You are on page 1of 23


JTO Phase – I Data Communication











BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 2

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

Chapter 1

The objective of this chapter is to familiarize with : -
i) Concept of data communication
ii) Components of data communication
iii) Transmission Definitions
iv) Transmission codes
v) Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem
vi) Data Transmission
vii) Signal encoding
viii) Modulation Techniques
Communication plays a very important part in our lives because we are almost
always involved in some form of communication, e.g.
• Face-to-face conversation
• Reading a book
• Sending or receiving a letter
• Telephonic conversation
• Watching a film or T. V.
• Looking at paintings in an art gallery
• Attending a lecture
There are many other examples of communications and Data Communications
is one specific area of whole field of communication. Aim of communication is to
transfer some information from one point to another. In data communication, this
information is generally called as Data or a message.

In order to send data/message from one point to another, following three
components are must:
1. Source
2. Medium

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 3

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

3. Receiver




Fig. 1 Components
These elements are the minimum requirement for any communication process. In data
communication, source and receiver data is called Data Terminal Equipment (DTE),
e.g. A teleprinter or a computer terminal with keyboard. The medium may be a 2W
telephone line or 2W/4W leased line. Let us see a simple data network (Fig.2).

Remote Terminals
Fig. 2 Simple Data Network
It involves a computer. One or more terminals (Remote Terminals) connected
to the computer via communication lines.

For understanding the data communication following terminology is
discussed: -
• Communication lines

The medium that carries the message in a data communication system, e.g. A
2W telephone line.
• Communication Channel
A channel is defined as a means of one way transmission.

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 4

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

It can carry information in either direction but in only one direction at a time,
e.g. A hose pipe. It can carry water in either direction, but the direction of flow
depends on which end of pipe is connected to the water tap.
• Simplex Transmission
1. Message always flows in one direction only.
2. An input Terminal can only receive and never transmit.
3. An O/P Terminal can only transmit and never receive.
We can say that it is a one-way communication. Electrical example of one-way
communication system is given in Fig.3.

Fig. 3 Simplex Transmission

'A' can send information to 'B' by pressing the push button switch. Lamp will
light in room B. When 'A' releases push button switch, lamp goes off.

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 5

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

By using some predetermined sequence of codes, A can communicate with B.

However, there is no way that B can communicate with A.

• Half Duplex Transmission

- A half duplex channel can transmit and receive but not simultaneously.

- Transmission flow must halt each time and direction is to be reversed.

- This halt is called the turn-around time and is typically 8 to 10 ms in

the case of leased circuits and 50-500 ms in case of 2W telephone line
through Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).

Electrical example of half-duplex is given in Fig.4.

Fig. 4 Half Duplex Transmission

With above arrangement, A can communicate with B. If A is in transmit mode

and B is in receive mode. At the end of communication, both persons can operate their
two way switches to opposite positions and then B can communicate with A.

Turn-around Time is the sum of

(1) The time required to recognize that it is end of a transmission.
(2) The time required to physically switch the line at both ends so that
direction of flow is reversed.
• Full-duplex Transmission

It is both way communication. If we set up a communication line with two

channels, we have the capability of sending information in both directions at the same
time. This is called full duplex transmission system.

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 6

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

Simple electrical example is shown in Fig.5.

Full-Duplex Transmission

In the above arrangement, it is possible to have both way communication

simultaneously. Thus, we need four wire for full-duplex transmission or both way
simultaneous communication.

All data communication codes are based on the binary system (1s and 0s). A
message can be encoded into a meaningful string of 1s and 0s that can be transmitted
along a data line and decoded by a receiver. The string of 1s and 0s is meaningful
because it is defined by a code that is known to both the source and the receiver. Code
is limited by the number of bits (binary digits) it contains, e.g. one-bit code means that
we can have 2 characters so that we can encode the letter A by '0' and B by '1'.
Similarly, a 2 bit code will enable us to handle 4 characters. Thus, a n-bit code enables
us to handle 2 characters.

Some commonly used codes are :

1. Baudot code
2. ASCII code
3. BCDIC code
4. EBCDIC Code

1.5.1Baudot Code
This is also called International Alphabet no.2. This is used on International
telex network and is often called telex code.

It being a 5 bits code, we can represent 32 characters. This is not enough to

handle a full alphanumeric character set so two of the characters are designated as
code extension characters. These are letter shift (LS) and figure shift (FS).

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 7

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

LS = 11111 represented by 1. (Downward arrow)

FS = 11011 represented by 1.(Upward arrow)
Pressing LS or FS indicates the receiver that next character will be letter
character of figure character as the case may be. So we can double the number of
characters that can be handled by this code.


All the 5 bits are used for information and there is no inherent means of error

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 8

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

Table 1
Baudot Codes

Binary Letters Characters Figures Characters

00000 Blank Blank
00001 E 3
00010 Line feed
00011 A -
00100 SP SP Space
00101 S '
00110 I 8
00111 U 7
01000 < < Carriage return
01001 D + Who are you ?
01010 R 4
01011 J Bell
01100 N ,
01101 F 
01110 C 
01111 K 
10000 T 5
10001 Z +
10010 L )
10011 " 2
10100 H L
10101 Y 6
10110 P 0
10111 Q 1
11000 O 9
11001 B ?
11010 G $
11011 | | Figure shift (FS)
11100 M .
11101 X /
11110 V =
11111 | | Letter shift (LS)

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 9

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

1.5.2ASCII Code (American Standard Code for Information

It is an eight-bit code which consists of seven information bits and one bit for
parity checking. This is most widely used data code. Seven information bits gives us
128 combinations, which allows us to encode a full keyboard of the computer.
- 52 alphabets (capital and small).
- 0-9 (10 numbers).
- Punctuation marks
- Additional graphic and control characters.
Table 2 ASCII Code Set
765 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111
4321 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0000 0 NUL DLE SPACE 0 @ P P
0001 1 SOH DC1 ! 1 A Q a q
0010 2 STX DC2 " 2 B R b r
0011 3 ETX DC3 # 3 C S c s
0100 4 EOT DC4 $ 4 D T d t
0101 5 ENQ NAK % 5 E U e u
0110 6 ACK SYN & 6 F V f v
0111 7 BEL ETB ' 7 G W g w
1000 8 BS CAN ( 8 H X h x
1001 9 HT EM ) 9 I X i x
1010 A LF SUB * : J Z j z
1011 B VT ESC + ; K [ k {
1100 C FF FS , < L \ l l
1101 D CR GS - = M ] m }
1110 E SO RS . > N ^ n ~
1111 F SI US / ? U _ o DEL

There are 8 columns (0 to 7) and 16 rows (0 to F). e.g. character 'H' is

represented as
100 1000
Column Row Thus ASCII code for character 'H' is P1001000 where P is the
No. No. Parity Bit.
Parity Bit is placed at (most significant bit) position. Purpose of parity bit is to
detect the errors. While transmitting on line, Least Significant Bit (LSB) is
transmitted first and MSB at the last, e.g. H is transmitted on line as bit no. 1234567P
i.e. 00010011assuming P=1

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 10

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

We can have odd or even parity. Fig 6(a) and Fig. 6(b) shows that only odd number of
bits going reverse error can be detected. If changes occur in an even number of bits,
the parity check will be passed and receiver will assume that it has received a valid
character. So parity checking method cannot detect the multiple errors.

Source Single Bit Receiver

1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 Error 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1

Odd Character Even Character (Incorrect bit)

Parity Parity
Shows that one error is
has been received in the

Fig. 6(a) Single bit reversed

Source Receiver

1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 Two Bits Error 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1

Odd Character Odd Character (Incorrect bits)

Parity Parity
So error is not detected

Fig. 6(b) two bits reversed

1.5.3BCDIC (Binary Code Decimal Interchange Code)

It is a six-bit code that is used as an internal code by some computers. With 6
information bits, we can have 26 = 64 possible code combinations. For data
transmission, code is implemented as 7-bit code containing 6 information bits and one
parity bit.

1.5.4EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code)

It is a 8-bit code in which all the 8-bits are used for information (unlike
ASCII), giving 256 possible code combinations. EBCDIC is used as an internal
machine code in some of the computers.

(a) Parallel Transmission.
(b) Serial Transmission.
Parallel Transmission
In this method, all bits of encoded character are transmitted simultaneously
which means that each bit of the code is having a dedicated channel (Fig.7).

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 11

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

Fig. 7 Parallel Transmission

It is parallel by bit, serial by character. Here, we need as many numbers of
channels as the number of bits in a character.

Serial Transmission
It is the most commonly used method of communication. In this method, bits
of the encoded character are transmitted one after the other along one channel serial
bit by bit as well as character by character as shown in the Fig.8.

Fig. 8 - Serial Transmission

Receiver then assembles the incoming bit stream into characters. Serial
transmission presents problem of synchronization:
(a) Bit synchronization.
(b) Character Synchronization.
Bit Synchronization
Clock is used for synchronization. The source clock tells the source how often
to put the bits on to the line and receive clock tells the receiver how often to look at
the line, e.g. in Fig.9. If we wish to transmit at 100 bits/sec. we set the source clock to
run at 100 bits/sec. which tells the source to put the bits on the line 100 times per
second. At the receiving end, we would see a bit appearing at the input of the receiver
every 1/100th of a second.

Fig. 9 - Bit Synchronisation

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 12

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

We set the receive clock to run at 100 b/s. In most of the systems, timing
signals are propagated through the network so that the receiver can derive a clock that
is precisely in step with the transmit clock. Extracted clock is applied for sampling the
data bits (Fig.10).

Fig. 10
Character Synchronisation
Receiver can identify the character if it knows.
1. How many bits are there in the character ?
2. The speed at which the bits are coming down the line.
Then it can count off the required number of bits and assemble the character
once it has identified the first bit of a character. There are two ways to identify the
first bit of a character.
1. Synchronous Transmission.
2. Asynchronous Transmission.
Synchronous Transmission
It is used to transmit whole blocks of data at once. Each block of data is
preceded with a unique synchronising pattern. This makes use of SYN transmission
control character. The SYN character has a bit pattern of 00010110 with odd parity.

Receiver is designed to continuously look towards the 'SYN' character. When

it receives the SYN character, it knows the first bit of the information character. But
sometimes there is false synchronisation (Fig.11) where eight bits of two continuous
characters could look like a SYN character.

Fig. 11 Synchronous Transmission

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 13

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

Asynchronous Transmission
It is called start/stop system. In this system Data is transmitted by character.
There is no fixed time relationship between one character and the next.

0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 Line

Stop 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Start Leading

Pulse Pulse Edge
=1 Character =0

Fig. 12 Asynchronous Transmission

Receiver re-establishes synchronisation with every character. Each character is

preceded by a start pulse '0', which tells the receiver to start receiving character
(Leading edge of start pulse synchronises the receiver).

At the end of a character, a stop pulse '1' is applied to allow the receiver to
stabilize itself before another character is transmitted. Stop pulse duration varies from
1 bit to 2 bit length. Another reason to add/stop bit is to make the line condition as '1'
(Mark) if last bit of last character happens to be '0' (Space). So that the next character
will be identified only when polarity changes from '1' to '0', i.e. start pulse is


Having organised the data into binary codes, the binary conditions have to be
represented in the form of electrical signals suitable for remote transmission over
communication lines. There are a number of ways by which digital symbols can be
represented by electrical signals. Fig.13 shows a synchronous two valued (binary)
data waveform. In each symbol interval, a condition of 'current' or 'no current' is
transmitted. The two symbols are labeled '1' and '0'. In telegraph terminology, these
are called MARK and SPACE. Each signal element has the same duration of T
seconds and follows immediately after the preceding element, so that the signal
element rate is 1/T bits per second.

0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1
1.0 ‘1’ Mark

0.5 Threshold

‘0’ Space

Fig. 13 Two Valued (binary) Data Waveform

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 14

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

The receiver under the control of its clock, properly phased with respect
to the incoming data waveform, samples the wave at the middle of each symbol
interval. If the amplitude is between half and full amplitude, the symbol is
recorded as a '1' ; if between zero and half amplitude the symbol is recorded as
'0'. The threshold of decision is the half amplitude level (normally). Instead of
current and no current, opposite directions or polarities of current can be used.
Fig.14 shows a waveform having equal positive and negative amplitudes. In this
case the decision threshold is zero. This type of signal is referred to as 'Polar'

0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1

0 t

Fig. 14 Polar Signal
In the foregoing examples, there is no change in the signal if one of the
symbols is repeated. It is sometimes desirable to have definite separation between two
consecutive symbols as shown in Fig.15. This type of signal is called the "Return to
Zero" signal as opposed to the 'Non return to zero' signals of the previous examples
which used full bit length pulses.


0 t

0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1

Fig. 15 - Return to Zero Signal

An example of a polar return to zero type signal is shown in Fig.16. In this
case the zero intervals can be considered as a third symbol used to separate the
information bearing symbols.

Fig. 16 - Polar Return to Zero Type Signal

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 15

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

Yet another type of signal is shown in Fig.17, in which alternating polarity

pulses are used for symbol '1' and no pulse for symbol '0'. This type of signal is called

Fig. 17 - Bipolar Signal

As an example of a signal with a larger number of levels, Fig.18 shows a four
level signal. Here information can be carried by allowing the signal to have more than
two levels. Each level of the signal now carries more than one bit of information. For
the above example, each level corresponds to two bits.

Fig. 18 - Level Signal

Inter symbol Interference
When the bandwidth of the medium (over which data signal is transmitted) is
restricted, the data waveform at the receiving end will be distorted. Errors may then
be made at the receiver in determining the voltage level transmitted within the time
slot associated with each bit. The transmission characteristics of the medium could be
represented by a low pass filter of cut off frequency f. The filter could be a simple R-
C filter as shown in Fig.19. Let the input two level data waveform persist at one leve
– V for a time long enough for the capacitor C of the filter to have completely charged
to the voltage –V. At this instant, let there be a change in the voltage level to +V as
indicated in Fig.19. Due to the response of the medium, the pulse spreads into the
adjacent time slot causing error at the detector. In data transmission, adjacent bits may
belong to different symbols or characters can be considered as symbols; hence this
distortion is called the inter symbol interference.

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 16

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

Fig. 19 - Inter symbol Interference

Information carrying capacity of a transmission channel is determined by the
following two characteristics: -
1. Bandwidth (BW).
2. Signal-to-noise (S/N) Ratio.


The Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem is a fundamental theorem in the
field of information theory, in particular telecommunications. In addition to Claude
Shannon and Harry Nyquist, it is also attributed to Whittaker and Kotelnikov, and
sometimes simply referred to as the sampling theorem.

The theorem states the conditions under which the samples of a signal (e.g., a
function of time) can be used to reconstruct the signal perfectly: When sampling a
bandlimited signal (e.g., through analog to digital conversion) the sampling frequency
must be greater than twice the signal's bandwidth in order to be able to reconstruct the
original perfectly from the sampled version.

Intuitively, if a signal is bandlimited prior to digitization, it cannot change very

rapidly, so that the information obtained from the samples is enough to reconstruct the
signal. As is seen more formally below, a greater sampling frequency is required if the
bandwidth of the signal. If the conditions of the theorem are not satisfied, this
phenomenon is called aliasing, which is undesirable in most applications because the
signal has not be sampled fast enough.

Formally, consider a real-valued continuous-time signal with Fourier transform

(where is normalized to
the actual frequency in Hz)

such that

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 17

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

Spectrum of a bandlimited signal as a function of frequency

Then is a bandlimited signal with bandwidth fH (in hertz or, equivalently, cycles
per second). If fs is the sampling rate (in samples per second), then the theorem can
be stated mathematically as

which we will call the "sampling condition".

It is often convenient to define the Nyquist rate as

in which case the sampling condition becomes

In cases where the lowest non-negative frequency is greater than zero, it is

possible to have sampling rates smaller than . In these situations, the minimum
sampling rate is close to double the difference between the highest and lowest
frequency components, or approximately .

The Nyquist theorem states that a signal must be sampled at a rate greater than
twice the highest frequency component of the signal to accurately reconstruct the
waveform; otherwise, the high-frequency content will alias at a frequency inside the
spectrum of interest. An alias is a false lower frequency component that appears in
sampled data acquired at too low a sampling rate.

The following figure represents Sine Wave Demonstrating the Nyquist

Frequency it shows a 5 MHz sine wave digitized by a 6 MS/s ADC. The dotted line
indicates the aliased signal recorded by the ADC and is sampled as a 1 MHz signal
instead of a 5 MHz signal.

Nyquist Theorem: Sample rate > 2 * highest frequency component (of

interest) of the measured signal

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 18

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

Fig. Sine Wave Demonstrating the Nyquist Frequency

The 5 MHz frequency aliases back in the passband, falsely appearing as a 1

MHz sine wave. To prevent aliasing in the passband, you can use a lowpass filter to
limit the frequency of the input signal or increase your sampling rate.

Here, let us state the Nyquist theorem which gives the maximum data rate
permissible (without distortion) on a channel:

r = 2 B log2L

Where r is the Maximum data rate, B is the Bandwidth, L is the level of the data
signal. Value of L may be 2 or more than 2. Similarly, we have Shannon's theorem
which takes noise into consideration.
As per Shannon's theorem
r = B log2 (1+S/N)
r = Max. bit rate.
B = Bandwidth.
S = Signal.
N = Noise.
Example: Calculate the number of level required for transmission if the B.W. of a
channel is 300-3400 Hz and S/N ratio is 20 dB.

S/N = 20 dB
We know that
20 dB = 10 log10 (S/N) (for converting S/N into a ratio)
2 = log10 (S/N)
log10(102) = log10(S/N)
S/N = 102 = 100
B.W = 3100 Hz.

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 19

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

Shannon's theorem rmax = B log2(1+S/N)

rmax = 3100 log2(1+100)
= 3100 log2(101)
= 3100 log2(27) (approx.)
= 3100 X 7
= 21700 bps.
So max. data rate permissible is 21.7 Kb/s.
According to Nyquist theorem
rmax = 2B log2L
= 2 x 3100 log2L
21700 = 2 x 3100 log2L
log2L = 21700/(2 x 3100) = 3.5 or 4 say
log2L = log2 24
so, L = 24 = 16.
Hence 16 level signal is necessary for permitting this max. bit rate.

We can represent bits as digital electrical signals in many ways. Data bits can
be coded into following two types of codes :
(a) Non Return to Zero (NRZ Codes).
(b) Return to Zero (RZ Codes)
NRZ Codes

In this type of codes, the signal level remains constant during a bit duration.
There are 3 types of NRZ codes.

NRZ-L Coding

Bit is represented as a voltage level which remains constant during the bit

NRZ-M Coding
A transition in the beginning of a bit interval whenever there is a 'Mark.

NRZ-S Coding
A transition in the beginning of a bit interval whenever there is a 'Space'. Let
us see the following bit stream 10100110 into three different types of NRZ codes

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 20

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

Fig. 20 NRZ Codes

In NRZ codes there are continuous streams of 1s and 0s without any transition. This
will create a problem at the time of extracting the clock pulses, as sufficient transitions
should be there for clock extraction. This problem is solved in RZ codes which ensure
sufficient transitions in the data signal.

Following are the RZ Codes
(a) Manchester Coding
(b) Biphase-M Coding
(c) Biphase-S Coding
(d) Differential Manchester Coding.

There '1' is represented as the clock pulse itself and '0' as inverted clock pulse.
It is widely used in local area networks. Fig.21 shows representation of '1' and '0'.

There is always a transition in the beginning of a bit interval and binary '1' is
having additional transition in the middle of the bit interval.

Fig. 21- Representation of '1' and '0' in RZ


BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 21

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

There is a transition at the beginning of a bit interval and binary '0' is having
additional transition in the middle of the bit interval.


There is always a transition in the middle of the bit interval and Binary '0' has
additional transition in the beginning of the bit interval. Let us see Fig.22 in which bit
sequence 10100110 has been shown in different RZ codes.

If we transmit the data bits on the medium using one of the NRZ or RZ codes,
it is called baseband transmission. It is suitable for low bit rate. For high bit rates, the
baseband signal modulates a carrier and modulated carrier is transmitted on the

Fig. 22 - RZ Codes
This is a unit to express how many times an electrical signal changes its levels
in one second. It is also called the modulation rate. When the electrical signal is
having two levels, the bit rate and band rate is same (Fig.23). If a signal has four
levels, bit rate will be twice the baud rate.

Fig. 23 Modulation Rate (Two levels)

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 22

JTO Phase – I Data Communication

Fig. 24 Modulation Rate (Four levels)

Here, in one second signal changes 4 levels so baud rate is 4 bauds. But bit rate = 8
bits/second (double of Baud rate).


Let us now understand the difference between transmission and
communication. Transmission means physical movement of information from one
point to another. Communication means meaningful exchange of information between
the communicating devices.

Two persons, one knowing English language only and the other knowing
French language only cannot communicate with each other.
Here transmission is taking place, but communication is not there. Therefore,
for communication, we need much more than the transmission. For communication,
we must have the same language, i.e. Data codes should be understood both by
transmitter and the receiver. Moreover, receiver should be in a position to receive, i.e.
Timing is also very important.
We have two types of communication :
(1) Synchronous Communication.
(2) Asynchronous Communication.

Synchronous Communication
In Synchronous communication the exchange of information is in a well disciplined
manner, e.g. if A want to send some information to B, it can do so only when B
permits it to send. Similarly, vice-versa is true. There is complete synchronisation of
dialogues, i.e. each message of the dialogue is either a command or a response.
Physical transmission of data may be in synchronous or asynchronous mode already
decided between A and B.

Asynchronous Communication

In Asynchronous communication the exchange of information is in less disciplined

manner, e.g. A and B can send messages whenever they wish to do so. Physical
transmission of data may be in synchronous / asynchronous mode.

Thus, we see that Simplex Transmission is one way communication (OW), Half
Duplex Transmission is two way Alternate Communication (TWA), and Full Duplex
Transmission is two way Simultaneously Communication (TWS).

BRBRAITT ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified / Nov. – 2008 23