and construct their knowledge meaningfully. Researcher developed the rich learning environment on web to support knowledge construction based on meaning making principle by designing the problem situations related with the industrial context to encourage the knowledge construction of the students meaningfully into problem solving in the industrial field which is one of the way to enhance and support the important learning process in this present period.

2. Research Objectives
1) To develop a rich learning environment on web to support knowledge construction based on meaning making for Industrial and Technology Education Students. 2) To study knowledge construction of the students who learn from developed rich learning environment. 3) To study the learning achievement of students who learn from developed rich learning environment. 4) To study the students opinions who learn from developed rich learning environment.

1. Introduction
Educational context of the world has changed into the process of cognitive process and knowledge construction of the learners. Teaching and learning focus on the management of learning environment for students to face with the real situations and connect the learning content into the actual context [1]-[2]. Paradigm of instructor will be
Sakesun Yampinij, Department of Educational Communications and Technology, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand (saksunyam@kmutt.ac.th)

3. Target Group
The target group was 40 fourth-year undergraduate students in the Department of Educational Communications and Technology, faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi.

S. Yampinij: The Development of Rich Learning Environment on Web to Support Knowledge Construction based on Meaning Making for Industrial and Technology Education Students

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4. Research Tool
1) Rich Learning Environment on Web to Support meaning making for Industrial and Technology Education Students 2) Interviewing form about knowledge construction of the learners according to meaning making principle of [1]-[2] 3) Learning effectiveness tests 4) Survey form of students opinions

5. Research Methodology
This research was focused on development of rich learning environment on web to support meaning making for Industrial and Technology Education Students. Researcher divided the research process into 5 per phases as following; A. Phase1: Construction and development of environment Phase 1 has the following steps: This study was begun from the related context. Studied the document, theories, and the principle of Constructivist Learning environment, meaning making, cognitive theory, media symbol system, cognitive flexibility theory and related research. Developed the theoretical framework and to develop into designing framework. Developed the elements of learning environment and establish learning environment. Evaluated environmental effectiveness and content validity by experts. B. Phase 2: Using of the environment This includes the following steps: Provided the environment to the study the context of using and improvement the environment. C. Phase 3: Determination of the environmental validity. Studied the effect of using environment, and concluded the research result. This research collected data to study the knowledge construction according to the meaning making principle of [1]-[2]. Moreover, this research studied learning achievement of students, the opinions of students who learn from developed rich learning environment including of the qualitative data from interviews to knowledge construction from 10 students, data from surveying 30 students, and quantitative data which is the score of learning achievement test. The processes of data collecting as following: Researcher let the students do the pretest. Students began to learn about the learning environment of training in the industry. Then divided into sub-groups of three students and each group of the students from created learning environment had to solve the problems from assigned learning tasks. After that they had to find the information from sources that provide learning in the learning environment. When the students
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collaborated and gained the conclusion of the answers, they sent the answers as the learning tasks to the advisor. Advisor checked and analysis whether the students do the correct the answers. If the answers were imperfect, the advisor had to reply the students immediately to suggest the misunderstanding of the students, and motivate them to get the correct answers together with let them sent the new answers again. After the students have already learned from learning environment, researcher collected the data to survey the opinions of students from the survey forms. The students did the pretest to measure their learning achievement. Ten students were interviewed and recorded their opinions about the knowledge construction of the meaning making principle of [1]-[2] to analysis the received information by protocol analysis method.

6. Data Analysis
The data analysis in this research consists of quantitative data analysis from learning achievement tests, qualitative data from surveying of the students, interview data from the students about learning construction. Then the researcher presented the analysis of the data according to the variables as followings; Analysis of knowledge construction of learners according to the meaning making principle [1]-[2] was the qualitative data analysis by using protocol analysis method. These data were the students answers which were reposed through the network and summaries from the result of students interview. Analysis of learning achievement of students was the quantitative data analysis using statistical T-test dependent. Analysis of students opinions was the quantitative data from a survey of students using statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and percentage criteria set by the researcher. Moreover, qualitative data analysis was brought from the interpretation and conclusion the data of interviews.

7. Research Result
The result of development of rich learning environment on web to support meaning making from the design of researcher according to the meaningful learning principle (five attributes of meaningful learning) including 7 elements as followings; A. Authentic Problem based design Problem based design used the actual problem (real world) in the manufacturing industry. Problems encountered in the production industries involved many factors. These factors related with the problems. If the problems occurred with some factor, problems also affected the other factors.

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International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 1, No. 6, Pp. 228-232, Dec. 2011.

Therefore, the problems in the manufacturing industry are multiple problems with many constraints. There were also many stakeholders, and the different point of views which was the ill structured problems. Researcher used cognitive flexibility theory [3]-[4] which encouraged learners to realize the cognitive conflict or disequilibrium. This process affected the students to construct the new conceptual structures and understanding [5]. The design presented the contextual problems in the production industries which learners have never known before by using links with multiple cases. Learners were assigned to do the learning tasks by connecting similarities and differences between the cases and create meaning making to be the new knowledge. B. Development Center of meaning making Development Center of meaning making was intended to train students for understanding of the meaning making [1]-[2]. The design divided the tasks into sub-learning activities to practice interpret experiences and reasoning from prior knowledge and background experiences. Students were considered, reflected and reasoned this information to create their own meaning making. For the design, learning centers including 1) Interpret experience and Reasoning Center, 2) Reasoning and reflected centers for the construction of meaning making which students must integrate retrieved existing knowledge such as the content, rules, various theories, and principles, and then mapped these data into a similar situation by reflection the reasoning to construct the meaning making and store the knowledge in memories. C. Resources Providing the information is necessary to connect the existing knowledge and experience together with the new information can construct the assimilations or accommodations, and new conceptual structures and understanding. The design for the students to find the answers by promoting them the discovery learning approach, the researcher designed resources which included 1) Information center collected the data, content, and related information 2) Related links officiated as data collecting resource that the students need to use in study and learning 3) Search engine tools for learners to search information sources. D. Related Cases Related cases made from the basic of constructivist learning environments (CLEs) design of [1]-[2]. For the design of this model, if students had less experience, it was difficult to resolve the problems. Therefore, providing experience and professional engineers or industrial managers methods for real problems solving that occur in the industries as the cases will help the students to compare the present knowledge and experience. Transferring knowledge and experiences from the experts to do their learning tasks could support them to apply this knowledge to solve the problems to work in the future [6]-[7].

E. Knowledge Sharing Knowledge sharing was the components which support the exchange of multiple ideas led from the social constructivism idea. It focused on social interaction that play a role in learning and creating conceptual understanding of learners while there were the exchange of learning to construct the meaning making by communication, negotiation, expressing the opinions, and consultation with various people. The designing allowed students to communicate with friends in the same class, friend s in the other classes, the experts, manufacturing l engineer or staff in the industries including stakeholders using communication and discussion via computer networks such as weblogs, web board, chat, and e-mail. F. Scaffolding In this study, researcher has established the scaffolding based on the principles of [8] as theses following details 1) Conceptual scaffolding enables learners to create idea related with the content. 2) Procedural scaffolding was shown the instruction of resources and tools 3) Strategic scaffolding helps learners to do the complete learning tasks. G. Coaching When learners possibly get misconceptions or are in the lower Zone of proximal development. As a result, they could not do their own tasks. They need to be guided including observation of practice and provide supports, guidance, and reflect of learners tasks. If they cannot always be fulfilled by scaffolding, teachers roles are important by changing from knowledge transferring to be coaching. Framework for evaluating the effectiveness of learning environment on a network of [6]-[7] as described following: 1) Productive evaluation by the experts: It was found that the content, design, and learning environment on web were appropriate. 2) The result of knowledge construction of the students: It was found that created learning environment encouraged learners to construct the knowledge according to meaning making principles from their knowledge, and experience phenomena, which learners studied from the developed environment including resources, development center of meaning making, related cases, sharing knowledge, scaffolding and coaching with their understanding, abilities of distinguishing, summary of content, principles, and facts. Then they have to interpret experience with content, knowledge, and their experience by reflecting and reasoning, and then definite their own meaning. 3) Evaluation of learning effectiveness: It was found that the results from pretest which had the total score at 60 points, the target group could do the learning effectivenesss pretest scores (Epre) at 21.95. On the other hands, the results from posttest which had the total score at 60 points, the target could do the learning effectivenesss posttest score (Epost) at 82.75. When comparing between the results of posttests learning effectiveness and the result of pretests
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S. Yampinij: The Development of Rich Learning Environment on Web to Support Knowledge Construction based on Meaning Making for Industrial and Technology Education Students

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learning effectiveness, it was found that both results of learning effectiveness were different at 60.80. Therefore, the target group had higher learning effectiveness at 62.53.
TABLE 1 THE LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TARGET GROUP AFFECTED TO THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

Item
Pretest (Epre) Posttest (Epost)

Total score
527 1986

Average score
13.17 49.65

S.D.
0.84 0.82

Score (%)
21.95 82.75

Learning Effectiveness
60.80

4) Evaluation of students opinions on the learning environment: It was found that the learning environment can enhance and develop the knowledge construct of learners. As the result of surveys and interviews, the students can apply knowledge from the developed related cases to use in the knowledge construction most with the average score at 4.85, development center of meaning making with the average score at 4.75, resource with the average score at 4.67, sharing knowledge with the average score at 4.62, scaffolding with the average score at 4.37, and coaching with the average score at 4.07, respectively.
TABLE 2 THE STUDENTS OPINIONS ON THE LEARNING ON THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AND THE UTILIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION

interpretation of experience would be different and existing experience is important for making individual understanding. If construction of meaningful things would be complete, people must have clear reflection and reasoning before providing to store the knowledge and new experience in the memory. From interviewing the students, it was found that the students can apply knowledge from the developed related cases to construct the knowledge with the average score at 4.85 because of providing the students to learn from the experience of the experts. Hence, they can link their experiences to solve the problems. Development center of meaning making can construct the knowledge with the average score at 4.75 because of the design that encouraged students to integrate knowledge and experience by mapping the retrieved knowledge as the content, rules, theories, and principles with the new problem situations which were similar by reflecting and reasoning to create meaning making and store knowledge structure in the memories. Next element, the resource can construct the knowledge with the average score at 4.67 because there was various information for interpret experiences of learners. Sharing knowledge can construct the knowledge with the average score at 4.62 because there was the learning collaboration support, experience exchange which help the students to interpret the idea, knowledge, and various experience into reasoning for understand meaningfully.

Elements in Learning Environment Related case The development center of meaning making Resource Sharing Knowledge Scaffolding Coaching

Utilization of Knowledge Construction S.D. Level of opinion 0.36 0.43 Most Most

4.85 4.75

4.67 4.62 4.37 4.07

0.57 0.54 0.66 0.52

Most Most Much Much

Fig. 1 Experience of vice president of manufacturing department in knowledge sharing

8. Research Discussion
The developed learning environment consisted of 7 elements. These were 1) Problems base, 2) Resource, 3) Development center of meaning making, 4) Related case, 5) Sharing Knowledge, 6) scaffolding, and 7) Coaching. From the evaluation of learning environment, it was found that created learning environment can promote learners to construct the knowledge according to meaning making principle which started from experience phenomena of the students related with the events that they were facing at that time. Then, the content was interpreted with the exiting experience. It had the notice about the interpretation of each student because they give the different reasoning support even if they studied from the same learning environment. As a result, this phenomenon could be explained that each student had different knowledge and experience. Therefore,
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Fig. 2 Experience of training departments manager in knowledge sharing

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Fig. 3 Experience of experts in knowledge sharing

Acknowledgment
The research was complete successfully with the cooperation and assistance from Aj Sumalee Chaijaroen and fourth-year undergraduate students in the Department of Educational Communications and Technology, faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi. Researcher would like to thank them for their participation in this experiment.

References
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