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Fire history over the past 1,300 years from a high-resolution lake-sediment record, Shaws Bog, Galiano Island,

southwestern British Columbia, Canada

Patrick Flanigan*, Dr. Kelly Derr, Dr. Philip Higuera ENVS 497: Senior Research *Environmental Science Program, University of Idaho

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This project addresses the current lack of research concerning the fire history of Galiano Island, located in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. To address this problem, the purpose of the project is to reconstruct the fire history of the past 1,300 years using a high-resolution lake-sediment record from Shaws Bog in the Galiano Island Ecological Reserve. The bog is situated on the northern end of the island and is suitable for obtaining a high-resolution sediment record. From this, a charcoal record was obtained containing the sediment-water interface and approximately first meter of sediment. This core was sliced, subsampled, and underwent charcoal analysis. An age-depth model was also calculated revealing 1300 years of charcoal data within the core. Meanwhile, the number of macrocharcoal pieces from each subsample was used to conduct statistical analyses on via the computer program CharAnalysis and the software MatLab. The resulting charcoal accumulation rates (CHARs) were used in finding statistically significant charcoal peaks, signifying possible local fire events. The data produced form 3 distinct zones of time frames and, using these zones, the fire history of Shaws Bog was compared to existing regional records of fire histories, climate, humans, and vegetation, to better understand their interactive roles in shaping the local fire regime. It was hypothesized that the fire history of the Shaws Bog area over the past 1,300 years has been influenced directly and indirectly by changes in regional climate and human inhabitation, as well as subsequent changes to vegetation. The knowledge gained from this project will aid scientists and conservation groups, especially the Galiano Conservancy Association, better understand the influence of climate, vegetation, and humans on the areas fire regime, as well as support conservation practices in the future.

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Ecological integrity, as defined and used by the Canada National Parks Act, is a condition that is determined to be characteristic of its natural region and likely to persist, including abiotic components and the composition and abundance of native species and biological communities, rates of change and supporting processes (Parks Canada, 2013). Many conservationists and land managers today strive to preserve the ecological integrity of ecosystems; however, preserving this integrity comes with challenges. For instance, how do conservationists and land managers determine how best to address fires within an ecosystem to preserve its integrity? Fortunately, scientific research methods addressing an areas fire regime can provide valuable insights and help conservationists and land managers better address an ecosystems fire events, thereby promoting its ecological integrity. A proven scientific research method addressing an areas fire regime is to reconstruct local fire histories. This is often accomplished by obtaining sedimentary records from lake bottoms or small hollows, which offer continuous records. These records contain, among other valuable data, charcoal deposits from nearby fire events (see Figure 1). Using these records, charcoal accumulation can be analyzed and local fire histories reconstructed. When reconstructing fire histories from sedimentary records, scientists are often analyzing and interpreting fire regimes. For the purposes of this study, the fire regime concept will be understood in terms established by Krebs, Pezzatti, Mazzoleni, Talbot, & Conedera (2010) and Whitlock, Higuera, McWethy, & Briles (2010). Krebs et al. defined fire

Flanigan 4 regimes as a spatial and temporal unit in the fire distribution (2010). Fire regimes are at a scale directly greater than fire events (which are directly above flames). Whitlock et al. also explained fire regimes by its influencing factors: climate mean and variability, landscape/regional controls (frequently associated with human influences), and vegetation (2010) (see Figure 2). These terms have come to influence and guide fire scientists in reconstructing fire histories. Recently, numerous studies on fire regimes have been conducted in the Gulf Islands situated inside the Gulf of Georgia of southwestern British Columbia [B.C.], as well as nearby coastal regions of both southern B.C. and Washington State (see Figure 3). Examples of historical fire reconstructions inside this general area include Vancouver Island (Brown & Hebda, 2002), Orcas Island (Sugimura, Sprugel, Brubaker, & Higuera, 2008), Valdes Island (Derr, 2012), and Pender Island (Lucas & Lacourse, 2013) (see Figure 4). These studies, combined with regional climate, human, and vegetation studies, have provided valuable knowledge on regional fire histories and regimes, for conservationists and land managers. Yet, current fire knowledge in the area is still lacking, including knowledge about Galiano Island, a part of the Gulf Islands. Galiano Island is approximately 27.5 kilometers (km) long and ranges 1.6-6 km wide. It is located among the southern Gulf Islands, on the western side of the Strait of Georgia, between Vancouver Island and the British Columbia mainland (specifically the Fraser River estuary) and is within the coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) zone (Galiano Island Chamber of Commerce, 2013; British

Flanigan 5 Columbia Ministry of Environment, n.d.). Despite present-day knowledge of the islands Douglas-fir ecosystem, fires on the island have not been studied closely. It is likely that Galiano Island reflects a fire-dependent ecosystem. Galiano Island is located within the coastal Douglas-fir moist maritime subzone of British Columbia because of its characterized warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters, with very long growing seasons, but also significant water deficits (Galiano Conservancy Association, 2013; British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations, 2007). The island, as well as the other islands within the Gulf of Georgia, has a relatively dry climate in the coastal Douglas-fir zone. This is due to the rainshadow effect produced by the Vancouver Island mountains, and the Olympic Peninsula mountains (British Columbia Ministry of Environment, n.d.). Past studies have documented fire histories of forests within the coastal Douglas-fir zone, but not of Galiano Islands own forests. Fortunately, if the fire history of Galiano Island is to be reconstructed, its potential influencing factors of climate, humans, and vegetation will already be to some extent known based on past regional studies. Past climate, archaeological, and vegetation studies have taken place nearby Galiano Island (Derr, 2012; Sugimura, 2008; Walker & Pellatt, 2003). In fact, archaeological excavations at the Dionisio Point Locality on northern Galiano Island have resulted in the discovery of plank houses (large, indigenous shelters made of wood, housing multiple families), as well as middens (piles of human-created debris) and artifacts (Grier, 2003). Many of these studies have identified significant changes over the past approximate 1,000 years in most, if not all, of these three regional factors. These

Flanigan 6 studies may provide valuable insights into what may have shaped the islands fire history and regime. Acquiring knowledge of Galiano Islands fire history will be advantageous. Knowing the fire history will allow scientists and conservationists to better understand the islands fire regime, as well as its relation to regional climate, humans, and vegetation. Scientists, particularly archaeologists, paleoecologists, and fire ecologists, conducting research in the region will benefit from this study. Examples of this include archaeologists gaining a better awareness of the relationship between indigenous peoples and their environment, paleoecologists better understanding how the ecosystem has changed throughout time, and fire ecologists becoming more aware of local fire regimes of the area. In addition, the knowledge will be beneficial to conservation groups by helping them better understand the historical occurrence of local fires and manage vegetation communities on the island. This is especially true for the Galiano Conservancy Association, an organization founded to preserve, protect, and enhance the quality of the human and natural environment on Galiano Island (Galiano Conservancy Association, 2013). In order to identify Galiano Islands historical fire regime, this study obtained a sediment record from Shaws Bog. The bog is approximately 900 meters (m) long and 125 m wide and is currently protected within the Galiano Island Ecological Reserve, located on the northern part of the island (British Columbia Ministry of Environment, n.d.). This reserve is also near the Dionisio Point archaeological site and both the bog and Dionisio Point have had limited modern human development (modern referring to the time since Euro-American settlement in the mid-1850s (Ames & Maschner, 1999). Access to the island

Flanigan 7 is by ferry on the southern point of the island at Sturdies Bay where the majority of the islands 1,000 residents live near. Access to Shaws Bog once on the island is by road and foot (see Figure 5). These general characteristics make Shaws Bog a potentially promising site for obtaining a long-term high-resolution sediment record, with reliable macrocharcoal deposits (size greater than 125 micron (m), which upon isolation helps restrict the potential radius distance around the bog to be reflective of more local fire events) to be used in reconstructing the local fire history. Accordingly, the purpose of this project is to reconstruct the local fire history around Shaws Bog over the last 1,300 years using a high-resolution lake-sediment record. There are two research questions that drive this project: first, has there been a change in fire history over the past 1,300 years on Galiano Island?; and second, if so, are the changes related to climate, vegetation, and/or human influences? I hypothesize that the fire history of the Shaws Bog area over the past 1,300 years has changed, and that the fire history has been influenced directly and indirectly by changes in regional climate and human habitation, as well as subsequent changes to vegetation. Objectives for the research project include: Comparing and contrasting the fire history reconstructed from Shaws Bog with fire histories reconstructed from past study sites within the region; exploring the relationship between the local Shaws Bog fire history and regional climate data; examining the relationship between the local fire history of Shaws Bog with both Galiano Islands, and regional, archaeological records; and investigating the connections between Shaws Bog local fire history and regional data on past vegetation.

Flanigan 8 In forming these hypotheses and objectives, several lines of evidence were used. For example, previous research in the Gulf of Georgia region has demonstrated changes in climate during the last 1,300 years (Walker & Pellatt, 2003). These changes may have influenced subsequent shifts in vegetation communities. Additionally, both archaeological and historical records show that the pre-contact indigenous peoples of the region (referred to as Coast Salish indigenous peoples) were actively managing and influencing the structure of plant and animal communities, including the use of small-scale fires (Derr, 2012; Deur and Turner, 2005; Lepofsky et al., 2005). Finally, many past regional fire reconstructions have resulted in the production of vegetation histories for various sites throughout the region. This extensive past data on regional climate and humans, as well as vegetation, make it likely that these three factors have shaped the local Shaws Bog fire regime over the past 1,300 years.

Materials and methods

Field methods A complete lake-sediment record was obtained from the deepest part of Shaws Bog, at a water depth of nearly 6 meters, due to its likelier steadier pattern of charcoal accumulation (Jensen, K., Lynch, A., Calcote, R., & Hotchkiss, S.C., 2007). The sedimentwater interface and approximately top 1 meter of sediment was collected using a polycarbonate tube and piston, and labeled SB13_sh. Collected next to SB13_sh, further sediment cores, each approximately 100 centimeters (cm) in length and labeled 1A-1I, were collected using a modified Livingstone piston corer until contact with the clay substrate was encountered. Then, in a location within several meters of cores 1A-1I,

Flanigan 9 additional sediment cores measuring approximately 100 cm in length and labeled 2A-2H were collected at depths overlapping the ends of the initial sediment cores 1A-1I, until the clay substrate was encountered (see Figure 6). Each core was extruded, described in the field notes, and individually wrapped in polyvinylidene chloride film (Saran WrapTM) and aluminum foil, then placed in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes. The top half, approximately 50 cm, of core SB13_sh was sampled at 0.5 cm intervals and placed in sterile WhirlpackTM bags near the site location. The sediments and samples were then transported to Washington State University and placed in cold storage. The core SB13_sh, along with its samples, was then moved to cold storage at the University of Idaho. Laboratory methods At the University of Idaho, the remaining, un-sampled, section of core SB13_sh was sliced in half lengthwise. Both halves were marked at 0.5 cm intervals and photographed. One half was labeled archive and the other half continued on with the procedure. Magnetic susceptibility was measured at the 0.5 cm intervals and the core was also sliced and sampled at these intervals. From each sample of SB13_sh, a 2 cm3 subsample was removed for charcoal analysis. Each of these charcoal analysis subsamples was put in a mixture solution of 9 cm3 sodium metaphosphate and 9 cm3 bleach (sodium hypochlorite) for 24 hours, filtered with water using a 125 micron (m) sieve, and placed under a microscope at 10x magnification to calculate the number of charcoal pieces. Analysis of the macrocharcoal record Using the date of the Mount Mazama ash layer which was deposited from the Mount Mazama eruption beginning around 6850 years before present (BP), or BCE 4862 +/- 50

Flanigan 10 years (Bacon, 1983), and located 5.39 meters below the 2013 top sediment layer, an agedepth relationship was developed using Microsoft Excel to estimate the age of each interval. The age-depth analysis was calculated using calibrated years BP; however, all later results were modified to years AD to facilitate ease in communicating the findings. Numerous scientific authors have also used years AD to communicate data within the past one or two millennia similar to this study (Gavin, Brubaker, & Lertzman, 2003; Higuera, Chipman, Barnes, Urban, & Hu, 2011; Lucas & Lacourse, 2013). The charcoal data collected from the laboratory methods was analyzed to reconstruct the local fire regime of the Shaws Bog area. Charcoal counts were used to estimate charcoal concentrations (# charcoal pieces / cm3). Then, charcoal concentrations were multiplied by the sediment accumulation rate (cm / yr) to obtain charcoal accumulation rates (CHARs). The CHAR record was statistically analyzed using the program CharAnalysis via MatLab to identify distinct CHAR peaks, likely reflecting when local fire events occurred, and the fire regime was quantified by calculating fire return intervals (years between successive fires) and associated statistics. What follows are the parameters used in CharAnalysis to identify CHAR peaks. Pretreatment parameters include: zone divisions: -63 and 1239 to reflect the years defining the beginning and end of the record; years to interpolate record to: median sample resolution (yr sample-1) of the record; transform the record before analysis: no. Smoothing parameters: method for estimating low-frequency CHAR (aka Cbackground): lowess smoother, robust to outliers; years to smooth record over for estimating Cbackground: 500. Peak analysis parameters: calculating high-frequency CHAR (aka Cpeak): residuals (Cpeak = Cinterpolated

Flanigan 11 Cbackground); threshold type: locally defined; method for determining the threshold values for peak identification: threshold values based on a percentile cut-off of a noise distribution, modeled with a 0-mean Gaussian, except noise distribution is determined by a Gaussian mixture model; threshold values to evaluate: 0.950, 0.990, 0.999, and 0.990; cut-off probability for minimum count analysis: 0.5 (minimum charcoal count within 75 years before a peak has to have <5% chance of coming from the same Poisson distribution as the maximum charcoal count associated with the peak). Peak analysis results include: years to smooth fire frequency and fire return intervals over: 500; evaluating the sensitivity of the results to varying smoothing windows: yes.

Age-depth model Assuming a constant accumulation rate, an age-depth relationship model was developed to determine the age of each sediment sample. The age-depth model was calculated using Microsoft Excel with both the date and depth of the top sediment sample and those of the Mount Mazama ash layer. The top 0.5 cm sample taken from the top of the core was identified as 2013, the year the sediment was obtained, and the Mount Mazama ash layer located at a depth of 539 cm was labeled as 6850 years BP, as estimated from Bacon, 1983. The two points produced the linear equation y = 12.826x - 63, and this equation and corresponding graph were used to estimate the age of each sample interval. From this age-depth model, it was calculated that each 0.5 cm sample represents 6.413 years of sediment accumulation and the sediment record contains approximately 1300

Flanigan 12 years of sediment dating from 1239 years BP to 2013 (see Figure 7). This translates to the years AD 711 to AD 2013. Charcoal data Charcoal abundance in the 2 cm3 samples ranged from 0 to 64 pieces, with a mean charcoal count in each sample of 17.10 pieces (see Figure 8). The charcoal concentrations (# charcoal pieces / cm3) were calculated by dividing each abundance datum by 2 in order to standardize the data to cm3. The concentrations ranged from 0 to 28.69 pieces, with a mean charcoal concentration of 8.25 pieces. Charcoal accumulation rates [CHAR (# charcoal pieces cm-2 yr-1)] were calculated by multiplying the charcoal concentrations (# charcoal pieces / cm3) and the sediment accumulation rate (cm / yr). CHAR values ranged from 0 to 2.24 pieces cm-2 yr-1, with a mean of 0.66 pieces cm-2 yr-1. They were then interpolated (6 years), and smoothed (see Figure 9). CharAnalysis identified 10 significant CHAR peaks and four potential CHAR peaks (peaks failing to meet the statistical standards to be significant as determined by the parameters set in CharAnalysis) (see Figure 10). The CHAR peaks occurred at the following years AD: 885, 951, 1083, 1161, 1239, 1377, 1407, 1761, 1827, and 1947. The four potential peaks occurred at the following years AD: 807, 1263, 1287, and 1803 (see Table 1 and Appendix Table A). Based on the frequency of these peaks, the mean fire return interval (mFRI) is 118.364 years, but 86.8 years if potential peaks are considered. The CHAR result data are visibly divided into three zones. Zone I, AD 711-884, contains seven CHAR peaks and three potential peaks. In Zone I, the mFRI is 62.25 years including both potential and significant peaks, and 87 years including only significant

Flanigan 13 peaks. The range of years between statistical peaks ranged between 30-138, and the range of years including both statistical and potential peaks between 24-132. Zone II, AD 14371760, contains no CHAR peaks, and no potential CHAR peaks. Between the years AD 1437 and AD 1677, most of the CHAR data points are below the moving average of interpolated (6 year) values of the CHAR results. Zone III, AD 1761-2013, contains three significant CHAR peaks and one potential peak. The mFRI is 84 years between significant CHAR peaks, and 63 years including the potential peak. Overall, fire frequency over the entire records history is 130.2 years including significant CHAR peaks, and 93 years including both significant and potential CHAR peaks.

Overview The purpose of this project is to reconstruct the local fire history of the Shaws Bog area on Galiano Island, British Columbia over the past 1,300 years using a high-resolution lake-sediment record in order to further scientific knowledge and promote improvements in conservation on the island. To do so, two research questions must be considered: (1) has there been a change in fire history over the last 1,300 years on Galiano Island?; and, (2) if so, are the changes related to climate, human influences, and/or vegetation,? I hypothesize that this local fire history has been influenced directly and indirectly by changes in regional climate and human habitation, as well as changes to vegetation. To test the hypotheses and address the questions, the CHAR data will now be analyzed and interpreted based on the three zones found in the CHAR record, each zone representing a distinct time period. These include Zone 1 (AD 711 to AD 1436) when there

Flanigan 14 are both potential and significant CHAR peaks reflecting local fire events (potential signifying peaks that failed to meet the statistical standards to be significant as determined in the parameters of CharAnalysis), Zone II (AD 1437 to AD 1760) when there is an absence of both potential and significant CHAR peaks, suggesting a lack of local fire events, and Zone III (AD 1761 to 2013) when both potential and significant CHAR peaks return in the record, again reflecting local fire events. Together, these zones encompass the entire charcoal record. Regional fire history The research results of Gavin et al. on the west coast of Vancouver Island reflect similar zone patterns based on CHAR results (2003). However, those three zone patterns do not precisely match temporally the three zones obtained from Shaws Bog. For example, the record on Vancouver Island contains high frequency CHAR peaks from AD 711 to approximately AD 1100 (Zone I), followed by an absence in peaks until AD 1600 (Zone II), after which there are CHAR peaks return in the record (Zone III). The apparent difference in comparing that fire history with Shaws Bogs fire history is the temporal description of Zone II. Zone II on Vancouver Islands west coast is already halfway through completion by the time Shaws Bog enters its Zone II, dated at AD 1436. Other than the mismatch in temporal values, both sites demonstrate similar fire patterns over the last 1,300 years. The fire frequency of Shaws Bog compares to other records. In general, the range of fire frequencies for Pseudotsuga menziesii forests, as determined from tree-ring records, is approximately 90-145 years (Agee, 1993; Ruggiero, Aubry, Carey, & Huff, 1991) as well as from sedimentary records (Lucas & Lacourse, 2013; Walsh, Whitlock, & Bartlein, 2008;

Flanigan 15 Walsh et al., 2010). The fire frequency at Shaws Bog is similar, 130.2 years using significant CHAR peaks, and 93 years using both significantly identified and potential identified CHAR peaks. Other data demonstrate regional mesic Pseudotsuga menziesii forests have a mean fire return interval (mFRI) of greater than 300 years, while coastal Pseudotsuga menzisesii/Abies grandis (grand fir), have an mFRI of greater than 250 years before approximately AD 1450, and 100 years since AD 1450 according to Agee (1990; 1993). Thus, the fire frequency of Shaws Bog over the last 1,300 years compares to many, but not all, known fire frequencies in the area. Meanwhile, in many Douglas-fir forests generally across the broad Pacific Northwest, fire return intervals often occur less frequently than the 87 calculated from the Shaws Bog record, such as 22 years, 8-18 years, 13-26 years, and numerous others. Regardless of these differences, fuel builds up during prolonged fire absence and this can increase the intensity and spread of fires, as well as their damage to the local vegetation (Agee, 1993). However, to know if past studies relate to the charcoal record at Shaws Bog, the framework described by Whitlock et al. (2010) will be utilized. This framework describes climate, regional influences/controls (in this case, most likely human habitation including indigenous and Euro-American settlers), and vegetation as influencing fire regimes. These three influencing factors can be examined in-depth based on current and past research in the area, which provide data on each of them for well-over the last 1,300 years. Regional climate

Flanigan 16 In terms of climate, research has shown that it has undergone several changes in the Gulf Islands and nearby regions over the past 1,300 years, and similar to the CHAR record of Shaws Bog, climate can be divided into three distinct zones. The first division includes the Medieval Climate Anomaly, approximately AD 9501250, with temperatures declining after this. During this climatic period, the region experienced relatively warm and dry conditions (Mann et al., 2009). Following this initial period, mean annual temperatures began dropping. By AD 1350, the region was experiencing the effects of the Little Ice Age, the second climatic zone, meaning a cooler and wetter climate than the Medieval Climate Anomaly (Ames & Maschner, 1999). Beginning around AD 1700, mean average temperatures in the northern hemisphere began rising and, in general, have been rising since, signifying the third climatic zone (Jones, Osborn, & Briffa, 2001). These divisions occur relatively the same times as Shaws Bog CHAR zones. Regional humans In like manner as climate, the history of indigenous people in the area (referred to as Coast Salish people) has undergone changes and can be sectioned into three distinct zones over the past 1,300 years. The first zone witnesses the conclusion of the Marpole phase of the Gulf of Georgia indigenous societies, around AD 1000. During this phase, indigenous peoples were constructing large plank houses and exploiting resources, such as salmon, with relative intensity (Burley, 1980; Matson 1992; Ames & Maschner, 1999). By AD 1000-1100 the regional indigenous population is estimated to have peaked, and has been declining thereafter (Ames & Maschner, 1999). By approximately AD 1360, there is no longer evidence of human occupation at the Dionisio Point Locality on Galiano

Flanigan 17 Island (Steury, 2012). This seemingly absence of human inhabitation on the north end of the island near Shaws Bog represents the second time zone, which lasts until EuroAmerican settlement in the AD mid-1850s (British Columbia Government, n.d.; Matson & Coupland, 1995). The third time zone lasts from Euro-American settlement to the present date of this study (2013). Like the regional climate data, these three zones of human history in the area relatively mirror the zones found in the CHAR record at Shaws Bog. Here it is worth noting that there was a possible likelihood of the Coast Salish people directly shaping the fire regime at Shaws Bog. Past studies have estimated approximately 9,000 indigenous people may have been living in the southern Vancouver Island region before the arrival and contact of Euro-Canadians, and throughout the Shaws Bog charcoal record timeline, have been influencing and shaping ecosystems (Deur & Turner, 2005). In some cases, indigenous peoples ignited fires. For example on Mount Constitution, Orcas Island, they were burning open meadows as a management technique for Camassia and Pteridium plants (White, 1980; Peterson & Hammer, 2001). Consequently, they are likely to have been a regional control for fires in the Gulf Islands and nearby regions. This may be particularly true for the years before AD 1360 when humans are known to have occupied the Dionisio Point Locality. In addition, after AD 1850, EuroAmerican activities, including burning and habitat alterations, have known to contribute to fire history records in the region (Pyne, 1982; Whitlock & Knox, 2002). Regional vegetation Finally, regional vegetation also supports similar time divisions. Galiano Island is located within the Coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) zone. Currently, this area

Flanigan 18 experiences warm, dry summers and wet, mild winters (Meidinger & Pojar, 1991). Generally Coastal Douglas-fir zones include plant associations such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), Western red-cedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis), arbutus (Arbutus menziesii), and red alder (Alnus rubra). Garry oak (Quercus garryana) and grassland associations are often found in the driest areas within the zone (Brown & Hebda, 2002). Vegetation studies in the Gulf Islands and nearby regions have demonstrated patterns specific to local sites, and generally have not been consistent across regional spatial scales. Examples of vegetation changes known from past studies are follows. Increases in Quercus garryana pollen and pollen accumulation rates (PARs) have been identified during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (Cook, Woodhouse, Eakin, Meko, & Stahle, 2004). During the Little Ice Age, however, past research data reveals great fluctuations in vegetation based on site location (Sugimura, 2008; Gavin et al., 2003; Lucas & Lacourse, 2013). Recently, in the past 50 years, there have been identified possible increases in Pseudotsuga, and Tsuga at one site in Orcas Island (Sugimura et al., 2008). These data suggest regional variance in vegetation changes throughout the last 1,300 years. Based on both the CHAR record obtained from Shaws Bog and the regional data in existence, it appears the fire history over the last 1,300 years on Galiano Island has changed, and is related to regional climate, human influences, and possibly vegetation. This supports the hypotheses made at the beginning of the study. Nonetheless, closer examination of the three described CHAR zones, and their relation to regional records will provide further insights and a more detailed analysis. What follows is a description of each

Flanigan 19 of the CHAR zones described, and their relation to regional fire histories, climate, humans, and vegetation within the same time periods (see Figure 11). Zone I (AD 711 to AD 1436) Regional fire history Zone I includes several identified peaks in the CHAR record at Shaws Bog. From AD 711 to AD 884, the CHAR record contains little suggestion of local fire events. There is one potential peak around AD 807, but the first CHAR peak occurs AD 885. Between AD 885 and AD 1407, seven CHAR peaks occur, with a mFRI of 87 years including only significant peaks, 65.25 years including potential peaks. Of the significant peaks, the range between fire events was 30-138 years, and 24-132 years including the values of potential CHAR peaks as fire events. CHAR data of the Shaws Bog record within this time period compares to nearby fire records. For example, Lucas & Lacourses (2013) research on Pender Island, located south of Galiano Island in the Gulf of Georgia, includes a fire history for this time frame. They observed fires were most frequent on the island at the Roe Lake site, with seven CHAR peaks between AD 950 and AD 1250. There was also a small-magnitude peak at AD 1380, but was not included in their grouping of these peaks. Although their time frame of frequent fires spans 300 years for seven fires, and 430 years if including the eighth, smallmagnitude peak, it occurs well within the time frame of Shaws Bog 522 year period of seven fires. Furthermore, although Pender Islands Roe Lake data resulted in an mFRI between AD 950 and AD 1250 of 50 years with a range of 24-108 years between fires, the sites broad mFRI for Pseudotsuga-dominated forests prior to European settlement is 88

Flanigan 20 years, which is both reflectant of Shaws Bog 87 years between AD 885 and AD 1407, as well as Shaws Bog entire 1,300 year mFRI including potential CHAR peaks of 86.8 years. Furthermore, other regional records suggest common fire occurrences within the Gulf Islands and nearby regions within this zone period. For example, the record on Vancouver Island contains high frequency CHAR peaks from AD 711 to approximately AD 1100, followed by an absence in peaks (Gavin et al., 2003). Also, site C38 at Mount Constitution on Orcas Island shows a relatively high peak in the CHAR record between the years AD 950-1150. Before and after this peak, there were significantly lesser CHAR values (Sugimura et al., 2008). These records, although condensed temporally, reflect the fire history at Shaws Bog between AD 711 and 1436. Regional climate Zone I in the CHAR record of Shaws Bog also compares to climate records of the Gulf Islands and nearby regions. The Medieval Climate Anomaly occurred AD 950-1250, and the area experienced relatively warm temperatures, before declining after AD 1250 (Mann et al., 2009). In fact, during the years of about AD 1000-1100, the mean annual temperatures in the northern hemisphere were similar to mean temperatures of the past 100 years, on average around 0.1C above the millennial mean (Jones et al., 2001). In addition, other records indicate the time during AD 1150-1300 was a particularly warm, dry period in the regional climatic record (Ames & Maschner, 1999). Many studies in the region point to this period as a time of drought and relatively high fire frequency (Lucas et al., 2013). This information relates to the high fire frequency at Shaws Bog during this time period.

Flanigan 21 Meanwhile, distinct minima in solar activity have resulted in the region experience cooler temperatures within certain short periods of time within this broader context, and even resulted in glacial advancing in parts of the mainland British Columbia mountains. Within this zone, recorded short periods of minimum solar activity known to have influenced the regional climate include AD 1282-1342, and AD 1416 through a century of the next zone (Walker and Pellatt, 2003). Regional humans It is well known indigenous Coast Salish populations inhabited the Gulf of Georgia and nearby regions during the years AD 711 to AD 1436. This period encompasses the end of the Marpole phase of indigenous societies in the area, which had lasted from BCE 550 AD 950. During this phase, resources, such as salmon were exploited relatively intensively. Also, large plank houses throughout the Gulf of Georgia and nearby regions date back to this period (Burley 1980:55; Ames & Maschner, 1999). Many of the indigenous people lived in villages and multi-household groups and also made use of natural resources, including cedar, for the construction of large plank houses, canoes, and tools. (Ames, 1995). These humans evidently were influencing the local ecosystems. Around AD 950 is the transition from the Marpole Period to the Late Pacific (also referred to as Gulf of Georgia) Period. The Late Pacific Period extends through the rest of Zone II, toward present times, in this CHAR record of Shaws Bog. This archaeological period includes less chipped stone tools used by regional indigenous, but continued use of bone and antler tools (Ames & Maschner, 1999). It is thought that around the start of this period, AD 1000-1100, the regional human population peaked and has since been declining

Flanigan 22 (Ames & Maschner, 1999). This population peak occurs in the midst of fire events at Shaws Bog. Declining Coast Salish populations may have been the partial result of increasing area conflicts. These may have been intercommunity hostilities or ethnic conflicts, or may have been large-scale warfare dating back to at least 750 AD (Matson & Coupland, 1995; Ames & Maschner, 1999). For instance, two archaeological sites in the area include trenchembankments dating to AD 800, and another site includes two trenched-off defensive sections bounding a large shell midden dating around AD 800 to 1000 (Ames & Maschner, 1999). Nearby Shaws Bog, archaeological excavations have revealed indigenous peoples living in the area during this zones time frame. On Galiano Island, archaeological excavations have revealed two indigenous sites, one on the north part and on one on the south section of the island. Although the south section of the island has uncovered archaeological evidence dating prior to the Shaws Bogs 1,300 year charcoal record, (Matson & Coupland, 1995), the northern excavations have revealed human occupation within the past 1,300 years of the charcoal record (but also dating back further as well). According Grier, an archaeologist who studies in the region, one of the five plank houses excavated was occupied roughly AD 1000-1350, with multiple households thriving at this time, totaling an estimated 60 people living at the site at any one given period of time (Steury, 2012). Although it is uncertain if the other plank houses at the site were occupied simultaneously, archaeologists consider the area a village. The village was potentially occupied at least winter-through-spring based on salmon and herring remains found in the

Flanigan 23 house deposits (Grier 2003). Moreover, excavations at Shingle Point on Valdes Island, immediately north of Galiano Island, have resulted in findings of houses dating to around AD 1000-1100 (Derr, 2012; Matson, 2003). It is highly probable the ecosystem around Shaws Bog on Galiano Island was affected by these humans during this time period. Coast Salish populations are known to have influenced fire regimes in the region, likely even igniting fires (Lucas et al., 2013). Many of the regional peoples used lowseverity, small-scale fires to manage animal and plant resources (Derr, 2012; Lepofsky et al., 2005). Archeological evidence along the Fraser River, nearby Galiano Island in the Gulf of Georgia, on the British Columbia mainland, has revealed prescribed burning practices being established within 1,000 years prior to this zone in the Shaws Bog charcoal record. With cooling temperatures occurring during part of this zone, if has been suggested that indigenous peoples would have become more reliant on prescribed burning to manage local plant-based food resources; however, little information is known on the severity of these probable burns and their impacts on local fire regimes (Lepofsky et al., 2005) Regional vegetation Regional studies have found some regional changes within AD 711 to 1436.Past studies have shown increases in Quercus garryana pollen and pollen accumulation rates (PARs) during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. This is associated with climatic affects on vegetation, including diminished moisture availability and/or raised temperatures (Cook, Woodhouse, Eakin, Meko, & Stahle, 2004). On Orcas Island during this time period, pollen records are fairly stable (Sugimura et al., 2008). Although the PAR record for site C38 does

Flanigan 24 illustrate Cyperacea was in decline during this time period and Tsuga and Pseudotsuga were increasing (Sugimura et al, 2008). Zone II (AD 1437 to AD 1760) Regional fire history The fire history of Shaws Bog between the years AD 1437 and AD 1761 is uneventful. There were no CHAR peaks, and no potential CHAR peaks. In fact, between the years AD 1437 and AD 1677, most of the CHAR data points are below the moving average of interpolated (6 year) values of the CHAR results. This is reflected in the CHAR data during this same time in other studies done in the Gulf Islands and nearby regions. Compared to sedimentary and tree-ring records, there are some commonalities and differences in relationship to this time period at Shaws Bog. In comparison to other sedimentary records in the area, the fire history of Shaws Bog is relatively similar. Past sedimentary studies reflect a similar period of low frequency of fire events, with some variance based on site location (Sugimura, 2008; Gavin et al., 2003; Lucas & Lacourse, 2013). However, the Shaws Bog site compared to regional tree-ring records, reveals a discrepancy. Fire events, including high-severity and/or stand-replacing episodes, interpreted from area tree-ring records indicate fire activity during the early to mid-1500s. Since tree-ring records across these regions show similar fire event patterns at this time, it is implied fire episodes commonly occurred throughout the region during the early to mid1500s (Daniels, Marshall, Carter, & Klinka, 1995; Weisberg & Swanson, 2003). Despite this discrepancy with tree-ring data, results from Shaws Bog during this time remain consistent with data from other sedimentary records in the area.

Flanigan 25 The results from the Gavin et al. (2003) study on the west coast of Vancouver Island include a general absence in CHAR peaks throughout this time too. There was one exception roughly AD 1600. The Mt Constitution, Orcas Island site C38 experienced relatively less CHAR rates during this time period similar to Gavin et al. (2003). Starting around 1650, CHAR rates began increasing at this site into the next zone. However site C11 on Orcas Island during this timeframe shows relatively higher CHAR values than AD 7111760 (Sugimura et al., 2008). It is likely that at least the beginning of this period reflects low fire activities in the Gulf Islands and nearby regions. Regional climate Mean annual temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere continued to decrease, continuing from the previously described Zone I. The Little Ice Age in the Northern Hemisphere is estimated to have begun around AD 1550 (Jones et al., 2001); however, the start of the Little Ice Age in the Shaws Bog area have been described nearer the time when temperatures initially began dropping, which occurred during the previous zone in the CHAR record, around three centuries earlier (Walker & Pellatt, 2003; Mann et al., 2009). Nevertheless, during the Little Ice Age, the region experienced relatively cooler and wetter conditions. This time periods climatic event is estimated to continue well into Zone III of Shaws Bog CHAR data, but by the mid-Ice Age, around AD 1700, mean average temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere were rising (Jones et al., 2001). At the same time, recorded minima of solar variability are known to have caused regional short-term climate changes during specific times of this zone period. The first minima during this period began one to two decades before in the previous zone (AD 1416)

Flanigan 26 and lasted until AD 1534. This was later followed by another minimum within Zone II between AD 1645-1715 (Walker and Pellatt, 2003). Regional humans Zone II occurs during the Late Pacific Period, carried on since Zone I in the Shaws Bog CHAR record from this study. Throughout this period, there has been thought to have been conflict and warfare among the indigenous Coast Salish people, leading to declining populations (Ames & Maschner, 1999). However, in addition to warfare, indigenous societies and cultures were also negatively and indirectly influenced by the European arrival in the Americas (around AD 1492 (Mintz & McNeil, 2013)), even though contact with Euro-Americans would not occur within this zones time frame until around the 1800s (Ames & Maschner, 1999). One important potential influence of the arrival of Europeans in the Americas had on the Coast Salish people was the entrance of fatal diseases that, although specific estimates of death numbers vary, are well-known to have greatly devastated indigenous populations throughout the Americas (Mintz & McNeil, 2013). This situation may provide an additional explanation of diminishing Coast Salish indigenous peoples during this time frame. At the Dionisio Point Locality on Galiano Island, there is no evidence of human occupation at any point during this zone (Steury, 2012). Because prescribed burns are well documented in the periods preceding and following this zones time period, it is suggested here that humans were continuing to manage regional natural resources though through the use of small-scale fires (Derr, 2012; Lepofsky et al., 2005; Dorricott & Cullon, 2012). The local fire history of Shaws Bog does not contain any identified peaks during this time however.

Flanigan 27 Regional vegetation During this time period, past research has pointed to fluctuations in vegetation. However, these exact fluctuations vary by site location (Sugimura, 2008; Gavin et al., 2003; Lucas & Lacourse, 2013). Studies have shown increases in the Alnus rubra, A. viridis, and Cupressaceae pollen during the Little Ice Age, especially around AD 1450, when pollen percentages of these plants reached a maximum value of slightly more than 50%. It is believed climate at this time increased the moisture availability and decreased the growing season temperature (Mann et al., 2009). On Orcas Island at this time, pollen records remain fairly stable (Sugimura et al., 2008). Zone III (AD 1761 to 2013) Regional fire history During the period AD 1761-2013, fire events are again reflected in the charcoal record of Shaws Bog. These are shown by three CHAR peaks between AD 1761 and AD 1947. There is also one potential CHAR peak within that same range. Between AD 1761 and AD 2013, the mFRI is 84 years, and is 63 years including the potential peak. Interestingly, although this time period includes the settlement of Euro-Americans, the mFRI of 84 years for Shaws Bog is close to the mFRI for Pender Islands depiction of mFRI for Pseudotsuga-dominated forests prior to European settlement as 88 years (Lucas & Lacourse, 2013). At the same time, the three sites studied on Orcas Island, site C11, C32, and C38, as well as the study on the west coast of Vancouver Island, all reflect increasing CHAR values (Sugimura et al., 2008; Gavin et al., 2003). This suggests widespread rises in the fire activity of the Gulf Islands and nearby regions.

Flanigan 28 Regional climate In like manner as the CHAR values at this time represented in the Shaws Bog record, as well as other records in the area, the mean average temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere have been increasing through this zones timeline, despite one noticeable drop in the early decades of the AD 1800s. (Jones et al., 2001). Based on treering analysis studies from the region, this drop in temperatures represented a relatively cool period in the climate and occurred regionally around AD 1800 to AD 1820 (Walker & Pellatt, 2003). In fact, estimates have suggested this is the ending of the Little Ice Age which, depending on sources, may have ended AD anytime between1850 or AD 1900 (Walker & Pellatt, 2003; Jones et al., 2001). Since around the end of the Little Ice Age, approximately the mid-1800s, the mean annual temperatures in the northern hemisphere have been increasing rapidly (0.6C between AD 1861 and AD 2001). They have recently surpassed the mean annual temperatures of AD 1000-1100 from the Medieval Climate Anomaly in this studys Zone I (Jones et al., 2001). Meanwhile, solar variability minimum during this time period known to have caused short-term regional deterioration include AD 1800-1820 and AD 1880-1900 (Walker and Pellatt, 2003). Regional humans The significant changes in human habitation from AD 1761-2013 include the arrival of Euro-Americans. The first records of European contact with the regions Coast Salish indigenous people are from the late 1790s and early 1800s (Ames & Maschner, 1999). By AD 1850s, Euro-Americans began settling in the area (British Columbia Government, n.d.; Matson & Coupland, 1995). At Shingle Point on Valdes Island, nearby Galiano Island, early

Flanigan 29 settlement houses date to the AD mid-1800s (Matson, 2003). At Pender Island, the first permanent settlers arrived by AD 1880 (Eis & Craigdale, 1980). With rising Euro-American populations and diminishing indigenous populations, the regional use of natural resources changed and many habitats were altered (British Columbia Government, n.d.). At this time of initial settlement, there are historical accounts of Euro-Americans witnessing indigenous burnings within the region (Dorricott & Cullon, 2012). However, Euro-American land management in the Gulf Islands and surrounding regions has included the suppression of fires in the region. Many charcoal pieces recorded in regional sediments from this time period have been solely associated with early settler activities such as mining, logging, and road building (particularly on the southern end of Vancouver Island nearby Galiano Island) (Pyne, 1982; Whitlock & Knox, 2002), as well as fire activities for land clearing purposes, such as small-scale agricultural development (Lucas & Lacourse, 2013). Although regional fires ca. AD 1900 are believed to reflect European settlement activities, this is uncertain for Galiano Island, as the early history of the island is not well documented. The absence of fire over the past 66 years on Galiano Island is compared to that of 80 years on Pender Island. This recent decadal absence of fire events on Pender Island has been attributed to fire exclusion due to Euro-Americans (Lucas & Lacourse, 2013). During the year 2013, the time in which this study was carried out, Galiano remained moderately little-developed. Shaws Bog has been protected within the Galiano Island Ecological Reserve since AD 1990 (British Columbia Ministry of Environment, n.d.), on the northern part of the island which has experienced less human development and

Flanigan 30 population density than the southern end.The island contained a population of just over 1,000 residents (Galiano Island Chamber of Commerce, 2013). Regional vegetation Dendroecological studies, including research on Pender Island, have shown that many of the regional Pseudotsuga menziesii and Quercus garryana stands in existence today originated during this time around the mid-1800s. These stands are now being observed undergoing conifer encroachment due to fire suppression management since the settlement of Euro-Americans (Gedalof, Pellatt, & Smith, 2006; Pellatt et al., 2007). On Orcas Island during this time period, PAR data changes considerably. At cite C11, there are increases in PARs around the early AD 1900s of Pteridium-type, Tsuga, Pseudotsuga, and a decline in Pinus. However these appear to return to previous levels shortly after AD 1950. Changes at site C32 include decreases in Pinus, as well as noticeable increases in Alnus and Tsuga. At site C38, there is decreasing Cyperaceae, as well as possible increases in Pseudotsuga, and Tsuga in the past 50 years (Sugimura et al., 2008). Summary The CHAR record of Shaws Bog has been related to other regional studies, the purpose of the project has been addressed, the research questions answered, and the hypotheses tested. The evidence points to the local fire history of Shaws Bog as (1) changing in the past 1,300 years (in fact, it can be split up into three distinguishable temporal zones) and (2) relating to regional climate, humans, and vegetation throughout the time frame, each mirroring changes in the zones of the CHAR record. These findings support the hypotheses made at the beginning of the study.

Flanigan 31

Fire history reconstruction for the Shaws Bog area, Galiano Island, southwestern B.C., Canada resulted in charcoal abundance and concentration values for the past 1,300 years approximately, from AD 711-2013, with each 0.5 sediment sample representing 6.413 years. From these measurements CHAR values were calculated, resulting in three distinguishable zones in the data. These divisions include: Zone I (AD 711-1436) when there are CHAR peaks; Zone II (AD 1437-1760) when there are no CHAR peaks, including no potential peaks; and Zone III (AD 1761-2013) when CHAR peaks are again represented. This data was followed by producing mFRI values. For this entire record, mFRI was 118.364 years based on statistically significant CHAR peaks, but 86.8 years if potential peaks are also considered. Overall, the fire history of Shaws Bog reflects many of the fire histories reconstructed throughout the region. The CHAR patterns in each zone of Shaws Bogs fire history over the past 1,300 years are similar patterns seen in many other regional studies, although the specific timeline dates vary by study site throughout the region. Also, each zone in the CHAR data correlates well with past regional studies on climate, humans, and vegetation. It appears that they have shaped the local fire history of Shaws Bog. Zone I of the Shaws Bog record has relatively high fire frequency, similar to other nearby studies, including the charcoal record on Pender Island. It occurs during the Medieval Climate Anomaly when the climate was relatively warm and dry, followed by cooling temperatures as the region headed towards the Little Ice Age. It also saw the end of the resource-exploitative Marpole phase of indigenous peoples, the peak regional

Flanigan 32 indigenous population, human occupation on Galiano Island, and the eventual decline in the regional human population. Vegetation changes in the region at this time included rises in Quercus garryana pollen and PAR coinciding with the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Zone II reflects no CHAR peaks in the Shaws Bog record. This relates well with nearby fire history studies; however, the exact temporal ranges signifying absences in fire events vary by site. Most of this time period is associated with the Little Ice Age in terms of climate. In terms of humans, regional indigenous populations were continuing to decline during this zone and no evidence exists of human occupation at the Dionisio Point Locality on Galiano Island within this time period. Past vegetation records reflect increases in Alnus rubra, A. viridis, and Cupressaceae. The last zone, III, display a return in fire events at the Shaws Bog area. This is well documented in nearby fire reconstruction studies. Mean average temperatures during this time are rising. Also, Euro-Americans are arriving and settling in the region, with different land-use practices than the indigenous peoples. Furthermore, many extant Pseudotsuga menziesii and Quercus garryana stands from the mid-1800s are currently being encroached on by increasing numbers of conifers within the stand areas due to fire suppression management. There are also noticeable increases in vegetation such as Pseudotsuga and Tsuga. Based on the results of this study, it appears that each time zone has represented changes in the local fire history of Shaws Bog over the past 1,300 years. At the same time, these changes occur at approximately the same times as many changes in the regional

Flanigan 33 climate, human, and vegetation data. The project was successful in that the purpose was addressed, the questions answered, hypotheses tested, and objectives fulfilled. However, this study is the first step in a much larger project in reconstructing the local fire and ecological history of the Shaws Bog area. There are many steps yet to complete. For instance, this study used regional data of past vegetation in analyzing the fire history. However, future studies will need to examine the specific vegetation and its potential changes of the local Shaws Bog area for the last 1,300 years to better understand this factors relation to the local fire regime. This will be accomplished through analysis of the pollen content of the core, as has been done in similar studies in the region. Furthermore, a closer exploration of the results of the magnetic susceptibility analysis will need to be addressed. Although this analysis was done on the first approximate meter of the entire core, for the purposes of this particular study, it was not examined closely or described in the Results or Discussion sections. However, once the magnetic susceptibility for the whole core is determined this information may provide insight into the sediment composition and should be explored. In addition, this study assumed a constant accumulation rate of sediment at the bottom of Shaws Bog. Further age-depth analyses will reveal more precise age measurements throughout the core. These analyses should be conducted via methods common in paleo-fire ecology, such as 210Pb dating and radiocarbon dating which have been used in past regional studies (Lucas & Lacourse, 2013; Sugimura et al., 2008). With more accurate age-depth analyses, fire events may more closely match time-wise with

Flanigan 34 other known fire events in regional records, such as tree-ring records indicating high fire activity during the early to mid-1500s throughout the region. Finally, future work is still necessary on the other sediment cores collected from Shaws Bog. By analyzing all of the sediment cores, the local fire regime of the area can be studied within a larger temporal context, dating back not only within the past 1,300 years, but back to the last Ice Age, around 10,000 years ago (Church & Ryder, 1972). These other sediment cores will also need to undergo more precise age-depth analyses. Nevertheless, this study provides the first millennial record of fire history on Galiano Island, as well as its connection to regional climate, humans, and vegetation. Past historical fire studies in the region have been conducted in locations such as Vancouver Island (Brown & Hebda, 2002), Orcas Island (Sugimura et al., 2008), Valdes Island (Derr, 2012), and Pender Island (Lucas & Lacourse, 2013). The results of the study on Galiano Island add to the collection of data from past regional studies and further scientific knowledge in the disciplines of fire ecology and paleoecology in the Gulf Islands region. The results will benefit scientists in these disciplines, as well as archaeologists studying the relation of humans and ecosystems in the region. Ultimately, the information will guide land managers and conservationists, particularly the Galiano Conservancy Agency, address current fires on the island. Plus, with data on historical fire regime, we are able to predict potential future impacts of climate change on the fire regime within the region and on the island.


Flanigan 35 The author gratefully acknowledges Drs. Kelly Derr, Philip Higuera, and Jackie Maximillian for their valuable mentorship and support; Drs. Colin Grier and Ken Millard, as well as the Galiano Conservancy Agency, for their assistance in the field and permission to perform the research; and the members of the University of Idaho Paleoecology and Fire Ecology Lab, including Dr. Jesse Morris, Paul Dunnette, Adam Young, Kerry Kemp, Erik Robertson, and Adam Price, for their continuous support.

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Flanigan 41 Steury, T. ( 2012). Feasting on the Salish Sea. Washington State Magazine. Retrieved from Sugimura, W.Y., Sprugel, D.G., Brubaker, L.B., & Higuera, P.E. (2008). Millennial-scale changes in local vegetation and fire regimes on Mount Constitution, Orcas Island, Washington, USA, using small hollow sediments. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38, 566-575. Walker I.R., & Pellatt, M.G. (2003). Climate change in coastal British Columbia: A paleoenvironmental perspective. Canadian Water Resources Journal, 28(4), 531-566. Walsh, M.K., Whitlock, W., Bartlein, P.J. (2008). A 14,300-year-long record of firevegetation-climate linkages at Battle Ground Lake, southwestern Washington. Quaternary Research, 70, 251-264. Walsh, M.K., Whitlock, C., Bartlein, P.J. (2010). 1200 years of fire and vegetation history in the Willamette Valley, Oregon and Washington, reconstructed using high-resolution macroscopic charcoal and pollen analysis. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 297, 273-289. Weisberg, P.J., & Swanson, F.J. (2003). Regional synchroneity in fire regimes of western Oregon and Washington, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 172, 17-28. White, R. (1980). Land use, environment, and social change: The shaping of Island County, Washington. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press.

Flanigan 42 Whitlock, C., & Knox, M.A. (2002). Prehistoric burning in the Pacific Northwest: Human versus climatic influences. In T.R. Vale (Ed.), Fire, native peoples, and the natural landscape (pp. 195-231). Washington DC: Island Press. Whitlock, C., Higuera, P.E., McWethy, D.B., & Briles, C.E. (2010). Paleoecological perspectives on fire ecology: Revisiting the fire-regime concept. The Open Ecology Journal, 3, 6-23.

Table 1 Identified charcoal accumulation rate (CHAR) peak values and associated information. CHAR peak Immediately Immediately Deviance from following CHAR preceding CHAR CHAR value moving mean value Year AD value *807 *0.0988 *0.606 *0.139 *0.428 885 0.27 1.09 0.5953 -0.233 951 0.209 0.79 0.2699 0.814 1083 -0.057 0.687 0.1785 -0.189 1161 0.308 0.506 0.052 0.772 1239 0.173 0.448 0.0567 0.252 *1263 *0.0951 *0.391 *0.016 *0.136 *1287 *0.224 *0.423 *0.0624 *0.0988 1377 -0.261 0.406 0.0904 0.852 1407 0.19 0.386 0.0794 0.466 1761 0.229 0.256 0.0136 0.0417 *1803 *0.106 *0.253 *0.0385 *-0.0613 1827 0.0575 0.355 0.1566 0.362 1947 -0.095 0.212 0.0925 0.118 Note: * represents identified potential peaks: data values that failed to meet peak definition, but may be significant nevertheless.

Flanigan 43


Figure 1. Macrocharcoal deposition in lake-bottom sediments (modified from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, n.d.). This figure illustrates the process of deposition from local fire events via means such as wind and water run-off.

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Figure 2. Fire-regime concept applied to the reconstruction of Shaws Bog fire history over the past 1,300 years (modified from Whitlock et al., 2010). The triangle location illustrates the temporal and spatial scales of the fire-regime, and the sides of the triangle demonstrate the three controlling factors that have influenced it. .

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Fig. 3. Location of the Gulf of Georgia and its surrounding regions within the context of North America (modified from computer software program, Google Earth).

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Figure 4. Island locations within the Gulf of Georgia, as well as nearby regions, where sedimentary records have led to fire history reconstructions. The map includes this studys research of Galiano Islands fire history, and includes the names of other key regional places referenced throughout the paper (modified from computer software program, Google Earth).

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Figure 5. Location of Shaws Bog, Dionisio Point, and the ferry access, Sturdies Bay, on Galiano Island (modified from computer software program, Google Earth).

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Figure 6. Sediment cores obtained (in approximately 1 m increments) from Shaws Bog, Galiano Island, and their corresponding depths. Illustrations in figure are not to scale.

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SB13 Age-Depth Analysis

-1000 0 1000 2000 Age (calibrated years BP) 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 600 500 400 300 y = 12.825x - 62.904

Bottom 0.5 cm sediment of core (-101.5, 1239)

200 100

Top 0.5 cm sediment of core (0, -63)


Mt. Mazama ash layer (539.0, 6850)

Core Depth (cm)

Figure 7. Age-depth analysis for this studys Shaws Bog sediment record. The graph includes the data point of the Mount Mazama ash layer, and the data points of the bottom and top 0.5 cm sediments of the core used for this study.

Number of Pieces
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0

Macro-Charcoal Counts (>125um)

Depth (cm)

Figure 8. Macrocharcoal counts for this studys Shaws Bog sediment record.
0.0 3.0 6.0 9.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 36.0 39.0 42.0 45.5 48.5 51.5 54.5 57.5 60.5 63.5 66.5 69.5 72.5 75.5 78.5 81.5 84.5 87.5 90.5 93.5 96.5 99.5

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Flanigan 52 Figure 9. Charcoal accumulation rate (CHAR) data for this studys Shaws Bog sediment record. a) Raw CHAR data with line representing interpolated values (6 years). b) CHAR interpolated values (6 years) and lines representing different options for a 500 year Cbackground.

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Figure 10. CHAR data and identified peaks for this studys Shaws Bog sediment record. a) Interpolated CHAR values (6 years) with line representing moving average. b) CHAR peak data (interpolated CHAR values CHAR moving average) with lines representing

Flanigan 54 thresholds defining CHAR noise, crosses representing statistically significant identified CHAR peaks, and gray dots representing potentially significant CHAR values but failed to pass peak-magnitude test.

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Flanigan 56 Figure 11. Climate, human, and vegetation events in relation to the three zones based on the identified CHAR peaks for this studys Shaws Bog sediment record.

Flanigan 57 Appendix Table A Charcoal data for this studys Shaws Bog sediment record.

depth Top (cm) 0.00 0.47 0.94 1.40 1.87 2.34 2.81 3.27 3.74 4.21 4.68 5.15 5.61 6.08 6.55 7.02 7.48 7.95 8.42 8.89 9.36 9.82 10.29 10.76 11.23 11.69 12.16 12.63 13.10 13.57 14.03 14.50 14.97 15.44

age Top (yr BP) -63 -57 -51 -45 -39 -33 -27 -21 -15 -9 -3 3 9 15 21 27 33 39 45 51 57 63 69 75 81 87 93 99 105 111 117 123 129 135

charcoal Count (#) 0 0 0 2 1 2 4 2 1 4 9 12 4 0 4 4 4 5 4 8 8 10 15 15 16 19 18 19 20 20 19 19 12 8

sample Volume (cm3) 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00

charcoal charcoal Concentration Accumulation (# cm-3) (# cm-2 yr-1) 0.00 0.0000 0.00 0.0000 0.00 0.0000 0.79 0.0619 0.64 0.0497 1.16 0.0901 1.79 0.1398 0.96 0.0751 0.45 0.0350 1.95 0.1521 4.59 0.3579 5.91 0.4606 2.07 0.1610 0.21 0.0164 2.00 0.1559 2.00 0.1559 2.00 0.1559 2.45 0.1910 2.09 0.1626 3.90 0.3043 3.81 0.2969 5.06 0.3944 7.39 0.5759 7.53 0.5870 7.96 0.6205 9.65 0.7525 9.14 0.7126 9.61 0.7489 10.00 0.7797 9.96 0.7768 9.50 0.7407 9.50 0.7407 5.76 0.4491 4.20 0.3275

Flanigan 58 15.91 16.37 16.84 17.31 17.78 18.24 18.71 19.18 19.65 20.12 20.58 21.05 21.52 21.99 22.45 22.92 23.39 23.86 24.33 24.79 25.26 25.73 26.20 26.66 27.13 27.60 28.07 28.54 29.00 29.47 29.94 30.41 30.87 31.34 31.81 32.28 32.75 33.21 33.68 34.15 34.62 35.08 35.55 36.02 36.49 36.96 141 147 153 159 165 171 177 183 189 195 201 207 213 219 225 231 237 243 249 255 261 267 273 279 285 291 297 303 309 315 321 327 333 339 345 351 357 363 369 375 381 387 393 399 405 411 9 17 13 11 14 16 13 13 18 17 13 8 10 11 13 10 11 14 9 13 16 15 14 7 8 11 12 4 0 4 2 8 10 10 6 4 4 2 4 8 10 6 2 9 1 5 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 4.40 8.51 6.70 5.30 7.07 8.05 6.54 6.26 9.00 8.64 6.67 4.03 4.75 5.48 6.40 5.25 5.38 6.89 4.36 6.69 8.04 7.26 7.06 3.50 3.93 5.65 6.16 1.98 0.00 1.88 1.13 4.20 5.00 5.00 2.92 2.03 1.81 1.19 2.14 4.00 5.05 2.77 1.15 4.50 0.60 2.31 0.3429 0.6632 0.5225 0.4129 0.5509 0.6274 0.5098 0.4882 0.7017 0.6740 0.5203 0.3142 0.3703 0.4271 0.4992 0.4093 0.4196 0.5373 0.3403 0.5214 0.6270 0.5662 0.5508 0.2729 0.3063 0.4401 0.4799 0.1547 0.0000 0.1464 0.0881 0.3278 0.3898 0.3898 0.2276 0.1579 0.1415 0.0931 0.1667 0.3119 0.3934 0.2163 0.0900 0.3508 0.0467 0.1803

Flanigan 59 37.42 37.89 38.36 38.83 39.30 39.76 40.23 40.70 41.17 41.63 42.10 42.57 43.04 43.51 43.97 44.44 44.91 45.38 45.84 46.31 46.78 47.25 47.72 48.18 48.65 49.12 49.59 50.05 50.52 50.99 51.46 51.93 52.39 52.86 53.33 53.80 54.26 54.73 55.20 55.67 56.14 56.60 57.07 57.54 58.01 58.47 417 423 429 435 441 447 453 459 465 471 477 483 489 495 501 507 513 519 525 531 537 543 549 555 561 567 573 579 585 591 597 603 609 615 621 627 633 639 645 651 657 663 669 675 681 687 5 7 7 7 13 14 8 6 6 7 9 10 9 12 12 12 8 30 39 28 25 23 18 34 57 36 25 8 7 8 12 11 6 11 11 15 19 17 13 15 20 28 23 24 21 28 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.50 3.65 3.30 3.32 6.31 6.77 4.15 3.00 3.14 3.72 4.57 4.96 4.52 6.00 6.00 6.00 3.99 14.91 19.33 14.11 12.35 11.47 9.09 17.11 28.69 17.98 12.39 3.98 3.50 3.99 5.82 5.58 3.18 5.67 5.73 7.26 9.50 8.50 6.68 7.44 9.83 14.04 11.54 11.98 10.50 13.81 0.1949 0.2848 0.2573 0.2585 0.4920 0.5281 0.3236 0.2339 0.2451 0.2899 0.3567 0.3867 0.3522 0.4678 0.4678 0.4678 0.3109 1.1625 1.5074 1.1004 0.9632 0.8939 0.7086 1.3340 2.2371 1.4018 0.9661 0.3100 0.2729 0.3110 0.4538 0.4350 0.2481 0.4418 0.4468 0.5663 0.7405 0.6628 0.5208 0.5798 0.7665 1.0947 0.8999 0.9338 0.8186 1.0769

Flanigan 60 58.94 59.41 59.88 60.35 60.81 61.28 61.75 62.22 62.69 63.15 63.62 64.09 64.56 65.02 65.49 65.96 66.43 66.90 67.36 67.83 68.30 68.77 69.23 69.70 70.17 70.64 71.11 71.57 72.04 72.51 72.98 73.44 73.91 74.38 74.85 75.32 75.78 76.25 76.72 77.19 77.65 78.12 78.59 79.06 79.53 79.99 693 699 705 711 717 723 729 735 741 747 753 759 765 771 777 783 789 795 801 807 813 819 825 831 837 843 849 855 861 867 873 879 885 891 897 903 909 915 921 927 933 939 945 951 957 963 20 24 24 29 22 20 24 22 19 22 17 13 19 12 46 39 32 27 17 15 13 12 13 11 7 8 13 16 15 38 19 12 18 17 19 24 26 23 22 24 26 28 22 25 9 21 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 10.05 11.93 12.13 14.68 11.18 10.13 12.23 10.92 9.48 10.85 8.43 6.42 9.32 6.00 23.20 19.39 16.04 13.56 8.40 7.46 6.58 5.75 6.43 5.73 3.50 4.06 6.31 7.96 7.72 19.00 9.50 5.91 8.75 8.38 9.35 11.82 13.00 11.59 10.80 12.00 12.79 14.23 11.25 12.53 4.50 10.42 0.7836 0.9299 0.9457 1.1449 0.8718 0.7901 0.9537 0.8511 0.7392 0.8463 0.6574 0.5007 0.7266 0.4678 1.8088 1.5115 1.2507 1.0572 0.6550 0.5815 0.5127 0.4483 0.5015 0.4466 0.2729 0.3169 0.4923 0.6203 0.6019 1.4814 0.7404 0.4612 0.6823 0.6537 0.7290 0.9214 1.0136 0.9040 0.8420 0.9356 0.9969 1.1093 0.8770 0.9768 0.3508 0.8124

Flanigan 61 80.46 80.93 81.40 81.86 82.33 82.80 83.27 83.74 84.20 84.67 85.14 85.61 86.08 86.54 87.01 87.48 87.95 88.41 88.88 89.35 89.82 90.29 90.75 91.22 91.69 92.16 92.62 93.09 93.56 94.03 94.50 94.96 95.43 95.90 96.37 96.83 97.30 97.77 98.24 98.71 99.17 99.64 100.11 100.58 101.04 101.51 969 975 981 987 993 999 1005 1011 1017 1023 1029 1035 1041 1047 1053 1059 1065 1071 1077 1083 1089 1095 1101 1107 1113 1119 1125 1131 1137 1143 1149 1155 1161 1167 1173 1179 1185 1191 1197 1203 1209 1215 1221 1227 1233 1239 26 23 34 34 45 44 29 26 33 28 19 21 16 24 9 19 54 33 28 23 26 35 33 28 27 19 22 26 38 43 30 32 18 39 33 29 24 20 32 36 21 28 18 24 19 0 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.95 0.00 12.79 11.30 16.85 17.08 22.28 22.06 14.70 12.83 16.32 13.91 9.46 10.44 7.91 11.83 4.50 9.75 26.82 16.34 14.25 11.45 13.05 17.44 16.43 14.21 13.66 9.40 10.80 12.90 19.15 21.50 15.06 15.92 8.75 19.65 16.56 14.32 12.19 9.99 15.88 18.06 10.42 14.25 9.08 11.81 9.73 0.00 0.9976 0.8812 1.3138 1.3315 1.7373 1.7198 1.1464 1.0006 1.2721 1.0846 0.7375 0.8138 0.6170 0.9222 0.3508 0.7600 2.0912 1.2743 1.1108 0.8923 1.0175 1.3594 1.2810 1.1079 1.0648 0.7328 0.8417 1.0055 1.4929 1.6763 1.1743 1.2414 0.6823 1.5322 1.2914 1.1167 0.9504 0.7790 1.2379 1.4084 0.8122 1.1110 0.7076 0.8326 0.0000 0.0000

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